Science.gov

Sample records for alleys

  1. Alley receives Horton Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Richard B.

    Richard B. Alley was awarded the Hydrology section's Horton Award on December 16, 1996, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The Horton Award recognizes a single outstanding contribution to the science of hydrology made during the preceding 5 years.

  2. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  3. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 300. VACANT LOTS BETWEEN WEST MADISON ALLEY AND WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    300. VACANT LOTS BETWEEN WEST MADISON ALLEY AND WEST CHESTNUT STREET, TOWARD WEST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  5. Alley Receives 2007 Roger Revelle Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Alley, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Richard B. Alley was awarded the 2007 Roger Revelle Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 12 December 2007 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for ``outstanding contributions in atmospheric sciences, atmosphere-ocean coupling, atmosphere-land coupling, biogeochemical cycles, climate, or related aspects of the Earth system.''

  6. VIEW FROM ALLEY LOOKING WEST AT REAR ELEVATION OF 260 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ALLEY LOOKING WEST AT REAR ELEVATION OF 260 RENNIE ST., UPRIGHT AND WING TYPE MILL WORKER HOUSING, C. 1900. THIS NEW TOWN SECTION OF GRANITEVILLE ON THE HILL EAST OF THE MILL COMPLEX HAD A GRID-PLAN STREET PATTERN WITH ALLEYS RUNNING THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE BLOCKS. NOTE GARAGES ADDED IN THE 1940'S AND IDENTICAL STRUCTURES 262 AND 264 RENNIE ST. TO RIGHT - 260 Rennie Street (House), Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  7. The value of versatile alley cropping in the Southeast US: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Cary; Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Alley cropping offers a potential alternative to traditional land management practices. However, its implementation in the United States is extremely limited and general awareness and knowledge of alley cropping is lacking. While alley cropping does have a few barriers to entry, the cost of maintaining hedgerow products and foregone returns from primary crops...

  8. Can We Eliminate the Major Tornado Threats in Tornado Alley?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2014-03-01

    The recent devastating tornado attacks in Oklahoma, Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota raise an important question: can we do something to eliminate the major tornado threats in Tornado Alley? Violent tornado attacks in Tornado Alley are starting from intensive encounters between the northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow. As there is no mountain in Tornado Alley ranging from west to east to weaken or block such air flows, some encounters are violent, creating instability: The strong wind changes direction and increases in speed and height. As a result, it creates a supercell, violent vortex, an invisible horizontal spinning motion in the lower atmosphere. When the rising air tilts the spinning air from horizontal to vertical, tornadoes with radii of miles are formed and cause tremendous damage. Here we show that if we build three east-west great walls in the American Midwest, 300m high and 50m wide, one in North Dakota, one along the border between Kansas and Oklahoma to east, and the third one in the south Texas and Louisiana, we will diminish the tornado threats in the Tornado Alley forever. We may also build such great walls at some area with frequent devastating tornado attacks first, then gradually extend it. This research is supported in part by a grant from US Naval Research Lab.

  9. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Saturn's "Storm Alley"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesman, Brigette E.

    2010-01-01

    In the Voyager era storms on Saturn were observed predominantly in the northern hemisphere, however, in recent years storm activity has been confined to a narrow range of latitudes referred to as "storm alley" (approx.40degS planetographic latitude). Throughout Cassini's prime mission storms have been detected by two independent instruments: ISS through dayside images and RPWS using radio emissions from Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SED's) (Dyudina et al. 2007). Analysis of these storms indicates that the cloud tops are in the 200 - 500rnbar altitude range. During Saturn's Equinox, in August 2009, lSS imaged lightning on the night side in storm alley when ring-shine was at a minimum (Dyudina et al. 2010). This study indicates that lightning may have originated as deep as the water cloud. Decently, Cassini/CIRS was targeted at storm alley while a storm, originally detected by amateurs, was ongoing (March 2010). Phosphine can be used as a tracer of vertical transport because it is a disequilibrium species that falls off with altitude in the upper troposphere. CIRS can measure temperature and phosphine abundance independently in the altitude range where these cloud tops occur. Early analysis of these data shows stronger phosphine absorption at storm longitudes. This is an indication that powerful updrafts were dredging material upward into the upper troposphere. The results of the analysis of the March 2010 CIRS observations of storm alley will be presented.

  10. FACILITY 734, REAR WINGS OF HOUSE LOOKING DOWN ALLEY BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 734, REAR WINGS OF HOUSE LOOKING DOWN ALLEY BETWEEN DUNCAN AND GRIMES STREETS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Central-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 9. Typical 'furnished rooms' overlook the Washington Street alley. Each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Typical 'furnished rooms' overlook the Washington Street alley. Each has two double-hung windows that are fitted with roller-shade brackets. The plaster was formulated with lime and is heavily laden with animal hair. Each room is provided with a stove-pipe connection. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Dark Alleys and Blind Bends: Testing the Language of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a revised version of the author's Samuel Messick Memorial lecture in 2003. Messick's emphasis on consequential validity is used to identify some of the negative effects of current practices as they affect the quality of students' learning and motivation. It suggests that there have been many 'dark alleys' in which poorly…

  13. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. 119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Short communication: effect of alley floor cleanliness on free-stall and udder hygiene.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Herlin, A H; Ventorp, M

    2008-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of alley floor cleanliness on the hygiene of the free-stalls and udder and teats of cows. Mechanical scrapers were used on rubber-slatted floors to improve the cleanliness of the alley floor. Two sections containing 21 cows each were evaluated once weekly for a period of 3 wk. One section had scrapers on the rubber-slatted floor in the alleys and the other section did not. The scrapers ran 12 and 7 times/d in the free-stall alley and feed alley, respectively. Manure accumulation in the alleys at approximately 2 h after the scrapers had run was less in the section with the scraper than in that without the scraper. Differences between sections with and without scrapers were found in the sites close to the wall in the feed alley, and immediately behind the free-stalls in the free-stall alley. In the section without scrapers, manure accumulation was greater in the free-stall alley than in the feed alley. Manure contamination of the area in the free-stalls where the udder normally comes in contact with the free-stall floor was significantly reduced from 29.1 to 17.9 +/- 2.4 g of dry matter when the alley floor was kept clean by the use of scrapers. The hygiene scores of the dirtiness of udders were reduced from 25.8 +/- 1.7 to 18.9 +/- 1.6, and those of the teats from 37.9 +/- 2.3 to 24.2 +/- 2.3 in the section with scrapers and cleaner alley floor compared with the section without scrapers. The scrapers greatly improved the hygiene on the rubber-slatted alley floor. The cleaner alley floor had a positive effect on the cleanliness of the free-stalls and the udder and teats of the cows.

  16. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or without...

  17. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or without...

  18. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or without...

  19. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or without...

  20. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or without...

  1. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  2. Geologic map of the Alley Spring quadrangle, Shannon County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2012-01-01

    The Alley Spring 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. About 1,990 feet (ft) of flat-lying to gently dipping Lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly dolomite, chert, sandstone, and orthoquartzite, overlie Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks. A small exposure of the volcanic rocks exists near the eastern edge of the quadrangle. Unconsolidated residuum, colluvium, terrace deposits, and alluvium overlie the sedimentary rocks. Karst features, such as sinkholes, caves, and springs, have formed in the carbonate rocks. Many streams are spring fed. Alley Spring, the largest karst spring in the quadrangle, has an average discharge of 81 million gallons per day. The topography is a dissected karst plain with elevation ranging from 630 ft where the Jacks Fork River exits the quadrangle to more than 1,140 ft at numerous places in the northern half of the quadrangle. The most prominent physiographic feature is the valley of the Jacks Fork River. Most of the land in the quadrangle is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses and growing timber. A large minority of the land within the quadrangle is publicly owned, either by the Missouri State Forests or by the Ozark National Scenic Riverways of the National Park Service. Geologic mapping for this investigation was conducted in 2003 and 2004.

  3. Soil carbon stabilization and turnover at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinski, T.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (<53 µm), followed by determination of organic carbon and nitrogen by gas-chromatography. Soil samples were also analysed for the total C&N content, cold-water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, <53 µm) carbon fraction were observed between treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.

  4. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  5. Multifactorial biogeochemical monitoring of linden alley in Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Vadim; Khushvakhtova, Sabsbakhor; Tyutikov, Sergey; Danilova, Valentina; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The ecological and biogeochemical assessment of the linden alley within the Kosygin Street was conducted by means of an integrated comparative study of soils, their chemical composition and morphological parameters of leaf linden. For this purpose 5 points were tested within the linden alley and 5 other points outside the highway. In soils, water extract of soil, leaf linden the content of Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co Mo, Cr and Se were determined by AAS and spectrofluorimetric method [1]. Macrocomponents (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, sulphates, chlorides), pH and total mineralization of water soil extract were measured by generally accepted methods. Thio-containing compounds in the leaves were determined by HPLC-NAM spectrofluorometry [2]. On level content of trace elements the soils of "contaminated" points different from background more high concentrations of lead, manganese, iron, selenium, strontium and low level of zinc. Leaf of linden from contaminated sites characterized by an increase of lead, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, chromium, and a sharp decrease in the level of manganese and strontium. Analysis of the aqueous extracts of the soil showed a slight decrease in the pH value in the "control" points and lower content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and total mineralization of the water soil extract. The phytochelatins test in the leaves of linden was weakly effective and the degree of asymmetry of leaf lamina too. The most differences between the variants were marked by the degree of pathology leaves (chlorosis and necrosis) and the content of pigments (chlorophyll and carotene). The data obtained reflect the impact of the application of de-icing salts and automobile emissions. References 1. Ermakov V.V., Danilova V.N., Khyshvakhtova S.D. Application of HPLC-NAM spectrofluorimtry to determination of sulfur-containing compounds in the environmental objects// Science of the biosphere: Innovation. Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov, 2014. P. 10

  6. The successive alleys test of anxiety in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2013-06-17

    The plus-maze was derived from the early work of Montgomery. He observed that rats tended to avoid the open arms of a maze, preferring the enclosed ones. Handley, Mithani and File et al. performed the first studies on the plus-maze design we use today, and in 1987 Lister published a design for use with mice. Time spent on, and entries into, the open arms are an index of anxiety; the lower these indices, the more anxious the mouse is. Alternatively, a mouse that spends most of its time in the closed arms is classed as anxious. One of the problems of the plus-maze is that, while time spent on, and entries into, the open arms is a fairly unambiguous measure of anxiety, time in the central area is more difficult to interpret, although time spent here has been classified as "decision making". In many tests central area time is a considerable part of the total test time. Shepherd et al. produced an ingenious design to eliminate the central area, which they called the "zero maze". However, although used by several groups, it has never been as widely adopted as the plus-maze. In the present article I describe a modification of the plus-maze design that not only eliminates the central area but also incorporates elements from other anxiety tests, such as the light-dark box and emergence tests. It is a linear series of four alleys, each having increasing anxiogenic properties. It has given similar results to the plus-maze in general. Although it may not be more sensitive than the plus-maze (more data is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached on this point), it provides a useful confirmation of plus-maze results which would be useful when, for example, only a single example of a mutant mouse was available, as, for example, in ENU-based mutagenesis programs.

  7. Windows on other worlds: the rise and fall of sideshow alley.

    PubMed

    Broome, R

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the world of Sideshow Alley, which emerged from the ancient fair culture of Britain and took root in the agricultural show movement of Australia by the 1880s. There it flourished until the 1950s, when modernity and respectability caused its demise. The article also argues that Sideshow Alley was a place of power that helped to shape the identities of many Australians through the display of difference and that it also provided a site of agency for those displaying themselves.

  8. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  9. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  10. "Manana Is Soon Enough for Me": Latin America through Tin Pan Alley's Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In order to examine the vision of Latin America transmitted to the American public in Tin Pan Alley's popular songs in the first half of the twentieth century, a study analyzed nearly 50 songs. The songs were grouped into five categories: (1) songs which describe Latin locales; (2) songs which are constructed around a Latin woman's name; (3) songs…

  11. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  12. Establishment trial of an oak-pine/soybean-corn-wheat alley-cropping system in the upper coastal plain of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    H.D. Stevenson; D.J. Robison; F.W. Cubbage; J.P. Mueller; M.G. Burton; M.H. Gocke

    2013-01-01

    Alley cropping may prove useful in the Southeast United States, providing multiple products and income streams, as well as affording sustainable land use alternatives to conventional farming. An alley-cropping system may be a good alternative in agriculture because of the benefits provided by trees to crops and soils, as well as the income generated from wood products...

  13. A study of urban housing demolition as a source of lead in ambient dust on sidewalks, streets, and alleys.

    PubMed

    Farfel, Mark R; Orlova, Anna O; Lees, Peter S J; Rohde, Charles; Ashley, Peter J; Julian Chisolm, J

    2005-10-01

    We examined changes in ambient dust lead (Pb) levels associated with the demolition of older row houses containing lead paint in Baltimore, MD, USA. Our previous paper describes the three study sites, the demolition processes, and increases in the Pb dustfall rate during demolition (>40-fold) and debris removal (>6-fold) within 10 m of sites where wetting was of limited effectiveness. This paper presents the analysis of settled dust collected using a cyclone device from streets, sidewalks, and alleys within 100 m of study sites before, immediately after, and 1 month after demolition. We found acute increases in Pb loadings and dust loadings after demolition and debris removal that are of public health concern. Streets and alleys had the greatest increases in Pb loadings and the highest levels overall. At one site, geometric mean (GM) Pb loadings immediately after demolition increased 200% for streets to 8080 microg/ft(2), 138% for alleys to 6020 microg/ft(2), and 26% for sidewalks to 2170 microg/ft(2). One month after demolition, the GM Pb loadings for streets, alleys, and sidewalks were reduced on average by 41-67% from post-demolition levels and were below baseline levels for alleys and sidewalks. The other main site had smaller increases in GM Pb loadings immediately after demolition-18% for alleys to 1740 microg/ft(2) and 18% for sidewalks to 2050 microg/ft(2)-and a decrease of 29% for streets to 2730 microg/ft(2). Exterior dust is a public health concern because it is a pathway of ambient Pb exposure and a potential source of residential exposure via tracking and re-aerosolization and re-deposition. Our findings highlight the need to control demolition-related Pb deposition and to educate planners, contractors, and health and housing agencies. This is particularly important given the large numbers of aging US dwellings that will be razed as part of future urban redevelopment efforts.

  14. Can we eliminate major tornadoes in Tornado Alley? — Response to the Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2014-11-01

    Dahl and Markowski are wrong and misleading to claim that the major tornadoes in USA Tornado Alley are not related to the collisions between northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow. In addition, they use incompressible and inviscid fluid model for atmosphere in their simulations about the interaction between air wind and the wall. Such approach ignores the basic physics and thus cannot reach any meaningful results. As air is compressible, the collision between the wind and wall will compress air, eventually lead the air density to decrease fast with the height and make the air flow stratified. The viscosity will produce wind shear, turbulent eddies and greatly reduce the wind's forwarding speed. Laboratory experiments and the Nature have all shown that hills with height about 300 m will not block winds completely to change the climate, but can effectively reduce the wind speed, weaken the air mass collisions and eliminate the major tornadoes. All these strongly support the theory that building east-west ranged walls of 300 m high and 50 m wide will eliminate major tornado threat in Tornado Alley.

  15. Peak tornado activity is occurring earlier in the heart of "Tornado Alley"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, John A.; Stoy, Paul C.

    2014-09-01

    Tornado frequency may increase as the factors that contribute to severe convection are altered by a changing climate. Attributing changes in tornado frequency to observed global climate change is complicated because observational effort has increased over time, but studies of the seasonal distribution of tornado activity may avoid sampling biases. We demonstrate that peak tornado activity has shifted 7 days earlier in the year over the past six decades in the central and southern US Great Plains, the area with the highest global incidence of tornado activity. Results are largely unrelated to large-scale climate oscillations, and observed climate trends cannot fully account for observations, which suggest that changes to regional climate dynamics should be further investigated. Tornado preparedness efforts at individual to national levels should be cognizant of the trend toward earlier peak tornado activity across the heart of "Tornado Alley".

  16. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance

  17. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorduijn, S. L.; Smettem, K. R. J.; Vogwill, R.; Ghadouani, A.

    2009-11-01

    Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width) for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (<3 m) and of poor quality (pH 3-5, Ec 2.1-45.9 mS cm-1) so root water uptake from the saturated zone is limited. Simple hydrograph analysis could not separate treatment effects on the water table response. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that 20-30% of the variability in the water table data over the 12 year study period was attributable to the alley farming experiment. To futher investigate the effect of the experiment on groundwater response, additional hydrograph analysis was conducted to compare the trends in the control piezometers in relation to those located within the belts. A difference of 0.9 m was observed between the mean groundwater levels in the control piezometers and the mean levels in the perennial belt piezometers. For a mean specific yield of 0.03 m3 m-3 (standard deviation of 0.03 m3 m-3) this equates to an additional average annual water use of 27 mm yr-1 (standard deviation of 33 mm yr-1) by the perennial agroforestry system. It is concluded that declining annual rainfall is the principal control on hydrograph

  18. Water table response to an experimental alley farming trial: dissecting the spatial and temporal structure of the data.

    PubMed

    Noorduijn, S L; Ghadouani, A; Vogwill, R; Smettem, K R J; Legendre, P

    2010-09-01

    Clearing vegetation for traditional agriculture diminishes native habitat and reduces plant transpiration, leading to increased groundwater recharge and onset of dryland salinization due to rising groundwater and mobilization of salt stores in the soil profile. This change in hydrology and salinity can also negatively affect biodiversity in many semiarid regions. Alternating native perennial tree belts with mono-species agriculture within the tree belt alleys is one possible system that can provide recharge control and recover some of the ecosystem services of degraded agricultural landscapes. To assess the effect of this agroforestry technique on groundwater levels, an alley farming trial was established in 1995, incorporating different combinations of belt width, alley width, and revegetation density. Transects of piezometers within each design have been monitored from October 1995 to January 2008. The data set consisted of 70 piezometers monitored on 39 dates. Two trends were observed within the raw data: An increase in water table depth with time and an increase in the range of depths monitored at the site were clearly discernible. However, simple hydrograph analysis of the data has proved unsuccessful at distinguishing the effect of the tree belts on the water table morphology. The statistical techniques employed in this paper to show the effect of the experiment on the water table were variation partitioning, principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), and canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). The environmental variables (alley farming design, distance of piezometer from the tree belt, and percentage vegetation cover including edge effect) explained 20-30% of the variation of the transformed and detrended data for the entire site. The spatial PCNM variables explained a further 20-30% of the variation. Partitioning of the site into a northern and southern block increased the proportion of explained variation for the plots in the northern block. The

  19. Differences in Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations between Streets and Alleys in New York City: Open Space vs. Semi-Closed Space.

    PubMed

    Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Miller, Rachel L; Bautista, Joshua; Gil, Eric N; Chillrud, Steven N; Yan, Beizhan; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P; Jung, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-12

    Outdoor ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are variable throughout an urban environment. However, little is known about how variation in semivolatile and nonvolatile PAHs related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space) contributes to differences in concentrations. We simultaneously collected 14, two-week samples of PAHs from the outside of windows facing the front (adjacent to the street) open side of a New York City apartment building and the alley, semi-closed side of the same apartment unit between 2007 and 2012. We also analyzed samples of PAHs measured from 35 homes across Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, 17 from street facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 2-26) and 18 from alley-facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 1-15). Levels of nonvolatile ambient PAHs were significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street (an open space), compared to a window 30 feet away, adjacent to an alley (a semi-closed space) (street geometric mean (GM) 1.32 ng/m³, arithmetic mean ± standard deviation (AM ± SD) 1.61 ± 1.04 ng/m³; alley GM 1.10 ng/m³, AM ± SD 1.37 ± 0.94 ng/m³). In the neighborhood-wide comparison, nonvolatile PAHs were also significantly higher when measured adjacent to streets compared with adjacent to alley sides of apartment buildings (street GM 1.10 ng/m³, AM ± SD 1.46 ± 1.24 ng/m³; alley GM 0.61 ng/m³, AM ± SD 0.81 ± 0.80 ng/m³), but not semivolatile PAHs. Ambient PAHs, nonvolatile PAHs in particular, are significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street compared to a window adjacent to an alley, despite both locations being relatively close to street traffic. This study highlights small-scale spatial variations in ambient PAH concentrations that may be related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space) from which the samples are measured, as well as the relative distance from street traffic, that could impact

  20. Differences in Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations between Streets and Alleys in New York City: Open Space vs. Semi-Closed Space

    PubMed Central

    Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Miller, Rachel L.; Bautista, Joshua; Gil, Eric N.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yan, Beizhan; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Jung, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outdoor ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are variable throughout an urban environment. However, little is known about how variation in semivolatile and nonvolatile PAHs related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space) contributes to differences in concentrations. Methods: We simultaneously collected 14, two-week samples of PAHs from the outside of windows facing the front (adjacent to the street) open side of a New York City apartment building and the alley, semi-closed side of the same apartment unit between 2007 and 2012. We also analyzed samples of PAHs measured from 35 homes across Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, 17 from street facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 2–26) and 18 from alley-facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 1–15). Results: Levels of nonvolatile ambient PAHs were significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street (an open space), compared to a window 30 feet away, adjacent to an alley (a semi-closed space) (street geometric mean (GM) 1.32 ng/m3, arithmetic mean ± standard deviation (AM ± SD) 1.61 ± 1.04 ng/m3; alley GM 1.10 ng/m3, AM ± SD 1.37 ± 0.94 ng/m3). In the neighborhood-wide comparison, nonvolatile PAHs were also significantly higher when measured adjacent to streets compared with adjacent to alley sides of apartment buildings (street GM 1.10 ng/m3, AM ± SD 1.46 ± 1.24 ng/m3; alley GM 0.61 ng/m3, AM ± SD 0.81 ± 0.80 ng/m3), but not semivolatile PAHs. Conclusions: Ambient PAHs, nonvolatile PAHs in particular, are significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street compared to a window adjacent to an alley, despite both locations being relatively close to street traffic. This study highlights small-scale spatial variations in ambient PAH concentrations that may be related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space) from which the samples are measured, as well as the relative distance

  1. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L.) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos, eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mungai, D N; Stigter, C J; Coulson, C L; Ng'Ang'A, J K; Netondo, G W; Umaya, G O

    2001-07-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped "replacement" agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area "lost" to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  2. Summary of well construction, testing, and preliminary findings from the Alligator Alley test well, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    A 2,811-foot deep test well was drilled during 1980 in The Everglades along Alligator Alley as part of the Floridan Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis project. The well was cased 895 feet deep. Hydraulic packers were used to isolate selected zones in the open hole for water samples and measurement of water levels. The well penetrated the surficial and intermediate aquifers into the Floridan aquifer system. The top of the Floridan aquifer system occurs at 770 feet and includes limestone ranging in age from Oligocene to early Eocene. About 67 percent of the total thickness of the Floridan aquifer system was penetrated by the well. The chief water-producing zones in the Floridan aquifer system occur at about 1,030 feet and at about 2,560 feet. The 1,030-foot zone contains brackish artesian groundwater, and the 2,560-foot zone contains salty artesian groundwater similar in composition to seawater. The static water geothermal gradient is indicated, and radiocarbon activities suggest that the saltwater in the lower zone is younger than brackish groundwater in the upper zone. (USGS)

  3. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  4. Locomotion and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows housed in freestalls with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys.

    PubMed

    Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    This study was part of a cross-sectional project on freestall housing, and the aim was to compare locomotion and claw disorders in freestall dairy cattle herds with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys. The final population for studying claw disorders consisted of 66 dairy herds with 2,709 dry or lactating cows, whereas the population for studying locomotion consisted of 54 herds with 2,216 cows. All herds used Norwegian Red as the main breed. The herds were visited by 15 trained claw trimmers one time during the period from the beginning of February to summer let-out onto pasture in 2008. The trimmers assessed locomotion scores (LocS) of all cows before trimming. At trimming, claw disorders were diagnosed and recorded in the Norwegian Claw Health Card. Estimates describing locomotion and claw disorders in the hind feet were identified by use of multivariable models fit with LocS and each claw disorder as dependent variables, respectively. Herd nested within claw trimmer was included in the model as random effects. The odds ratio (OR) of having LocS >2 and LocS >3 was 1.9 and 2.1, respectively, on slatted concrete compared with solid concrete. Fewer cases of dermatitis were found on slatted than solid concrete (OR=0.70) and a tendency was observed for fewer heel horn erosions on slatted concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.47). Hemorrhages of the white line and sole were more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.6 and OR=2.1, respectively). White line fissures were also more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.1 and OR=2.0, respectively). Double soles were more prevalent on solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=4.4). However, sole ulcers were less prevalent in herds with slatted and solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.39 and OR=0.53, respectively). Fewer corkscrewed claws were found on slatted concrete than

  5. Passive solar in tornado alley

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-02-01

    The renewable energy and energy efficiency industries have long relied on entrepreneurial individuals with a passion for integrating clean energy alternatives into residential and commercial construction. Most of these individuals were drawn into sustainable energy design during time of inflationary energy prices (e.g., the 1973 oil crisis), when government and industry were investing in clean energy technologies. Some of the best and brightest maintained their enthusiasm for high quality, low energy building design--even as government and industry support slowed--and worked tirelessly toward making sustainable design viable in the marketplace.

  6. Island design proposed for Iceberg Alley fields

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, F.P.; Loire, R.

    1981-02-09

    For the recovery of hydrocarbons lying beneath the iceberg infested waters of the North Atlantic, an artificial island made of quarried rock and sand would provide a large, stable, iceberg resistant platform above the water level. The conceptual design shows enough room for many directional wells, separation and liquefaction plants, living quarters for several hundred people, heliports, loading piers, and other facilities. Called NORPEX, the rock island would (1) protect berthed vessels from icebergs and the prevailing swell, (2) have a soft boulder-free core to allow the passage of production casing, and (3) accommodate simultaneously up to six helicopters to prevent landing delays. Provided the field output justifies it and the reservoir lies deep enough below the seafloor to allow sufficient offset for the directional wells, NORPEX would have an investment cost in line with other types of production platforms.

  7. Mig Alley: The Fight for Air Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    now in full swing, and the UN forces were in a precipitous flight. Pyongyang, where the 8th and 18th FBGs had begun operating in just the last weeks...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Historical Studies Office,AF/HO,1190 Air Force Pentagon,Washington,DC,20330-1190 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...34 # $% & The U.S. Air Force in Korea A I R

  8. [Blind alleys and misconceptions in public health].

    PubMed

    Müller, H E

    1995-07-01

    The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.

  9. Comment on "Eliminating the major tornado threat in Tornado Alley"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Johannes M. L.; Markowski, Paul M.

    2014-11-01

    The authors draw from half a century of meteorological research to expose flaws in a recent proposal to build 300-m-tall tornado-prevention walls across the U.S. Great Plains. The idea behind the walls is that they would prevent cold and warm air masses from clashing and would therefore suppress tornadoes. The problem with this proposal, however, is that atmospheric fronts ("airmass clashes") are neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for tornadoes and that the proposed walls would not prevent the formation of fronts in the first place. Additional misconceptions about supercells thunderstorms and tornado formation also are identified.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  11. Porn Alley: Now at Your Local Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a definitive court ruling is needed to better define rights and responsibilities related to the First Amendment and libraries' Internet use policies so that libraries can provide a comfortable environment for users while maintaining the law. Discusses filters; court cases; claims of the anti-porn cult; research studies on how much of…

  12. Porn Alley: Now at Your Local Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a definitive court ruling is needed to better define rights and responsibilities related to the First Amendment and libraries' Internet use policies so that libraries can provide a comfortable environment for users while maintaining the law. Discusses filters; court cases; claims of the anti-porn cult; research studies on how much of…

  13. Immunotherapy of Sepsis: Blind Alley or Call for Personalized Assessment?

    PubMed

    Prucha, Miroslav; Zazula, Roman; Russwurm, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is the most frequent cause of death in noncoronary intensive care units. In the past 10 years, progress has been made in the early identification of septic patients and their treatment. These improvements in support and therapy mean that mortality is gradually decreasing, however, the rate of death from sepsis remains unacceptably high. Immunotherapy is not currently part of the routine treatment of sepsis. Despite experimental successes, the administration of agents to block the effect of sepsis mediators failed to show evidence for improved outcome in a multitude of clinical trials. The following survey summarizes the current knowledge and results of clinical trials on the immunotherapy of sepsis and describes the limitations of our knowledge of the pathogenesis of sepsis. Administration of immunomodulatory drugs should be linked to the current immune status assessed by both clinical and molecular patterns. Thus, a careful daily review of the patient's immune status needs to be introduced into routine clinical practice giving the opportunity for effective and tailored use of immunomodulatory therapy.

  14. A double row alley-cropping system for establishing nut orchards

    Treesearch

    Jerry Van Sambeek; William. Reid

    2017-01-01

    One of the greatest deterrents to establishing a new nut orchard is the long period of time it takes from tree planting to first commercial nut harvest. At the Pecan Experiment Field, a pecan or walnut must grow ten seasons or more and maybe a little less for Chinese chestnuts before the trees produces enough nuts to warrant mechanical harvesting.

  15. Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

  16. Film at Fall Meeting: Do-it-yourself flicks, Richard Alley preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Have you ever wished science had Hollywood star power? On Tuesday evening, 6 December, watch short science films and hear Hollywood filmmakers give advice to AGU scientists about these short films. Oceanographer-turned-filmmaker Randy Olson will host AGU's "The S Factor" video workshop along with screenwriter Sean Hood, cowriter of Halloween: Resurrection and the 2011 remake ofConan the Barbarian, and Jason Ensler, co-producer-director of TNT's Franklin & Bash. Olson is writer-director of the documentaries Flock of Dodos and Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy and author of Don't Be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in an Age of Style. The workshop starts at 7:00 P.M. in Moscone South, Room 300.

  17. Microhomogeneity in reference materials for microanalytical methods - a possible recourse from a blind alley?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, A. D.; Michalak, P. P.; Munnik, F.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    It is assumed that reference materials for microanalytical methods must be homogeneous, i.e. have the same concentration of the relevant element(s) overall, to ensure that they can be used reliably to get comparison values during the analysis with non absolute methods. With increasing resolution it becomes more and more difficult to ensure such homogeneity, up to the point that it is not possible for several microanalytical methods. Painstaking search for homogeneous natural minerals in gem quality or elaborate expensive methods to produce synthetic minerals provide as obvious solutions to the problem. We propose a way to get reliable reference values with some types of inhomogeneous material, based on multiple probing the reference material. Consider a reference material, which average concentration on the relevant element and its microscale variability has been adequately characterized by a destructive method at a series of grid spots. The minimal number of probing spots required for a certain precision level can be derived from the variance calculations. This procedure is always valid, whenever the heterogeneity value distribution of the reference material has a variance, but at the price that the number of spots will be huge if it is large. However, using adequate models of local heterogeneity can greatly reduce that number. Geostatistics can be used in random, systematic and periodic heterogeneities, while robust methods are useful in cases of nugget heterogeneities. Typical examples of natural and synthetic minerals, analysed by electron microprobe and micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) for microhomogeneity/microheterogeneity are shown. The distinctions between the two strategies of using these materials as a potential reference material are demonstrated.

  18. [From inside to outside? Blind alleys in the discussion of psychoanalysis and society].

    PubMed

    Reiche, R

    1995-03-01

    The attempt first instituted by Freud to use the instruments of psychoanalysis to improve understanding not only of the individual but also of society as a whole has a long tradition, particularly in Germany. Reviewing the last thirty years of discourse on the range of the applicability of psychoanalysis in this context, the author comes to the conclusion that the fruits of this discussion are negligible. Reiche distinguishes five major lines of discourse to illustrate this failure to establish the relevance of a psychoanalytic approach to illuminating the "out-side" world: the first is one of assimilation and desiccation, reference here being to psychoanalytic culture critique; the second a pathological reaction of collective grieving bound up with the Critical Theory; the third the aggressive rebuffs levelled at psychoanalytic insights by systems theory; the fourth a line of devaluation and usurpation as represented by post-structuralism and deconstructionism. In the fifth and final strand of psychoanalytic application discourse discernible in the theory of communicative action, the author discerns a tentative new rapprochement between sociology and psychoanalysis. The author's final conclusion is that psychoanalysis is suitable for the perspective on the inside world, while the outside world is beyond the scope of psychoanalytic theory.

  19. Alley Cropping: An Alternative to Slash and Burn in the Slopelands of the Mizo Hills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailo, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Population pressure in the Mizo Hills, a small mountainous region in northeast India, has shortened fallow periods of slash-and-burn (S&B) plots substantially, making its practice unsustainable. Conventional farming and modern technology cannot be applied in this remote tropical region due to its topography; hence, most farmers continue…

  20. Alternative Certification: Pathway to Success or Blind Alley to the Teacher Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David; Roach, Patricia B.

    This paper presents the Arkansas alternative plan for teacher certification, provides a profile of the persons involved in the pilot, and compares this plan with the Association of Teacher Educators' recommendations for minimum standards for alternative certification programs. Upon completion of a 3-week intensive training session, the apprentice…

  1. In back alleys near Vancouver's AIDS conference, the disease was gaining ground.

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, R

    1996-01-01

    There was much more to this summer's international AIDS conference in Vancouver than reports by researchers. Richard Cairney says the $15-million conference attracted a mix of activists, demonstrators, physicians and business representatives, and they coexisted somewhat uneasily. Images p1161-a p1161-b p1163-a PMID:8873643

  2. Trouble at Tyson Alley: James Mark Baldwin's arrest in a Baltimore bordello.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Robert H; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A

    2013-11-01

    In June 1908, James Mark Baldwin, then Professor of Psychology and Philosophy at Johns Hopkins University and at the pinnacle of his career, was arrested in a Baltimore house of prostitution. Although he insisted on both his legal and moral innocence and all legal charges against him were dismissed, the threat of scandal led Hopkins authorities to demand Baldwin's resignation and Baldwin to remove himself and his family permanently to France. While this is one of the most notorious events in the early history of American psychology, almost nothing has been known about the incident itself, because both Baldwin and Hopkins took great pains to keep these details private. Based on court records, contemporary newspaper accounts, and archival materials in the Presidential Records at Hopkins and elsewhere, it is now possible to reconstruct the events of 1908 and their aftermath in detail. This article describes these occurrences; places them in the context of Baldwin's life, personality, and career; presents newly obtained information on the immediate consequences of the arrest, including circumstances leading to Baldwin's forced resignation; and describes the long-term impact of Baldwin's removal from the United States. Although no definitive conclusion with regard to Baldwin's guilt or innocence can be reached, we conclude by contrasting the treatment received at the hands of his colleagues in psychology with the lifelong support received from his wife and family, and suggest that Baldwin may have been the victim of a premature rush to judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Brave New World or Blind Alley? American History on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Michael; Rosenzweig, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Offers a preliminary assessment of the possibilities and limitations, allures, and dangers, of the World Wide Web for those interested in presenting, teaching, and learning United States history. Reviews Internet search tools, online libraries and archives, and museums and commercial sites. Discusses how to create an online archive. (DSK)

  4. Alley Cropping: An Alternative to Slash and Burn in the Slopelands of the Mizo Hills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailo, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Population pressure in the Mizo Hills, a small mountainous region in northeast India, has shortened fallow periods of slash-and-burn (S&B) plots substantially, making its practice unsustainable. Conventional farming and modern technology cannot be applied in this remote tropical region due to its topography; hence, most farmers continue…

  5. Relationship-centred care: antidote, guidepost or blind alley? The epistemology of 21st century health care.

    PubMed

    Wyer, Peter C; Alves Silva, Suzana; Post, Stephen G; Quinlan, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary health care is increasing in complexity and lacks a unifying understanding of epistemology, methodology and goals. Lack of conceptual consistency in concepts such as 'patient-centred care' (PCC) typifies system-wide discordance. We contrast the fragmented descriptions of PCC and related tools to its own origins in the writings of Balint and to a subsequent construct, relationship-centred care (RCC). We identify the explicit and elaborated connection between RCC and a defined epistemological foundation as a distinguishing feature of the construct and we demonstrate that this makes possible the recognition of alignments between RCC and independently developed constructs. Among these, we emphasize Schon's reflective practice, Nonaka's theory of organizational knowledge creation and the research methodology of realist synthesis. We highlight the relational principles common to these domains and to their common epistemologies and illustrate unsatisfying consequences of adherence to less adequate epistemological frameworks such as positivism. We offer RCC not as an 'antidote' to the dilemmas identified at the outset but as an example that illuminates the value and importance of explicit identification of the premises and assumptions underlying approaches to improvement of the health care system. We stress the potential value of identifying epistemological affinities across otherwise disparate fields and disciplines.

  6. "Narrow and Filthy Alleys of the City?": The Residential Settlement Patterns of Black Southern Migrants to the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; Crowder, Kyle D.; Adelman, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the 1970 Neighborhood Characteristics Public Use Microdata Sample indicates that recent (1965-70) southern Black migrants to the North resided in the "best" neighborhoods (less poverty, segregation, and family instability), while earlier Black migrants lived in the worst neighborhoods. Recent migrants also received the…

  7. "Narrow and Filthy Alleys of the City?": The Residential Settlement Patterns of Black Southern Migrants to the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; Crowder, Kyle D.; Adelman, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the 1970 Neighborhood Characteristics Public Use Microdata Sample indicates that recent (1965-70) southern Black migrants to the North resided in the "best" neighborhoods (less poverty, segregation, and family instability), while earlier Black migrants lived in the worst neighborhoods. Recent migrants also received the…

  8. 26 CFR 1.274-2 - Disallowance of deductions for certain expenses for entertainment, amusement, recreation, or travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., entertainment include yachts, hunting lodges, fishing camps, swimming pools, tennis courts, bowling alleys... social, athletic, or sporting club or organization, bowling alley, tennis court, or swimming pool, or,...

  9. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  10. 26 CFR 1.274-2 - Disallowance of deductions for certain expenses for entertainment, amusement, recreation, or travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., entertainment include yachts, hunting lodges, fishing camps, swimming pools, tennis courts, bowling alleys... social, athletic, or sporting club or organization, bowling alley, tennis court, or swimming pool, or, (b... swimming pool, baseball diamond, bowling alley, or golf course available to his employees generally....

  11. 23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  12. 2. Signal Tower, looking east. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Signal Tower, looking east. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 3. West elevation of Signal Tower. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West elevation of Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. 22. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, TOP VIEW OF ELEVATOR WITH WINCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, TOP VIEW OF ELEVATOR WITH WINCHING MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  15. 24. VIEW FIRST FLOOR ELEVATOR PLATFORM, LOOKING DOWN THE MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW FIRST FLOOR ELEVATOR PLATFORM, LOOKING DOWN THE MAIN HALLWAY, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  16. 21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  17. 20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, LOOKING SKYWARD, NORTH - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  18. 11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY George Neuschafer, photographer. INTERIOR: BAKE OVEN IN CELLAR FIREPLACE IN FIRST ADDITION - American House Hotel, Union Street & Moravian Alley, Hope, Warren County, NJ

  19. 342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. Aerial view southwest from center of square showing south portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view southwest from center of square showing south portion of alley, rears of 1007 E Street, 1009 E Street, and the National Capital Press Building and alley (east) wall of 1101 E Street - Square 347 (Commercial Buildings), Tenth, Eleventh, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 75 FR 1401 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... theater (3,100 seats), bowling alley and bars (totaling approximately 40,000 square feet), dance studio... standalone restaurants totaling approximately 126,000 square feet), a movie theater (2,600 seats), bowling...), bowling alley and bars (totaling approximately 35,000 square feet), dance studio and fitness...

  2. 43 CFR 2564.4 - Provisions to be inserted in restricted deeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; also, if the established streets and alleys of the townsite have been extended upon and across the tract, that there is reserved to the townsite the area covered by such streets and alleys as extended... representative of a sale by the Indian or Eskimo transferee shall vest in the purchaser a complete...

  3. 43 CFR 2564.4 - Provisions to be inserted in restricted deeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; also, if the established streets and alleys of the townsite have been extended upon and across the tract, that there is reserved to the townsite the area covered by such streets and alleys as extended... representative of a sale by the Indian or Eskimo transferee shall vest in the purchaser a complete...

  4. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... representative or an accredited veterinarian before such premises are again used for livestock or poultry. (b) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  5. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... representative or an accredited veterinarian before such premises are again used for livestock or poultry. (b) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  6. Overview of the TREC 2013 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    file: • ID 51 Title Elfreths Alley Museum Description Elfreths Alley Museum is a reputable museum. A lovely little piece of history . Defi- nitely a...healthiest and best tasting all-natural nonfat frozen yogurt and fresh fruit smoothies. No wonder Zagat ranked us #1, twice. URL http

  7. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Luneburg’s model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg’s model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg’s model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances. PMID:27648222

  8. Investigations on training, recall and reversal learning of a Y-maze by dwarf goats (Capra hircus): the impact of lateralisation.

    PubMed

    Langbein, J

    2012-03-01

    We investigated maze learning in dwarf goats (Capra hircus) and the impact of lateralisation on learning. Lateralisation refers to the collection of phenomena in which external stimuli are perceived and processed differentially on the two sides of the brain and/or certain behaviours are preferentially performed by one side of the body. We trained 29 dwarf goats in a Y-maze, directing them to the opposite alley from that chosen in a free pre-run. In total, 13 goats were trained to the left alley (L-goats) and 16 goats to the right alley (R-goats). Recall of the trained alley was tested three months later. We then analysed reversal learning across 10 reversals. During training, the direction of the alley had an impact on learning. The number of runs required to reach the learning criterion was significantly lower in the L- than the R-goats. The goats recalled the trained alley three months later, with no difference between the L- and the R-goats. During the reversal learning, the reversal only tended to impact learning performance, whereas the directions of the new and the initially trained alley did not. Goats did not adopt a general rule with which to master the maze (e.g., win-stay/lose-shift) across the 10 reversals. Our results indicate a right hemisphere bias in the processing of visuospatial cues in the maze during initial training; however, no such impact was detected during reversal learning.

  9. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-10-01

    Luneburg's model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg's model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg's model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances.

  10. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 14. September, 1968 GATE BETWEEN SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE, 18 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. September, 1968 GATE BETWEEN SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE, 18 ORANGE STREET AND LUCINDA MOOERS HOUSE, 20 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT TOP MAIN WOOD AND STEEL BEAM SUPPORT SYSTEM, NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  13. 75 FR 61836 - Additional Designation of Individuals and Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ..., Tehran, Iran . 12. SOROUSH SARZAMIN ASATIR SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANY; No. 5 Shabnam Alley, Golzar Street... KONG flag (IRISL); Vessel Registration Identification IMO 8309634 (vessel) . 10. AGILE (a.k.a....

  14. 75 FR 32502 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Second Sts, Quince, Primrose, Peach and Plum Alleys and Mill Creek, Hamburg, 10000398 Cumberland County... Piccadilly St, Winchester, 10000383 WISCONSIN Door County Plum Island Life-Saving and Light Station, Plum...

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1966 FIRST FLOOR DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1966 FIRST FLOOR DRAWING ROOM SHOWING FRESCOED CEILING, ORIGINAL GAS FIXTURE, AND ITALIAN MARBLE FIREPLACE. - House of the Seasons, 409 South Alley Street, Jefferson, Marion County, TX

  16. 22. 1812 AND SWEET LEAF UNITED PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. 1812 AND SWEET LEAF UNITED PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH AT 1814, NORTH FRONTS - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  17. 20. Photographic copy of the original architectural drawing (1906) in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of the original architectural drawing (1906) in the possession of the Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado. ALLEY (SOUTHEASTERN) SIDE - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF ARCHITECTS' DRAWING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF ARCHITECTS' DRAWING OF THE ALLEY (NORTH) ELEVATION. ORIGINAL IN THE POSSESSION OF THE SOCIETY NATIONAL BANK, CLEVELAND, OHIO. - Society National Bank Building, 127-145 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  20. 43 CFR 2566.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... along Government railroads in Alaska under the provisions of said Act. (b) Amendments—(1) Executive... improvement of streets, sidewalks, and alleys, and for the promotion of sanitation and fire protection by...

  1. 40 CFR 243.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and for system evaluation and comparison. (b) The collection system should be reviewed on a regular... containers which are serviced manually should be placed at the curb or alley for collection. (6)...

  2. 46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as far inboard as practicable. (b) No more than one door, other than a door to a bunker or shaft alley, may be fitted in a main transverse watertight bulkhead within spaces containing the following:...

  3. 46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as far inboard as practicable. (b) No more than one door, other than a door to a bunker or shaft alley, may be fitted in a main transverse watertight bulkhead within spaces containing the following:...

  4. 40 CFR 243.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for system evaluation and comparison. (b) The collection system should be reviewed on a regular... containers which are serviced manually should be placed at the curb or alley for collection. (6)...

  5. 46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as far inboard as practicable. (b) No more than one door, other than a door to a bunker or shaft alley, may be fitted in a main transverse watertight bulkhead within spaces containing the following:...

  6. 43 CFR 2566.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... along Government railroads in Alaska under the provisions of said Act. (b) Amendments—(1) Executive... improvement of streets, sidewalks, and alleys, and for the promotion of sanitation and fire protection by...

  7. 43 CFR 2566.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... along Government railroads in Alaska under the provisions of said Act. (b) Amendments—(1) Executive... improvement of streets, sidewalks, and alleys, and for the promotion of sanitation and fire protection by...

  8. 43 CFR 2565.3 - Subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will be subdivided by the United States into blocks, lots, streets, alleys, and municipal public... from the lot assessments collected. (b) Lot assessments. The trustee will assess against each...

  9. 43 CFR 2565.3 - Subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will be subdivided by the United States into blocks, lots, streets, alleys, and municipal public... from the lot assessments collected. (b) Lot assessments. The trustee will assess against each...

  10. 46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as far inboard as practicable. (b) No more than one door, other than a door to a bunker or shaft alley, may be fitted in a main transverse watertight bulkhead within spaces containing the following:...

  11. 46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as far inboard as practicable. (b) No more than one door, other than a door to a bunker or shaft alley, may be fitted in a main transverse watertight bulkhead within spaces containing the following:...

  12. 40 CFR 243.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and for system evaluation and comparison. (b) The collection system should be reviewed on a regular... containers which are serviced manually should be placed at the curb or alley for collection. (6)...

  13. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  14. 46 CFR 108.423 - Fire hydrants and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be sprayed with at least two spray patterns of water. (b) In a main machinery space, except a shaft alley with no assigned space for stowage of combustibles, each spray pattern of water must be from...

  15. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a lazerette; (2) A machinery space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to... space with a non-watertight hatch on the main deck. (b) A visual indicator must be provided at...

  16. 46 CFR 108.423 - Fire hydrants and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be sprayed with at least two spray patterns of water. (b) In a main machinery space, except a shaft alley with no assigned space for stowage of combustibles, each spray pattern of water must be from...

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... space bilge, bilge well, shaft alley bilge, or other spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping... hatch on the main deck. (b) Vessels constructed of wood must, in addition to paragraph (a),...

  18. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  19. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  20. 46 CFR 108.423 - Fire hydrants and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be sprayed with at least two spray patterns of water. (b) In a main machinery space, except a shaft alley with no assigned space for stowage of combustibles, each spray pattern of water must be from...

  1. 43 CFR 2565.3 - Subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will be subdivided by the United States into blocks, lots, streets, alleys, and municipal public... from the lot assessments collected. (b) Lot assessments. The trustee will assess against each...

  2. 43 CFR 2566.0-3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... along Government railroads in Alaska under the provisions of said Act. (b) Amendments—(1) Executive... improvement of streets, sidewalks, and alleys, and for the promotion of sanitation and fire protection by...

  3. 46 CFR 108.423 - Fire hydrants and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be sprayed with at least two spray patterns of water. (b) In a main machinery space, except a shaft alley with no assigned space for stowage of combustibles, each spray pattern of water must be from...

  4. 40 CFR 243.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and for system evaluation and comparison. (b) The collection system should be reviewed on a regular... containers which are serviced manually should be placed at the curb or alley for collection. (6)...

  5. 29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 UNION STREET (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  7. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 13. FIRST FLOOR, BEDROOM ADJOINING THE LIVING ROOM, ORIGINALLY PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FIRST FLOOR, BEDROOM ADJOINING THE LIVING ROOM, ORIGINALLY PART OF THE LIVING ROOM (NOTE THE BOXED BEAM) - Union Tavern, Main Street between Lee Street & Farmer's Alley, Milton, Caswell County, NC

  9. 35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, SHOWING SHAFT ALLEY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 7. Detail of first floor doorway to Signal Tower. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of first floor doorway to Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 1. Perspective of Mattes Street Signal Tower looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective of Mattes Street Signal Tower looking southwest. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. 6. Detail of windows in north wall of Signal Tower. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of windows in north wall of Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 315. 1730 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, PART OF WEST SIDE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    315. 1730 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, PART OF WEST SIDE, AND 617, PART OF NORTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. 321. GARAGE AT REAR OF 1946 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    321. GARAGE AT REAR OF 1946 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, SOUTH SIDE, AND 1945, SOUTH FRONT - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  15. 117. 404 AND 402, EAST FRONTS AND SOUTH SIDES, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. 404 AND 402, EAST FRONTS AND SOUTH SIDES, AND VACANT LOT AT CEDAR STREET, TOWARD WEST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  16. 46 CFR 108.423 - Fire hydrants and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alley with no assigned space for stowage of combustibles, each spray pattern of water must be from one... horizontal. (d) Each fire hydrant must have at least one spanner and at least one fire hose rack or reel....

  17. 9. September, 1968 FENCE AT NORTH CORNER OF LEVI STARBUCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. September, 1968 FENCE AT NORTH CORNER OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE, 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  1. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  2. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  3. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. 9 CFR 72.16 - Designated dipping stations to be approved by the Administrator, APHIS on recommendations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., noninfectious pens constructed in accordance with § 72.17 and a roofed or covered section of pens of sufficient size to protect all dipped animals from exposure to rain or hot sun. All alleys, chutes, and pens shall...

  7. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer June 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Harold Allen, Photographer June 1964 GROUND FLOOR, PILASTER CAPITAL NORTH (ALLEY) ELEVATION - Jewelers' Building, 15-19 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 2013 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Active Duty Members: Overview Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    24 % 33% 15% 35% 31% NR 36% 38% 28% At a military non-work location (for example, gym , quarters/housing, exchange/commissary, bowling alley)? 21...were uncommon? 24 % 24 % 23% 22% 23% At a military non-work location (for example, gym , quarters/housing, exchange/commissary, bowling alley)? 21% 20...survey administration. It also included questions on members’ views of the effectiveness of DoD and Service-level trainings, policies, and programs to

  9. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PREVENTION IN ZAMBIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OBSTACLES TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN THE COPPERBELT by Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges June 2006 Thesis Co...A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt 6. AUTHOR(S) Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING... Copperbelt region in Zambia, finding significant evidence that both social and economic factors operate as fundamental obstacles to behavior change

  10. Sheep laterality.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p <.0001), with observed counts being higher than expected under independence when ewes made the same choice for exit and alley (RR or LL turn patterns) and being lower than expected for alternating choices (RL or LR). Out of the 309 ewes, 28.2% and 30.1% chose RR and LL turn patterns, respectively, while 37.5% chose the RL turn pattern, but only 13 (4.2%) chose the LR turning pattern. Overall, ewes that initially turned right when presented a second turning opportunity had a slight preference to alternate their turning direction, while ewes that initially turned left tended to continue turning left when given another chance to turn. Exit arm and return alley laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  11. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  12. Automated recording of rat activity in a 6-arm radial maze for routine evaluation of behaviour in subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R E; Oettinger, R

    1987-10-01

    Using the 6-arm radial maze constructed by Bättig et al. and FitzGerald at el., the spatial locomotor activity of rats can be characterized during five-minute-sessions. Due to the complexity of the maze the rats keep patrolling the gangways without being rewarded for it. The optimal behaviour is reached by visiting all six arms successively until a visit is repeated. Hippocampal lesioned rats, with the according behavioural disturbances, show more reenterings than the control animals. Each arm of the maze is provided with a short blind alley and a long main gangway. After several trials, blind alley entries reach a low and stable level: the rat enters the main arm rather than the blind alley. The decision of entering the main alley depends on the "reference memory", of entering the alleys in the proper sequence, depends on the "working memory". Thus, correlates of long- and short-term memory can be studied. Rats learn to achieve the proper maze behaviour during five successive daily sessions each of a five minute term. By then they have reached a stable behaviour. The monitoring by photobeams of the rat-behaviour is reconstructed by a microprocessor and automatically evaluated.

  13. 13. The south segment of the building has a stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. The south segment of the building has a stone basement. The alley wall had a number of areaway windows that are now infilled with bricks. These areaways were subsequently filled with earth, probably when the alley was paved. Here the first-floor joists are seen with a make-shift support beam and column. The basement floor originally was part earth and part wood. Some of the earth floor is now covered with a concrete slab; the wood floor remains. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 3. View toward the southeast corner of the building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View toward the southeast corner of the building showing the south (alley) side on the left and the east (suballey) side on the right. The second story contained 'furnished rooms.' Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and...

  16. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and...

  17. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and...

  18. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and...

  19. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and...

  20. Subverting the Hegemony of Risk: Vulnerability and Transformation among Australian Show Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, P. A.; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Australian show people traverse extensive coastal and inland circuits in eastern and northern Australia, bringing the delights of "sideshow alley" to annual agricultural shows. The show people's mobility for most of the school year makes it difficult for their school-age children to attend "regular" schools…

  1. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys...

  2. 75 FR 69475 - Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... 3116 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005. The meeting date, time, and... Municipal Building Conference Center, 215 The Alley, Aiken, SC 29801, Phone: 803-642-7654. Draft Agenda: 7-7..., 2004, the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization ] Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) was...

  3. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  4. Cross-Level Inferences of Job Satisfaction in the Prediction of Intent to Leave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    to leave: (a) global job ( Galtung , 1967, p. 45). The purpose of the satisfaction, facets of job satisfaction, or total- present study was to examine...Behaviour, 8, 219-232. Galtung , J.(1967). Theory and methods of social Lance, C. E., Hedge, J. W., & Alley, W. research. New York: Columbia University E

  5. Acquisition of Leisure Skills by a Severely Handicapped Adolescent: A Data Based Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A 16-year-old severely handicapped student was trained to bowl, purchase a drink from the concession, and use a vending machine in the bowling alley in six weeks. The subject successfully transferred the skill to similar environment and materials. (CL)

  6. Okla. Tornado Renews Debate on Storm Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the winds that left seven students in Moore, Okla., dead last month had calmed, and more storms blew through the same area less than two weeks later, questions about the safety of schools in a region labeled Tornado Alley rose amid the rubble. While better design of new schools and thorough emergency training and practice may be in…

  7. D-Cycloserine Enhances Memory Consolidation of Hippocampus-Dependent Latent Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained to run in a straight-alley maze for food reward and subsequently received hippocampus-dependent latent extinction training. Immediately following latent extinction, rats received peripheral injections of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS, 15 mg/kg), or saline. Twenty-four hours later, rats…

  8. Building Public Confidence in Urban Schools: It Begins inside the District. A Guide for Administrators and Board Members. A Public Relations Executives Network Project of the Council of the Great City Schools, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Effective organizational communication begins with employees, who should be communications ambassadors for a district. From administrators to teachers to school bus drivers to custodians, employees set the tone for a district. The informal conversations they have at church, the bowling alley, the barbershop and other venues can make or break the…

  9. Bowling for a Lifetime Using Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

    2008-01-01

    With adolescents becoming physically inactive as they age, one must think of other activities to teach during the middle and secondary years in physical education. One lifetime activity that physical education teachers could promote is bowling, an individual sport that could be taught in the gym or in a bowling alley. By using an instructional…

  10. Our Hidden Prejudices, on Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    In October 2006, a New Hampshire police officer named Michael Briggs was shot to death in an alley. His accused killer, Michael Addison, has been charged with capital murder. It is the state's first death-penalty case in more than 30 years, and it is racially fraught: Addison is African-American, and Briggs was white. New Hampshire has a long list…

  11. Soldiers in Cities: Military Operations on Urban Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War, New York: Random House, 2000. 27. Quoted in Colin Powell with Joseph Persico, My American Journey, New... surreal as they observed dark shadows of figures dashing between houses and into alleys as they advanced. They heard the occasional beat of helicopter

  12. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 73a.735-401 Section 73a.735-401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... the purpose of the establishment, e.g., hotels, theaters, bowling alleys, and sports arenas. (2) Sales...

  13. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General provisions. 73a.735-401 Section 73a.735-401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... the purpose of the establishment, e.g., hotels, theaters, bowling alleys, and sports arenas. (2) Sales...

  14. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General provisions. 73a.735-401 Section 73a.735-401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... the purpose of the establishment, e.g., hotels, theaters, bowling alleys, and sports arenas. (2) Sales...

  15. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General provisions. 73a.735-401 Section 73a.735-401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... the purpose of the establishment, e.g., hotels, theaters, bowling alleys, and sports arenas. (2) Sales...

  16. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General provisions. 73a.735-401 Section 73a.735-401 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... the purpose of the establishment, e.g., hotels, theaters, bowling alleys, and sports arenas. (2) Sales...

  17. Okla. Tornado Renews Debate on Storm Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the winds that left seven students in Moore, Okla., dead last month had calmed, and more storms blew through the same area less than two weeks later, questions about the safety of schools in a region labeled Tornado Alley rose amid the rubble. While better design of new schools and thorough emergency training and practice may be in…

  18. 43 CFR 2565.3 - Subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will be subdivided by the United States into blocks, lots, streets, alleys, and municipal public... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites §...

  19. 24 CFR 891.120 - Project design and cost standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated in this part. (b) Accessibility requirements. Projects under this part must comply with... Disabilities, see additional accessibility requirements in § 891.310(b). (c) Restrictions on amenities... individual unit balconies and decks, atriums, bowling alleys, swimming pools, saunas, Jacuzzis,...

  20. Detection of metabolites by frequency-pulsed electron capture gas-liquid chromatography in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with Nocardia infection.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J B; Kasin, J V; Fast, D M; Daneshvar, M I

    1987-02-01

    Serum (SR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a patient suspected of having tuberculous meningitis were submitted to our laboratory for analysis by frequency-pulsed electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (FPEC GLC). The samples were tested for the presence of carboxylic acids, alcohols, hydroxy acids, and amines by methods described previously (C. C. Alley, J. B. Brooks, and D. S. Kellogg, Jr., J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:97-102, 1977; J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46:1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, Jr., M. E. Shepherd, and C. C. Alley, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:45-51, 1980; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, Jr., M. E. Shepherd, and C. C. Alley, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:52-58, 1980). The results were different from previous FPEC GLC profiles of SR and CSF from patients with known tuberculous meningitis. Both the SR and CSF contained several unidentified compounds that were not previously detected in tuberculous meningitis or any of our other studies of body fluids. Nocardia brasiliensis was later isolated from the patient. Detection of these metabolites by FPEC GLC could prove to be useful for rapid diagnosis of Nocardia disease, and their identification will provide a better understanding of metabolites produced by Nocardia sp. in vivo.

  1. 40 CFR 267.202 - What special requirements must I meet for ignitable or reactive wastes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... so that: (i) You comply with § 267.17(b); and (ii) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved.... (b) If you store or treat ignitable or reactive waste in a tank, you must comply with the..., streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through...

  2. 40 CFR 267.202 - What special requirements must I meet for ignitable or reactive wastes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... so that: (i) You comply with § 267.17(b); and (ii) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved.... (b) If you store or treat ignitable or reactive waste in a tank, you must comply with the..., streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through...

  3. 29 CFR 779.305 - Separate establishments on the same premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... service establishments as drugstores, department stores, and bowling alleys are not performed by a... section 13(b)(8) and accordingly provides a separate overtime exemption in section 13(b)(18) for employees... other activities; and (b) it is functionally operated as a separate unit having separate records,...

  4. 40 CFR 267.202 - What special requirements must I meet for ignitable or reactive wastes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... so that: (i) You comply with § 267.17(b); and (ii) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved.... (b) If you store or treat ignitable or reactive waste in a tank, you must comply with the..., streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through...

  5. 24 CFR 891.120 - Project design and cost standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated in this part. (b) Accessibility requirements. Projects under this part must comply with... Disabilities, see additional accessibility requirements in § 891.310(b). (c) Restrictions on amenities... individual unit balconies and decks, atriums, bowling alleys, swimming pools, saunas, Jacuzzis,...

  6. 24 CFR 891.120 - Project design and cost standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated in this part. (b) Accessibility requirements. Projects under this part must comply with... Disabilities, see additional accessibility requirements in § 891.310(b). (c) Restrictions on amenities... individual unit balconies and decks, atriums, bowling alleys, swimming pools, saunas, Jacuzzis,...

  7. 40 CFR 267.202 - What special requirements must I meet for ignitable or reactive wastes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... so that: (i) You comply with § 267.17(b); and (ii) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved.... (b) If you store or treat ignitable or reactive waste in a tank, you must comply with the..., streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through...

  8. 24 CFR 891.120 - Project design and cost standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated in this part. (b) Accessibility requirements. Projects under this part must comply with... Disabilities, see additional accessibility requirements in § 891.310(b). (c) Restrictions on amenities... individual unit balconies and decks, atriums, bowling alleys, swimming pools, saunas, Jacuzzis,...

  9. 40 CFR 267.202 - What special requirements must I meet for ignitable or reactive wastes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... so that: (i) You comply with § 267.17(b); and (ii) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved.... (b) If you store or treat ignitable or reactive waste in a tank, you must comply with the..., streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through...

  10. Our Hidden Prejudices, on Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    In October 2006, a New Hampshire police officer named Michael Briggs was shot to death in an alley. His accused killer, Michael Addison, has been charged with capital murder. It is the state's first death-penalty case in more than 30 years, and it is racially fraught: Addison is African-American, and Briggs was white. New Hampshire has a long list…

  11. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  12. FFT-Based Spectrum Analysis Using a Digital Signal Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Thesis Advisor: Herschel H. Loomis, Jr. Second Reader: Jon Butler Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Report Documentation Page...Guide, Texas Instruments, 1999. 8. Gardner, William A., Statistical Spectrum Analysis, Prentice-Hall, 1988. 9. Gutman, Ron. “Algorithm Alley,” Dr...California 3. Loomis, Herschel H., Code EC/Lm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 4. Butler

  13. Frontier of Leadership. The United States Air Force Academy Program (1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockhouse, Robert E.; And Others

    This report discusses the following topics: The Leadership Education Program at the USAF Academy; Organizational Leadership; Corporation Presidents' Perceptions of Leadership; Leadership Development; The Challenge of Leadership; Leader Experience, Leadership Training, and Other Blind Alleys; and Leadership in State Government. (Author/DB)

  14. 9 CFR 91.14 - Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements: (1) Materials. Floors of pens, alleys, and chutes shall be made of impervious materials and finished so as to be skid-resistant. Impervious floors are those constructed of a material that resists the absorption of fluids. Such materials include concrete, asphalt, brick, metal, or other synthetic material...

  15. Agroforestry: mapping the way with GIS

    Treesearch

    Gary Bentrup; Tim Leininger

    2002-01-01

    Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create diverse, profitable, and sustainable land-use systems (Rietveld, 1995). Agroforestry practices include alley cropping, forest farming, riparian forest buffers, silvopasture, and windbreaks-each of which meets environmental, social, and economic needs (Gold et al., 2000). Environmentally, agroforestry...

  16. 12. FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER. THE ORIGINAL WALLS AND CEILING HAVE BEEN COVERED. MANTLE IS NOT ORIGINAL. ROOM SHOWN THROUGH THE DOORWAY USED TO BE PART OF THE LIVING ROOM - Union Tavern, Main Street between Lee Street & Farmer's Alley, Milton, Caswell County, NC

  17. 46 CFR 132.130 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patterns of water. At least two such patterns must come from separate hydrants. At least one must come from a single length of hose. (b) Each part of the main machinery space, including the shaft alley if it contains space assigned for the stowage of combustibles, must be reachable by at least two streams of water...

  18. Networking. New Opportunities for Partnering, CAUSE94. Track IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers are presented from the 1994 CAUSE conference track on networking and information sharing among higher education institutions. The papers include: (1) "Integrated Statewide Infrastructure of Learning Technologies," focusing on the University of Wisconsin System (Lee Alley); (2) "Designing and Implementing a Network…

  19. D-Cycloserine Enhances Memory Consolidation of Hippocampus-Dependent Latent Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained to run in a straight-alley maze for food reward and subsequently received hippocampus-dependent latent extinction training. Immediately following latent extinction, rats received peripheral injections of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS, 15 mg/kg), or saline. Twenty-four hours later, rats…

  20. Nitrogen dynamics in corn and switchgrass production influenced by soils of varying depths in central Missouri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable biomass feedstock production systems involve biomass generation from non-agricultural or marginal lands with minimal external inputs. Switch grass based alley cropping systems have been proposed as biomass feedstock crop systems in marginal lands. In many areas in the Midwest United Stat...

  1. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  2. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  3. Solid State Research, 1979:3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-15

    Leader Alley, G. D. Gray, R. V. Baker, F. M. Hansell, G. I.* Bozler, C. 0. Ilawryluk, A. M.* Burke, B. E. Jacobsen , E. H. Chiang, A. M. Lincoln, G. A., Jr...absorption coefficient for these films is about 105 cm - 1 for wavelengths shorter than 1.1 arn . Thus, a 1-Mn-thick film will have an optical density

  4. Cocaine Self-Administration Alters the Relative Effectiveness of Multiple Memory Systems during Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable "habit" and "cognitive" memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response…

  5. Petersburg Builds a Health Program. Bulletin, 1949, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Effie G.

    1949-01-01

    This bulletin is about an invasion that was welcomed. It tells how boys and girls of Petersburg, West Virginia, invaded their town to learn and to serve. Hotels, school lunchroom, alleys, creeks and swamps, unused park area, and other resources were utilized. The young invaders were welcomed by the adult citizens of the town because the principal…

  6. 11. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. JOHN SHAFFER'S STORE AND JOHN WILSON'S BOWLING ALLEY AND SALOON IN FOREGROUND. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  7. 3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET WITH LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (#14) AT LEFT AND THE BLOCK (#15-23) AT RIGHT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET PARTICULARLY NOS. 12, 14 AND 14 1/3, AND THE HARBOR - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE 18 ORANGE STREET, BETWEEN 16 AND 18 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. Recovery from major storms

    SciTech Connect

    Holeman, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Public Service Company of Oklahoma's transmission and distribution system is in tornado alley, and it seems the number of tornados hitting some part of the system is increasing each year. In the past 30 years, Tulsa his been hit 7 times, and experienced 3 very wide and destructive tornado storm systems between 1971 and 1975.

  12. Subverting the Hegemony of Risk: Vulnerability and Transformation among Australian Show Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, P. A.; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Australian show people traverse extensive coastal and inland circuits in eastern and northern Australia, bringing the delights of "sideshow alley" to annual agricultural shows. The show people's mobility for most of the school year makes it difficult for their school-age children to attend "regular" schools…

  13. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  14. 31. The 1701B Main Gate House in March 1944, viewed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. The 1701-B Main Gate House in March 1944, viewed to the northwest. Its clock alley provided controlled access to the 100-B Area. The second floor was used to read radiation-detecting pencil dosimeters and to replace radiation-detecting film badges worn by employees. P-2006 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  15. Integrating walnut and other hardwoods into agroforestry practices

    Treesearch

    Shibu. Jose

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry systems have been proposed as alternative, environmentally benign systems for agricultural production in temperate North America. Walnut and other hardwoods have been successfully integrated in most agroforestry practices include alley cropping, silvopastural, windbreaks, and riparian buffers. Because of walnuts relatively thin crowns and nut production,...

  16. The Status of Agroforestry in the South

    Treesearch

    F. Christian Zinkhan; D. Evan.  Mercer

    1997-01-01

    Southern agroforestty has emerged as a significant research topic. Research results indicate that agroforestty can address such sustainability problems as erosion and water pollution, while improving economic performance in selected situatiOII& Silvopastoral systems are the most commonly adopted agroforestty application in the region; le!6-common alley-cropping...

  17. Cocaine Self-Administration Alters the Relative Effectiveness of Multiple Memory Systems during Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable "habit" and "cognitive" memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response…

  18. Economics of intercropping loblolly pine and switchgrass for bioenergy markets in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Andres Susaeta; Janaki Alavalapati Pankaj Lal; D. Evan Mercer; Douglas Carter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of this study was to assess the economics of alley cropping of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in the southern United States. Assuming a price range of switchgrass between $15 and $50 Mg-1 and yield of 12 Mg ha-1 year-1, we investigated the effect of switchgrass production on the optimal forest management...

  19. Trophic Garnishes: Cat–Rat Interactions in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Gregory E.; Gardner-Santana, Lynne C.; Holt, Robert D.; Chen, Jessica; Shields, Timothy M.; Roy, Manojit; Schachterle, Stephen; Klein, Sabra L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus) predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. Methodology/Principal Findings Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6±12.5 rats/alley and 123.8±42.2 rats/alley over two years). The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley) also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g±17.8 g) than the trapped rats (385.0 g±135.6 g). Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. Conclusions/Significance The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the juvenile proportion of

  20. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Sogstad, ÅM; Fjeldaas, T; Østerås, O

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health. PMID:16398332

  1. Electron capture gas-liquid chromatographic study of metabolites produced by some arthritic transudate-associated organisms in vitro and in vivo in rabbit models.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J B; Melton, A R

    1978-10-01

    Computerized, frequency-pulsed, modulated electron capture gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the acid metabolites produced in vitro in fetal calf serum and in vivo in an animal chamber model. Several strains of Diplostreptococcus agalactiae, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus serogroups A, B, and G were studied. All of these organisms have been reported to be associated with arthritic transudates in humans. Metabolites were detected by this method from derivatized extracts of both spent fetal calf serum and chamber fluids. Since there was little host response to the organisms cultured in the chambers, it is highly probable that the products detected represent metabolites produced in an in vivo type of environment. The metabolic patterns were reproducible and exhibited many similarities in vitro and in vivo. Production of the acids detected was reproducible, and these acids were useful identification markers. The data support published reports (J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46: 1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, G. Choudhary, R. B. Craven, D. Edman, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:625-628, 1977; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, A. R. Melton, and C. C. Alley, in H. H. Johnson and W. B. Newson, ed., Second International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation on Microbiology, 1976; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, D. Schlossberg, C. C. Alley, and F. M. Pitts, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:203-208, 1978; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, C. C. Alley, H. B. Short, and H. H. Handsfield, J. Infect. Dis. 129:660-668, 1974) that bacterial metabolites might be detectable in diseased body fluids. The growth characteristics of the organisms in the animal model and fetal calf serum are discussed, and a moderately priced computer for performing data manipulations is evaluated.

  2. Enhanced frustrative nonreward effect following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the lateral septum in the rat.

    PubMed

    Taghzouti, K; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1985-12-01

    The effect of local injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the lateral septum was tested in a paradigm known to lead to an energizing behavior, through a possible frustrative effect, induced by partial or total omission of reward in hungry rats. Biochemical assays in the septum showed that 6-OHDA reduced endogenous dopamine and, to a lesser extent, noradrenaline concentrations and left intact noncatecholaminergic neurons such as serotoninergic terminals. The first behavioral experiment was conducted in a double straight alley. The animals were submitted to three phases of testing with differing degrees of reinforcement: (a) an acquisition phase, in which the reinforcement was continuously delivered in the goal box of the two alleys, (b) a partial reinforced phase, in which animals received 50% partial reinforcement in the first alley and continuous reinforcement in the second alley, and (c) an extinction phase performed in one alley without any reinforcement. Animals with lesions ran faster for food than controls in the partial reinforcement or extinction situation, although there was no difference between the two groups in the acquisition phase of the continuous schedule of reinforcement or in the 50% reinforced trials of the partial reinforcement phase. The two groups also behaved similarly after the first six trials of the extinction phase. In a second experiment, the animals were tested in a lever-press conditioning task. Animals with lesions and control animals learned this task equally well, both with respect to the number of lever presses and the time to obtain a fixed number of food pellets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  4. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Recognizing this, in 2006 the British Royal Marines reached out to the international community and, along with U.S. Marines, established a non-lethal...obstruction. But as the scenario intensified, they moved into the city alleys for a more authentic feel. British Royal Marine Capt. Rhys Hopkins stated...89 United States Federal News Service, “ Royal Marines Teach Non-Lethal Crowd Control for 2007

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Development of Facilities to Support Basing US Pacific Fleet F/A-18E/F Aircraft on the West Coast of the United States, Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    area, and grass play areas near the baseball field. Indoor recreation areas include a bowling alley, hobby/arts and crafts shop, auto hobby shop...and pyracantha (Pyracantha sp.). The small lawn areas are planted with Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). The administration area includes juniper...annually to reduce the threat of fire. The plants found in these areas include canary grass {Phalaris canariensis), barley {Hordeum stebbinsi), foxtail

  6. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT FORMER MILL COMMUNITY BUILDING LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT FORMER MILL COMMUNITY BUILDING LOCATED ON JOHNSON ST. THIS STRUCTURE WAS BUILT BY INTERNATIONAL COTTON MILLS c. 1917 AND PROVIDED A SWIMMING POOL, BOWLING ALLEY, MEETING ROOMS, COMBINATION AUDITORIUM/GYMNASIUM, AND OTHER SERVICES FOR THE SURROUNDING MILL VILLAGE NEIGHBORHOOD. THE COMMUNITY BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS, AND CONSTRUCTED OF HOLLOW TILE BLOCKS COVERED WITH STUCCO. - Hogansville Community Building, Johnson Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  7. Maniac Talk - Dr. Anne Douglass

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-27

    Anne Douglass Maniac Lecture, 27 March, 2013 NASA climate scientist Dr. Anne Douglass presented a Maniac Talk entitled "Satellite Observations - the Touchstone of Atmospheric Modeling." Anne shared some of her scientific career that is filled with unexpected twists and turns and even a few blind alleys, but most important her passion in satellite measurements of ozone and other trace gases, which have been her touchstone.

  8. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Treesearch

    D.M. Burner

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR, on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees were planted in 1994 in three designs: two rows (1.2 by 2.4 m) with a 7.3-m alley, four rows (1.2 by 2.4 m...

  9. Enhancing Productivity through Feedback and Goal Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    techniques. Special appreciation is expressed to Dr. William Alley, Dr. Joe T. Hazel, and Dr. Raymond E. Christal who provided sustained interest and support...research ( Christal , 1973; Gould, 1976; Tuttle, Gould, & Hazel, 1975) which has investigated job satisfaction, retention, motivation, rewards, and...likelihood decision strategy. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 86, 393-397. Christal , R.E. The United States Air Force occupational research proj

  10. Rapping, Blogging, and Plain Language: The Stars of Science Communication Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2014-02-01

    "What you heard in the poetry, what you heard in the stories and the songs here tonight—there are people in the world who will get that a lot better than our posters," said Richard Alley to a packed crowd of Earth and space scientists at the Fall Meeting's second annual Open Mic Night. "Not only are they going to be happier because of it, but so are we."

  11. Development of a telemetry and yield-mapping system of olive harvester.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A; Agüera, Juan

    2015-02-10

    Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver's work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields.

  12. The Preparation of Some Compounds for Testing as Insect Repellents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-14

    Hexanediol, dipropionate . ...’"’ ,.;: c 6109 Furoio aoid, furfuryl ester . ;’ ■ ■ C 6230 Aoetoacetio aoid, oyolohexyl eister...good yield by treating a ohloroform-ether solution of the. alley 1 hydrogen phthalate with diazomethane. ,26. Furfuryl furoate was prepared by...adding ?-furaldehyde to a boiling solution of sodium furfuryloxide, furfuryl alcohol and benzene (Nellson, J. Am. Chem. feoo,, 66, 1?30 (1944

  13. 21. Dr. Harrison E. Stroud poses in front of his ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Dr. Harrison E. Stroud poses in front of his newly completed building at the northeast corner of Central Avenue and the alley north of Washington Street in about 1900 or 1901. In 1901, the building seen here was enlarged by the construction of an addition of similar design immediately to the north (left). Virtually the entire west elevation of the initial building is depicted in this view. Credit ADLAPR. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. TACOM LCMC IB and DMSMS Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-26

    companies across the United States • Similar to STS work directive-based contract 26SEP11 UNCLASSIFIED 6 Automation Alley Capabilities • Repair...Slate Country Pre:screen score Sla/1Js 2A413 ~ BEHR HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEMS D NORTH CHARLESTON, UNITED STATES Medium Risk A - Active. Com 55683...WHEELER BROS. INC. SOMERSET, PA UNITED STATES l ow Risk A - Active. Com 64678 ~ DAIMLER TRUCKS NORTH AHERlC PORTLAND, OR UNITED STATES l ow Risk A - Active

  15. 40 CFR 264.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and (ii) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or (2) The waste... cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b) The owner... area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  16. 40 CFR 265.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reactive waste under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter; and (ii) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or... that may cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b... management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  17. 40 CFR 265.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reactive waste under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter; and (ii) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or... that may cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b... management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  18. 40 CFR 264.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and (ii) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or (2) The waste... cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b) The owner... area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  19. 40 CFR 265.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reactive waste under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter; and (ii) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or... that may cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b... management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  20. 40 CFR 264.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and (ii) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or (2) The waste... cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b) The owner... area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  1. 40 CFR 264.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and (ii) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or (2) The waste... cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b) The owner... area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  2. 40 CFR 264.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and (ii) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or (2) The waste... cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b) The owner... area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  3. Afghanistan: Changes to Updated U.S. Civil-Military Strategic Framework Reflect Evolving U.S. Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 8 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified...may be found on the last page of this report. Key contributors to this report were Hynek Kalkus (Assistant Director), B . Patrick Hickey, and Kira...Self. Also contributing to this report were Ashley Alley , Pedro Almoguera, Jacob Beier, Jonathan Fremont, Reid Lowe, and Marc Schwartz. Michael J

  4. 40 CFR 265.198 - Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reactive waste under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter; and (ii) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or... that may cause the waste to ignite or react; or (3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies. (b... management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon...

  5. The silviculture of silvopasture

    Treesearch

    Rebecca J. Barlow; Seth Hunt; John S. Kush

    2016-01-01

    Silvopasture is an agroforestry practice where livestock, forage, and timber are managed on the same parcel of land. The most common form of agroforestry in the Southeastern US is silvopasture. According to the most recent USDA Census of Agriculture, six of the top ten states in the Nation that report that they practice alley cropping or silvopasture are southern....

  6. Urban spaces adopted by the performing arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Alexander U.

    2004-05-01

    No celebration of acoustics in New York City would be complete without mention of the countless alternative spaces used for the perfor- mance of music, dance, and other art forms. New York's countless train stations, parks, alleys, and overpasses provide popular venues for artists to make sound. Lincoln Center and Carnegie get all the glory, but it's the streets and train stations that do all the work. This work surveys some of these alternative performance spaces and their acoustic contribution to the performance.

  7. Out of the Closet: Addressing Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    gays should have equal rights in terms of job opportunities. Eighty-three percent of Americans support lesbians and gays having equal rights to job...provisions of the1964 Civil Rights Act, local commanders helped open thousands of theaters, bowling alleys, restaurants, and bathing beaches to black...effectiveness, as well as damage “cohesion, morale, discipline, leadership, recruiting, medical fitness, and the rights to privacy of other members”.42

  8. The Formation of the Second-Order Nonlinearity in Thermally Poled Fused Silica Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NONIINEARITY IN THERMALLY POLED FUSED SILICA GLASS 6. AUTHOR(S) THOMAS GUSTAVE ALLEY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...ADDRESS(ES) The University of New Mexico 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 98-020D 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...self- organized , photoinduced, second-order nonlinearity. The most widely accepted explanation attributes the nonlinearity to an asymmetric

  9. Reuse Study: Port Austin Air Force Station, Port Austin, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    swimming pool, baseball diamond, tennis courts, gym /fitness center, racquetball courts and a two-lane bowling alley. EXECLTMIVE SUMMARY 1-3 The structures...appear to be well constructed and all furnishings, fiytures and equipment have been removed. A water/wastewater treatment facility at the site is...Michigan, Air Defense Sector. In April 1962, the station’s equipment was modified to include the Back-Up Intercept Control (BUIC) I capability. Modified

  10. IRIT at TREC 2012 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    restaurant, shopping mall, zoo . • PS 2: aquarium, art gallery, bar, book store, bowling alley, cafe, movie theater, museum, park, restaurant, shopping...weekday weekend Spring PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS 1 PS 5 PS 5 Summer PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS 1 PS 5 PS 5 Fall PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS 1 PS 6 PS 6 Winter PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS

  11. Battle of Manila: Offensive, Deliberate Attack, MOUT, January-February 1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    facilities, secure the central plain, and capture the city of Manila. With the exception of stiff resistance in the Cabaruan Hills and around Clark Field...military traffic. North of the Pasig, many streets were narrow and not much better than alleys. Streets traversed in all directions from central plaza...the mountains and few routes of entry from the * central Luzon plains. As reported earlier, General Yamishita EtrLIctured his forces into three groups

  12. Development of a Telemetry and Yield-Mapping System of Olive Harvester

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver’s work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields. PMID:25675283

  13. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter.

    PubMed

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V

    2006-10-01

    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  14. Reprogramming EF-hands for design of catalytically amplified lanthanide sensors.

    PubMed

    Mack, Korrie L; Moroz, Olesia V; Moroz, Yurii S; Olsen, Alissa B; McLaughlin, Jaclyn M; Korendovych, Ivan V

    2013-04-01

    We recently reported that a computationally designed catalyst nicknamed AlleyCat facilitates C-H proton abstraction in Kemp elimination at neutral pH in a selective and calcium-dependent fashion by a factor of approximately 100,000 (Korendovych et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:6823, 2011). Kemp elimination produced a colored product that can be easily read out, thus making AlleyCat a catalytically amplified metal sensor for calcium. Here we report that metal-binding EF-hand motifs in AlleyCat could be redesigned to incorporate trivalent metal ions without significant loss of catalytic activity. Mutation of a single neutral residue at position 9 of each of the EF-hands to glutamate results in almost a two orders of magnitude improvement of selectivity for trivalent metal ions over calcium. Development of this new lanthanide-dependent switchable Kemp eliminase, named CuSeCat EE, provides the foundation for further selectivity improvement and broadening the scope of the repertoire of metals for sensing. A concerted effort in the design of switchable enzymes has many environmental, sensing, and metal ion tracking applications.

  15. Effects of two trimming methods of dairy cattle on concrete or rubber-covered slatted floors.

    PubMed

    Ouweltjes, W; Holzhauer, M; van der Tol, P P J; van der Werf, J

    2009-03-01

    This study monitored claw health, claw conformation, locomotion, activity, and step traits of cows from a single dairy herd that were trimmed according to the standard Dutch method or with an alternative "concave" trimming method. Half of the cows were kept in a stall section with concrete slatted floors in the alleys. The other cows were kept in a pen within the same housing with an identical concrete slatted floor in the alleys, but with a rubber top layer. All experimental cows were kept in the same environment for at least 3 mo before and after trimming. It was hypothesized that trimming for more-concave soles (i.e., with 3 to 5 mm of sole dug out under the claw bone) was preferred to the standard Dutch trimming with flat sole surfaces for cows kept in stalls with soft alley floors. None of the claw health or locomotion traits differed for the trimming methods. No interactions were found between flooring and trimming method. Floor effects were significant for several traits. Cows on the rubber-topped floors had significantly fewer sole hemorrhages (prevalence of 22 vs. 48% in mo 3) and larger claws (claw length 76.1 +/- 5.0 vs. 72.5 +/- 4.9 mm; heel height 49.3 +/- 6.3 vs. 46.0 +/- 6.4 mm; claw diagonal 129 +/- 6.4 vs. 125 +/- 6.9 mm), spent more time standing in the alleys (55.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 49.6 +/- 2.8%), and had higher activity (61.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 53.0 +/- 3.7 steps/h). This suggests greater claw comfort on rubber flooring compared with concrete flooring. Kinetic patterns during claw-floor contact while walking were similar for all treatments. During the double-support (stance) phase, claw-floor contact area increased to a maximum in the first 30% of double-support phase time, remained more or less stable until 80% of double-support phase time, and sharply decreased as the animal pushed off as shown by the change in center of pressure. A gradual change of center of pressure in the medial direction during double-support phase time was shown. The research

  16. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  17. EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and Comparison Tool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    medium offices and retail stores , and private clinics are envelope dosinant examples. Conversely, system dominant buildings’ major energy loads come from...AD-A17l 261 EDECT: AN ENERGY DESIGN EVALUATION AND COMPARISON TOOL 1/2 (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH &RIGHT-PATTERSON AFS OH Wi D ALLEY 1986 RFIT/CI/NR...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and TlESIS/I~$ /r/t N Comparison Tool 6. PERFORMING ORG

  18. Wagging ETOM's Long Tail: MOOCs, Hangouts on Air, and Formal and Informal Undergraduate Experiences with Climate Change Science and Clean Energy Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.; McNeal, K.; Blockstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can reasonably be described as a "wicked problem" meaning that it is complex, difficult and multi-faceted, although critical to equitable development and the sustainability of human civilization. But while the Wikipedia definition says such problems are "impossible" to solve, not even to try will lead to certain failure. "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an NSF-funded informal science education project with 3 hour-long TV programs appearing on PBS in 2011 and 2012, along with live presentations by series host, Penn State's Richard Alley, and others at 5 major science centers. Uniquely among climate change programming, ETOM gave equal time to identifying solutions along with climate science, and made all its materials freely available via YouTube. Formal and informal science educators can register to download HD videos for classroom and outreach use, and signups have ranged from middle schools to 4-year colleges. Building on the success of the series and Alley's companion tradebook of the same name, Penn State working with Coursera invited Alley to develop a MOOC entitled "Energy, The Environment and Our Future" that similarly combined the essential science along with clean energy solutions. The course reached more than 30,000 students in the first semester of 2014. More recently the ETOM team has partnered with the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) to develop "READ for the EARTH," an NSF EAGER project, offering campuses the opportunity to adopt Alley's book, the ETOM videos (including "How To Talk To An Ostrich"), NCSE's www.CAMELclimatechange.org web site and other resources for both formal and informal uses. Some campuses have used the book with honors classes, and some are exploring adapting ETOM as a first year reading experience for all freshman. Our presentation will share reactions to the MOOC, to the pilot phases of "READ for the EARTH" and present both qualitative and quantitative results. Some of the most

  19. Implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) 1: The Command Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    AL-SR-1992-0012 AD-A259 885 IMPLEMENTING TOTAL QUALITY A MANAGEMENT (TQM) I: R THE COMMAND IMPERATIVE M S T Charles N. Weaver R Malcolm T. Upton...Special Report for Period November 1990 - November 1991 B 0 R A Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. T 0T R DT y :71-1vCTE9 g B • , |H...nationals. This special report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. COL T O, aAUSAF WILUAM E. ALLEY, Technical Di r Project Scientist

  20. Perseveration of the partial reinforcement effect in extinction with rats over two phases of extinction and two stages of continuous reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Calef, Richard S; Choban, Michael C; Glenney, Katherine R; Calef, Ruth A; Schmitt, Erik; Hinte, Sarah; Clegg, Megan; Kraynok, Joseph E; Richards, Sallie D

    2007-02-01

    One group of 10 male albino rats was given partial reinforcement while the other 10 rats received continuous reinforcement in a straight alley. Subjects then experienced five consecutive stages of Extinction 1, Continuous Reinforcement 1, Extinction 2, Continuous Reinforcement 2, and finally, Extinction 3. Analysis showed the partial reinforcement effect in extinction was sustained over two stages of extinction and two stages of continuous reinforcement, since subjects receiving partial reinforcement ran faster than rats given continuous reinforcement throughout all three of the extinction periods. The results seem to support those of Amsel's (1967) and Cabpaldi's (1967) theoretical formulations of the partial reinforcement effect in extinction.

  1. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  2. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 96, Number 6, November-December 1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-12-01

    for the attacks the enemy can make. This defense must include all weapons that contrib- ute usefully and must provide for continuing imprm’ement to...Stewart so closely that a man could stand outside Gate 2 and touch the camp fence with one hand and the nearest dive with the other. Teen-age girls were...vhisky signs. The low repute of an area one-half mile from Gate ~o. 1 on Highway 1% is indicated by the nick - name of Combat Alley. Realizing the

  3. Space Mysteries: Making Science and Astronomy Learning Fun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.; Tim, G.; Cominsky, L.

    2001-12-01

    How do you get and keep a student's attention during class? Make learning fun! Using a game to teach students ensures that they have fun, enjoy the lesson and remember it. We have developed a series of interactive web and CD based games called "Space Mysteries" to teach students math, physics and astronomy. Using real NASA data, the students must find out Who (or What) dunit in an engaging astronomy mystery. The games include video interviews with famous scientists, actors playing roles who give clues to the solution, and even a few blind alleys and red herrings. The first three games are currently online in beta release at http://mystery.sonoma.edu.

  4. Ability, Experience, and Task Difficulty Predictors of Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    SYSTEMS DIVISION Brooks Air Force Base , Texas 78~35-5601 \\tli lli am E. Alley MANPOwER AND PERSONNEL DIVISION Brooks Air Force Base . Texas 78235...FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE , TEXAS 78235-5601 NOTICE When Government drawings, specifi cations, or other data are used for any...ICWNGAA:JING 5C:-.E:JuLE ~ 5-.l .• ~A:\\olE :;:~ ?~~ F -ORMING O~(j,.l.,’H.i:....\\, 7:QN 1 .... :J.:::..•re::sa_ ::.əerg:: ::yste:JJ.s .:..4(]~ Da

  5. Modeling and observations of dust aerosols during the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, A. F.; Raman, A.; Brost, J.; Sorooshian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Intense dust storms during North American Monsoon (NAM) pose a significant threat to local/regional air quality, economy, and public health. Convection-driven storms (or haboobs) in Arizona and in the southwest US have been given far less attention compared to those in Africa and Middle East. Blowing dusts from these haboobs typically lasts for 3-6 hours and accumulate more than 1000 µg m-3 of PM10 in the atmosphere. However, it is not clear whether haboobs are increasing in intensity and/or frequency in Arizona. Here, we address two science questions: 1) Do haboobs impact the observed trends in aerosol abundance in the NAM region?, 2) What are our current capabilities and limitations in understanding, monitoring, and assessing haboobs and their impacts? For 1), we calculated the trends of enhancements in aerosol optical depth (AOD) from Terra MODIS over dust hotspots in the NAM alley and and surrounding region (dust cluster). Both show similar decreasing trends before the monsoon. However, during the monsoon, a decreasing trend in AOD is more prominent in the dust cluster than in NAM alley. We attribute this to an apparent modulation of dust in the NAM alley by haboobs. Despite increase in rainfall during this period, we infer that the increase in dust sources in the NAM alley obscures the decreasing AOD trend. For 2), we conducted simulations simulations of these haboobs using WRF-Chem with GOCART AFWA scheme at convective resolving scales ( 1 km). Our case study for the 5 July 2011 haboob indicate that the downbursts occurred near Tucson and generated diverging high intensity winds, resulting to cold pools propagating towards Phoenix. We find that WRF-Chem captures the timing of the haboob but severely underestimates the magnitude of dust concentrations that reached as high as 2000 µg m-3 at USEPA Phoenix stations. The impact of the haboob was seen as far as 350 km northwest of Phoenix at an altitude of 2-4 km on 6 July. We find two major limitations in our

  6. BMP Report of Survey Conducted at U.S. Coast Guard, Maintenance and Logistics Command-Pacific, Alameda, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    FAX: (504) 437-3880 alley.butler@gcrmtc.org Ohio Larry Brown BMP Satellite Center Manager Edison Welding Institiute 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive...Practices Center of Excellence 4321 Hartwick Road Suite 400 College Park, MD 20740 Phone: (301) 403-8100 FAX: (301) 403-8180 E-mail: annemari @bmpcoe.org...Telephone: 1-800-789-4267 FAX: (301) 403-8180 annemari @bmpcoe.org G-1 1986 1985 A p p e n d i x G Completed Surveys 1987 Litton Guidance & Control

  7. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Christer; Telezhenko, Evgenij; Ventorp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In this study the effect of different flooring systems on locomotion, claw conformation, loading, claw- and leg disorders was assessed in heifers from one year before to one year after calving. After calving, heifers kept on alleys covered with rubber flooring were found to develop less lameness, fewer claw disorders of the sole horn and fewer leg lesions than those kept on concrete alleys. Recruitment heifers reared on soft deep straw bedding had fewer sole horn lesions and more overgrown claws before calving, but were more prone to severe sole horn lesions after calving, than those reared in cubicles with hard concrete floors. Abstract Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft) or cubicles (Hard), both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard) and half on slatted rubber (Soft) alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; p < 0.01), sole haemorrhages/ulcers (OR = 2.2; p < 0.05), white-line haemorrhages (OR = 2.8; p < 0.01) and leg lesions (OR = 2.6; p < 0.02) than those on Soft floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant) in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs. PMID:26479380

  8. Natural transmission routes of Neospora caninum between farm dogs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Th; Barkema, H W; Eysker, M; Hesselink, J W; Wouda, W

    2002-04-30

    Twelve dairy herds with evidence of post-natal infection with Neospora caninum were compared with 21 control herds with no evidence of post-natal infection. On the former farms, dogs consumed placenta or licked uterine discharge in 75 and 67% of the farms, respectively, while on control farms these activities occurred in 38 and 24% of the farms, respectively. On all control farms and all but three post-natally infected farms the dogs were fed colostrum or milk. Defecation of dogs on the feeding alley was observed in 92% of the post-natally infected farms and in 24% of the control farms. The same trend was observed for defecation of dogs in grass silage, in 75% of the post-natally infected farms and in 19% of the control farms; and in corn silage, in 50% of the post-natally infected farms and in 10% of the control farms. Consumption of placenta, material of aborted foetuses or uterine discharge in combination with defecation on the feeding alley, storage of grass or corn silage was observed in 19% of the control farms and in 75% of the post-natally infected farms. This study supports the hypothesis that farm dogs may become infected by foetal fluids or placental material of infected cattle, and may subsequently cause a post-natal infection of cattle in the herd by shedding oocysts.

  9. Short communication: Early modification of the circadian organization of cow activity in relation to disease or estrus.

    PubMed

    Veissier, Isabelle; Mialon, Marie-Madeleine; Sloth, Karen Helle

    2017-03-16

    Biological rhythms are an essential regulator of life. There is evidence that circadian rhythm of activity is disrupted under chronic stress in animals and humans, and it may also be less marked during diseases. Here we investigated whether a detectable circadian rhythm of activity exists in dairy cows in commercial settings using a real-time positioning system. We used CowView (GEA Farm Technologies) to regularly record the individual positions of 350 cows in a Danish dairy farm over 5 mo and to infer the cows' activity (resting, feeding, in alley). We ran a factorial correspondence analysis on the cows' activities and used the first component of this analysis to express the variations in activity. On this axis, the activities obtained the following weights: resting = -0.15; in alleys = +0.12; feeding = +0.34. By applying these weights to the proportions of time each cow spent on each of the 3 activities, we were able to chart a circadian rhythm of activity. We found that average level of activity of a cow on a given day and its variations during that day varied with specific states (i.e., estrus, lameness, mastitis). More specifically, circadian variations in activity appeared to be particularly sensitive and to vary 1 to 2 d before the farmer detected a disorder. These findings offer promising avenues for further research to design models to predict physiological or pathological states of cows from real-time positioning data.

  10. Temporal dynamics of object location processing in allocentric reference frame.

    PubMed

    Török, Ágoston; Kóbor, Andrea; Persa, György; Galambos, Péter; Baranyi, Péter; Csépe, Valéria; Honbolygó, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    The spatial location of objects is processed in egocentric and allocentric reference frames, the early temporal dynamics of which have remained relatively unexplored. Previous experiments focused on ERP components related only to egocentric navigation. Thus, we designed a virtual reality experiment to see whether allocentric reference frame-related ERP modulations can also be registered. Participants collected reward objects at the end of the west and east alleys of a cross maze, and their ERPs to the feedback objects were measured. Participants made turn choices from either the south or the north alley randomly in each trial. In this way, we were able to discern place and response coding of object location. Behavioral results indicated a strong preference for using the allocentric reference frame and a preference for choosing the rewarded place in the next trial, suggesting that participants developed probabilistic expectations between places and rewards. We also found that the amplitude of the P1 was sensitive to the allocentric place of the reward object, independent of its value. We did not find evidence for egocentric response learning. These results show that early ERPs are sensitive to the location of objects during navigation in an allocentric reference frame. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Spatial distribution of diuron sorption affinity as affected by soil, terrain and management practices in an intensively managed apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Umali, Beng P; Oliver, Danielle P; Ostendorf, Bertram; Forrester, Sean; Chittleborough, David J; Hutson, John L; Kookana, Rai S

    2012-05-30

    We investigated how the sorption affinity of diuron (3'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimenthyl-urea), a moderately hydrophobic herbicide, is affected by soil properties, topography and management practices in an intensively managed orchard system. Soil-landscape analysis was carried out in an apple orchard which had a strong texture contrast soil and a landform with relief difference of 50 m. Diuron sorption (K(d)) affinity was successfully predicted (R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) using a mid-infrared - partial least squares model and calibrated against measured data using a conventional batch sorption technique. Soil and terrain properties explained 75% of the variance of diuron K(d) with TOC, pH(w), slope and WI as key variables. Mean diuron K(d) values were also significantly different (p<0.05) between alley and tree line and between the different management zones. Soil in the tree line generally had lower sorption capacity for diuron than soil in the alleys. Younger stands, which were found to have lower TOC than in the older stands, also had lower diuron K(d) values. In intensively managed orchards, sorption affinity of pesticides to soils was not only affected by soil properties and terrain attributes but also by management regime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Food searches and guiding structures in North African desert ants, Cataglyphis.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Siegfried; Wolf, Harald

    2015-06-01

    North African desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, use path integration as their primary means of navigation. The ants also use landmarks when these are available to improve navigation accuracy. Extended landmarks, such as walls and channels, may serve further functions, for example, local guidance or triggering of local vectors. The roles of such structures were usually examined in homing animals but not during food searches. When searching for familiar feeding sites, Cataglyphis may show intriguing deviations from expected search performances. These may result from the presence of extended landmarks, namely experimental channels. Here we scrutinise this hypothesis of landmark guidance in food searches. We prevented the ants from seeing the channel walls by covering their eyes, except the dorsal rim area. This experiment was repeated in the open test field with an alley of black cylinders to extend our findings to a more normal foraging environment. Ants with covered eyes did not deviate from expected search performances, whereas ants with normal eyes extended their searches along the axis of the leading structures by 15-20%, in both channels and landmark alleys. This demonstrates that Cataglyphis orients along extended landmarks when searching for familiar food sources and alters its search pattern accordingly.

  13. Cannabinoid receptors activation and glucocorticoid receptors deactivation in the amygdala prevent the stress-induced enhancement of a negative learning experience.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Assaf; Akirav, Irit

    2012-05-01

    The enhancement of emotional memory is clearly important as emotional stimuli are generally more significant than neutral stimuli for surviving and reproduction purposes. Yet, the enhancement of a negative emotional memory following exposure to stress may result in dysfunctional or intrusive memory that underlies several psychiatric disorders. Here we examined the effects of stress exposure on a negative emotional learning experience as measured by a decrease in the magnitude of the expected quantity of reinforcements in an alley maze. In contrast to other fear-related negative experiences, reward reduction is more associated with frustration and is assessed by measuring the latency to run the length of the alley to consume the reduced quantity of reward. We also examined whether the cannabinoid receptors agonist WIN55,212-2 (5 μg/side) and the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) antagonist RU-486 (10 ng/side) administered into the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) could prevent the stress-induced enhancement. We found that intra-BLA RU-486 or WIN55,212 before stress exposure prevented the stress-induced enhancement of memory consolidation for reduction in reward magnitude. These findings suggest that cannabinoid receptors and GRs in the BLA are important modulators of stress-induced enhancement of emotional memory.

  14. [Lack of correlation between performances in a simulator and in reality].

    PubMed

    Konge, Lars; Bitsch, Mikael

    2010-12-13

    Simulation-based training provides obvious benefits for patients and doctors in education. Frequently, virtual reality simulators are expensive and evidence for their efficacy is poor, particularly as a result of studies with poor methodology and few test participants. In medical simulated training- and evaluation programmes it is always a question of transfer to the real clinical world. To illustrate this problem a study comparing the test performance of persons on a bowling simulator with their performance in a real bowling alley was conducted. Twenty-five test subjects played two rounds of bowling on a Nintendo Wii and 25 days later on a real bowling alley. Correlations of the scores in the first and second round (test-retest-reliability) and of the scores on the simulator and in reality (criterion validation) were studied and there was tested for any difference between female and male performance. The intraclass correlation coefficient equalled 0.76, i.e. the simulator fairly accurately measured participant performance. In contrast to this there was absolutely no correlation between participants' real bowling abilities and their scores on the simulator (Pearson's r = 0.06). There was no significant difference between female and male abilities. Simulation-based testing and training must be based on evidence. More studies are needed to include an adequate number of subjects. Bowling competence should not be based on Nintendo Wii measurements. Simulated training- and evaluation programmes should be validated before introduction, to ensure consistency with the real world.

  15. Effect of lipids extracted from a salted herring roe food product on maze-behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Nobuya; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hiramitsu

    2006-12-01

    Male mice (11 mo old) were fed 5% lard, fish oil, or Kazunoko (salted fish roe product) lipids for 4 mo to investigate their effects on maze behavior. The time required and distance traveled to reach the maze exit, and number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze, and the fatty acid compositions of brain lipids after the maze-behavior experiment were measured. The Kazunoko lipid group showed a significant improvement in all three parameters compared with the lard diet group, but the fish oil group showed only a significant decrease in the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys compared with the lard diet group. The mice in the fish oil and Kazunoko lipid groups had significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher percentages of docosahexaenoic acid in brain lipids compared with animals in the lard group. The mice in the Kazunoko lipid group had significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid in brain lipids than those in the fish oil group but the percentages of docosahexaenoic acid were not significantly different between these two diet groups. Our results suggest that an intake of Kazunoko lipids may suppress the percentage of n-6 fatty acids in brain lipids and this diet can be even more effective than fish oil as a supplement to improve learning capacity in mice.

  16. Business policies affecting secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Siobhan E; Skinner, Bron; Mage, Caroline; Goldstein, Adam O; Kramer, Kathryn; Steiner, Julea; Staples, Ann H

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent legislative and voluntary policy changes, a significant number of workplaces, recreational venues, and public facilities do not offer the public full protection from secondhand smoke exposure. The current study assessed smoking policies, attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and support for policy change among business owners and managers of businesses open to the public in North Carolina. Business owners and managers were interviewed over the phone. Businesses included all airports, arcades, malls, bowling alleys, and arenas (seating more than 500) in the state as well as a random sample of grocery and convenience stores. A 100% smoke-free policy was reported in 53% of businesses, ranging from 12% in bowling alleys to 97% in arenas. A large majority of business owners and managers understand the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure (82%-89%) and support restrictions on smoking in their businesses (84%-91%). Barriers to voluntary policy change included the lack of legal requirement (39%) and fear of the loss of business (53%). This study used self-report data from business owners and managers; the accuracy of the business smoking policy, customer and employee exposure time, and number of complaints may vary across respondents. It is also possible some participants were influenced by factors of social desirability of responses. Continued progress in establishing 100% smoke-free indoor environments may depend on successful advocacy in instituting legislation mandating the elimination of secondhand smoke in all public places. Advocacy efforts should include education around addressing economic concerns of businesses.

  17. The Oman Ophiolite as a Record of Subduction Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite is the largest and best-known ophiolite in the world. It formed in the Cretaceous (~95 Ma) in the Neotethyan ocean, but its geodynamic setting of formation has been heavily debated for over three decades. Many workers have assumed that it formed in an open ocean setting, consequently utilising the ophiolite as a direct analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust, whereas others argue that the complex formed in a subduction setting. Here, we make the case that the Oman ophiolite records the evolution of the upper plate of a newly initiated subduction zone. Using a database of >1200 lava and dyke analyses ('OmanDB'), we show that the earliest lava sequence (the Geotimes unit) is systematically different to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, and that these differences can be explained by the presence of elevated water contents. This rules out a mid-ocean ridge origin, pointing instead to a subduction-related setting. The lavas evolved from the Geotimes 'moist MORB' to island-arc tholeiite and boninite (the Lasail and Alley units); hence, we conclude that the entire ophiolite formed in a subduction zone. The data suggest a progressive addition of water and concomitant depletion of the mantle source. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates that this fundamental change in magmatic source occurred within ~2 million years. The spreading structure of the ophiolite is characterized by a series of NW-SE trending propagating rifts that crosscut earlier N-S trending ridge segments. Together with palaeomagnetic evidence, which calls for 30° clockwise rotation between Geotimes and Lasail/Alley, and 120° between Lasail/Alley and the later Salahi lavas, it suggests that construction of the lithosphere was accompanied by significant plate rotation. Combined, the available evidence suggests that the rapid change in magmatic signature to increasingly arc-like compositions was coeval with large-scale rotational disaggregation of young ocean lithosphere and

  18. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = - QN - QH - QG - Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through upscaling

  19. Applying the Science of Science Communication to Climate Change and Clean Energy: Lessons Learned from the NSF- and PBS-supported "Earth: The Operators' Manual"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Sanford, C.

    2014-12-01

    Yale legal scholar and professor of psychology Dan Kahan has criticized the climate change science community for not applying what's known about effective communications strategies to topics with potentially controversial content. "Earth: The Operators' Manual," funded by NSF's Informal Science Education program and appearing on PBS was hosted by Penn State geoscientist Richard Alley. From the initial proposal forward into airing on public television in 2011 and 2012, ETOM aimed to be authoritative and apolitical while still being engaging to general audiences. Based on social scientific insights from project Advisor, Suzanne Moser, and others, ETOM aimed to avoid "climate porn" scare tactics and over-used footage, and to enlist a diverse group of "messengers" in addition to Alley. An important design criterion was to give equal time to clean energy solutions while pulling no punches as to the consensus findings of leading climate scientists. With the ETOM project now completed and final reports submitted to NSF, what results can be shared to inform future efforts? And how did ETOM compare in audience impact with other major media efforts such as Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth" or Showtime's more recent "Years of Living Dangerously"? Results reported draw on the external evaluation by Rockman Et Al, and include both quantitative and qualitative data. Key findings are the importance of including Texan ranchers enthusiastic about wind power alongside Navy Admirals adamant that climate change is human-caused and Marines implementing solar energy to reduce casualties incurred while transporting fossil fuels. In-person presentations by Alley and others at science centers served as de facto focus groups for scripting the TV programs, along with actual focus groups convened by Rockman. The 3rd program, ENERGY QUEST USA, documented 5 quite different communities, from Alaska to Forth Worth, Baltimore, Portland and Kansas, all using competition, local values, and economic

  20. Chance and serendipity in science: two examples from my own career.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Daniel

    2011-11-04

    The usual scientific paper follows a rather narrowly (but not ever rigidly) defined pattern. Both the author and the journal like to see a linear logical presentation of a "story." Seldom does the paper give the reader the "backstory." Where did the idea come from in the first place? How many false leads led down blind alleys? What happened by chance and what by logical planning? Was there an element of serendipity involved? Perhaps as we enter the paperless era and do not have to count words quite so religiously, it may be possible to encourage a more freewheeling scientific paper, but for now, we have to rely on the historians of science and/or those who "tell all" about their own research. "Reflections" seems an appropriate space for the latter. I have chosen two scenarios from my own career in which happy accidents played important roles but, unhappily, received little recognition in my published papers.

  1. Dreaming in the desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Saudi Arabia's bold new co-educational research university deserves to succeed Imagine you want to build, from scratch, a brand new, world-beating university dedicated to science and technology in less than two years. What would you need for the job? Well, a big pot of cash would be essential - an endowment of 10bn, let's say. You would need money for lab equipment - about 1.5bn over five years will do nicely - and a visionary leader who can attract talented staff from around the world. They would have to be tempted by fat salaries, given houses to live in and offered goodies like, say, a yachting marina, private golf course and bowling alley. Throw in free satellite TV in every house, install WiFi Internet access across the campus and, oh, invite 3000 people to a spectacular opening ceremony so the world knows that you mean business.

  2. Investigation of Micro-mechanical Causes of Density Inversion in Polar Firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, D. J.; Keegan, K. M.; Albert, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    The densification of polar firn is a microstructure dependent process (Alley et al., 1982) which plays an important role both in interpretation of paleoclimate records in ice cores and in the remote sensing evaluation of ice sheet volume changes over time. Density inversion results from prolonged differential compaction rates between different microstructure types: low density, coarse grained firn (CGF) tends to compact faster than the high density, fine grained firn (FGF). Eventually, the relative density of the two firn types "inverts", that is, CGF becomes more dense than FGF at some depth (Gerland et al., 1999; Freitag et al., 2010). This process continues beyond the point where CGF and FGF densities are equal, suggesting that some parameter other than bulk density determines the densification rate (Hörhold et al, 2011). Recent work in granular physics (Phillippe et al., 2002; Richard et al., 2005 ; Ribière et al., 2007), have shown that particle size distribution, shape and friction play important roles in determining the both the maximum density of random close packed ensembles, and the magnitude of density difference between the initial state (random loose packed) and final state (random close packed) particle ensembles. We explore the consequences of these granular effects on the densification of polar firn using discrete element modeling of ice particle rearrangement mediated by grain boundary sliding processes (Alley, 1987). Because sintering rate is greatly reduced for pairs of large particles and particle pairs with large size differences (Colbeck, 2001), we expect that CGF will experience enhanced grain boundary sliding compared to the well bonded and highly coordinated particles in FGF. By simulating uni-axial compression on particle ensembles with varying size, shape and frictional properties, we hope to demonstrate that CGF densifies faster than FGF via enhanced grain boundary sliding, and can achieve a higher final density than FGF at the end of

  3. Iceberg Drift In The Eastern Weddell Sea: Observed And Modeled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Christine; Rackow, Thomas; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Weddell Sea region is an alley for drifting icebergs, which calve further east along the coastline of East Antarctica. Our analysis is focused on the region north of the Ekstro ̈m Ice Shelf. Since at the Ekstro ̈m Ice Shelf a landing place is used for the supply of the German overwintering station Neumayer III and the South-African station Sanae IV, it is important to monitor the drifting routes taken by the icebergs in this region. We use a series of ENVISAT ASAR WSM data to follow a larger (D18) and a smaller (IB1) iceberg through the eastern Weddell Sea region in 2006. Model simulations are carried out to get more detailed information about the relative influence of different forces on the iceberg drift in this region.

  4. Akuginow and Haines-Stiles Receive 2013 Robert C. Cowen Journalism Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, Geoffrey; Akuginow, Erna

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to AGU and our citationist, Richard Alley, for this joint award to Erna and myself. While it is, of course, personally gratifying, we also consider it an acknowledgement that "science journalism" has broadened out from print to include video in all forms—from PBS primetime to YouTube anytime—and also social media and spoken-word presentations. We're pleased that this is one more way in which AGU is validating the participation of its members in all forms of public outreach. We're gratified that our efforts in this regard have been supported by NSF, NASA, and NOAA, among other government agencies, and are happy to acknowledge their "priceless" role as funders. As one of our current collaborators, former NASA chief scientist Waleed Abdalati, likes to say, "The science isn't done until it's shared"…and there are more and more ways in which that sharing can be done.

  5. Cancer corridors and toxic terrors--is it safe to eat and drink?

    PubMed

    Billings, Frederic T

    2005-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the "toxic terrors" (1) Love Canal and Hinkley, California, and a more specific, in depth, evaluation of the extent and the significance of the industrial and petrochemical cancer risks to the people of Louisiana in the so-called "Cancer Alley" between Baton Rouge and New Orleans. Has the birthright been exchanged for a mess of "chemical pottage?" "...and a great star fell from heaven, blazing like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters turned bitter, and many people died from the waters that had become bitter." Revelation 8:10-12. Two miles away from my house flows the Mississippi River, which swells with water from well over one-third of the rivers and streams of the continental United States.

  6. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  7. Tricyclic antidepressants: effects on extinction and fear learning.

    PubMed

    Ellison, G; Handel, J; Rogers, R; Weiss, J

    1975-01-01

    Rats trained to run an alley for a food reward were extinguished following injections of different antidepressants. When retested several days later, the animals extinguished following pretreatment with the NE reuptake blocker protriptyline showed faster running speeds than did the other groups. Other rats given electrical shocks following pretreatment with protriptyline avoided the compartment in which they had been shocked less than did animals shocked following pretreatment with other antidepressants. This implies an interferance with some aspect of the learning or consolidation process which is correlated with the degree of NE reuptake blockage. It is hypothesized that NE terminals are deactivated following frustrative nonreward or punishment by the conversion and reuptake of the released NE to an altered extinction molecule.

  8. Left-right functional asymmetry of ventral hippocampus depends on aversiveness of situations.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yukitoshi; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2017-05-15

    Many studies suggest that animals exhibit lateralized behaviors during aversive situations, and almost all animals exhibit right hemisphere-dominant behaviors associated with fear or anxiety. However, which brain structure in each hemisphere underlies such lateralized function is unclear. In this study, we focused on the hippocampus and investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) on anxiety-like behavior using the successive alleys test. We also examined the expression of c-fos in the VH, which was induced by an aversive situation. Results revealed that consistent right VH dominance trended with the anxiety level. Weaker anxiety induced both right and left VH functions, whereas stronger anxiety induced right VH function. From these results, we conclude that animals are able to adaptively regulate their behaviors to avoid aversive stimuli by changing the functional dominance of their left and right VH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Severe convection and lightning in subtropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Zuluaga, Manuel D.; Houze, Robert A.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite radar and radiometer data show that subtropical South America has the world's deepest convective storms, robust mesoscale convective systems, and very frequent large hail. We determine severe weather characteristics for the most intense precipitation features seen by satellite in this region. In summer, hail and lightning concentrate over the foothills of western Argentina. Lightning has a nocturnal maximum associated with storms having deep and mesoscale convective echoes. In spring, lightning is maximum to the east in association with storms having mesoscale structure. A tornado alley is over the Pampas, in central Argentina, distant from the maximum hail occurrence, in association with extreme storms. In summer, flash floods occur over the Andes foothills associated with storms having deep convective cores. In spring, slow-rise floods occur over the plains with storms of mesoscale dimension. This characterization of high-impact weather in South America provides crucial information for socioeconomic implications and public safety.

  10. Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  11. Use of the vector index and geographic information system to prospectively inform West Nile virus interventions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roderick C; Weaver, Kingsley N; Smith, Shamika; Blanco, Claudia; Flores, Cristina; Gibbs, Kevin; Markowski, Daniel; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2011-09-01

    We sought to estimate West Nile virus (WNV) activity in mosquito populations weekly at the census tract level in Chicago, IL, and to provide this information graphically. Each week we calculated a vector index (VI) for each mosquito trap then generated tract estimates using geographic information systems. During June 29-September 13, 2008, a median of 527 (60%) of 874 possible tracts per week had a VI value. Overall, 94% of the weekly VI tract estimates were 0; among those with a VI estimate greater than 0, the median was 0.33 (range 0.003-3.5). Officials deemed risk levels and weather conditions appropriate for adulticide treatments on 3 occasions, resulting in the treatment of approximately 252 linear kilometers of residential streets and alleys. Our analysis successfully converted complex, raw surveillance data into a format that highlighted areas of elevated WNV activity and facilitated the determination of appropriate response procedures.

  12. Testing the temporal nature of social disorder through abandoned buildings and interstitial spaces.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Danielle; Schalliol, David

    2015-11-01

    With the recent housing crisis, studying abandoned buildings has once again become important. However, it has been some time since abandoned buildings were the subject of direct study, leaving scholars with scant knowledge about the characteristics of abandoned buildings, how they change, and their relationship to neighborhood processes. To fill this gap, we employed longitudinal photographic and SSO evaluations of 36 abandoned buildings and their immediate surroundings in Chicago for one year (n=587). Results demonstrate the presence and severity of social disorder cues vary across time points and the time of day of observation. There is a relationship between abandoned buildings and social disorder, though the relationship is not a trend. Also, social disorder is diminished around extremely decayed buildings. Lastly, we find that our results are driven by the measurement of places ignored by most SSO studies, including alleys and the rear side of buildings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Younger Dryas deglaciation of Scotland driven by warming summers.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Gordon R M; Putnam, Aaron E; Rademaker, Kurt M; Lowell, Thomas V; Schaefer, Joerg M; Hall, Brenda; Winckler, Gisela; Birkel, Sean D; Borns, Harold W

    2014-04-29

    The Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS; ∼ 12,900-11,600 y ago) in the Northern Hemisphere is classically defined by abrupt cooling and renewed glaciation during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Although this event involved a global reorganization of atmospheric and oceanic circulation [Denton GH, Alley RB, Comer GC, Broecker WS (2005) Quat Sci Rev 24:1159-1182], the magnitude, seasonality, and geographical footprint of YDS cooling remain unresolved and pose a challenge to our understanding of abrupt climate change. Here, we present a deglacial chronology from Scotland, immediately downwind of the North Atlantic Ocean, indicating that the Scottish ice cap disintegrated during the first half of the YDS. We suggest that stratification of the North Atlantic Ocean resulted in amplified seasonality that, paradoxically, stimulated a severe wintertime climate while promoting warming summers through solar heating of the mixed layer. This latter process drove deglaciation of downwind landmasses to completion well before the end of the YDS.

  14. Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  15. The double slit experiment and the time reversed fire alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabi, Tarek

    2011-03-01

    When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to "understand" such a puzzling feature only draws us into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double slit experiment and a time reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double slit experiment with a time reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow.

  16. Self-Replicating Cracks: A Collaborative Fracture Mode in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthelot, Joël; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José; Teisseire, Jérémie; Dalmas, Davy; Melo, Francisco

    2014-08-01

    Straight cracks are observed in thin coatings under residual tensile stress, resulting into the classical network pattern observed in china crockery, old paintings, or dry mud. Here, we present a novel fracture mechanism where delamination and propagation occur simultaneously, leading to the spontaneous self-replication of an initial template. Surprisingly, this mechanism is active below the standard critical tensile load for channel cracks and selects a robust interaction length scale on the order of 30 times the film thickness. Depending on triggering mechanisms, crescent alleys, spirals, or long bands are generated over a wide range of experimental parameters. We describe with a simple physical model, the selection of the fracture path and provide a configuration diagram displaying the different failure modes.

  17. The Norton history of astronomy and cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, J.

    The author shows how the seasonal motions of sun, moon, and stars triggered the first efforts at systematic astronomy, from the megalithic observatory at Stonehenge to the achievements of astronomers in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome, India, China, and Central and South America. He recounts how, despite false starts, blind alleys, and missed connections, astronomical knowledge slowly accumulated until the synthesis of Islamic and medieval Christian science set the stage for the revolution in understanding brought about by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton. He tells how the insights of Einstein and others transformed the Newtonian universe into one of relativity, quantum particles, black holes, and the big bang. The result is a history of humanity's quest to understand how the universe works.

  18. Plant community and white-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity response to intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Ethan Jacob

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic feedstock for alternative energy production that could grow well between planted pines (Pinus spp.). Southeastern planted pine occupies 15.8 million hectares and thus, switchgrass intercropping could affect biodiversity if broadly implemented. Therefore, I evaluated effects of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) plantations on plant community diversity, plant biomass production, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) nutritional carrying capacity. In a randomized complete block design, I assigned three treatments (switchgrass intercropped, switchgrass monoculture, and a "control" of traditional pine management) to 4 replicates of 10-ha experimental units in Kemper County, Mississippi during 2014-2015. I detected 246 different plant species. Switchgrass intercropping reduced plant species richness and diversity but maintained evenness. I observed reduced forb and high-use deer forage biomass but only in intercropped alleys (interbeds). Soil micronutrient interactions affected forage protein of deer plants. White-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity remained unaffected.

  19. Illumination of dense urban areas by light redirecting panels.

    PubMed

    El-Henawy, Sally I; Mohamed, Mohamed W N; Mashaly, Islam A; Mohamed, Osama N; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M E

    2014-05-05

    With the high population growth rate, especially in developing countries, and the scarcity of land resources, buildings are becoming so close to each other, depriving the lower floors and the alleys from sunlight and consequently causing health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective efficient light redirecting panels that guide sun rays into those dim places. In this paper, we address this problem. A novel sine wave based panel is presented to redirect/diverge light downward and enhance the illumination level in those dark places. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter respectively, operates over wide solar altitude ranges, and redirects light efficiently. Experimental and simulation results are in good agreement.

  20. Using major outer membrane protein typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milk-borne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California.

    PubMed

    Jay-Russell, Michele T; Mandrell, Robert E; Yuan, Jean; Bates, Anna; Manalac, Rosa; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Kimura, Akiko; Lidgard, Janice; Miller, William G

    2013-01-01

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the Campylobacter jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milk-borne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. The genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental strains with identical or closely related porA sequences was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The first outbreak involved 1,644 C. jejuni infections at 11 state correctional facilities and was associated with consumption of pasteurized milk supplied by an on-site dairy (dairy A) at a prison in the central valley. The second outbreak involved eight confirmed and three suspect C. jejuni cases linked to consumption of commercial raw milk and raw chocolate colostrum at another central valley dairy (dairy B). Both dairies bottled fluid milk on the farm and distributed the finished product to off-site locations. Altogether, C. jejuni was isolated from 7 of 15 (46.7%) bovine fecal, 12 of 20 (60%) flush alley water, and 1 of 20 (5%) lagoon samples collected on dairy A. At dairy B, C. jejuni was cultured from 9 of 26 (34.6%) bovine fecal samples. Environmental strains indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak strains were found in five flush alley water samples (dairy A) and four bovine fecal samples (dairy B). The findings demonstrate that MOMP typing is a useful tool to triage environmental isolates prior to conducting more labor-intensive molecular typing methods.

  1. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  2. Changes in soil properties after establishment of Artemisia halodendron and Caragana microphylla on shifting sand dunes in semiarid Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong Zhong; Zhang, Tong Hui; Li, Yu Lin; Wang, Fang

    2005-08-01

    In the semiarid Horqin sandy land of northern China, establishment of artificial sand-fixing shrubs on desertified sandy lands is an effective measure to control desertification and improve the regional environment. Caragana microphylla Lam. and Artemisia halodendron Turcz. ex Bess. are two of the dominant native shrub species, which are adapted well to windy and sandy environments, and thus, are widely used in revegetation programs to control desertification in Horqin region. To assess the effects of artificially planting these two shrub species on restoration of desertified sandy land, soil properties and plant colonization were measured 6 years after planting shrubs on shifting sand dunes. Soil samples were taken from two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) under the shrub canopy, in the mid-row location (alley) between shrub belts, and from nonvegetated shifting sand dune (as a control). Soil fine fractions, soil water holding capacity, soil organic C and total N have significantly increased, and pH and bulk density have declined at the 0-5-cm topsoil in both C. microphylla and A. halodendron. At the 5-20 cm subsurface soil, changes in soil properties are not significant, with exception of bulk density and organic C concentration under the canopy of A. halodendron and total N concentration under the canopy of C. microphylla. Soil amelioration processes are initiated under the shrub canopies, as higher C and N concentrations were found under the canopies compared with alleys. At the same time, the establishment of shrubs facilitates the colonization and development of herbaceous species. A. halodendron proved to have better effects in fixing the sand surface, improving soil properties, and restoring plant species in comparison to C. microphylla.

  3. Rift-related volcanism and karst geohydrology of the southern Ozark Dome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Lowell, Gary R.; Evans, Kevin R.; Aber, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip examines the geology and geohydrology of a dissected part of the Salem Plateau in the Ozark Plateaus province of south-central Missouri. Rocks exposed in this area include karstified, flat-lying, lower Paleozoic carbonate platform rocks deposited on Mesoproterozoic basement. The latter is exposed as an uplift located about 40 mi southwest of the St. Francois Mountains and form the core of the Ozark dome. On day 1, participants will examine and explore major karst features developed in Paleozoic carbonate strata on the Current River; this will include Devil's Well and Round Spring Cavern as well as Montauk, Round, Alley, and Big Springs. The average discharge of the latter is 276 × 106 gpd and is rated in the top 20 springs in the world. Another, Alley Spring, is equally spectacular with an average discharge of 81 × 106 gpd. Both are major contributors to the Current and Eleven Point River drainage system which includes about 50 Mesoproterozoic volcanic knobs and two granite outcrops. These knobs are mainly caldera-erupted ignimbrites with a total thickness of 7–8 km. They are overlain by post-collapse lavas and intruded by domes dated at 1470 Ma. Volcaniclastic sediment and air-fall lapilli tuff are widely distributed along this synvolcanic unconformity. On day 2, the group will examine the most important volcanic features and the southernmost granite exposure in Missouri. The trip concludes with a discussion of the Missouri Gravity Low, the Eminence caldera, and the volcanic history of southern Missouri as well as a discussion of geologic controls on regional groundwater flow through this part of the Ozark aquifer.

  4. Light redirecting system using sine-wave based panels for dense urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed W. N.; Mashaly, Islam A.; Mohamed, Osama N.; El-Henawy, Sally I.; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cities and towns around the world are becoming more condensed due to the shrinking amount of buildable areas, which significantly reduces the amount of light that occupants have access to. This lack of natural lighting results in health, safety and quality of life degradation. This paper presents a new technique of transmitting sunlight downward into narrow alleys and streets, by using a daylighting guiding acrylic panel that is capable of changing the direction and distribution of the incident light. The core of the proposed daylight guidance system is made up of light transmission panels with high quality. The corrugations have sine wave shaped cross-section so that the panel functions as an optical diffuser perpendicular to the direction of sunlight propagation. The day lighting system consists of the corrugated panels and a lattice frame, which supports the panel. The proposed system is to be mounted on the building roof facing the sun so as to redirect the incident sunlight downward into the narrow alleys or streets. Since building sizes and orientations are different the frame is arranged such that substantially deep light penetration and high luminance level can be achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter, respectively, provides fan-out angle that exceeds 80° for certain solar altitudes and the transmitted power percentage varies from 40% to 90% as the solar altitude varies from 10° to 80°. Experimental results are in a good agreement with the simulations.

  5. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  6. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  7. Potential influence of sea cucumbers on coral reef CaCO3 budget: A case study at One Tree Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Kenneth; Silverman, Jacob; Woolsey, Erika; Eriksson, Hampus; Byrne, Maria; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-12-01

    To endure, coral reefs must accumulate CaCO3 at a rate greater or equal than the sum of mechanically, biologically, and chemically mediated erosion rates. We investigated the potential role of holothurians on the CaCO3 balance of a coral reef. These deposit feeders process carbonate sand and rubble through their digestive tract and dissolve CaCO3 as part of their digestive process. In aquarium incubations with Stichopus herrmanni and Holothuria leucospilota total alkalinity increased by 97 ± 13 and 47 ± 7 μmol kg-1, respectively. This increase was due to CaCO3 dissolution, 81 ± 13 and 34 ± 6 μmol kg-1 and ammonia secretion, 16 ± 2 and 14 ± 2μmol kg-1, respectively, for these species. Surveys conducted at a long-term monitoring site of community calcification (DK13) on One Tree Reef indicated that the density of sea cucumbers was approximately 1 individual m-2. We used these data and data from surveys at Shark Alley to estimate the dissolution of CaCO3 by the sea cucumbers at both sites. At DK13 the sea cucumber population was estimated to be responsible for nearly 50% of the nighttime CaCO3 dissolution, while in Shark Alley for most of the nighttime dissolution. Thus, in a healthy reef, bioeroders dissolution of CaCO3 sediment appears to be an important component of the natural CaCO3 turnover and a substantial source of alkalinity as well. This additional alkalinity could partially buffer changes in seawater pH associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 locally, thus reducing the impact of ocean acidification on coral growth.

  8. Potential of Native Shrubs Haloxylon salicornicum and Calligonum Polygonoides for Restoration of Degraded Lands in Arid Western Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, V. S.; Singh, J. P.; Bhardwaj, S.; Nathawat, N. S.; Kumar, Mahesh; Roy, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Shrub-induced soil property spatial heterogeneity is common in arid and semi-arid ecosystems and aids desertified land restoration. However, the effectiveness of this technique may rely on the plant species used and the habitat conditions present. To assess the degree to which planting two native species, Haloxylon salicornicum and Calligonum polygonoides, facilitates degraded land restoration, soil and herbaceous plant community properties were measured 7 years after planting. Soil samples were extracted at two depths (0-5 and 5-20 cm) from three sub-habitats, i.e., under the shrub canopy, from alleys between shrubs and from the open area. Shrub planting increased the quantity of silt + clay content (30-39 %); enhanced water holding capacities (24-30 %); increased the levels of organic carbon (48-69 %), available nitrogen (31-47 %), available phosphorus (32-41 %), and electrical conductivity (21-33 %); and decreased the pH (7-12 %) and bulk density levels (5-6 %) in the surface layer of soils beneath the canopy. Soil property changes were more significant at the surface (0-5 cm) than in the deeper layer (5-20 cm), and were more pronounced under H. salicornicum than under C. polygonoides. Furthermore, the density and biomass levels of herbaceous plants were 1.1 to 1.2 and 1.4 to 1.6 times greater, respectively, in the shrub alleys than in open area. H. salicornicum induced more robust soil amelioration and herbaceous plant facilitative properties than did C. polygonoides. Artificially planting these shrubs may thus be employed to restore degraded areas of arid regions.

  9. Determination of water quality variables, endotoxin concentration, and Enterobacteriaceae concentration and identification in southern High Plains dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of endotoxin, determine 20 water quality variables, and identify and enumerate fungal and bacterial pathogens from United States southern High Plains dairy lagoons and control lakes during summer and winter. Water samples were collected in triplicate from the north, south, east, and west quadrants of each body of water. The mean (+/- SEM) winter dairy lagoon endotoxin concentration was significantly higher (9,678+/-1,834 ng/mL) than the summer concentration (3,220+/-810 ng/mL). The mean endotoxin concentration of the 2 control lakes (summer: 58.1+/-8.8 ng/mL; winter: 38.6+/-4.2 ng/mL) was significantly less than that of the dairy lagoons. Two hundred-one Salmonella enterica spp. isolates were identified, 7 serovars were recovered from the dairy lagoons, and 259 Salmonella ssp. were identified from 5 other dairy locations (milk barn, ditch effluent, settling basin, feed alley pad flush, and center pivots). Twenty-eight Salmonella spp. were identified from center pivot water. Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens were isolated from other dairy locations but not from lagoons. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157:H7 were identified from control lakes. Enterobacteriaceae opportunistic pathogens were isolated from both dairies and control lakes. Important mesophilic and thermophilic catabolic (to manure biosolids) fungal isolates were identified from dairy effluent locations, but no thermophilic fungal isolates were cultured from the control lakes. Adequate curing of green forage following center pivot irrigation is important to kill lagoon water enteric pathogens, even though the lagoon water is mixed with fresh water. Recirculating lagoon water to flush the feed alley pad, where cows stand while eating, to remove manure and using lagoon water to abate dairy dust in loafing pens and unimproved dairy roads is inconsistent with good environmental practice management. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy

  10. Effect of rubber flooring on claw health in lactating dairy cows housed in free-stall barns.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, J; Overton, M; Berry, S L; Sischo, W M

    2006-11-01

    Multiparous dairy cows between 10 to 30 d in milk (DIM) were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of rubber flooring on the development of claw lesions, locomotion scores, clinical lameness, and rates of hoof growth and wear. Two groups of cows were housed in identical free-stall facilities, except that 1 pen (rubber, n = 84) had rubber alley mats covering the entire concrete floor of the pen, whereas cows in the second pen were exposed to concrete flooring (concrete, n = 82) without rubber alley mats. All cows were evaluated 3 times between 10 and 30, 74 and 94, and 110 and 130 DIM for 1) the presence of claw lesions on their rear feet, 2) the occurrence of clinical lameness based on a locomotion score, and 3) rates of claw growth and wear as observed on the dorsal wall of the right lateral claw. No differences between flooring groups at the time of enrollment were detected for lactation number, mean DIM at first examination, body condition score, and proportion of cows with claw lesions at the first examination. Odds of developing claw lesions between examinations were not different for cows exposed to the rubber surface compared with those exposed to concrete. Cows on concrete, however, had greater odds of developing or exacerbating existing heel erosion than cows on rubber flooring. Regardless of the flooring surface, the lateral claw was more likely to develop lesions than the medial claw. Odds of becoming lame by the third examination and the proportion of cows requiring therapeutic hoof trimming because of lameness were greater for concrete-exposed cows than those on rubber. Cows on rubber flooring had decreased claw growth and wear between the first and last examination compared with cows on concrete. Regardless of flooring surface, second-lactation cows had greater wear rates than those in third or greater parities. Results of our study suggest that a soft flooring surface, such as interlocking rubber, is beneficial for hoof health.

  11. Determining options for agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds in Alemaya Basin, Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Bishaw, B.

    1993-01-01

    Deforestation, accelerated soil erosion, and land degradation are serious problems in Ethiopia. The uncontrolled removal of natural forests, demographic pressures and cyclical drought has aggravated the situation, resulting in massive environmental degradation and a serious threat to sustainable agriculture and forestry. To overcome these problems efforts have been made to launch an afforestation and conservation program; however, success to data has been limited. Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the reasons for lack of success in tree planting in the Alemaya Basin both from biophysical and socio-economic perspectives. And, based on this analysis, to propose an alternative strategy for agroforestry for the Basin. The study has identified and characterized major land uses, socio-economic constraints and agricultural and forestry practices which have limited forestry development in the Alemaya Basin. To gather the necessary information for the study, existing information sources were reviewed. Two state sampling was used for a land-use survey, and stratified random sampling for the socio-economic study. Decrease in farm size due to population increases, soil erosion, shortage of fuelwood and fodder for livestock and lack of appropriate extension service were found to be the major problems that affect sustainable production in the Alemaya Basin. Agroforestry is one of the appropriate technologies to overcome some of the problem faced by the farmers in the Alemaya Basin. The study proposed a desired state of sustainable agriculture and forestry for the Basin based on population projections, agriculture and forest products needs, and stable or improved living standards for a 20 year planning period. Alley cropping with and without fertilizers was identified as a promising agroforestry technology. Its economic feasibility was assessed by estimating costs and returns both for traditional farming and alley cropping.

  12. Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jerome; Westlake, Kimberly; Szelest, Izabela

    2004-11-01

    Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways. During the first phase of training, when allowed to select baited runways within these series, they predominantly alternated their choices. During the second phase, rats received forced-choice serial pattern training of series consisting of two rewarded (R) trials and one nonrewarded (N) trial in two fixed orders, RRN and RNR. In Experiment 1, the rats in the runway shift rule group always received the second R trial when forced down a runway opposite that on the preceding trial in the series and the N trial when forced down the same runway. The rats in the runway stay rule group always received the second R trial when forced down the same runway and the N trial when forced down the opposite runway. In Experiment 2, each rat was conditionally trained with both runway outcome rules as determined by the central alley lighting and the type of food in the side alleys. The rats took longer to reduce their running speed on the N trial within each sequence under the runway stay rule than under the runway shift rule. They also took longer to acquire serial pattern responding for the RNR than for the RRN series only under the runway stay rule condition. When subsequently reexposed to series of free-choice trials on the final phase, rats maintained spontaneous alternating choice patterns under the runway shift rule conditions but either seldom alternated their choices (Experiment 1) or greatly reduced choice alternations (Experiment 2) under the runway stay rule condition. We discussed these effects in terms of rats' natural foraging strategies and as a factor that interacts with other within- and between-series variables that affect serial pattern behavior.

  13. Switchgrass growth and pine-switchgrass interactions in established intercropping systems

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Shiying; Cacho, Julian F.; Youssef, Mohamed A.; ...

    2016-06-22

    Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) has been proposed for producing bioenergy feedstock in the southeastern United States. This study investigated switchgrass growth and pine–switchgrass interactions at two established experimental fields (7-year-old Lenoir site and 5-year-old Carteret site) located on the coastal plain of eastern United States. Position effects (edge and center of switchgrass alley in intercropping plots) and treatment effects (intercropping vs. grass-only) on above ground switchgrass growth were evaluated. Interspecific interactions with respect to capturing resources (light, soil water, and nitrogen) were investigated by measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) above grass canopy, soilmore » moisture, and soil mineral nitrogen contents. Switchgrass growth was significantly (P = 0.001) affected by treatments in Lenoir and by position (P < 0.0001) in both study sites. Relative to the center, PAR above grass canopy at edge in both sites was about 48% less during the growing season. Soil water content during the growing season at the edge of grass alley was significantly (P = 0.0001) lower by 23% than at the center in Lenoir, while no significant (P = 0.42) difference was observed in Carteret, in spite of more grass growth at center at both sites. Soil mineral nitrogen content at the center of intercropping plots in Lenoir (no fertilization during 2015) was significantly (P < 0.07) lower than at the edge during the peak of growing season (June, July, and August), but not during early and late parts of growing season (May, September, and November). Position effects on soil water and mineral nitrogen were less evident under conditions with higher external inputs (rainfall and fertilization) and lower plant uptake during nongrowing seasons. Here, results from this study contributed to a better understanding of above- and belowground pine–switchgrass interactions which is necessary to

  14. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the

  15. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Ouweltjes, W; van der Werf, J T N; Frankena, K; van Leeuwen, J L

    2011-02-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing the stalls between 2300 h and 0500 h (yes or no) and alley flooring (concrete or rubber topped slatted floors). Apart from treatments, housing was identical. The animals were kept in small groups (n=4 to 6) in adjacent barn pens. Thereafter, the animals were kept in 1 group in a freestall section with concrete slatted floor and unrestricted access to the stalls for 5 wk. All animals were fed the same partial mixed ration. We hypothesized that (1) hard flooring causes high mechanical load of the claws and (2) restricted freestall access causes prolonged standing bouts and reinforced effects of hard flooring on claws. The heifers had only minor claw lesions before first calving, and the prevalence and severity of sole hemorrhages increased during the first 3 mo after calving (from 0.24 ± 0.08 to 1.18 ± 0.14 and from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively), particularly in the outer hind claws. Animals kept on rubber alley flooring had lower average hemorrhage scores in wk 9 (0.13 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.03) and wk 14 (0.20 ± 0.03 vs. 0.27 ± 0.03) after calving, had a slower feed intake (3.05 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.14 g/s) and spent more time feeding (7.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.6 ± 0.3 min/h) than animals kept on hard concrete alley floors. Restricted freestall access resulted in fewer standing bouts per day (14.4 ± 1.0 vs. 17.9 ± 1.0) and more strides per hour (99.8 ± 5.4 vs. 87.2 ± 5.4) without changing overall standing time (15.0 ± 0.3 vs. 14.7 ± 0.3 h/d) and did not affect the occurrence of sole hemorrhages. The animals with no overnight freestall access spent more time standing (55.9 ± 0.9 vs. 35.8 ± 0.9 min/h) and feeding (7.8 ± 0.3 vs. 4.3 ± 0.3 min/h) between

  16. Influence of temperament score and handling facility on stress, reproductive hormone concentrations, and fixed time AI pregnancy rates in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Assay, M; Kasimanickam, V; Moore, D A; Gay, J M; Whittier, W D

    2014-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2-point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance-P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub-population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance-P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5-day CO-Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley-way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley-way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley-way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p < 0.05). The cattle handling facility design by temperament group interactions significantly influenced progesterone (p = 0.01), cortisol (p = 0.01), prolactin (p = 0.02) and substance-P (p = 0.04) both at the initiation of

  17. Did accelerated North American ice sheet melt contribute to the 8.2 ka cooling event ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matero, Ilkka S. O.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Ivanović, Ruža F.; Tindall, Julia C.; Haywood, Alan M.

    2016-04-01

    The 8.2 ka event was an abrupt cooling of the Northern Hemisphere 8,200 years ago. It is an almost ideal case study to benchmark the sensitivity of climate models to freshening of the North Atlantic by ice sheet melt (Schmidt and LeGrande, 2005). The event is attributed to the outburst of North American proglacial lakes into the Labrador Sea, causing a slow-down in Atlantic overturning circulation and cooling of 1-2.5 °C around the N. Atlantic (Alley and Ágústsdóttir,2005). Climate models fail to simulate the ~150 year duration of the event when forced with a sudden (0.5 to 5 years) drainage of the lakes (Morrill et al., 2013a). This could be because of missing forcings. For example, the separation of ice sheet domes around the Hudson Bay is thought to have produced a pronounced acceleration in ice sheet melt through a saddle collapse mechanism around the time of the event (Gregoire et al., 2012). Here we investigate whether this century scale acceleration of melt contributed to the observed climatic perturbation, using the coupled Ocean-Atmosphere climate model HadCM3. We designed and ran a set of simulations with temporally variable ice melt scenarios based on a model of the North American ice sheet. The simulated magnitude and duration of the cold period is controlled by the duration and amount of freshwater introduced to the ocean. With a 100-200 year-long acceleration of ice melt up to a maximum of 0.61 Sv, we simulate 1-3 °C cooling in the North Atlantic and ~0.5-1 °C cooling in Continental Europe; which are similar in magnitude to the ~1-2 °C cooling estimated from records for these areas (Morrill et al., 2013b). Some of the observed features are however not reproduced in our experiments, such as the most pronounced cooling of ~6 °C observed in central Greenland (Alley and Ágústsdóttir, 2005). The results suggest that the ~150 year North Atlantic and European cooling could be caused by ~200 years of accelerated North American ice sheet melt. This

  18. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  19. Why 'Science + Solutions' Is An Effective & Essential Climate Communications Strategy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.

    2013-12-01

    Success in the Second World War was enabled in large part through advances in science and technology such as radar and the Manhattan Project, and the subsequent growth of the US economy endowed scientists with unrivaled influence in society and policy-making. But climate science has not been immune to criticism, and attacks on what 97% of expert climate scientists regard as well-established have continued. However, as shown in Leiserowitz et al's series of SIX AMERICAS studies, the vast majority of citizens are neither firmly committed against accepting the reality of human-caused climate change, nor 100% certain of the cause. The question, then, is how to reach 'the movable middle.' Richard Alley's 'Earth: The Operators' Manual'-a 3-part series aired nationally on PBS, and supported by the National Science Foundation-was an attempt to improve the understanding of consensus climate science, and showcase examples of clean energy innovations in the United States and worldwide. A fundamental design principle for the series, derived from close reading of social science studies, was to include solutions along with solid science. In addition, the producers enlisted a diverse cast of on-camera personalities alongside Alley: Texas ranchers, Republican senators and Kansan bankers, CEOs and academics, a Navy rear admiral in dress whites, and 'energy captains' in inner city Baltimore. An NSF-mandated Summative Evaluation documented the success of these approaches, and the first two programs reached some 3.6 million viewers on PBS. However, the rapidly-evolving media landscape has meant that national primetime exposure is only part of how climate information is 'sent' and 'received' today. ETOM structured its Facebook page to embody the same solutions-oriented philosophy, and has secured an 'Engagement Index' higher than Buzzfeed, and more than most other environment- and climate-oriented pages. ETOM programs can be downloaded in HD for watch parties, and many schools

  20. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  1. Effect of handling intensity at the time of transport for slaughter on physiological response and carcass characteristics in beef cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Hagenmaier, J A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Henningson, J N; Ritter, M J; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Vogel, G J; Guthrie, C A; Siemens, M G; Thomson, D U

    2017-05-01

    The effects of handling intensity on the physiological response and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride were evaluated at the time of transport to slaughter. Eighty steers (BW = 668 ± 36 kg) representing 10 lots of similar breed, frame size, and degree of finish were blocked by lot, stratified by weight, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 handling intensities (HI) over a 1,600 m dirt alley course: 1) low-stress handling (LSH) or 2) high-stress handling (HSH). For the LSH treatment, 4 penmates were kept at a walk with the use of a lead rider. For the HSH treatment, 4 penmates were kept at a minimum of a trot and received 2 applications of an electric prod (approximately 1 s per impulse) at 2 separate instances: first in the alley before post-handling sampling, and again during loading for transportation to the abattoir. Behavioral observations and physical indicators of stress were recorded a minimum of 1 h before handling (baseline), immediately after handling (POSTHAND), and while in lairage after a 200 km transport to the abattoir. Vital parameters were recorded at baseline and POSTHAND. Venous blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture at baseline and POSTHAND, and mixed arterial and venous blood samples were collected during exsanguination at slaughter. Muscle tremors tended to be more prevalent in HSH cattle at POSTHAND ( = 0.10). The HSH cattle tended to have greater POSTHAND heart rate ( = 0.08); however, there was no effect of HI on POSTHAND respiration rate or rectal temperature ( 0.34). The HSH cattle had greater lactate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and glucose concentrations at POSTHAND ( ≤ 0.02). Additionally, HSH cattle had lower POSTHAND blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and partial pressure carbon dioxide ( < 0.0001). Bicarbonate concentrations were greater in HSH cattle at slaughter ( = 0.05); however, there were no differences between HI treatments for the remaining blood variables ( 0

  2. Methodology for mapping non-forest wood elements using historic cadastral maps and aerial photographs as a basis for management.

    PubMed

    Skalos, Jan; Engstová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a method for analysing long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a newly developed classification system and relevant landscape characteristics. Although these non-forest wood elements are biotopes that have positive effects for the ecological stability of the landscape little is known about their long-term dynamics. The newly developed knowledge of the historical impact of various landscape management practices on non-forest wood elements can be applied in landscape planning procedures (e.g. planning ecological networks) in order to ensure relevant landscape management in the future. The method was applied in two contrasting study sites, Honbice (244 ha) and Krida (268 ha), located in east Bohemia and north Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. The study was based on old cadastral maps (from 1839 to 1843), black and white aerial photographs (from 1938, 1950, 1966, 1975 to 2006) and field control data from 2006. At the Honbice study site, the proportion of non-forest wood elements increased from 2.0 to 2.9% of the study site, due to large plantations of scattered vegetation in the open landscape. On the other hand, more than half of the wood vegetation in the village was cut down between 1966 and 2006. In addition, the relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.021 km ha(-1) to 0.018 km ha(-1) between 1950 and 1966. At the Krida study site, there was a significant increase in non-forest vegetation (from 2.4 to 8.2%), due to abandonment of the landscape (former military area). As the village disappeared, the total amount of scattered vegetation grew, due to the natural succession process. The relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.009 km ha(-1) to 0.005 km ha(-1). The method that was applied and based on the analysis of long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a (newly developed) classification system and relevant landscape characteristics has proved to be a suitable

  3. Preliminary surficial geologic map of a Calico Mountains piedmont and part of Coyote Lake, Mojave desert, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudash, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    This 1:24,000 scale detailed surficial geologic map and digital database of a Calico Mountains piedmont and part of Coyote Lake in south-central California depicts surficial deposits and generalized bedrock units. The mapping is part of a USGS project to investigate the spatial distribution of deposits linked to changes in climate, to provide framework geology for land use management (http://deserts.wr.usgs.gov), to understand the Quaternary tectonic history of the Mojave Desert, and to provide additional information on the history of Lake Manix, of which Coyote Lake is a sub-basin. Mapping is displayed on parts of four USGS 7.5 minute series topographic maps. The map area lies in the central Mojave Desert of California, northeast of Barstow, Calif. and south of Fort Irwin, Calif. and covers 258 sq.km. (99.5 sq.mi.). Geologic deposits in the area consist of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, Miocene volcanic rocks, Pliocene-Pleistocene basin fill, and Quaternary surficial deposits. McCulloh (1960, 1965) conducted bedrock mapping and a generalized version of his maps are compiled into this map. McCulloh's maps contain many bedrock structures within the Calico Mountains that are not shown on the present map. This study resulted in several new findings, including the discovery of previously unrecognized faults, one of which is the Tin Can Alley fault. The north-striking Tin Can Alley fault is part of the Paradise fault zone (Miller and others, 2005), a potentially important feature for studying neo-tectonic strain in the Mojave Desert. Additionally, many Anodonta shells were collected in Coyote Lake lacustrine sediments for radiocarbon dating. Preliminary results support some of Meek's (1999) conclusions on the timing of Mojave River inflow into the Coyote Basin. The database includes information on geologic deposits, samples, and geochronology. The database is distributed in three parts: spatial map-based data, documentation, and printable map

  4. "EARTH: The Operators' Manual" - a hybrid model (TV+online+in-person) to effectively communicate climate change science alongside sustainable energy solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent public opinion surveys have found that Americans underestimate the degree of agreement by climate scientists about global warming and climate change, and - despite growing evidence of ice sheet loss, ocean acidification, sea level rise and extreme weather events - believe less in warming trends in 2011 than they did earlier. The issue has become politicized and controversial. "EARTH: The Operators' Manual" is an informal science education project supported by NSF, the National Science Foundation. Its ambitious goal is to use a hybrid mix of broadcast programs appearing on public television and hosted by Penn State geoscientist, Richard Alley, together with on-site outreach events and online resources and tools, to present core climate science in engaging ways, and to combine that presentation of objective research with an overview of sustainable energy solutions. The project's content and communication strategies have been shaped in response to analyses of public opinion such as the SIX AMERICAS study and aim to address common "skeptic" arguments and share essential climate science. Social science research has also found that audiences seem more open to scientific information where the possibility of a positive response is also offered. The first hour-long PBS program aired nationally in April 2011, has since been re-broadcast, and is also available online. Two more programs will air in 2012, and the presentation at the Fall AGU Conference will preview segments from both programs. Five regionally-diverse science centers (in San Diego, Raleigh NC, St. Paul MN, Fort Worth TX and Portland OR) have hosted outreach events, with Richard Alley and other project participants, and will continue with additional activities through summer 2012. The project's website includes video clips, case studies of energy-saving initiatives world-wide and across the USA, plus an interactive "Energy Gauge" inviting users to assess their current Home, Travel, Food, and Goods and

  5. Sub-seafloor epidosite alteration: Timing, depth and stratigraphic distribution in the Semail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgen, Samuel A.; Diamond, Larryn W.; Mercolli, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Pervasive epidotization of igneous rocks is a common feature in the ophiolite record of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust. Current genetic models view epidosites as markers of focussed upflow of hydrothermal fluid beneath oceanic spreading ridges. The epidosites are envisaged to form at the base of the sheeted dike complex (SDC) during active plate spreading. Our mapping of the Semail ophiolite in Oman has revealed abundant epidosites in the volcanic sequence, some exceeding 1 km2 in extent. They are more frequent and far larger than the mineralogically identical epidosites in the SDC. We have also found epidosites that traverse the entire SDC from bottom to top. Thus, rather than being restricted to the base of the SDC, as implied by current models, epidosites in fact occur throughout the SDC and dominantly within the overlying volcanic pile. We report the occurrence of 19 epidosite bodies and their crosscutting relations with respect to host lava units, dikes, intrusive stocks and also seafloor umbers. The volcanostratigraphic affiliation of the dikes is identified by their whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions. The relations set constraints on the timing of epidotization with respect to igneous activity in the ophiolite. At least one of the epidosites in the SDC formed during Lasail off-axis volcanism. Another epidosite in the SDC and many in the volcanic units formed later during post-spreading, Alley and Boninitic Alley supra-subduction zone volcanism. Only permissive, not compelling, evidence allows just two of the epidosites to have formed within the main-stage SDC during or shortly after its emplacement. We conclude that epidotization of the oceanic crust is not necessarily coupled to spreading ridges and that it can occur during fore-arc volcanism. This finding is consistent with evidence from the modern seafloor and it requires a different hydrothermal environment to that traditionally associated with alteration beneath spreading axes. The timing

  6. Late Quaternary Biosiliceous Laminated Marine Sediments From Antarctica: Seasonality During a Period of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, J.; Stickley, C. E.; Maddison, E. J.; Leventer, A.; Brachfeld, S.; Domack, E. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Manley, P. L.; McClennen, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet plays a key role in global oceanic and atmosphere systems. One of the most dynamic regions of the continent is the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) where ecological and cryospheric systems respond rapidly to climate change, such as the last deglaciation ( ˜12-13 kyr BP). Here, deglacial laminated diatom-rich marine sediments are well known, e.g., Palmer Deep (64° S 64° W; ODP Hole 1098A) comprising a distinctive 3 m thick sequence of deglacial `couplet' laminations. The East Antarctic margin (EAM), however, has received less attention than the West Antarctic margin (WAM) in palaeoceanographic studies yet its role in deep ocean circulation and, therefore, the global ocean system is significant. Recent sediment cores recovered from EAM sites during NSF Polar Programs-funded cruise NBP0101 in February and March 2001 (e.g. Mertz Drift \\{66° S 143° E\\}, Svenner Channel \\{69° S 77° E\\} in Prydz Bay, Nielsen Basin \\{67° S 66° E\\} and Iceberg Alley \\{67° S 63° E\\}), reveal that a similar sedimentary facies was deposited along the EAM, in similar geomorphological settings to Palmer Deep, during the same timeframe. These rich sediment archives reveal clues about circum-Antarctic palaeoceanographic change during the last deglaciation, a time of both high silica flux and rapid climate change. Microfabrics and diatom assemblages from scanning electron microscope backscattered and secondary electron imagery analysis of coeval deglacial varves from Palmer Deep (WAM), Mertz-Ninnis Trough and Iceberg Alley (EAM) are presented and compared. The varves from these localities are characterised by laminae to thin beds of orange-brown diatom ooze up to ˜8cm thick alternating with blue-grey diatom-bearing terrigenous sediments up to ˜4cm thick. The orange-brown oozes are dominated by resting spores and vegetative valves of Hyalochaete Chaetoceros spp., resulting from spring sedimentation associated with stratified surface waters promoting exceptionally

  7. Are you pondering what I'm pondering? Time and change in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbe, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    The motto for early 21st Century cryospheric science might be "that happend faster than I thought it would." The fact that change can come quickly to Earth's icy realms can be elucidated from the abstracts of all past Nye Lectures. From Bob Bindscahdler observing that "remarkably, nearly all time scales seem important", to Mark Serreze concluding that "the emerging surprise is the rapidity of change". Equally apparent in past lectures is the imbalance between answers and questions. Kurt Cuffy could not have been more clear about the "major unresolved issues lurking behind this facade of success, including poor understanding". Jeff Dozier was optimistic about merging satellite observations with field and modeling approaches but in many cases the quantitites we seek to measure are hidden from direct observation and the processes we seek to understand are embedded in complex systems. "This complexity may account for the lack of agreement concerning the processes" (Gary Clarke) and even worse, most of our observations are made in a "time of rapid change" (Mary Albert). "Nevertheless progress has been made" (Liz Morris). While "misunderstandings and blind alleys have ironically led to unexpected insight" (Doug MacAyeal), our community and science also benefit from the interest of an ever-expanding community of scholars who find the challenges "clear, exciting and compelling" (Richard Alley). We are active participants in "a climate change drama whose outcome is of concern to us all" (Matt Strum). This presentation will focus on the marine margins of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), places where where we know both a little and a lot, where change is observed at every time scale, and where change is not always driven externally. "We have never witnessed the collapse of a marine ice sheet," (Eric Rignot) and it matters to know as much as we can about the signs, symptoms, and processes of change. I will make the case that not everything of interest happens quickly and

  8. Biomarkers from varved lake sediments: evidence for the 8.2 ka climate event in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Bendle, J. A.; Snowball, I.; Seki, O.; Zillin Snowball, L.; Stanton, T.

    2009-12-01

    In order to quantify the variability of Holocene climate fluctuations in northern Europe a multi-proxy biomarker (inter alia: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols) analyses were carried out on a continuous varved sediment sequence from Lake Kälksjön in west-central Sweden. The most extreme Holocene climate anomaly in northern hemisphere is considered as a cold event that took place at c. 8200 cal. yr BP (Grootes et al. 1993; Alley et al. 1997). Interestingly, winter snow accumulation is reportedly enhanced in Sweden in between 8100 and 7750 cal. yr BP (Zillén and Snowball, 2009). This study investigates the sedimentary record of this rapid climate change event as recorded by the biomarkers incorporated into one a long, continuous Holocene varve sequence. Our data reveal enhanced catchment erosion between 8100 and 8000 cal. yr BP peaking at c. 8050 cal. yr BP. This is evident from the higher input of land plant derived biomarkers, which is the major source of organic matter in the lake sediment. The enhanced erosion is interpreted as the catchment response to the colder winters and increased accumulation of snow that led to more intense spring discharge from melting snowpack. This finding is consistent with similar finding in other Swedish lakes (Zillén and Snowball, 2009) and most likely represent the geomorphic response to a multi-centennial scale climatic cooling that occurred between 8500 and 7500 cal. yr BP (Zillén and Snowball, 2009). In addition, we present new analyses of bacterial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br-GDGTs), and the compound specific hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of lake macrophyte biomarkers. Br-GDGTs record changes in the temperature and pH of catchment and lake sediments. The δD in plant lipids includes a strong signal incorporated from environmental water during growth, thus such data can record histories of changing lake water δD, which itself is a function of changes in lake temperature and moisture

  9. Evaluation of a soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for cell growth and drug sensitivity in culture using human and other tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, D A; Shoemaker, R H; Paull, K D; Monks, A; Tierney, S; Nofziger, T H; Currens, M J; Seniff, D; Boyd, M R

    1988-09-01

    We have previously described the application of an automated microculture tetrazolium assay (MTA) involving dimethyl sulfoxide solubilization of cellular-generated 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-formazan to the in vitro assessment of drug effects on cell growth (M.C. Alley et al., Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 27:389, 1986; M.C. Alley et al., Cancer Res. 48:589-601, 1988). There are several inherent disadvantages of this assay, including the safety hazard of personnel exposure to large quantities of dimethyl sulfoxide, the deleterious effects of this solvent on laboratory equipment, and the inefficient metabolism of MTT by some human cell lines. Recognition of these limitations prompted development of possible alternative MTAs utilizing a different tetrazolium reagent, 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl] -2H- tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT), which is metabolically reduced in viable cells to a water-soluble formazan product. This reagent allows direct absorbance readings, therefore eliminating a solubilization step and shortening the microculture growth assay procedure. Most human tumor cell lines examined metabolized XTT less efficiently than MTT; however, the addition of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) markedly enhanced cellular reduction of XTT. In the presence of PMS, the XTT reagent yielded usable absorbance values for growth and drug sensitivity evaluations with a variety of cell lines. Depending on the metabolic reductive capacity of a given cell line, the optimal conditions for a 4-h XTT incubation assay were 50 micrograms of XTT and 0.15 to 0.4 microgram of PMS per well. Drug profiles obtained with representative human tumor cell lines for several standard compounds utilizing the XTT-PMS methodology were similar to the profiles obtained with MTT. Addition of PMS appeared to have little effect on the metabolism of MTT. The new XTT reagent thus provides for a simplified, in vitro cell growth assay

  10. Landscape-level variation in greenhouse gas emissions in vineyards of central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbeco, M.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Jackson, L. E.; Higgins, C.; Yu, O.; Greenhut, R. F.; O'Geen, T.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils can differ greatly across the landscape depending on soil type, landscape formation and management, making the implementation of mitigation practices challenging. In our study, we evaluated the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from vineyard soils across a broad landscape in the Lodi Wine-grape District representing three soil types of different geologic history and under varying conventional management systems in the Central Valley of California. Soils of the District vary in space as a result of the depositional history of the parent materials from which the soils formed and subsequent weathering. The nature of the deposition of these materials has resulted in systematic patterns of soils in space. We sampled the following soils from this soil sequence over the larger landscape: 1) Slightly weathered granitic alluvium with low clay content located on the southern side of the district; 2) Intermediately weathered soils derived from granitic alluvium with high clay content located on the northern side of the district; and, 3) Highly weathered soils derived from metavolcanic and metasedimentary alluvium with intermediate clay content and rocky soils located on the eastern side of the district. The climate is Mediterranean with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers. Initial results indicated that under wet conditions, the soils had similar carbon dioxide emissions with little variation between management or landscape formation. However, carbon dioxide emissions were typically higher in the alley than in the vine row. Nitrous oxide emissions were more variable in the higher clay soils as compared to sandier soils (0-180 g N/ha/day and 0-20 g N/ha/day, respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions were similar from the soil in the alley and vine row. We expect to see similar variability for carbon dioxide emissions under drier conditions later in the summer, but predict that it will differ by landscape position

  11. The role of the septo-hippocampal system and its noradrenergic afferents in behavioural responses to none-reward.

    PubMed

    Gray, J A; Feldon, J; Rawlins, J N; Owen, S; McNaughton, N

    1977-01-01

    Our experiments were designed with two purposes: (i) to examine the effects on one behaviour of differing interventions in the septo-hippocampal system; (ii) to compare these effects with those of minor tranquillizers. The behaviour studied (in rats) is extinction in the alley after continuous (CRF) or partial (PRF) reinforcement. Minor tranquillizers and large septal lesions produce three effects: (1) resistance to extinction is increased after CRF; (2) resistance to extinction is decreased after PRF; (3) the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is abolished. Small septal lesions fractionate this syndrome: either effect (1) or an actual increase in the size of the PREE is produced by medial septal lesions abolishing hippocampal theta; effects (2) and (3), but not (1), are produced by lateral septal lesions sparing theta. Dorso-medial fornix section, abolishing theta, reproduces the effects of medial septal lesions. Fimbrial section, sparing theta, reproduces some of the effects of lateral septal lesions. Minor tranquillizers produce a rise in the threshold for septal driving of hippocampal theta specifically at 7.7 Hz. This effect is reproduced by blockade of noradrenergic transmission or destruction of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle with 6-hydroxydopamine. This lesion reproduces all three behavioural changes listed above. These results suggest a model for the role of the septo-hippocampal system and its noradrenergic inputs in the PREE. This model is compared with other approaches to the septo-hippocampal system.

  12. Fractal structures in two-metal electrodeposition systems I: Pb and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakouzi, Elias; Sultan, Rabih

    2011-12-01

    Pattern formation in two-metal electrochemical deposition has been scarcely explored in the chemical literature. In this paper, we report new experiments on zinc-lead fractal co-deposition. Electrodeposits are grown in special cells at a fixed large value of the zinc ion concentration, while that of the lead ion is increased gradually. A very wide diversity of morphologies are obtained and classified. Most of the deposited domains are almost exclusively Pb or Zn. But certain regions originating at the base cathode, ranging from a short grass alley to dense, grown-up bushes or shrubs, manifest a combined Pb-Zn composition. Composition is determined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x ray measurements as well atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pb domains are characterized by shiny leaf-like and dense deposits as well as flowers with round, balloon-like corollas. The Zn zones display a greater variety of morphologies such as thick trunks and thin and fine branching, in addition to minute "cigar flower" structures. The various morphologies are analyzed and classified from the viewpoint of fractal nature, characterized by the box-count fractal dimension. Finally, macroscopic spatial alternation between two different characteristic morphologies is observed under certain conditions.

  13. Simulation of deep-seated zonal jets and shallow vortices in gas giant atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter's banded cloud layer hosts spots of various sizes. The bands are defined by eastward and westward jet streams and the spots correspond to vortices, predominantly anticyclones, which rotate in the opposite direction of Earth's cyclonic storms. Despite 350 years of observation, the origin and dynamics of jets and vortices in the atmospheres of giant planets remain debated. Simulations of the shallow weather layer produce both features, but only reproduce observed prograde equatorial flow on Jupiter and Saturn under special conditions. In contrast, deep convection models reproduce equatorial superrotation, but lack coherent vortices. Here we combine both approaches in a three-dimensional simulation where deep convection grades into a stably stratified shallow layer. We find that steady zonal jets are driven by deep convective flows, whereas anticyclonic vortices form where upwelling plumes impinge on the shallow layer. The simulated vortex circulation consists of cool anticyclones shielded by warm downwelling cyclonic rings and filaments, in agreement with observations and theory. We find that the largest vortices form in westward anticyclonic shear flow nearest to the equatorial jet, similar to Saturn's so-called storm alley and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. We conclude that vortices have a deep origin in gas giant atmospheres.

  14. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature (T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  15. [Dynamics of a green oak moth population: application of discrete-continuous models with a nonmonotone density-dependent birth rate].

    PubMed

    Nedorezov, L V; Sadykov, A M; Sadykova, D L

    2010-01-01

    Considered is a mathematical model for dynamics of an isolated population with non-overlapping generations. The individuals' birth process (emergence of new-generation individuals) is assumed to have a discrete nature (there exist some fixed time moments at which the new generations emerge), while the death process is assumed to be continuous. In addition, the birth rate is assumed to be a function of the number of individuals survived till the moment of reproduction, the function being non-monotone: there exists an optimal value of the population size at which the birth rate reaches its maximum (Alley principle). Analysis of the discrete-continuous models has revealed that each of the new models has a rich set of dynamical regimes. New models are compared with a number of well-known discrete ones (like Skellam, Moran-Ricker, Hassell, Maynard Smith-Slatkin models, and others) when approximating an empirical time series on fluctuations of a green oak moth population (Korzukhin, Semevsky, 1992). Neither of the models can provide for a satisfactory description of the green oak moth dynamics. It is also shown that usage of the discrete-continuous models for approximation of real datasets enables one to find several important population parameters, which can hardly (or cannot) be found by means of traditional discrete models.

  16. Writing about, and teaching, physics for non-scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2008-04-01

    Physicists must communicate their knowledge to the general public because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, ``without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising.'' I'll discuss what I've learned about writing for non-scientists from my physics textbook for non-science college students, Physics: Concepts and Connections, now in its fourth edition and in use on 130 campuses, and also from my bi-weekly hometown newspaper column. Lessons learned include the process of organizing and writing a textbook, tips for writing effective prose, dos and don'ts when writing for non-scientists, choice of subject matter, being relevant to the needs of non-scientists, and unifying one's book through the use of such general themes as ``the scientific process,'' or ``energy.'' For real-world relevance, I suggest emphasizing physics-related social topics, and modern and contemporary physics. I highly recommend Michael Alley's book The Craft of Scientific Writing, as well as Strunk and White's timeless Elements of Style.

  17. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2011-10-01

    Three AGU members are among the 10 recipients of this year's Heinz Awards, announced on 13 September by Teresa Heinz and the Heinz Family Foundation. Richard Alley, Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park, was recognized for his polar ice discoveries that showed that abrupt climate change is possible and for engaging his students, policy makers, and the public.Joan Kleypas, a marine ecologist and geologist at the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration's National Center for Atmospheric Research, was honored for conducting seminal research on how changes in temperature and in seawater chemistry and acidity have affected coral reefs and for identifying ways to bolster coral reef health. Nancy Rabalais, executive director of the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, in Chauvin, was cited for her pioneering research of severe oxygen depletion in the Gulf of Mexico and her commitment to reducing water pollution through education and public policy. The awards program "recognizes individuals creating and implementing workable solutions to the problems the world faces through invention, research, and education while inspiring the next generation of modern thinkers," according to the foundation. Each recipient receives an unrestricted cash prize of $100,000.

  18. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    Three AGU members are among the 10 recipients of this year's Heinz Awards, announced on 13 September by Teresa Heinz and the Heinz Family Foundation. Richard Alley, Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park, was recognized for his polar ice discoveries that showed that abrupt climate change is possible and for engaging his students, policy makers, and the public. Joan Kleypas, a marine ecologist and geologist at the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration's National Center for Atmospheric Research, was honored for conducting seminal research on how changes in temperature and in seawater chemistry and acidity have affected coral reefs and for identifying ways to bolster coral reef health. Nancy Rabalais, executive director of the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, in Chauvin, was cited for her pioneering research of severe oxygen depletion in the Gulf of Mexico and her commitment to reducing water pollution through education and public policy. The awards program “recognizes individuals creating and implementing workable solutions to the problems the world faces through invention, research, and education while inspiring the next generation of modern thinkers,” according to the foundation. Each recipient receives an unrestricted cash prize of $100,000.

  19. Investigating Mesoscale Convective Systems and their Predictability Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, H.; Duffy, D.; Bowen, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is a thunderstorm region that lasts several hours long and forms near weather fronts and can often develop into tornadoes. Here we seek to answer the question of whether these tornadoes are "predictable" by looking for a defining characteristic(s) separating MCSs that evolve into tornadoes versus those that do not. Using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications 2 reanalysis data (M2R12K), we apply several state of the art machine learning techniques to investigate this question. The spatial region examined in this experiment is Tornado Alley in the United States over the peak tornado months. A database containing select variables from M2R12K is created using PostgreSQL. This database is then analyzed using machine learning methods such as Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) and DBSCAN (an unsupervised density-based data clustering algorithm). The incentive behind using these methods is to mathematically define a MCS so that association rule mining techniques can be used to uncover some sort of signal or teleconnection that will help us forecast which MCSs will result in tornadoes and therefore give society more time to prepare and in turn reduce casualties and destruction.

  20. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  1. Living Through Some Giant Change: The Establishment of Abortion Services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women’s health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  2. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  3. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  4. The history of the microsphere method for measuring blood flows with special reference to myocardial blood flow: a personal memoir.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2017-04-01

    We use many types of equipment and technologies to make our measurements but give little thought to how they developed. Evolution was once described as a series of recoils from blind alleys, and this is exemplified by the gradual development of the microsphere method of measuring blood flows. The microsphere method is one of the most frequently used methods for measuring blood flow to organs and portions of organs. The method can measure myocardial blood flow with reasonable accuracy (within 10%) down to samples weighing >50 mg but probably will not do so for samples weighing 1-10 mg. Microspheres with diameters from 10 to 15 μm provide the best compromise between accurate flow measurement and retention in tissue. Radioactive labels have been almst entirely replaced by fluorescent labels, but colored microspheres and neutron-activated labels are also used.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The contributions of the various individuals who developed the microsphere method of measuring regional blood flows and how these advances took place are brought to light in this paper.

  5. Fractal structures in two-metal electrodeposition systems I: Pb and Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Nakouzi, Elias; Sultan, Rabih

    2011-12-15

    Pattern formation in two-metal electrochemical deposition has been scarcely explored in the chemical literature. In this paper, we report new experiments on zinc-lead fractal co-deposition. Electrodeposits are grown in special cells at a fixed large value of the zinc ion concentration, while that of the lead ion is increased gradually. A very wide diversity of morphologies are obtained and classified. Most of the deposited domains are almost exclusively Pb or Zn. But certain regions originating at the base cathode, ranging from a short grass alley to dense, grown-up bushes or shrubs, manifest a combined Pb-Zn composition. Composition is determined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x ray measurements as well atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pb domains are characterized by shiny leaf-like and dense deposits as well as flowers with round, balloon-like corollas. The Zn zones display a greater variety of morphologies such as thick trunks and thin and fine branching, in addition to minute ''cigar flower'' structures. The various morphologies are analyzed and classified from the viewpoint of fractal nature, characterized by the box-count fractal dimension. Finally, macroscopic spatial alternation between two different characteristic morphologies is observed under certain conditions.

  6. Setting the space for sex: architecture, desire and health issues in gay bathhouses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; O'Byrne, Patrick; Gastaldo, Denise

    2007-02-01

    This aim of this study was to describe and compare the physical design, as well as the atmosphere of urban gay bathhouses, and reflect on how desire operates within these premises when it intersects with the bathhouse environment and health imperatives. Three bathhouses were studied for a total of 147 h of observation. Men's desire for other men has created a landscape of spaces (real and virtual) where sex takes place in parks, alleys, restrooms, rest stops, adult theatres, video arcades, bookstores, bars, gay bathhouses and finally, the Internet. Although the Internet is perceived as an easy way for encountering sexual partners, gay bathhouses remain the most popular and convenient way, for men having sex with men to meet for regular or casual sex. This paper presents the descriptive results of an ethnographic nursing study that took place in three gay bathhouses located in two Canadian metropolitan areas. Gay bathhouses offer patrons a space within which a wide range of interactions, sensations and pleasure can be experienced. This paper highlights the specific features of three gay bathhouses, compares settings according to their specific architectural features and related sexual activities, and finally, proposes some changes in light of certain health issues.

  7. New image intensifier family for military and homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floryan, Richard F.; DeVoe, Nelson; Peck, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    ITT Industries Night Vision has developed a new high-performance image intensifier for use in existing aviation and ground night vision systems. This intensifier, called the "Pinnacle" by ITT, provides substantial performance increases in low light detection, high light resolution, and intra-scene dynamic range (the ability to see detail in dark areas of a scene where bright cultural lighting is present -- for example, into a dark alley where streetlights are also in the scene). The new Pinnacle intensifier can be used in all aviation and ground systems that currently accept 18 mm image intensifiers. The performance improvements offered in the Pinnacle intensifier are made possible by three factors: (1) a new high-performance micro-channel plate (MCP), (2) a newly designed gating power supply, and (3) manufacturing processes that have been optimized through design-of-experiments and six-sigma methods. With the higher signal-to-noise, resolution, and bright-light halo performance levels, the Pinnacle image intensifier substantially outperforms all previously fielded intensifiers, and greatly enhances the user's ability to operate at night.

  8. Stiffness of peripheral airway folding membrane in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R K; Paré, P D; Okazawa, M

    2001-06-01

    We have observed that small, membranous bronchioles from rabbits, in which the smooth muscle is not activated, experience a critical elastic buckling involving the whole airway wall during deflation of the lung. This implies that, at some point during the deflation, the airway wall goes from being in a state of tension to a state of compression. At the transition, there is neither net tension nor net compression in the wall, and the transmural pressure difference must, therefore, be zero. Thus at this point, the pressure difference across the muscle that results from the passive stress in the muscle is just balanced by the pressure difference across the folded mucosal membrane. We estimated the muscle stress, and hence the pressure across the muscle, from published data on rabbit trachealis (Opazo-Saez A and Paré PD, J Appl Physiol 77: 1638-1643, 1994) and equated this to the pressure across the folded membrane. By using a theoretical prediction of this pressure (Lambert RK, Codd SL, Alley MR, and Pack RJ, J Appl Physiol 77: 1206-1216, 1994), together with the results of our morphometric measurements on these airways, we estimated that the flexural rigidity of the folding membrane in peripheral rabbit airways is of the order of 10(-12) Pa x m3. This value implies that, in these airways, membrane folding provides significant resistance to airway smooth muscle shortening.

  9. Age-dependent change in exploratory behavior of male rats following exposure to threat stimulus: effect of juvenile experience.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-01

    The ontogeny of exploratory behavior depending on the intensity of threat in a modified open-field was investigated in male rats aged 40, 65, and 130 days, by comparing with less threatening condition with no shock and more threatening condition where they were exposed to mild electric shock. The number of crossings in a dim peripheral alley was counted as the level of activity. The total duration of stay in the central area was measured as the level of exploration. The number of entries and stretch-attend postures into a bright center square were measured as active exploratory behavior and the risk assessment behavior, respectively. When exposed to mild shock prior to the test, 40-day-old rats decreased these exploratory behaviors, while 65- and 130-day-old rats increased active exploratory behavior (Experiment 1). A lower level of exploratory behavior following a mild shock was found in 65 and 130-day-old rats isolated during the juvenile stage, but not in rats isolated after puberty (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that the direction of changes in exploratory behavior of male rats following an increase in potential danger showed ontogenetic transition, which is mediated by social experiences as juveniles, but not as adults. This transition may be associated with the emergence of active exploratory behavior during the juvenile stage, which is activated by social interaction.

  10. Comparison among NH3 and GHGs emissive patterns from different housing solutions of dairy farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Cecilia; Borgonovo, Federica; Gardoni, Davide; Guarino, Marcella

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock farming are known to be activities emitting relevant quantities of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, in intensive animal farming, buildings can be identified as a relevant source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. This study aimed at: i) determining the emission factors of NH3, N2O, CH4, and CO2 from different dairy farms in Italy, and ii) assessing the effects of the different floor types and manure-handling systems used, in order to minimize the impact of this important productive sector. A measurement campaign was carried out for 27 months in four naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with different floor types, layouts and manure management systems, representative of the most common technologies in the north of Italy. Gas emissions were measured with the "static chamber method": a chamber was placed above the floor farm and an infrared photoacoustic detector (IPD) was used to monitor gas accumulation over time. In the feeding alleys, emissions of NH3 were higher from solid floors than from flushing systems and perforated floors. N2O emissions were significantly different among farms but the absolute values were relatively low. CH4 and CO2 emissions were higher from perforated floors than from other types of housing solution. Regarding the cubicles, the emissions of NH3 were approximately equal from the two housing solution studied. Contrariwise, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were different between the cubicles with rubber mat and those with straw where the highest values were found.

  11. Resistance to extinction after schedules of partial delay or partial reinforcement in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, J N; Feldon, J; Ursin, H; Gray, J A

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental procedures were employed to establish the reason why hippocampal lesions apparently block the development of tolerance for aversive events in partial reinforcement experiments, but do not do so in partial punishment experiments. Rats were trained to run in a straight alley following hippocampal lesions (HC), cortical control lesions (CC) or sham operations (SO), and resistance to extinction was assessed following differing acquisition conditions. In Experiment 1 a 4-8 min inter-trial interval (ITI) was used. Either every acquisition trial was rewarded immediately (Continuous Reinforcement, CR), or only a randomly selected half of the trials were immediately rewarded, the reward being delayed for thirty seconds on the other trials (Partial Delay, PD). This delay procedure produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. In Experiment 2 the ITI was reduced to a few seconds, and rats were trained either on a CR schedule, or on a schedule in which only half the trials were rewarded (Partial Reinforcement, PR). This form of partial reinforcement procedure also produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. It thus appears that hippocampal lesions only prevent the development of resistance to aversive events when the interval between aversive and subsequent appetitive events exceeds some minimum value.

  12. Dan Johnson the mentor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Richard

    2003-04-01

    I first met Dan Johnson in early 1975 as I was interviewing for an engineering job with Henning von Gierke's bioengineering and bionics laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. From the very beginning Dan was always direct and forthright. Over the ensuing next 27 years my knowledge and respect of Dan constantly grew. This presentation will review Dan's technical and personal contributions while at the laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. He was instrumental in the development of a national noise exposure criteria with the equal-energy-rule, an accurate single number hearing protector attenuation measure based on ``C-A,'' an impulse noise exposure criteria, a longitudinal study of hearing loss in children, development of noise dosimeters, and description of hearing damage risk from nonoccupational noise exposures such as disco's, bowling alleys, lawn mowers, and school buses. Dan has had a significant effect on my career. I and the many people who knew him at the laboratory miss him greatly.

  13. Sharing Polar Science with Secondary Students: Polartrec and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    This session will provide a variety of resources and lesson ideas for educators interested in effectively communicating polar science. Ms. Herrmann will share evidence of the direct impacts on secondary students that resulted from her collaboration with polar scientists in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Ms. Herrmann's interest in polar science began in 2009, when she worked as a field assistant in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland for scientists examining the effects of climate change on caribou. In 2011, she was selected to participate in PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), a professional development program for teachers and researchers, funded by NSF and coordinated by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS). The opportunity provides teachers opportunities to collaborate with scientists and to share real world science with students. Ms. Herrmann will discuss her experience working with researchers at Palmer Station, Antarctica and how it led to her continued professional development with the Palmer Station Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program and with Polar Eduators (PEI), including a recent Master Class she presented with Dr. Richard Alley. She will also discuss her development of a program called Polar Ambassadors, in which older students become mentors to younger students in the field of polar science.

  14. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  15. Younger Dryas deglaciation of Scotland driven by warming summers

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Rademaker, Kurt M.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Hall, Brenda; Winckler, Gisela; Birkel, Sean D.; Borns, Harold W.

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS; ∼12,900–11,600 y ago) in the Northern Hemisphere is classically defined by abrupt cooling and renewed glaciation during the last glacial–interglacial transition. Although this event involved a global reorganization of atmospheric and oceanic circulation [Denton GH, Alley RB, Comer GC, Broecker WS (2005) Quat Sci Rev 24:1159–1182], the magnitude, seasonality, and geographical footprint of YDS cooling remain unresolved and pose a challenge to our understanding of abrupt climate change. Here, we present a deglacial chronology from Scotland, immediately downwind of the North Atlantic Ocean, indicating that the Scottish ice cap disintegrated during the first half of the YDS. We suggest that stratification of the North Atlantic Ocean resulted in amplified seasonality that, paradoxically, stimulated a severe wintertime climate while promoting warming summers through solar heating of the mixed layer. This latter process drove deglaciation of downwind landmasses to completion well before the end of the YDS. PMID:24733909

  16. Dynamics Of Saturn'S Mid-scale Storms In The Cassini Era.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2010-10-01

    Convective storms, similar to those in Earth, but of much larger scale, develop often in Saturn's atmosphere. During the Voyagers’ flybys of Saturn in 1981 mid-scale storms, with an horizontal extension of the order of 1000-3000 km were observed to occur mainly in a narrow tropical-latitude band in the Northern hemisphere at latitudes 38-40 deg North. Contrasting with the Voyagers’ era, since the starting of the Cassini mission in 2004, a similar mid-scale convective activity has concentrated in the so-called "storm alley", a narrow band at a symmetric Southern latitude of 38 deg.. In this work, we characterize this storm activity using available visual information provided by Cassini ISS cameras and the continuous survey from the Earth by the International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) and its online database PVOL (Hueso et al., Planetary and Space Science, 2010). We study the frequency of appearance of storms with sizes above 2000 km, their characteristic size and life-time, as well as their interaction with surrounding dynamical features. In particular we examine the possibility that storms might provide a mechanism of injection of energy into Saturn's jets, the influence of storms in the generation of atmospheric vortices, and the analogies and differences of Voyagers’ and present day jet structure at the relevant latitudes. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464

  17. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Idaho. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Idaho state legislature has created the Idaho Public Utilities Commission and has given the Commission the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate every public utility in the state. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate. Commissioners serve full time and are appointed for six year terms. No more than two of the members may be from the same political party. Title 61 of the Idaho Code, which establishes the Commission and delineates its powers, vests all regulatory responsibility in the Commission to the exclusion of local government. However, as an incident to their franchising power, municipalities may impose reasonable regulations on the use of their streets. The Idaho Supreme Court holds that the transfer of regulatory power over public utilities to the Commission did not diminish the powers and duties of municipalities to control and maintain their streets and alleys. Limited statutory authority also exists giving municipalities the power to regulate the fares, rates, rentals, or charges made for the service rendered under any franchise granted in such city, except such as are subject to regulation by the Public Utilities Commission. With the exception of this limited power, the Commission is the sole agency having regulatory power over Idaho public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  18. Planning the milking center in expanding dairies.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Armstrong, D V; Gamroth, M J; Martin, J G

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on dairies that want to expand and milk more cows through an existing parlor or by building new parlor. The expansion process can be divided into the following three phases: 1) financial evaluation, 2) design, and 3) construction. A financial evaluation should be carried out first to determine the resources that are available for expanding the dairy operation. This phase is extremely important, considering that 68% of the dairies that expand have cash flow problems within the first 2 yr of operation. The next phase is to design the milking center, and options include expanding the present parlor or constructing a new parlor. The present parlor can be expanded by addition of stalls, but group size must also expand to maintain cow flow at the larger parlor size. Group size can often be increased by combining corrals or free-stall alleys. The third phase in the expansion is to determine the most efficient milking procedure during the construction or remodeling of the facilities.

  19. Principal facts and an approach to collecting gravity data using near-real-time observations in the vicinity of Barstow, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.; Cronkite-Ratcliff, C.; Klofas, L.

    2013-01-01

    A gravity survey was done in the vicinity of Barstow, California, in which data were processed and analyzed in the field. The purpose of the data collection was to investigate possible changes in gravity across mapped Quaternary faults and to improve regional gravity coverage, adding to the existing national gravity database. Data were collected, processed, analyzed, and interpreted in the field in order to make decisions about where to collect data for the remainder of the survey. Geological targets in the Barstow area included the Cady Fault, the Manix Fault, and the Yermo Hills. Upon interpreting initial results, additional data were collected to more completely define the fault targets, rather than collecting data to improve the regional gravity coverage in an adjacent area. Both the Manix and Cady Faults showed gravitational expression of the subsurface in the form of steep gravitational gradients that we interpret to represent down-dropped blocks. The gravitational expression of the Cady Fault is on trend with the linear projection of the mapped fault, and the gravitational expression of the Manix Fault is north of the current northernmost mapped strand of the fault. The relative gravitational low over the Yermo Hills was confirmed and better constrained, indicating a significant thickness of sediments at the junction of the Calico, Manix, and Tin Can Alley Faults.

  20. Antibiotic-resistant E. coli in surface water and groundwater in dairy operations in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Li, Xunde; Watanabe, Naoko; Xiao, Chengling; Harter, Thomas; McCowan, Brenda; Liu, Yingjia; Atwill, Edward R

    2014-02-01

    Generic Escherichia coli was isolated from surface water and groundwater samples from two dairies in Northern California and tested for susceptibility to antibiotics. Surface samples were collected from flush water, lagoon water, and manure solids, and groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells. Although E. coli was ubiquitous in surface samples with concentrations ranging from several hundred thousand to over a million colony-forming units per 100 mL of surface water or per gram of surface solids, groundwater under the influence of these high surface microbial loadings had substantially fewer bacteria (3- to 7-log10 reduction). Among 80 isolates of E. coli tested, 34 (42.5%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22 (27.5%) were multi-antibiotic resistant (resistant to ≥3 antibiotics), with resistance to tetracycline, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and ampicillin being the most common. E. coli isolates from the calf hutch area exhibited the highest levels of multi-antibiotic resistance, much higher than isolates in surface soil solids from heifer and cow pens, flush alleys, manure storage lagoons, and irrigated fields. Among E. coli isolates from four groundwater samples, only one sample exhibited resistance to ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, indicating the potential of groundwater contamination with antibiotic-resistant bacteria from dairy operations.

  1. Neighborhood differences in patterns of syringe access, use, and discard among injection drug users: implications for HIV outreach and prevention education.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David; Shaw, Susan; Teng, Wei; Hiser, Poppy; Singer, Merrill

    2003-09-01

    The article presents results from the Syringe Access, Use, and Discard: Context in AIDS Risk research project comparing two neighborhoods by (1) socioeconomic and demographic characteristics; (2) patterns of syringe access, use, and discard; and (3) encounters with a local human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) outreach project targeted to injection drug users (IDUs). The results show that IDUs in more economically advantaged neighborhoods were more likely to acquire syringes from a single source (rather than multiple sources), more likely to inject alone in their own residence (rather than public injection locales), and more likely to dispose of syringes in private garbage cans rather alleys or dumpsters. These results are further associated with the likelihood of encountering street outreach workers, with IDUs in more affluent neighborhoods much less likely to have any such contacts. Based on the different patterns of access, use, and discard evident in each neighborhood, the results indicate that different and more carefully tailored local outreach and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  2. On the temporal and spatial characteristics of tornado days in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-02-01

    More tornadoes are produced per year in the United States than in any other country, and these tornadoes have produced tremendous losses of life and property. Understanding how tornado activity will respond to climate change is important if we wish to prepare for future changes. Trends in various tornado and tornado day characteristics, including their annual frequencies, their temporal variability, and their spatial distributions, have been reported in the past few years. This study contributes to this body of literature by further analyzing the temporal and spatial characteristics of tornado days in the United States. The analyses performed in this study support previously reported findings in addition to providing new perspectives, including that the temporal trends are observed only in low-frequency and high-frequency tornado days and that the eastward shift in tornado activity is produced, in part, by the increasing number of high-frequency tornado days, which tend to occur to the east of the traditionally depicted tornado alley in the Great Plains.

  3. Indoor smoking ordinances in workplaces and public places in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Davis, Ken; Nazir, Niaman; Dunton, Nancy; Winn, Kimberly; Jacquot, Sandy; Moler, Don

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferences of elected city officials regarding the need for a statewide clean indoor air law and to analyze the content of local smoking ordinances. A survey of elected officials in 57 larger Kansas cities obtained information on the perceived need for statewide legislation, venues to be covered, and motivating factors. Clean indoor air ordinances from all Kansas cities were analyzed by venue. The survey response rate was 190 out of 377 (50.4%) for elected officials. Over 70% of the respondents favored or strongly favored greater restrictions on indoor smoking. Sixty percent favored statewide legislation. Among these, over 80% favored restrictions in health care facilities, theaters, indoor sports arenas (including bowling alleys), restaurants, shopping malls, lobbies, enclosed spaces in outdoor arenas, and hotel/motel rooms. Officials who had never smoked favored a more restrictive approach. Employee and public health concerns were cited as influential by 76%-79% of respondents. Thirty-eight ordinances, covering over half of the state's population, were examined. They varied considerably in their exemptions. Official's attitudes toward smoking regulations were associated with their smoking status. The examination of existing ordinances revealed a piecemeal approach to smoking regulations.

  4. Novel findings for the development of drug therapy for various liver diseases: Liver microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activator may be a possible therapeutic agent in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Imajo, Kento; Shinohara, Yoshiyasu; Nozaki, Yuichi; Wada, Koichiro; Yoneda, Masato; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Abe, Yasunobu; Inamori, Masahiko; Shimamura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The factors involved in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not fully understood and thus it is urgently needed to elucidate these factors. Steatosis is not causal in the development of NASH, but rather it sensitizes the liver to the damaging effects of second hits such that stressors innocuous to a healthy liver lead to the development of NASH in the steatotic liver. In the previous study, most of the hepatic lipid metabolite profiles were similar in the NAFL and NASH groups. However, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) synthesis, especially hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression, was impaired in the NASH group. Moreover, NASH showed significantly higher incidence of minor alley appearance compared with NAFL, indicating the possibility of association between NASH pathogenesis and decreased congenital MTP activity. MTP is one of the enzymes that transfer triglycerides to nascent apolipoprotein B, producing VLDL and removing lipid from the hepatocyte. A growing body of literature suggests that the measurement of hepatic MTP expression may be helpful for diagnosis; and moreover, hepatic MTP activator may be a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of NASH.

  5. Behavior at the choice point: decision making in hidden pathway maze learning.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Snyder, Peter J; Pietrzak, Robert H; Maruff, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Hidden pathway maze learning tasks (HPMLTs) have been used in neuropsychological research and practice for more than 80 years. These tasks require the use of visual and auditory task feedback signals to learn the order and direction of a pathway, typically within a grid of stepping-stones, or alleys. Hidden pathway maze learning tasks are purported to assess both visuospatial learning and executive processes. The original motivation for the HPMLT paradigm for humans was to reduce a complex tactual planning task to one in which decisions could be directly measured by discrete actions at choice points guided by visual cues. Hidden maze learning paradigms were used extensively throughout the 20th century, initially to study exploratory, anticipatory, and goal-related behavior within the context of memory research, and later as an experimental tool in neuropsychology. Computerization of HPMLTs have allowed for the measurement of different move categories according to the rule structure and ipso facto, clinically meaningful differences in memory and monitoring functions during spatial search and learning. Hidden pathway maze learning tests have been used to understand the cognitive effects of ageing, neurological disorders, and psychopharmacological challenges. We provide a review of historical antecedents relevant to contemporary applications of HPMLTs in neuropsychology. It is suggested that contemporary applications of HPMLTs could be advanced by analysis of component operations necessary for efficient performance that can inform theoretical interpretations of this class of tests in clinically meaningful terms.

  6. Droplet Characterization and Penetration of an Ultra-Low Volume Mosquito Adulticide Spray Targeting the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, within Urban and Suburban Environments of Northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Crans, Scott; Lizarraga, Griffith; Fonseca, Dina; Gaugler, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Adult control of Aedes albopictus via ultra-low volume is difficult because this species occurs primarily in peridomestic habitats where obstacles such as buildings and vegetation can disrupt spray plumes and droplet dispersion. We determined droplet penetration and characterization of a pyrethroid adulticide applied from the ground at mid (46.77 ml/ha) and maximum (93.53 ml/ha) label rates within cryptic habitats of urban and suburban environments. Droplets were collected from all habitats, with no significant differences detected between locations within the same application rate or collection method. No differences were detected in droplet densities (drops per mm2) between rates within urban environments, but more droplets were collected in urban (149.93 ± 11.07 SE) than suburban sites (114.37 ± 11.32) at the maximum label rate (P = 0.003). The excellent penetration of aerosols into cryptic habitats of an urban site was likely due to the shorter spray paths afforded by our network of roads and alleys. Mid label rates displayed similar droplet density values as maximum label rates in urban areas, indicating that lower rates may be used effectively to reduce costs, lessen non-target effects, and increase environmental stewardship. Advances in formulations and technology are driving changes in adulticide applications, leading to use of the minimum effective dose for maximum efficacy, precision, and accountability.

  7. Droplet Characterization and Penetration of an Ultra-Low Volume Mosquito Adulticide Spray Targeting the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, within Urban and Suburban Environments of Northeastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Crans, Scott; Lizarraga, Griffith; Fonseca, Dina; Gaugler, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Adult control of Aedes albopictus via ultra-low volume is difficult because this species occurs primarily in peridomestic habitats where obstacles such as buildings and vegetation can disrupt spray plumes and droplet dispersion. We determined droplet penetration and characterization of a pyrethroid adulticide applied from the ground at mid (46.77 ml/ha) and maximum (93.53 ml/ha) label rates within cryptic habitats of urban and suburban environments. Droplets were collected from all habitats, with no significant differences detected between locations within the same application rate or collection method. No differences were detected in droplet densities (drops per mm2) between rates within urban environments, but more droplets were collected in urban (149.93 ± 11.07 SE) than suburban sites (114.37 ± 11.32) at the maximum label rate (P = 0.003). The excellent penetration of aerosols into cryptic habitats of an urban site was likely due to the shorter spray paths afforded by our network of roads and alleys. Mid label rates displayed similar droplet density values as maximum label rates in urban areas, indicating that lower rates may be used effectively to reduce costs, lessen non-target effects, and increase environmental stewardship. Advances in formulations and technology are driving changes in adulticide applications, leading to use of the minimum effective dose for maximum efficacy, precision, and accountability. PMID:27116103

  8. Detection of Old Mine Tunnels in Mexico City Highlands by Electric Resistivity Image Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, R. E.; Tejero, A.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; HernaNdez-Quintero, J.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods have been applied to study cavities or subsurface subsidence threatening urbanized areas. Unfortunately, ERT-3D techniques carried out on heavily urbanized areas become a difficult task, since parallel ERT arrays cannot be deployed. Then, a conventional regular grid cannot be carried out. We present a subsidence problem located in a densely populated portion of Mexico City highlands. Since the damaged houses are in the middle of a highly populated low-class neighborhood, an unconventional ERT array had to be applied. At first, a ';T'-array formed by two perpendicular transects was applied, deployed within a small alley, that stretched from the house entrance. This study determined a tubular structure beneath the houses following an irregular path at depth. Finally, houses were demolished due to the extensive damaged in their foundations. This made possible to carry out a second ERT-3D study, which included a dipolar array called ';L' and ';Corner' arrays. Such a new work defined a similar tubular structure. The cavity entrance was discovered, when excavations were made, although its precise shape could not be defined. The ERT-3D interpretation contributed to locate and accurately determine the geometrical characteristics of the geological feature that caused the collapse of dwellings.

  9. The role of sandstone in the development of an Ozark karst system, south-central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orndorff, R.C.; Weary, D.J.; Harrison, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Cave, spring, and sinkhole development in the Ozarks of south-central Missouri is placed in a geologic framework through detailed geologic mapping. Geologic mapping shows that initial dissolution and inception of cave development is concentrated just beneath sandstone beds within Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician dolostone. Although rocks of the Ozarks have systematic and pervasive vertical joints, the development of karst conduits is controlled by bedding planes and stratigraphic variability. In the Salem Plateau of south-central Missouri, sinkholes occur in the lower part of the Ordovician Roubidoux Formation, where sinkholes are rimmed with and contain sandstone that has collapsed into voids in the underlying Ordovician Gasconade Dolomite. Cave diving by the Ozark Cave Diving Alliance into Alley Spring, a large (average flow 3.7 m3/s) spring along the Jacks Fork in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, shows that although the spring discharges from the middle part of the Gasconade, the source of water is a cave passage just beneath the Gunter Sandstone Member of the Gasconade Dolomite. Artesian conditions cause the upward movement of groundwater from cavernous dolostone beneath the sandstone aquitards to the large springs. We hypothesize that sandstone, which is largely impermeable due to silica cementation, acts as a confining unit where hydraulic pressure, combined with mixing of water of differing chemistry, increases dissolution in the underlying dolostone beds. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  10. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  11. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  12. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-06-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred.

  13. Modeling of Natural Coastal Hazards in Puerto Rico in Support of Emergency Management and Coastal Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, A., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The island of Puerto Rico is not only located in the so-called Caribbean hurricane alley, but is also located in a tsunami prone region. And both phenomena have affected the island. For the past few years we have undergone the task of upgrading the available coastal flood maps due to storm surges and tsunamis. This has been done taking advantage of new Lidar-derived, high resolution, topography and bathymetry and state-of-the-art models (MOST for tsunamis and ADCIRC/SWAN for storm surges). The tsunami inundation maps have been converted to evacuation maps. In tsunamis we are also working in preparing hazard maps due to tsunami currents inside ports, bays, and marinas. The storm surge maps include two scenarios of sea level rise: 0.5 and 1.0 m above Mean High Water. All maps have been adopted by the Puerto Rico State Emergency Management Agency, and are publicly available through the Internet. It is the purpose of this presentation to summarize how it has been done, the spin-off applications they have generated, and how we plan to improve coastal flooding predictions.

  14. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables.

  15. Nepal forestry initiative: 1986-1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, K.; Shen, S.Y.; Vyas, A.D.; Johnson, D.O.

    1988-05-01

    The Nepal Forestry Initiative is a project developed through discussions between the US Agency for International Development (AID) and His Majesty's Government of Nepal and managed for AID by Argonne National Laboratory. The project seeks to facilitate widespread acceptance of multipurpose tree species cultivated under various production systems. Production systems selected for research and demonstration include alley cropping, contour hedgerow, and short rotation. A site in the Dhading District of the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal is serving as the first project site. Site delineation, shed construction, and the first stage of terrace building have been completed. Planting stock for several native species and some exotic species has been collected, and attempts to propagate these species in the nursery have begun. A socioeconomic survey of the people who will be directly affected by the project was conducted. It was followed by a survey to identify the multipurpose tree species being used by the local population. Two advisory committees -- a technical advisory committee and a social/cultural advisory committee -- have reviewed the initial project document and the progress through September 1987. Their written evaluations are appended to this report.

  16. Objective Lightning Forecasting at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winfred; Wheeler, Mark; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at Cape Canaveral Air-Force Station (CCAFS)ln Florida issues a probability of lightning occurrence in their daily 24-hour and weekly planning forecasts. This information is used for general planning of operations at CCAFS and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These facilities are located in east-central Florida at the east end of a corridor known as 'Lightning Alley', an indication that lightning has a large impact on space-lift operations. Much of the current lightning probability forecast is based on a subjective analysis of model and observational data and an objective forecast tool developed over 30 years ago. The 45 WS requested that a new lightning probability forecast tool based on statistical analysis of more recent historical warm season (May-September) data be developed in order to increase the objectivity of the daily thunderstorm probability forecast. The resulting tool is a set of statistical lightning forecast equations, one for each month of the warm season, that provide a lightning occurrence probability for the day by 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) during the warm season.

  17. Improved Topographic Models via Concurrent Airborne LIDAR and Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, G.; Wenzel, K.; Spitzer, A.; Haala, N.; Glira, P.; Pfeifer, N.

    2017-09-01

    Modern airborne sensors integrate laser scanners and digital cameras for capturing topographic data at high spatial resolution. The capability of penetrating vegetation through small openings in the foliage and the high ranging precision in the cm range have made airborne LiDAR the prime terrain acquisition technique. In the recent years dense image matching evolved rapidly and outperforms laser scanning meanwhile in terms of the achievable spatial resolution of the derived surface models. In our contribution we analyze the inherent properties and review the typical processing chains of both acquisition techniques. In addition, we present potential synergies of jointly processing image and laser data with emphasis on sensor orientation and point cloud fusion for digital surface model derivation. Test data were concurrently acquired with the RIEGL LMS-Q1560 sensor over the city of Melk, Austria, in January 2016 and served as basis for testing innovative processing strategies. We demonstrate that (i) systematic effects in the resulting scanned and matched 3D point clouds can be minimized based on a hybrid orientation procedure, (ii) systematic differences of the individual point clouds are observable at penetrable, vegetated surfaces due to the different measurement principles, and (iii) improved digital surface models can be derived combining the higher density of the matching point cloud and the higher reliability of LiDAR point clouds, especially in the narrow alleys and courtyards of the study site, a medieval city.

  18. Can anything better come along? Reflections on the deep future of hydrogen-electricity systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D. S.

    2006-07-01

    Sometimes, for some things, we can project the deep future better than tomorrow. This is particularly relevant to our energy system where, if we focus on energy currencies, looking further out allows us to leap the tangles of today's conventional wisdom, vested mantras and ill-found hopes. We will first recall the rationale that sets out why - by the time the 22. century rolls around - hydrogen and electricity will have become civilizations staple energy currencies. Building on this dual-currency inevitability we'll then evoke the wisdom that, while we never know everything about the future we always know something. For future energy systems that 'something' is the role and nature of the energy currencies. From this understanding, our appreciation of the deep future can take shape - at least for infrastructures, energy sources and some imbedded technologies - but not service-delivery widgets. The long view provides more than mere entertainment. It should form the basis of strategies for today that, in turn, will avoid setbacks and blind alleys on our journey to tomorrow. Some people accept that hydrogen and electricity will be our future, but only 'until something better comes along.' The talk will conclude with logic that explains the response: 'No{exclamation_point} Nothing better will ever come along.'. (authors)

  19. [Risk factors for persistent presence of salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk].

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; Hofste, G T

    2011-12-01

    Given bulk milk serology, salmonellosis is present on a restricted number of Dutch dairy farms. The affected farms are clustered in some regions of the country. This study was designed to find risk factors for having persistent positive bulk milk serology for salmonella within the regions with the highest prevalence. With that knowledge, a reduction of persistent infected farms may be achieved. To this end, we performed a rather small matched case-control study with two groups of 24 farms each. Case herds were characterized by having a positive bulk milk serology for salmonella for all three samplings during one year, whereas control farms were located near the positive farms and were negative in all these three samplings. Several risk factors were found not significant, while the significant risk factors concerned general on farm hygiene practices. Significant risk factors in the multivariate analyses were less hygienic calf facilities (OR = 6.1, p = 0.04), lower cleaning frequency of alleys (OR = 5.7, p = 0.08), and a higher frequency of claw trimmers visiting the farm (OR = 5.9, p = 0.07). We concluded that these risk factors are similar to those found outside the regions with a high number of farms with a positive bulk milk serology for salmonella.

  20. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-01-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred. PMID:26174821

  1. Effect of subglacial volcanism on changes in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid changes in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may affect future global sea-level changes. Alley and Whillans note that 'the water responsible for separating the glacier from its bed is produced by frictional dissipation and geothermal heat,' but assume that changes in geothermal flux would ordinarily be expected to have slower effects than glaciological parameters. I suggest that episodic subglacial volcanism and geothermal heating may have significantly greater effects on the WAIS than is generally appreciated. The WAIS flows through the active, largely asiesmic West Antarctic rift system (WS), which defines the sub-sea-level bed of the glacier. Various lines of evidence summarized in Behrendt et al. (1991) indicate high heat flow and shallow asthenosphere beneath the extended, weak lithosphere underlying the WS and the WAIS. Behrendt and Cooper suggest a possible synergistic relation between Cenozoic tectonism, episodic mountain uplift and volcanism in the West Antarctic rift system, and the waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet beginning about earliest Oligocene time. A few active volcanoes and late-Cenozoic volcanic rocks are exposed throughout the WS along both flanks, and geophysical data suggest their presence beneath the WAIS. No part of the rift system can be considered inactive. I propose that subglacial volcanic eruptions and ice flow across areas of locally (episodically?) high heat flow--including volcanically active areas--should be considered possibly to have a forcing effect on the thermal regime resulting in increased melting at the base of the ice streams.

  2. Risk factors for increased rates of sole ulcers, white line disease, and digital dermatitis in dairy cattle from twenty-seven farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Barker, Z E; Amory, J R; Wright, J L; Mason, S A; Blowey, R W; Green, L E

    2009-05-01

    Claw lesion treatment records were recorded by farmers on 27 dairy farms (3,074 cows, 36,432 records) in England and Wales between February 2003 and February 2004. These were combined with farm environment and management data collected using a combination of direct observations, interviews with farmers, and milk recording data. Multilevel models were constructed for the 3 most frequently reported lesions related to lameness, namely, sole ulcers, white line disease, and digital dermatitis. Risks associated with an increased incidence of sole ulcers were parity 4 or greater, the use of roads or concrete cow tracks between the parlor and grazing, the use of lime on free stalls, and housing in free stalls with sparse bedding for 4 mo or more. The risks for white line disease were increasing parity and increasing herd size, cows at pasture by day and housed at night, and solid grooved concrete floors in yards or alleys. Solid grooved flooring was also associated with an increased risk of digital dermatitis, and cows 6 or more months after calving had a decreased risk of a first case of digital dermatitis. These results improve our understanding of the specific risks for 3 important lesions associated with bovine lameness and could be used as interventions in future clinical studies targeted at the reduction of specific lesions.

  3. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-274-1924, Office of Employment Security, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, P.; Savery, H.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from the Pennsylvania Social Services Union, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Office of Employment Security, located in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. Employees had complained of dizziness; coughing; burning of the eyes, nose and throat; recurring respiratory infections; and other symptoms. The 30 employees handled unemployment benefits claims and operated a job placement service. Potential sources of air contaminants in the building included a dry toner type photocopier, fiberglass insulation inside the air supply ductwork, tobacco smoking, cleaning compounds, office furnishings and supplies, and building construction materials. No carbon-monoxide or nitrogen-dioxide levels were detected. No evidence was found to support any causal relationship between work related experiences and the symptoms expressed by the workers. The authors recommend that specific actions be taken to ensure the HVAC system is operating optimally, that parking of vehicles in the alley where the air intakes are located is prevented, and that certain ergonomic recommendations for operators of video-display units are adopted to lessen their muscle fatigue and general discomfort.

  4. Inequilibrium Glaciohydraulic Supercooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creyts, T. T.; Clarke, G. K. C.

    Beneath many glaciers and ice sheets, hydrology modulates basal processes, includ- ing sliding and erosion. Recently, the role of glaciohydraulic supercooling was ex- posed as an important process in the overdeepening near the snout of Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Further investigations have shown that supercooling beneath wet- based glaciers occurs in many basins. Alley et al. (1998) describe supercooling via a mathematical model that assumes downstream transport of thermal energy is small. However, high subglacial water discharge as well as the presence of frazil ice in the downstream flow suggest that the small-transport assumption is suspect. Bed- averaged water-discharge magnitudes for these glaciers vary widely but can exceed 10-1 m3 s-1 m-1. Frazil ice forms subglacially as the hydraulic potential lessens dra- matically and the water rises rapidly out of the overdeepening. Thus, the neglect of advective transport of thermal energy is unlikely to be generally acceptable. In keep- ing with these observations, we have reformulated the supercooling model so that it involves the transient solution of equations governing water pressure, velocity, temper- ature and film thickness and solved these equations numerically. We contrast results obtained using the two models and discuss the implications for freeze-on beneath glaciers and ice sheets.

  5. Influence of soil cover and N and K fertilization on the quality of biofortified QPM in the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    de Moura-Silva, Aline Gomes; Aguiar, Alana das Chagas Ferreira; de Moura, Emanoel Gomes; Jorge, Neuza

    2016-08-01

    In the humid tropics, unfavorable conditions present challenges to smallholder farmers attempting to meet food demands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alley cropping and addition of potassium and nitrogen on the productivity and nutritional value of quality protein maize (QPM). The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme, with five treatments, Gliricidia + Acacia (GA), Gliricidia + Clitoria (GC), Leucaena + Acacia (LA), Leucaena + Clitoria (LC) and bare soil (BS), in two cropping systems, one with addition of nitrogen and potassium (NK) and one without. The grain yield of LC + NK was significantly higher than that of all other treatments except GC + NK and LA + NK, and six times higher than that of BS + NK. The protein content of LC + NK was higher than that of the treatments without residue. Although the mulching of tree legumes increased the yield and quality of food for smallholder agriculture, achieving this outcome requires eliminating potentially negative interactions when combining trees and crops in addition to enhancing the availability and uptake of nutrients. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of subglacial volcanism on changes in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid changes in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may affect future global sea-level changes. Alley and Whillans note that 'the water responsible for separating the glacier from its bed is produced by frictional dissipation and geothermal heat,' but assume that changes in geothermal flux would ordinarily be expected to have slower effects than glaciological parameters. I suggest that episodic subglacial volcanism and geothermal heating may have significantly greater effects on the WAIS than is generally appreciated. The WAIS flows through the active, largely asiesmic West Antarctic rift system (WS), which defines the sub-sea-level bed of the glacier. Various lines of evidence summarized in Behrendt et al. (1991) indicate high heat flow and shallow asthenosphere beneath the extended, weak lithosphere underlying the WS and the WAIS. Behrendt and Cooper suggest a possible synergistic relation between Cenozoic tectonism, episodic mountain uplift and volcanism in the West Antarctic rift system, and the waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet beginning about earliest Oligocene time. A few active volcanoes and late-Cenozoic volcanic rocks are exposed throughout the WS along both flanks, and geophysical data suggest their presence beneath the WAIS. No part of the rift system can be considered inactive. I propose that subglacial volcanic eruptions and ice flow across areas of locally (episodically?) high heat flow--including volcanically active areas--should be considered possibly to have a forcing effect on the thermal regime resulting in increased melting at the base of the ice streams.

  7. [Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1989-04-01

    An overview of the most important infections which can be transmitted from humans to pet dogs and cats is presented. Two quite different sources of infection stand diametrically opposite each other: 1. The transmission of active human infections to dogs and cats and 2. the transmission of infectious agents by feeding raw meat, offal, unsterilized milk products, kitchen scraps and contaminated feedstuffs. Humans can be the source of the following infections: 1. Zoonoses with reciprocal modes of transmission, e.g. Campylobacter and E. coli infections, trichophyton and microsporum infections, reo-, parainfluenza-, adeno, rota- and corona infections. 2. Zoonoses in which the main direction of infection is human----animal, e.g. tuberculosis and influenza A. 3. Infections originally pathogenic to humans which meet an impasse in dogs and cats (blind alley hosts), e.g. herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, measles and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Listeria, salmonella, campylobacteria, toxoplasma, fungi, yeasts and viruses are transmitted via feed. The most dangerous virus infection to be transmitted to cats and dogs via raw pork leftovers is Aujeszky's disease. The dog or cat, which is the last link in the infection chain, suffers an agonizing death. The other infections originating from feed must be assessed quite differently. They are links in infection chains, which spread pathogens and endanger the health of man and animal in turn. A typical example is toxoplasmosis. Man becomes infected via sporulated oocysts from feces. Pet cats mainly become infected via raw pork containing cysts.

  8. Characterization of instrumented sites for the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field-Test project. Volume 1. Topical report, 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, W.C.; Campillo, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    During the site selection phase of the Onsite Fuel-Cell Field Test, nearly one hundred sites throughout the U.S. were each instrumented with a standard data-acquisition system (DAS) to collect hourly electrical and thermal data for one year. Seventy of those sites are included in the report. Each site's electrical and thermal systems were instrumented including ambient temperature, electrical demands building gas usage, and other parameters which were necessary to calculate building thermal loads. Multifamily residential, commercial and light industrial sites were instrumented. Approximately twenty market sectors were represented including restaurants, hospitals, hotels, apartments, health clubs, nursing homes, and food-processing plants. The primary use of the data was to determine site compatibility for the installation of 40-kW fuel-cell power plants. However, the collected energy data and site-specific information summarized in the comprehensive report may also be useful for other applications such as market characterization, and simulation of new or improved energy-utilization equipment in actual sites. This volume focuses on apartments, bakeries, bowling alleys, and dormitories.)

  9. Effects of Shape on Diffusion and Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Robert; Packard, Norman

    2010-03-01

    Diffusion of point particles is well-understood, likewise the motion of simple particles under shear flow. However if the particles are extended objects with shape, more complicated behavior can occur. For example, objects might enter a shaped channel in a configuration that requires them to back up a finite distance in order to proceed further. A configuration that blocks flow through the channel might be statistically preferred, an attracting metastable state of the system. In the bulk, the configuration space of a set of closely packed rigid objects can become convoluted, with many dead-end alleys. If such a system is subjected to a shear, it may naturally tend to settle in such a dead-end, and have to retrace its path in order to continue further, a configuration can become locally locked. The requirement that the system backtrack to unlock distinguishes this process from ordinary jamming, there need be no dissipation or friction per se. We have a number of computer simulations of the motions of closely packed shaped objects, under both Hamiltonian and Monte Carlo dynamics. In addition we will present a simple analytic model, describing the entry and escape of the system from the attracting locked metastable states.

  10. The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) in female Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M A José; de la Torre, Lourdes; Callejas-Aguilera, José Enrique; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Rosas, Juan M; Escarabajal, M A Dolores; Agüero, Angeles; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Torres, Carmen

    2008-12-12

    The present experiment was designed with the goal of studying the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) in female inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rats. Two groups of RHA-I and two of RLA-I food-deprived animals were placed in a straight alley where they were partially or continuously reinforced. Once the animals reached the acquisition criterion, they were exposed to an extinction phase where the reinforcement was omitted. During the extinction phase RHA-I animals continuously reinforced during acquisition exhibited more resistance to extinction than their RLA-I counterparts, whereas only RLA-I rats partially reinforced during acquisition showed an increased resistance to extinction in comparison to continuously reinforced control RLA-I rats, this PREE being absent in RHA-I animals. These results are discussed within the framework of PREE theories that account for this effect by using emotional mechanisms, as pertains to the repeatedly observed RHA-RLA differences in emotional reactivity.

  11. First Steps in Initiating an Effective Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Program in Urban Slums: the BRAC Manoshi Project's Experience with Community Engagement, Social Mapping, and Census Taking in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Marcil, Lucy; Afsana, Kaosar; Perry, Henry B

    2016-02-01

    The processes for implementing effective programs at scale in low-income countries have not been well-documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This article describes the initial steps taken by one such program--the BRAC Manoshi Project, which now reaches a population of 6.9 million. The project has achieved notable increases in facility births and reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality. The focus of the paper is on the initial steps--community engagement, social mapping, and census taking. Community engagement began with (1) engaging local leaders, (2) creating Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Committees for populations of approximately 10,000 people, (3) responding to advice from the community, (4) social mapping of the community, and (5) census taking. Social mapping involved community members working with BRAC staff to map all important physical features that affect how the community carries out its daily functions--such as alleys, lanes and roads, schools, mosques, markets, pharmacies, health facilities, latrine sites, and ponds. As the social mapping progressed, it became possible to conduct household censuses with maps identifying every household and listing family members by household. Again, this was a process of collaboration between BRAC staff and community members. Thus, social mapping and census taking were also instrumental for advancing community engagement. These three processes-community engagement, social mapping, and census taking--can be valuable strategies for strengthening health programs in urban slum settings of low-income countries.

  12. Tornado climatology of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, A. M.

    After several decades of little work, a revised tornado climatology for Austria is presented. Tornadoes seldom form in the alpine areas, however, near the eastern flanks of the Alps, favourable conditions for tornado genesis are found. Whereas in the alpine regions less than 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year touch down (averaged for provinces or major parts of a province), we can count 0.9 in the greater Graz area, 1.0 in the greater Linz area and 1.2 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year in the greater Vienna area, suggesting the existence of so-called tornado alleys. As these regions are the most populated areas of Austria, there is a possible population bias in the dataset. The overall average for Austria is 0.3 tornadoes per 10,000 km 2 a year. The database consists of 89 tornadoes, one landspout and six waterspouts, with a total of 96 events. The seasonal peak is in July with a maximum probability of tornadoes in the late afternoon and early evening hours. Every fifth tornado occurs in the hour after 5 p.m. The maximum intensity determined for a tornado in Austria was T7 on the TORRO-Scale (F3 on the Fujita-Scale), the most common intensity is T2 on the TORRO-Scale (F1 on the Fujita-Scale).

  13. Simplified limits on resonances at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Ittisamai, Pawin; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2016-11-01

    In the earliest stages of evaluating new collider data, especially if a small excess may be present, it would be useful to have a method for comparing the data with entire classes of models, to get an immediate sense of which classes could conceivably be relevant. In this paper, we propose a method that applies when the new physics invoked to explain the excess corresponds to the production and decay of a single, relatively narrow, s -channel resonance. A simplifed model of the resonance allows us to convert an estimated signal cross section into general bounds on the product of the branching ratios corresponding to the dominant production and decay modes. This quickly reveals whether a given class of models could possibly produce a signal of the required size at the LHC. Our work sets up a general framework, outlines how it operates for resonances with different numbers of production and decay modes, and analyzes cases of current experimental interest, including resonances decaying to dibosons, diphotons, dileptons, or dijets. If the LHC experiments were to report their searches for new resonances beyond the standard model in the simplified limits variable ζ defined in this paper, that would make it far easier to avoid blind alleys and home in on the most likely candidate models to explain any observed excesses.

  14. Giant viruses: The difficult breaking of multiple epistemological barriers.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of the first "giant virus", Mimivirus, in 2003 could solely have been that of an exceptional freak, a blind alley of evolution as occasionally encountered in biology, albeit without conceptual significance. On the contrary, once broken this epistemological barrier, additional unrelated families of giant viruses such as the Pandoraviruses, the Pithoviruses and most recently Mollivirus, were quickly unraveled, suggesting that an entire chapter of microbiology had been ignored since Pasteur and Ivanovski. In this article, we examine to what extent the giant viruses challenge previous definitions of viruses, the diversity of forms they could take, and how they might have evolved from extinct ancestral cellular lineages. Inspired by the epistemology of Gaston Bachelard, we will also suggest the reasons for which giant viruses laid hidden in plain sight for more than a century. Finally, we propose a new definition for "viruses" that paradoxically emphasize the fact that they do not encode a single universally shared macromolecule or biochemical function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    PubMed Central

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can’t. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk. PMID:27186282

  16. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    PubMed

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can't. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk.

  17. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Ocean Thermochaline circulation (THC) is the part of large-scale World Ocean circulation and one of the main climate system components. It is generated by global meridional density gradients, which are controlled by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. THC regulates climate variability on different timescales (from decades to thousands years) [Stocker (2000), Clark (2002)]. Study of paleoclimatic evidences of abrupt and dramatic changes in ocean-atmosphere system in the past (such as, Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events or Younger Dryas, see e.g., [Rahmstorf (2002), Alley & Clark(1999)]) shows that these events are connected with THC regimes. At different times during last 120,000 years, three THC modes have prevailed in the Atlantic. They can be labeled as stadial, interstadial and Heinrich modes or as cold, warm and off mode. THC collapse (or thermohaline catastrophe) can be one of the consequences of global warming (including modern anthropogenic climate changes occurring at the moment). The ideas underlying different box-model studies, possibility of thermochaline catastrophe in present and past are discussed in this presentation. Response of generalized four box model of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [developing the model of Griffies & Tzippermann (1995)] on periodic, stochastic and linear forcing is studied in details. To estimate climatic parameters of the box model we used monthly salinity and temperature data of ECMWF operational Ocean Reanalysis System 3 (ORA-S3) and data from atmospheric NCEP/NCAR reanalysis on precipitation, and heat fluxes for 1959-2011. Mean values, amplitude of seasonal cycle, amplitudes and periods of typical interdecadal oscillations, white noise level, linear trend coefficients and their significance level were estimated for every hydrophysical parameter. In response to intense freshwater or heat forcing, THC regime can change resulting in thermohaline catastrophe. We analyze relevant thresholds of external forcing in

  18. Effect of different flooring systems on weight and pressure distribution on claws of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Ventorp, M; Nilsson, C

    2008-05-01

    Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different flooring systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each section had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic asphalt flooring on the alleys or a low-abrasive slatted concrete floor. Some sections had feed-stalls equipped with rubber mats; other sections did not. The vertical ground reaction force, contact area, and average contact pressure were determined on the left hind foot using the I-Scan system and analyzed with the F-scan system. These determinations were made in each of the following 3 zones of the claw: bulb, wall, and sole. Most of the weight on claws exposed to concrete floors was carried by the bulb (37.4 +/- 3.5 and 18.3 +/- 2.9% of weight exerted on the foot in the lateral and medial claw, respectively) and the wall zone (20.0 +/- 2.6 and 13.4 +/- 2.4% on lateral and medial claw, respectively). The weight and pressure distribution in cows kept on sections with rubber covered alleys but passing daily over the asphalt floor on their way to the milking parlor did not differ in any zones, except for lateral bulbs, compared with those exposed to slatted concrete alone. Still, the weight bearing of the sole zone in cows kept on rubber mats without access to asphalt was less than that of cows kept on concrete slatted floors (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 12.7 +/- 1.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). In cows kept on asphalt flooring without feed-stalls, most weight was exerted to the sole zone (36.2 +/- 2.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.8% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). Feed-stalls in combination with asphalt flooring yielded a decreased total contact area (30.1 +/- 1.2 cm(2)) compared with asphalt floors without feed-stalls (35.7 +/- 1.2 cm(2)). The largest total contact area was obtained on the asphalt floor without feed

  19. Composition and structure of macrozooplankton and micronekton communities in the vicinity of free-drifting Antarctic icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ronald S.; Robison, Bruce H.; Sherlock, Rob E.; Reisenbichler, Kim R.; Osborn, Karen J.

    2011-06-01

    Recent warming in the Antarctic has led to increased production of icebergs; however, the ecological effects of icebergs on pelagic communities within the Southern Ocean have not been well-studied. We used a 10 m 2 MOCNESS to collect macrozooplankton and micronekton in the upper 300 m of the water column near free-drifting icebergs in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during three seasons: December 2005 (late spring), June 2008 (late fall) and March-April 2009 (late summer). Communities were dominated in all three seasons by Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and salps ( Salpa thompsoni), which collectively comprised 60-95% of the community wet biomass in most cases. During our spring and summer cruises, mean biomass was elevated by 3.1-4.3x at a distance of 0.37 km from large icebergs vs. 9.26 km away. These differences were not statistically significant, and no trend in biomass with distance was apparent in samples from fall 2008, when total biomass was an order of magnitude lower. Biomass levels near icebergs during Dec 2005 and Mar-Apr 2009 were comparable to values reported from marginal ice zones, suggesting that waters around icebergs support macrozooplankton and micronekton communities comparable in magnitude to those in some of the most productive areas of the Southern Ocean. Sample variance also was significantly higher within 1.85 km of icebergs during Dec 2005 and Mar-Apr 2009, reflecting increased patchiness on scales sampled by the MOCNESS (20-40×10 3 m 3 filtered per sample). This pattern was not significant during Jun 2008. Large predatory medusae were observed within 1.85 km of icebergs and in Iceberg Alley, an area through which icebergs pass frequently, but were virtually absent in areas remote from icebergs. Small euphausiids showed an inverse distribution, with low densities in areas populated by large medusae. A shift in community composition from a near-iceberg assemblage dominated by herbivores to a carnivore-dominated community

  20. "Preaching To The Choir" And Empowering The Congregation: Using Facebook And Face Time To Counter Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuginow, E.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an education and outreach initiative, supported by NSF, which uses stories, metaphors and innovative communications strategies to cut through misinformation about climate change and promote positive action. External evaluation provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence on the success of this approach. This presentation includes short videos illustrating the strategy, and images from live nationwide events and Facebook posts. ETOM includes three PBS specials, a series of on-site presentations by scientists and military officers, a website functioning as portal to its video components, and a lively and growing Facebook community where uninformed statements about climate are often rebutted by 3rd party contributors not formally affiliated with the project. At outreach events at science centers such as the Science Museum of Minnesota, geoscientist Richard Alley, host of the TV programs, presented to large audiences with ample opportunities for follow-up Q&A. Audience surveys reported that Alley offered "the most clear explanation of linking carbon dioxide to climate change" and noted that his physical performance (nodding his head to show his North Pole bald spot to illustrate precession) was memorable. "I'll have that vision in my mind forever." 91% said the information was new to them, and 96% said the performance encouraged them to discuss the issues with friends: "He gave us language that we can use to communicate to other people, and I think that's what we need more than more data." But surveys also requested still more arguments to counter denial. The producers added a set of rebuttals ("But my brother-in-law said…") to the next live performance, at a Science Pub in Portland OR, with positive responses. The live events relied on stories and metaphors that audiences found new and memorable. Emitting CO2 is rather like how we used to dump filthy human waste out our windows, before the sanitation revolution. "You

  1. Marine bacterioplankton biomass, activity and community structure in the vicinity of Antarctic icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Alison E.; Peng, Vivian; Tyler, Charlotte; Wagh, Protima

    2011-06-01

    We studied marine bacterioplankton in the Scotia Sea in June 2008 and in the northwest Weddell Sea in March to mid April 2009 in waters proximal to three free-drifting icebergs (SS-1, A-43k, and C-18a), in a region with a high density of smaller icebergs (iceberg alley), and at stations that were upstream of the iceberg trajectories designated as far-field reference sites that were between 16-75 km away. Hydrographic parameters were used to define water masses in which comparisons between bacterioplankton-associated characteristics (abundance, leucine incorporation into protein, aminopeptidase activities and community structure) within and between water masses could be made. Early winter Scotia Sea bacterioplankton had low levels of cells and low heterotrophic production rates in the upper 50 m. Influences of the icebergs on bacterioplankton at this time of year were minimal, if not deleterious, as we found lower levels of heterotrophic production near A-43k in comparison to stations >16 km away. Additionally, the results point to small but significant differences in cell abundance, heterotrophic production, and community structure between the two icebergs studied. These icebergs differed greatly in size and the findings suggest that the larger iceberg had a greater effect. In the NW Weddell Sea in March-mid April bacterioplankton were twice as abundant and had heterotrophic productions rates that were 8-fold higher than what we determined in the Scotia Sea, though levels were still quite low, which is typical for autumn. We did not detect direct iceberg-related influences on the bacterioplankton characteristics studied here. Clues to understanding bacterioplankton responses may lie in the details of community structure, as there were some significant differences in community structure in the winter water and underlying upper circumpolar deep-water masses between stations occupied close to C-18a and at stations 18 km away (i.e. Polaribacter and Pelagibacter

  2. Compost bedded pack dairy barn management, performance, and producer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Bewley, J M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterize herd performance, producer satisfaction and recommendations, and management practices used by compost bedded pack (CBP) managers in Kentucky (42 farms and 47 CBP facilities). Farms were visited between October 2010 and March 2011. A random selection of cows housed solely in the CBP were scored for locomotion and hygiene. Changes in monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association performance records, including milk production, SCC, reproductive performance, and daily bulk-tank somatic cell count after moving into the CBP were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3) was used to develop models to describe CBP moisture, CBP temperature at 20.3 cm, and mean herd hygiene. Producers provided 9.0 ± 2.2 m2 of pack space per cow (n = 44). Barns constructed with an attached feed alley cost $1,051 ± 407 per cow (n = 40). Barns constructed without an attached feed alley cost $493 ± 196 per cow (n = 13). Kiln-dried shavings required 0.05 ± 0.04 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 15). Green shavings required 0.07 ± 0.06 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 12). The most-frequently cited benefits of the CBP included cow comfort (n = 28), cow cleanliness (n = 14), and the low-maintenance nature of the system (n = 10). Increased stirring frequency, stirring depth, and ambient temperature increased pack temperature, measured at 20.3 cm below the CBP surface. Increased stirring depth, pasture-adjusted space per cow, and drying rate decreased CBP moisture. Mean herd locomotion and hygiene scores were 1.5 ± 0.3 (n = 34) and 2.2 ± 0.4 (n = 34), respectively. Increased 20.3-cm depth CBP temperature and ambient temperatures improved mean herd hygiene. Bulk-tank somatic cell count decreased from the year before to the year after moving into the CBP barn (323,692 ± 7,301 vs. 252,859 ± 7,112 cells/mL, respectively) for farms using the CBP barn as the primary

  3. Industrial Ziegler-Type Hydrogenation Catalysts Made from Co(neodecanoate)2 or Ni(2-ethylhexanoate)2 and AlEt3: Evidence for Nanoclusters and Sub-Nanocluster or Larger Ziegler-Nanocluster Based Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    W Alley; I Hamdemir; Q Wang; A Frenkel; L Li; J Yang; L Menard; R Nuzzo; S Ozkar; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are important for industrial processes, namely, the large-scale selective hydrogenation of styrenic block copolymers. Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are composed of a group 8-10 transition metal precatalyst plus an alkylaluminum cocatalyst (and they are not the same as Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts). However, for {approx}50 years two unsettled issues central to Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysis are the nature of the metal species present after catalyst synthesis, and whether the species primarily responsible for catalytic hydrogenation activity are homogeneous (e.g., monometallic complexes) or heterogeneous (e.g., Ziegler nanoclusters defined as metal nanoclusters made from combination of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst precursors). A critical review of the existing literature (Alley et al. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 2010, 315, 1-27) and a recently published study using an Ir model system (Alley et al. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 8131-8147) help to guide the present investigation of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts made from the industrially favored precursors Co(neodecanoate){sub 2} or Ni(2-ethylhexanoate){sub 2}, plus AlEt{sub 3}. The approach and methods used herein parallel those used in the study of the Ir model system. Specifically, a combination of Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy are used to characterize the transition metal species both before and after hydrogenation. Kinetic studies including Hg(0) poisoning experiments are utilized to test which species are the most active catalysts. The main findings are that, both before and after catalytic cyclohexene hydrogenation, the species present comprise a broad distribution of metal cluster sizes from subnanometer to nanometer scale particles, with estimated mean cluster diameters of about 1 nm for

  4. Industrial Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts made from Co(neodecanoate)2 or Ni(2-ethylhexanoate)2 and AlEt3: evidence for nanoclusters and sub-nanocluster or larger Ziegler-nanocluster based catalysis.

    PubMed

    Alley, William M; Hamdemir, Isil K; Wang, Qi; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Li, Long; Yang, Judith C; Menard, Laurent D; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Özkar, Saim; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Johnson, Kimberly A; Finke, Richard G

    2011-05-17

    Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are important for industrial processes, namely, the large-scale selective hydrogenation of styrenic block copolymers. Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are composed of a group 8-10 transition metal precatalyst plus an alkylaluminum cocatalyst (and they are not the same as Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts). However, for ∼50 years two unsettled issues central to Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysis are the nature of the metal species present after catalyst synthesis, and whether the species primarily responsible for catalytic hydrogenation activity are homogeneous (e.g., monometallic complexes) or heterogeneous (e.g., Ziegler nanoclusters defined as metal nanoclusters made from combination of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst precursors). A critical review of the existing literature (Alley et al. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 2010, 315, 1-27) and a recently published study using an Ir model system (Alley et al. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 8131-8147) help to guide the present investigation of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts made from the industrially favored precursors Co(neodecanoate)(2) or Ni(2-ethylhexanoate)(2), plus AlEt(3). The approach and methods used herein parallel those used in the study of the Ir model system. Specifically, a combination of Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy are used to characterize the transition metal species both before and after hydrogenation. Kinetic studies including Hg(0) poisoning experiments are utilized to test which species are the most active catalysts. The main findings are that, both before and after catalytic cyclohexene hydrogenation, the species present comprise a broad distribution of metal cluster sizes from subnanometer to nanometer scale particles, with estimated mean cluster diameters of about 1 nm for both Co and Ni. The

  5. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥ 350 cm wide or stalls ≥ 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥ 14 h/d, ≤ 5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥ 110 min

  6. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    percent less than withdrawals for irrigation in 1974. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer for irrigation in 2000 were 21 million acre-feet (McGuire, 2007). Water-level changes in the aquifer result from an imbalance between discharge and recharge. Discharge is primarily ground-water withdrawals for irrigation. Discharge also includes evapotranspiration, where the water table is near the land surface, and seepage to streams and springs, where the water table intersects with the land surface. Recharge is primarily from precipitation. Other sources of recharge are irrigation return flow and seepage from streams, canals, and reservoirs. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for ground-water withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Water-level declines also can affect ground-water availability, surface-water flow, and near-stream (riparian) habitat areas (Alley and others, 1999).

  7. Role of a neuronal small non-messenger RNA: behavioural alterations in BC1 RNA-deleted mice.

    PubMed

    Lewejohann, L; Skryabin, B V; Sachser, N; Prehn, C; Heiduschka, P; Thanos, S; Jordan, U; Dell'Omo, G; Vyssotski, A L; Pleskacheva, M G; Lipp, H-P; Tiedge, H; Brosius, J; Prior, H

    2004-09-23

    BC1 RNA is a small non-messenger RNA common in dendritic microdomains of neurons in rodents. In order to investigate its possible role in learning and behaviour, we compared controls and knockout mice from three independent founder lines established from separate embryonic stem cells. Mutant mice were healthy with normal brain morphology and appeared to have no neurological deficits. A series of tests for exploration and spatial memory was carried out in three different laboratories. The tests were chosen as to ensure that different aspects of spatial memory and exploration could be separated and that possible effects of confounding variables could be minimised. Exploration was studied in a barrier test, in an open-field test, and in an elevated plus-maze test. Spatial memory was investigated in a Barnes maze and in a Morris water maze (memory for a single location), in a multiple T-maze and in a complex alley maze (route learning), and in a radial maze (working memory). In addition to these laboratory tasks, exploratory behaviour and spatial memory were assessed under semi-naturalistic conditions in a large outdoor pen. The combined results indicate that BC1 RNA-deficient animals show behavioural changes best interpreted in terms of reduced exploration and increased anxiety. In contrast, spatial memory was not affected. In the outdoor pen, the survival rates of BC1-depleted mice were lower than in controls. Thus, we conclude that the neuron-specific non-messenger BC1 RNA contributes to the aptive modulation of behaviour.

  8. Saturn's Great White Storm (2010): Correlations between Clouds and Thermal Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momary, T.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Orton, G. S.; Baines, K. H.; Fletcher, L.; Trinh, S.; Delcroix, M.

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that convective storms occur regularly in Saturn's atmosphere, but giant storm outbreaks, known as Great White Spot (GWS) outbreaks, occur approximately every 29 years or once per Saturnian year, just past northern solstice. Including the recent GWS outbreak of December 2010, a total of six have occurred, and are considered to be related to the changing seasonal insolation, though their triggers are not yet known or what occurs below the clouds on smaller temporal and spatial timelines. Although not predictable, as evidenced by the current Northern Storm and observed by Cassini, the great storms start out with a violent outbreak, dredging up material from the deep atmosphere, which then is dispersed by the prevailing winds. The recent 2010 December GWS outbreak is an outlier, occurring at northern latitudes of approximately 35°N (the northern "Tornado Alley"), just past vernal equinox, almost a season early. It has rapidly encircled the planet in two months and is now in its mature phase, with discrete structure obvious at all longitudes at both mid-infrared and deep atmosphere (or 5-microns). Recent amateur observations indicate a link between lightning strikes, convective storm activity, GWS and spoke activity in the morning ansa (Delacroix et al., 2011). We shall explore correlations between the many visible/CCD observations from the amateur community, the albedo and thermal maps produced with data acquired from NASA/InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF)/NSFCAM2, a 1 - 5-micron imager, during the various phases of the 2010 - 2011 GWS. We will characterize changes in the local environs of the outbreak site at various epochs and compare with other locations on the planet. Delacroix, M., E. Kraaikamp and P. Yanamandra-Fisher,2011. First Ground Observations of Saturn's Spokes Around 2009 Equinox. EPSC/DPS, Nantes, France.

  9. Sight laser detection modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Christophe; Deshors, Gilles; Lado-Bordowsky, Olga; Meyzonnette, Jean-Louis

    2003-08-01

    Since Sarajevo's sadly famous events (sniper alley), the military tried and hoped to detect snipers before they hit. The principle of the detection is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect according to which the light emitted by the system and incident on the sniper's sight reflects backward in the direction of the source. The system is thus composed of a laser emitter and a CCD array detector. Already existing equipment has been tested in operations and they present too low a probability of detection for the false alarm rate we want to reach. In order to specify equipment characteristics to industrials, it has been necessary to develop a sight laser detector model. The model presented here takes into account all the various elements of the system, from the laser emission to the CCD detection, and atmospheric propagation (ie attenuation and turbulence). The signal and noise probability density functions are calculated by combining the different elementary probability density functions encountered on the double-pass propagation. This Matlab coded model gives the probability of detection of the system for given geometrical (monostatic or bistatic) and electronic characteristics of the system and for a given probability of false alarms. In addition to this, measurements in the field made it possible to validate the budget link of the model and improve it. Those measurements also permitted to underline the importance of the target optical signature, namely its Laser Cross Section. The most significant parameters necessary to the validation of the model are measured. This study allows us to answer the question 'why is the probability of detection of existing systems too low and how could we increase it's efficiency?'

  10. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  11. Interannual Variations of Shallow Firn Temperature at Greenland Summit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Li; Wang, W. L.; Zwally, H. J.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Firn-temperature profiles are calculated in a thermal model using continuous surface temperatures derived from Automatic Weather Station (AWS) data and passive microwave data in the Greenland Summit region during the period 1987-1999. The results show that significant interannual variations of mean summer (June to August) and annual temperatures occur in the top 15 m, in addition to the normal seasonal cycle of firn temperature. At 5 m depth, the seasonal cycle is damped to 13% of the surface seasonal amplitude, but even at 15 m about 1% or 0.6 C of the seasonal cycle persists. Both summer and mean annual temperatures decrease from 1987 to 1992, followed by a general increasing trend. Interannual variability is 5 C at the surface, but only is only dampened to 3.2 C at 10 m depth and 0.7 C at 15 m depth. Dampening of the interannual variability with depth is slower than dampening of the seasonal cycle, because of the longer time constant of the interannual variation. The warmer spring and summer temperatures experienced in the top 5 m, due to both the seasonal cycle and interannual variations, affect the rate of firn densification, which is non-linearly dependent on temperature. During the 12 year period 1987-1999, the mean annual surface temperature is -29.2 C, and the mean annual 15 m temperature is -30. 1 C, which is more than 1 C warmer than a 15-m borehole temperature representing the period of about 1959 and warmer than the best-fit temperature history by Alley and Koci back to 1500 A.D..

  12. CHALLENGES IN SOURCE TERM MODELING OF DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-08-01

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models

  13. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models

  14. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls.

  15. Tidal influence on gas bubble emissions from permanent seafloor observations at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled array NEPTUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Spence, G.; Riedel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sonar data from the northern Cascadia margin correlate well with tidal pressure changes and not so well with currents, seafloor shaking from storms or earthquakes, or temperature changes. These data are available from Ocean Networks Canada which operates the NEPTUNE observatory with power and communications to gas hydrate sites on the continental slope, allowing 24/7 monitoring of the dynamic gas hydrate activity. Clayoquot Slope at Cascadia's Bullseye Vent and Bubbly Gulch, is equipped with a variety of sensors including a 270 kHz Imagenex 100 m range multibeam sonar, as well as Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensors, high precision Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPR), current meter and Ocean Bottom Seismograph (OBS). This enables statistically meaningful correlation of these data. Hourly sonar data were collected showing venting activity in the form of gas plumes of various strengths. For four years the sonar was located at what appears to be a transient gas site, with longer periods of absolutely no venting observed activity. Here, the strongest correlation of gas bubbling is with rapid decreasing tidal pressure, where subsequent increasing tidal pressure is shutting down the degassing. In May 2014, the sonar was moved by 500 m to a more actively venting site termed Gastown Alley, over a zone of seismic blanking interpreted as having high subsurface gas content. This site is continuously emitting gas bubbles albeit with varying numbers of plumes and intensities. The strongest correlation of gas discharge is with absolute pressures, with maximum flows at higher tidal pressures, hinting at a steady subsurface rise of gas that is squeezed out stronger at high tides, partially emptying the shallow reservoirs, and with subsiding tidal pressure the venting activity also decreases again. Thus, the two sonar sites, though only 500 m apart, show a different behavior in degassing, however, both reacting most strongly to tidal pressure changes.

  16. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems.

    PubMed

    Haile, Solomon G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2008-01-01

    Compared with open (treeless) pasture systems, silvopastoral agroforestry systems that integrate trees into pasture production systems are likely to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration in deeper soil layers. To test this hypothesis, total soil C contents at six soil depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, 50-75, and 75-125 cm) were determined in silvopastoral systems with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) + bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and an adjacent open pasture (OP) with bahiagrass at four sites, representing Spodosols and Ultisols, in Florida. Soil samples from each layer were fractionated into three classes (250-2000, 53-250, and <53 microm), and the C contents in each were determined. Averaged across four sites and all depths, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) content was higher by 33% in silvopastures near trees (SP-T) and by 28% in the alleys between tree rows (SP-A) than in adjacent open pastures. It was higher by 39% in SP-A and 20% in SP-T than in open pastures in the largest fraction size (250-2000 microm) and by 12.3 and 18.8%, respectively, in the intermediate size fraction (53-250 microm). The highest SOC increase (up to 45 kg m(-2)) in whole soil of silvopasture compared with OP was at the 75- to 125-cm depth at the Spodosol sites. The results support the hypothesis that, compared with open pastures, silvopastures contain more C in deeper soil layers under similar ecological settings, possibly as a consequence of a major input to soil organic matter from decomposition of dead tree-roots.

  17. Demetallization of asphaltenes: Thermal and catalytic effects with small-pore catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Adarme, R. ); Sughrue, E.L.; Johnson, M.M.; Kidd, D.R.; Phillips, M.D.; Shaw, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Residual oil hydrotreating has become an important front end process in commercial oil upgrading schemes because of tighter environmental regulations and a continuing trend toward processing heavier crudes. At Phillips Petroleum, residual oil hydrotreating pretreates feed for heavy oil cracking (HOC) by removing sulfur, a pollutant in the HOC stack gas, and metals such as nickel and vanadium, which adversely affect the cracking catalyst and gasoline yield in the HOC. Metals in residual oil are found almost exclusively in the resin and asphaltene fractions. Research has showed that metals in the resin fraction react more rapidly than metals in the asphaltene fraction. The hydrodemetallization (HDM) reaction is known to be diffusion limited and the larger molecular size of the asphaltene molecules may explain the slower reaction rates. Richardson and Alley and Asaoka, et al. have shown a reduction in asphaltene molecular weights with thermal and catalytic processing. Reynolds and Biggs demonstrated shifts in vanadium size distributions from thermally and catalytically treated residual. Recently Savage and Javanmaridian showed theoretically that reduction in molecular sizes external to catalyst pellets increases the reaction rate by as much as the inverse of the effectiveness factor. This work attempts to extend information on how metals are removed from asphaltenes and the interaction with small-pore catalysts generally found at the back end of residual oil hydrotreaters, where they are protected from deactivation by metal deposition. The small-pore catalysts are generally high in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity and generally restrict the large asphaltene molecules from entering their pores and depositing metals.

  18. Commensal ecology, urban landscapes, and their influence on the genetic characteristics of city-dwelling Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Gardner-Santana, L C; Norris, D E; Fornadel, C M; Hinson, E R; Klein, S L; Glass, G E

    2009-07-01

    Movement of individuals promotes colonization of new areas, gene flow among local populations, and has implications for the spread of infectious agents and the control of pest species. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are common in highly urbanized areas but surprisingly little is known of their population structure. We sampled individuals from 11 locations within Baltimore, Maryland, to characterize the genetic structure and extent of gene flow between areas within the city. Clustering methods and a neighbour-joining tree based on pairwise genetic distances supported an east-west division in the inner city, and a third cluster comprised of historically more recent sites. Most individuals (approximately 95%) were assigned to their area of capture, indicating strong site fidelity. Moreover, the axial dispersal distance of rats (62 m) fell within typical alley length. Several rats were assigned to areas 2-11.5 km away, indicating some, albeit infrequent, long-distance movement within the city. Although individual movement appears to be limited (30-150 m), locations up to 1.7 km are comprised of relatives. Moderate F(ST), differentiation between identified clusters, and high allelic diversity indicate that regular gene flow, either via recruitment or migration, has prevented isolation. Therefore, ecology of commensal rodents in urban areas and life-history characteristics of Norway rats likely counteract many expected effects of isolation or founder events. An understanding of levels of connectivity of rat populations inhabiting urban areas provides information about the spatial scale at which populations of rats may spread disease, invade new areas, or be eradicated from an existing area without reinvasion.

  19. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  20. Effects of model layer simplification using composite hydraulic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Sepulveda, Nicasio; Elango, Lakshmanan

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides much of the fresh drinking water to more than 1.5 billion people in the world (Clarke et al., 1996) and in the United States more that 50 percent of citizens rely on groundwater for drinking water (Solley et al., 1998). As aquifer systems are developed for water supply, the hydrologic system is changed. Water pumped from the aquifer system initially can come from some combination of inducing more recharge, water permanently removed from storage, and decreased groundwater discharge. Once a new equilibrium is achieved, all of the pumpage must come from induced recharge and decreased discharge (Alley et al., 1999). Further development of groundwater resources may result in reductions of surface water runoff and base flows. Competing demands for groundwater resources require good management. Adequate data to characterize the aquifers and confining units of the system, like hydrologic boundaries, groundwater levels, streamflow, and groundwater pumping and climatic data for recharge estimation are to be collected in order to quantify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands, streams, and lakes. Once collected, three-dimensional (3D) groundwater flow models can be developed and calibrated and used as a tool for groundwater management. The main hydraulic parameters that comprise a regional or subregional model of an aquifer system are the hydraulic conductivity and storage properties of the aquifers and confining units (hydrogeologic units) that confine the system. Many 3D groundwater flow models used to help assess groundwater/surface-water interactions require calculating ?effective? or composite hydraulic properties of multilayered lithologic units within a hydrogeologic unit. The calculation of composite hydraulic properties stems from the need to characterize groundwater flow using coarse model layering in order to reduce simulation times while still representing the flow through the system accurately. The accuracy of flow models with

  1. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination in the water column and streambed sediment of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri - Phase III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jerri V.; Barr, Miya N.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, a 5 river-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri's list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. The length of the impaired reach was changed to 7 miles on the Missouri 2002 303(d) list because of data indicating the fecal coliform bacteria problem existed over a broader area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 7-mile 303(d) reach. Ten sites were sampled from June 2003 through October 2003 and from June 2004 through October 2004. Water-column and streambed sediment samples were collected from main-stem and tributary sites mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of recreational season river uses and analyzed for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. Isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from water samples collected at five sites were submitted for rep-PCR analysis to identify presumptive sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Jacks Fork. Results indicate that recreational users (including boaters and swimmers) are not the primary source of fecal coliform bacteria in the Jacks Fork; rather, the presence of fecal coliform bacteria is associated with other animals, of which horses are the primary source. Increases in fecal coliform bacteria densities in the Jacks Fork are associated with cross-country horseback trail-riding events.

  2. Method of preventing unwanted traffic in the “Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontu, A. I.; Maftei, A.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Sachelarie, A.; Budeanu, B.

    2016-08-01

    In 1970’ when the university campus was built the road infrastructure was designed for a very small number of cars. Over time technology has advanced and the number of vehicles has risen. According to the Directorate of Vehicle Registration from Iasi in 2015 there were 173.619 registered vehicles, about 11,000 vehicles in addition to 2014. This rise in vehicle numbers has lead to a particular problem in which, vehicle drivers prefer in some cases the use of back alleys and back roads to get to the destination. The ”Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus is not a main road of transit, is a residential area that does not support a high number of vehicles and especially does not support heavy vehicles. In our case study we observed the tendency of drivers to use the campus roads as a method of bypassing rush hour traffic in their route, especially in the case of taxi vehicles as well as light trucks and vans that use the campus roads as access to the commercial stores and restaurants that are situated in the front of the campus. In the study of ”Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus traffic, on terrain vehicle number collection has been conducted, this was done one week, day by day, and this has revealed that: • the number of cars which enter in the campus area is high. • a lot of cars only transit the campus on route to the commercial area. • 25% from that cars are taxis • trucks and light trucks have been present. In this paper we present a solution that resolves these problems which have been identified in the analysis of the current campus status. In terrain measurements mathematical calculations accompanied with PTV Vissim software simulations using real world data have been used to confirm the proposed solution is viable.

  3. Anxiolytic effects of nicotine in a rodent test of approach-avoidance conflict.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ami; Young, Robert W; Velazquez, Miguel A; Groysman, Mariya; Noorbehesht, Kavon; Ben-Shahar, Osnat M; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2009-06-01

    Nicotine has been reported to produce both anxiolytic and/or anxiogenic effects in humans and animals. This study examined whether pretreatment with nicotine would alter anxiety in a unique runway model of approach-avoidance conflict. Food-restricted rats were trained to run a straight alley once a day to obtain food upon goal-box entry. Beginning on trial 11, food reward was followed by a series of five foot shocks (0.3-0.4 mA, 0.5 s) in the goal box. Non-shocked control rats continued to run for food only. The resulting association of the goal box with both a positive (food) and negative (foot shock) stimulus produced an approach-avoidance conflict (subjects exhibited "retreat behaviors" in which they would approach the goal box, stop, and then retreat back towards the start box). Once retreats were established, their sensitivity to nicotine pretreatment (0.0, 0.03, 0.045, 0.06, or 0.075 mg/kg, i.v.) was compared to saline. In subsequent tests, the effects of nicotine (0.06 or 0.03 mg/kg) were examined on spontaneous activity (locomotion) and center-square entries in an open field (anxiety). Doses of 0.06 and 0.075 mg/kg, but not lower doses of nicotine, reduced the number of runway retreats, and 0.06 mg/kg nicotine increased the number of open-field center entries relative to saline. No effects on locomotion were observed. Nicotine reduced approach-avoidance conflict and increased the rats' willingness to enter the center of an open field, suggesting that the drug can produce anxiolytic properties and that such effects may serve as an important factor in the persistence of smoking behavior.

  4. Sex and estrous cycle differences in cocaine-induced approach-avoidance conflict.

    PubMed

    Kerstetter, Kerry A; Su, Zu-In; Ettenberg, Aaron; Kippin, Tod E

    2013-03-01

    Human and animal research indicates that females may have a higher biological propensity for cocaine abuse than do males. Furthermore, reproductive status modulates the subjective effects of cocaine in women and self-administration rates in rats. Despite the attention that has been given to the modulation of appetitive responses by reproductive status and the well-known mixed positive and negative subjective effects of cocaine, it is unknown if similar effects are observed on aversive responses to cocaine. The present study examines the impact of sex and estrous cycle on approach-avoidance behavior for cocaine as measured in the runway self-administration model. Male and freely cycling female Sprague Dawley rats were trained to traverse a straight alley for single daily injections of 1.0 mg/kg intravenous cocaine over 21 trials. Relative to males, females had significantly longer start latencies but significantly faster approach and shorter run times during the first week of training. Further, estrus females displayed significantly fewer approach-avoidance retreats across all sessions relative to non-estrus females. These results suggest that females initially exhibit greater motivation for cocaine (faster approach) than do males and that the drug's anxiogenic properties have a reduced impact on the motivation to seek cocaine (fewer retreats) in females during the estrus phase relative to other reproductive phases. These findings indicate that both sex and reproductive status contribute to the motivation for cocaine and that sex differences in addiction vulnerability may be attributable in part to differences in the motivational impact of both the appetitive and aversive properties of cocaine. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Experimenting in a constructivist high school physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    Although laboratory activities have long been recognized for their potential to facilitate the learning of science concepts and skills, this potential has yet to be realized. To remediate this problem, researchers have called for constructivist learning environments in which students can pursue open inquiry and frame their own research problems. The present study was designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem solving in such an environment. An interpretive research methodology was adopted for the construction of meaning from the data. The data sources included videotapes, their transcripts, student laboratory reports and reflections, interviews with the students, and the teacher's course outline and reflective notes. Forty-six students from three sections of an introductory physics course taught at a private school for boys participated in the study. This article shows the students' remarkable ability and willingness to generate research questions and to design and develop apparatus for data collection. In their effort to frame research questions, students often used narrative explanations to explore and think about the phenomena to be studied. In some cases, blind alleys, students framed research questions and planned experiments that did not lead to the expected results. We observed a remarkable flexibility to deal with problems that arose during the implementation of their plans in the context of the inquiry. These problems, as well as their solutions and the necessary decision-making processes, were characterized by their situated nature. Finally, students pursued meaningful learning during the interpretation of data and graphs to arrive at reasonable answers of their research questions. We concluded that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and in which they can develop complex problem-solving skills.

  6. Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Terry M.; Heiser, John H.; Watson, Tom; Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., “urban canyons”. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City’s (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport

  7. Rolling Motion of a Ball Spinning About a Near-Vertical Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-01-01

    A ball that is projected forward without spin on a horizontal surface will slide for a short distance before it starts rolling. Sliding friction acts to decrease the translation speed v and it acts to increase the rotation speed ω. When v = Rω, where R is the ball radius, the ball will start rolling and the friction force drops almost to zero since the contact point at the bottom of the ball comes to rest on the surface. The coefficient of rolling friction is much smaller than that for sliding friction. A different situation arises if the ball is projected forward while it is spinning about a vertical or near vertical axis. The latter situation arises in many ball sports. It arises if a player attempts to curve a ball down a bowling alley, or when a billiards player imparts sidespin or "English" to a ball,2 and it can arise in golf if a player strikes a ball with a putter at a point well away from the middle of the putter head. The situation also arises in the game of curling,3 although in that case the object that is projected is a cylindrical rock rather than a spherical ball, and it arises in tennis when a ball lands on the court spinning about a near vertical axis, as it does in both a slice serve and a kick serve. In a slice serve, the axis is almost vertical. In a kick serve, the axis is tilted about 30 degrees away from the vertical in order to increase the amount of topspin.4

  8. Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view.

    PubMed

    Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar; Keerthi, Muddana; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Reddy, Dorankula Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE.

  9. The Hutong effect: informal social control and community psychology in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 2.4 million Beijing residents experience intimate partner violence (IPV) annually. Of these 2.4 million, over 800 000 are injured by IPV; more than 300 000 are injured badly enough to require medical attention. Informal social control exerted by neighbours in communities with high levels of family-community integration (like those made up of residents of traditional courtyard house-and-alley Beijing neighbourhoods called 'Hutongs') may protect against IPV injury compared with apartment dwellers. We tested the protective effects of informal social control and Hutong residence in a randomly selected, three-stage cluster sample of Beijing families reporting IPV. Informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) was measured using two 7-question Likert scales developed by the first author. Interviewers were given detailed instructions on how to classify neighbourhoods as Hutong-style or not. We used a Sobel test to examine whether the Hutong effect was mediated by informal social control. The initial sample was of 506 families. Analyses were carried out on 113 families who reported any IPV in the last year. Random effects regression models showed that both acts of informal social control and Hutong residence were associated with less IPV injury. However, the protective finding for Hutong residence was not explained by informal social control, collective efficacy, characteristics of the IPV or demographic characteristics of respondents and households. The unique protective association with Hutong residence suggests that the benefits of community life remain insufficiently theorised and understood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Sex-for-Crack exchanges: associations with risky sexual and drug use niches in an urban Canadian city

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While crack cocaine has been associated with elevated sexual risks and transmission of HIV/STIs, particularly in the context of street-based sex work, few empirical studies have examined correlates of direct sex-for-crack exchanges. This study longitudinally examined the correlates of sex-for-crack exchanges and associated effects on sexual risk outcomes among street-based female sex workers (SW) who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of street-based SWs (2006–2008), restricted to those who smoke crack cocaine. Multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to examine the correlates of exchanging sex for crack. A confounding model using GEE quasi-Poisson regression modeled the independent effect of exchanging sex for crack on number of clients/week. Results Of 206 SWs, 101 (49%) reported sex-for-crack exchanges over 18 months of follow-up. In multivariable GEE analyses, sharing a crack pipe with a client (aOR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.27-3.08) and smoking crack in a group of strangers (e.g., in an alley or crackhouse) (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.13-2.58) were independently correlated with sex-for-crack exchanges. In our confounding model, exchanging sex for crack (aIRR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07-1.69) remained significantly associated with servicing a greater number (>10) of clients/week. Conclusions These findings reveal elevated sexual- and drug- risk patterns among those who exchange sex for crack. The physical and social environment featured prominently in our results as a driver of sex-for-crack exchanges, highlighting the need for gender-sensitive multilevel approaches to harm reduction, STI and HIV prevention that address SWs’ environment, individual level factors, and the interplay between them. PMID:24238367

  11. A new ant based distributed framework for urban road map updating from high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinpanjeh, Nima; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Schenk, Toni

    2013-04-01

    Receiving updated information about the network of roads from high resolution satellite imagery is a crucially important issue in continuously changing developing urban regions. Considering experiences in road extraction and also exploiting distributed evolutionary computational approaches, in this paper a new framework for road map updating from remotely sensed data is proposed. Three main computational entities of ant-agent, seed extractor and algorithm library are designed and road map updating is performed through three main stages of verification of the old map, extraction of possible roads and grouping of the results of both stages. Extracting corresponding pixels to each road element in the map, an object level supervised classification or any available road verification algorithm from the library capable of producing a road likeliness value is applied. Since road extraction is a simple and also a complex problem, more comprehensive algorithms are chosen from library iteratively by ant-agents so the decision about verification and rejection of each road element is finally made. Ant-agents facilitate choosing road elements and moving of ant agents via stigmergic communication by pheromone cast and evaporation. The proposed method is developed and tested using GeoEye-1 pan-sharpen imagery and 1:2000 corresponding digital vector map of the region. As observed, the results are satisfactory in terms of detection, verification and extraction of roads and generation of the updated map specifically in case of inspection of main roads. Besides, some missed road items are reported in case of inspection of bystreets and alleys specially when situated at the margin of the image. Completeness, correctness and quality measures are computed for evaluation of the initial and the resulted updated maps. The computed measures verify the improvement of the updated map.

  12. Fault connectivity, distributed shortening, and impacts on geologic- geodetic slip rate discrepancies in the central Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.; Cooke, M. L.; Grette, K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding off-fault deformation and distribution of displacement rates associated with disconnected strike-slip faults requires a three-dimensional view of fault geometries. We address problems associated with distributed faulting by studying the Mojave segment of the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ), a region dominated by northwest-directed dextral shear along disconnected northwest- southeast striking faults. We use a combination of cross-sectional interpretations, 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) models, and slip-rate measurements to test new hypothesized fault connections. We find that reverse faulting acts as an important means of slip transfer between strike-slip faults, and show that the impacts of these structural connections on shortening, uplift, strike-slip rates, and off-fault deformation, help to reconcile the overall strain budget across this portion of the ECSZ. In detail, we focus on the Calico and Blackwater faults, which are hypothesized to together represent the longest linked fault system in the Mojave ECSZ, connected by a restraining step at 35°N. Across this restraining step the system displays a pronounced displacement gradient, where dextral offset decreases from ~11.5 to <2 km from south to north. Cross-section interpretations show that ~40% of this displacement is transferred from the Calico fault to the Harper Lake and Blackwater faults via a set of north-dipping thrust ramps. Late Quaternary dextral slip rates follow a similar pattern, where 1.4 +0.8/-0.4 mm/yr of slip along the Calico fault south of 35°N is distributed to the Harper Lake, Blackwater, and Tin Can Alley faults. BEM model results using revised fault geometries for the Mojave ECSZ show areas of uplift consistent with contractional structures, and fault slip-rates that more closely match geologic data. Overall, revised fault connections and addition of off-fault deformation greatly reduces the discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates.

  13. Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar; Keerthi, Muddana; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Reddy, Dorankula Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. Aims: To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. Settings and Design: A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Materials and Methods: 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Statistical Analysis: Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results: Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Conclusion: Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE. PMID:28123278

  14. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  15. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  16. Application of ripple mapping to visualize slow conduction channels within the infarct-related left ventricular scar.

    PubMed

    Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Vergara, Pasquale; Carbucicchio, Corrado; Linton, Nick; Koa-Wing, Michael; Luther, Vishal; Francis, Darrel P; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, David Wyn; Tondo, Claudio; Della Bella, Paolo; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2015-02-01

    Ripple mapping (RM) displays each electrogram at its 3-dimensional coordinate as a bar changing in length according to its voltage-time relationship with a fiduciary reference. We applied RM to left ventricular ischemic scar for evidence of slow-conducting channels that may act as ventricular tachycardia (VT) substrate. CARTO-3© (Biosense Webster Inc, Diamond Bar, CA) maps in patient undergoing VT ablation were analyzed on an offline MatLab RM system. Scar was assessed for sequential movement of ripple bars, during sinus rhythm or pacing, which were distinct from surrounding tissue and termed RM conduction channels (RMCC). Conduction velocity was measured within RMCCs and compared with the healthy myocardium (>1.5 mV). In 21 maps, 77 RMCCs were identified. Conduction velocity in RMCCs was slower when compared with normal left ventricular myocardium (median, 54 [interquartile range, 40-86] versus 150 [interquartile range, 120-160] cm/s; P<0.001). All 7 sites meeting conventional criteria for diastolic pathways coincided with an RMCC. Seven patients had ablation colocating to all identified RMCCs with no VT recurrence during follow-up (median, 480 [interquartile range, 438-841] days). Fourteen patients had ≥1 RMCC with no ablation lesions. Five had recurrence during follow-up (median, 466 [interquartile range, 395-694] days). One of the 2 patients with no RMCC locations ablated had VT recurrence at 605 days post procedure. RMCCs were sensitive (100%; negative predictive value, 100%) for VT recurrence but the specificity (43%; positive predictive value, 35.7%) may be limited by blind alleys channels. RM identifies slow conduction channels within ischemic scar and needs further prospective investigation to understand the role of RMCCs in determining the VT substrate. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Zonal Flow and Vortices in Anelastic Deep Convection Models of Jupiter and Saturn With Shallow Stable Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimpel, M. H.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary jet streams and vortices have been studied for over 350 years, yet their origin and dynamics are still vigorously debated. On both Jupiter and Saturn zonal flow consists of equatorial superrotation and alternating East-West jets at higher latitude. On Jupiter, numerous vortices, the vast majority anticyclones, occur with various sizes and lifetimes, interacting strongly with the zonal flow. Saturn's vortices and jets are also clearly coupled, and its North and South polar vortices are cyclonic. Models of giant planet atmospheres have generally been of two classes. Shallow flow models produce jets and vortices from 2D turbulence in a very thin spherical layer, but require special conditions to reproduce observed equatorial superrotation. In contrast, deep convection models generically reproduce equatorial superrotation, but typically lack coherent vortices, which do not survive the formation of jets. Here, we combine elements of both approaches using a 3D spherical shell compressible fluid numerical model, driven by convection at depth, but grading to a stably stratified shallow layer. In typical model simulations convective plumes rising from the deep interior impinge on the stably stratified layer, diverge near the outer spherical surface, and efficiently create the dominant anticyclones, which are shielded by downwelling cyclonic rings and filaments. These results may explain the dominance of anticyclones and the flow structure of small and medium sized anticyclonic ovals on Jupiter. The largest of our model vortices form in westward anticyclonic shear nearest the equatorial jet, similar to Saturn's "storm alley" and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. We also explore conditions under which cyclones, including polar cyclones like those on Saturn, may form.

  18. Direct measurement of densifcation rates in polar snow and the implications for altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, E.; Wingham, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the cal/val experiments for the CryoSat radar altimeter, density profiles in the upper 10-14 m of snow have been measured along a 500 km traverse across the Greenland Ice Sheet, using a neutron scattering technique. Repeat measurements, over periods ranging from a few days to 5 years allow strainrates and densification rates to be determined as a function of depth. We show that, as expected, the strainrate decreases as the ratio of pore space to ice content decreases. Very large strain rates are observed in the surface layer of snow over summer periods. However, for multi-year snow, once the effect of porosity has been removed, the remaining mean response is constant with depth, that is the effect of increasing overburden pressure is counteracted by increasing strength of the material. The mean strainrate for multi-year snow at a given site is related to the mean annual accumulation rate and mean annual temperature by an expression consistent with the Herron and Langway equation(Herron and Langway, 1980) for first-stage densification. However, there are fluctuations in strainrate associated with the annual layering which indicate that fine and coarse-grained snow have differing strengths. We show that the temperature-dependent process equations proposed by Alley (1987) and Arthern et al. (2010) do not hold, and suggest an alternative relation based on the temperature-history of the snow. Finally we calculate the effect of our observed short-term fluctuations in compaction and accumulation on the elevation ofthe snow surface and discuss the contribution of densification to uncertainty in satellite measurements of elevation trends.

  19. The role of high-dimensional diffusive search, stabilization, and frustration in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Rimratchada, Supreecha; McLeish, Tom C B; Radford, Sheena E; Paci, Emanuele

    2014-04-15

    Proteins are polymeric molecules with many degrees of conformational freedom whose internal energetic interactions are typically screened to small distances. Therefore, in the high-dimensional conformation space of a protein, the energy landscape is locally relatively flat, in contrast to low-dimensional representations, where, because of the induced entropic contribution to the full free energy, it appears funnel-like. Proteins explore the conformation space by searching these flat subspaces to find a narrow energetic alley that we call a hypergutter and then explore the next, lower-dimensional, subspace. Such a framework provides an effective representation of the energy landscape and folding kinetics that does justice to the essential characteristic of high-dimensionality of the search-space. It also illuminates the important role of nonnative interactions in defining folding pathways. This principle is here illustrated using a coarse-grained model of a family of three-helix bundle proteins whose conformations, once secondary structure has formed, can be defined by six rotational degrees of freedom. Two folding mechanisms are possible, one of which involves an intermediate. The stabilization of intermediate subspaces (or states in low-dimensional projection) in protein folding can either speed up or slow down the folding rate depending on the amount of native and nonnative contacts made in those subspaces. The folding rate increases due to reduced-dimension pathways arising from the mere presence of intermediate states, but decreases if the contacts in the intermediate are very stable and introduce sizeable topological or energetic frustration that needs to be overcome. Remarkably, the hypergutter framework, although depending on just a few physically meaningful parameters, can reproduce all the types of experimentally observed curvature in chevron plots for realizations of this fold.

  20. Indices of extinction-induced "depression" after operant learning using a runway vs. a cued free-reward delivery schedule.

    PubMed

    Topic, Bianca; Kröger, Inga; Vildirasova, Petya G; Huston, Joseph P

    2012-11-01

    Loss of reward is one of the etiological factors leading to affective disorders, such as major depression. We have proposed several variants of an animal model of depression based on extinction of reinforced behavior of rats. A number of behaviors emitted during extinction trials were found to be attenuated by antidepressant treatment and, thus, qualified as indices of extinction-induced "despair". These include increases in immobility in the Morris water maze and withdrawal from the former source of reward as well as biting behavior in operant chambers. Here, we assess the effects of reward omission on behaviors after learning of (a) a cued free-reward delivery in an operant chamber and (b) food-reinforced runway behavior. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were either trained to receive food reinforcement every 90 s (s) after a 5s lasting cue light (FI 90), or to traverse an alley to gain food reward. Daily drug treatment with either the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram or the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (each 10mg/kg) or vehicle was begun either 25 days (operant chamber) or 3 days (runway) prior to extinction. The antidepressants suppressed rearing behavior in both paradigms specifically during the extinction trials, which indicates this measure as a useful marker of depression-related behavior, possibly indicating vertical withdrawal. In the operant chamber, only marginal effects on operant learning responses during extinction were found. In the runway, the operant learned responses run time and distance to the goal, as well as total distance moved, grooming and quiescence were also influenced by the antidepressants, providing a potential set of markers for extinction-induced "depression" in the runway. Both paradigms differ substantially with respect to the anticipation of reward, behaviors that are learned and that accompany extinction. Accordingly, antidepressant treatment influenced different sets of behaviors in these two learning tasks.

  1. Protective role of bentonite against aflatoxin B1- and ochratoxin A-induced immunotoxicity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Saqib, Muhammad; Khan, Ahrar; Ul-Hassan, Zahoor

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate any ameliorative effects of bentonite (BN) against immuno-pathological alterations induced by dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler chicks. In one experiment, AFB1 (0.1, 0.2 or 0.6 mg/kg feed) was fed alone and par alley with bentonite clay (3.7 or 7.5 g/kg feed) to the broilers. In the second experiment, the broilers were given feed contaminated with OTA (0.15, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg feed) alone and in combination with bentonite clay (3.7, 7.5, or 15 g/kg feed). Experimental feedings were continued for 42 days. At various time points along the feeding schedule, immune system organ histologic status, as well as host humoral and cellular immune responses, were evaluated in all groups. The dietary addition of AFB1 and OTA alone significantly reduced immune responses in the birds as assessed by histological changes in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus, antibody responses to SRBC, in-vivo lympho-proliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and, phagocytic function in situ. The dietary addition of BN significantly ameliorated the immunotoxicity of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg dietary AFB1, however with a level of 0.6 mg AFB1/kg only partial amelioration was seen. The co-treatment of birds exposed to OTA with BN at all levels only partially alleviated deleterious effects on histology and immune responses. Taken together, the results here suggested to us that dietary addition of BN could help ameliorate AFB1-mediated immunotoxicities but could not afford such protection against OTA-induced immune damage.

  2. Complex maze performance during carbon monoxide exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Annau, Z

    1987-01-01

    Most human victims of residential fires die of smoke inhalation. The cause of death of the victims is attributed to high levels of carboxyhemoglobin, but it is not clear why the victims are unable to escape even from locations remote from flaming combustion. In an attempt to provide a model of escape from toxic gases using animals, a complex maze was built for rats with 8 choice points. The animals were 24 hr water deprived and trained to remain in the start box for 15 min. Following this period, a rat was released in the maze and had to learn to avoid blind alleys and reach the goal box for water reinforcement within 15 min. Total time to traverse and total distance in the maze were recorded. Each animal was given one trial per day. After stable running times were established, different groups of six rats were exposed to 2000, 3000, 3500, and 4000 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO) when placed in the maze. Each animal was exposed to CO only once. On the day after CO exposure the rats were implanted with an arterial cannula and on the next day each animal was exposed to the same CO concentration it had previously experienced for 30 min. Blood samples were taken every 5 min. The effect of increasing CO concentrations was to increase maze running times as well as to decrease the number of animals reaching the goal. At 3500 ppm no animal reached the goal. At 2000 ppm, the animals that failed to reach the goal moved a greater distance than animals that reached the goal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The Joy of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAyeal, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness of cryospheric science in addressing its main purpose (predicting and assessing response to climate change) is powerfully, but intangibly enhanced by the mysterious nature and the remote locations of ice and snow phenomena. Study of the cryosphere, in essence, depends as much on the universal human desire to satisfy curiosity as it does on the fact that cryospheric science informs humanity about the consequences of the environmental changes now clearly visible in all realms of the cryosphere. In my presentation, I shall consider the study of ice-shelf dynamics and stability, and shall draw on the perspective of my 37 years of involvement in this small, but important corner of glaciology, to show where curiosity has, and continues to be, a major driver of understanding. Joyful moments within the development of ice-shelf glaciology include examples where complete misunderstandings and blind alleys have ironically led to unexpected insight into how related phenomena operate, including: the flow of ice streams, the role of sticky spots, styles and drivers of iceberg calving, tidewater glacier terminus behavior, the source mechanisms and interpretations of cryospheric related seismic signals, and the dynamics of iceberg-drift-steering ocean circulation in basins separated by mid-ocean ridges. The familiar joke, "Why did the man who lost his keys on a dark night only search underneath the streetlamp?", is apt for cryospheric science--but with a perverse twist: We cryospheric scientists are more akin to the man who is driven to also grope for the key in the darkness because of the chance that in addition to the key, the car that the key will start might also be found somewhere beyond the glow of the streetlamp.

  4. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows.

  5. Type 1 diabetes, cognition and the neurologist: Exploring Go/No-Go and Maze tasks in the search for a practical screening tool.

    PubMed

    Shinosaki, Jullyanna S M; Rossini, Joaquim C; Jorge, Maria Luiza P M; Macedo, Lorena B C; Tannús, Paulo J

    2017-08-01

    The objectives were to use inexpensive and easy-to-apply tasks in order to investigate the differences between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and controls regarding attention and impulsivity, which are the basis for key-executive function components that are traditionally assessed using subjective, long and difficult to reproduce questionnaires. Additionally, we sought to correlate these differences with clinical characteristics, and to explore correlations between the tasks. We compared the scores of 20 T1DM patients with 20 controls. The sample population included both males and females, aged 12-15 years. They were tested using a Go/No-Go paradigm and a Maze task, and correlations were verified between the groups. The T1DM group had more anticipatory answers (AA) in the Go/No-Go task (p <0.05), and made more direction changes in Mazes (p<0.01). There was a correlation between non-severe hypoglycemia and AA (p=0.01), as well as between severe hypoglycemia and the number of touches in Mazes' walls (p<0.05). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)>9% correlated with a greater number of alleys in Mazes (p<0.05). The tasks' parameters were coherent among each test, and also between them. We found indicators of inattention and impulsivity to be associated with T1DM, with inattention being closely related with hyperglycemia, and impulsivity being associated with hypoglycemia. Further research is needed to study diabetes-associated cognitive decline with more objective parameters, and to analyse the reliability and psychometric properties of the tasks proposed in this study. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac arrest at exercise facilities: implications for placement of automated external defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Page, Richard L; Husain, Sofia; White, Lindsay Y; Rea, Thomas D; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Yin, Lihua; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Cobb, Leonard A; Eisenberg, Mickey S

    2013-12-03

    This study sought to characterize the relative frequency, care, and survival of sudden cardiac arrest in traditional indoor exercise facilities, alternative indoor exercise sites, and other indoor sites. Little is known about the relative frequency of sudden cardiac arrest at traditional indoor exercise facilities versus other indoor locations where people engage in exercise or about the survival at these sites in comparison with other indoor locations. We examined every public indoor sudden cardiac arrest in Seattle and King County from 1996 to 2008 and categorized each event as occurring at a traditional exercise center, an alternative exercise site, or a public indoor location not used for exercise. Arrests were further defined by the classification of the site, activity performed, demographics, characteristics of treatment, and survival. For some location types, annualized site incident rates of cardiac arrests were calculated. We analyzed 849 arrests, with 52 at traditional centers, 84 at alternative exercise sites, and 713 at sites not associated with exercise. The site incident rates of arrests at indoor tennis facilities, indoor ice arenas, and bowling alleys were higher than at traditional fitness centers. Survival to hospital discharge was greater at exercise sites (56% at traditional and 45% at alternative) than at other public indoor locations (34%; p = 0.001). We observed a higher rate of cardiac arrests at some alternative exercise facilities than at traditional exercise sites. Survival was higher at exercise sites than at nonexercise indoor sites. These data have important implications for automated external defibrillator placement. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden change: Climate and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.

    1995-10-01

    Dates, magnitudes and rates of Holocene sea-level changes were reviewed at the 1995 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Richard B. Alley (Penn. State U.) described laminae in Greenland ice cores, with details at the annual level. A major event of unknown nature occurred at roughly 8,000 B.P. Gerard Bond (Lamont-Doherty Observ., N.Y.) described sediment cores from the North Atlantic, with a major event at 8,000 B.P. Published work of K.S. Petersen (Danish Geol. Survey) from a well near Vust (Denmark) was reviewed: A rapid sea level rise (25 m), then a similar drop centered at 8,000 B.P. at 8-15 cm/yr. W.F. Tanner (Florida State U.) described the beach ridge plain in northern Denmark, where a sequence of more than 270 Holocene ridges shows the date of the big Mid-Holocene sea level change couplet, 8,000 B.P., with a magnitude of {open_quotes}more than 14 m,{close_quotes} plus smaller changes. These data showed vertical magnitudes of the larger sea level events (except the Mid-Holocene catastrophe) in the range of 1-to-5 meters. W.C. Parker (Florida State) sought possible cycles in the same sequence, but they were too poorly defined for detailed forecasts. Charles R. Bentley (U. of Wisconsin) examined the possibility of an early collapse of the West Antarctic marine ice sheet, with a sea level rise of about 5 meters, but concluded that it is unlikely.

  8. Technical note: Validation of a commercial system for the continuous and automated monitoring of dairy cow activity.

    PubMed

    Tullo, E; Fontana, I; Gottardo, D; Sloth, K H; Guarino, M

    2016-09-01

    Current farm sizes do not allow the precise identification and tracking of individual cows and their health and behavioral records. Currently, the application of information technology within intensive dairy farming takes a key role in proper routine management to improve animal welfare and to enhance the comfort of dairy cows. An existing application based on information technology is represented by the GEA CowView system (GEA Farm Technologies, Bönen, Germany). This system is able to detect and monitor animal behavioral activities based on positioning, through the creation of a virtual map of the barn that outlines all the areas where cows have access. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of data provided by the CowView system. The validation was performed by comparing data automatically obtained from the CowView system with those obtained by a manual labeling procedure performed on video recordings. Data used for the comparisons were represented by the zone-related activities performed by the selected dairy cows and were classified into 2 categories: activity and localization. The duration in seconds of each of the activities/localizations detected both with the manual labeling and with the automated system were used to evaluate the correlation coefficients among data; and subsequently the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the automated monitoring system were calculated. The results of this validation study showed that the CowView automated monitoring system is able to identify the cow localization/position (alley, trough, cubicles) with high reliability in relation to the zone-related activities performed by dairy cows (accuracy higher than 95%). The results obtained support the CowView system as an innovative potential solution for the easier management of dairy cows.

  9. The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture.

  10. Pushing the basins and squeezing the models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas; Angermann, Lisa; Zehe, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    In hydrology we have to deal with a multitude of processes, scales and unknowns. Most studies rely on past observations at gauges and point measurements. Some use singular experiments to test the hillslope or catchment reaction to forcing. To extend beyond that, we mostly need to rely on models. At the same time these models have often been developed as engineering tools with given degrees of freedom and limited capabilities for self-organisation. Both aspects raise questions about getting trapped in circular reasoning, recovery of assumptions or ambiguity. The future in water sciences could approach these known challenges in a more rigorous manner along the following alleys: 1. Experimental hypothesis testing needs to extend beyond monitoring of natural conditions at the plot and hillslope scale. 2. Complementary experimental setups can test the validity of methodological assumption of one observation technique through an other to reduce ambiguity. 3. A new generation of models which are capable for self-controlled process interaction and hypothesis testing. To outline the possibilities of these paths we will present some preliminary examples for each aspect: 1. We conducted a hillslope scale sprinkler experiment with a sharp divide of the sprinkled area. It was accompanied by GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) induced trenches for spatial and temporal recovery of rapid flow paths. Using this approach allows to test many hypotheses in situ. 2. We present findings from multi-tracer and 3D time-lapse GPR experiments at the plot scale. Here we highlight how the different methods deliver contradictory conclusions about the processes and how the combination may reduce uncertainty. 3. In addition we point out results from our echoRD model (eco-hydrological particle model based on representative structured domains) which treats water itself as particles on the plot scale. Special emphasis will be given on tests with different representations and parameterisations of

  11. Identification and Adjustment for Deep Low Stream Flow Persistence for the Lower Colorado River Basin in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R.; Rose, B.; Oliver, L., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The Highland Lakes in Texas supply water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural users, and environmental flows for the Colorado River and Matagorda Bay. A portion of the lower Colorado River basin around the Highland Lakes is known as Flash Flood Alley and is subject to extended droughts interrupted by intense rainfall. The basin recently experienced a historic multi-year drought. At times during the drought, precipitation was up to 80 percent of normal, but runoff into the Highland Lakes was at historic lows. In 2011, La Niña conditions contributed to lower-than-average precipitation in Central Texas. In early spring of 2011, an intense high pressure ridge set up over the south central U.S., keeping rain and storms away from most of Texas. A flash drought developed with unprecedented dry and hot weather conditions. During the summer of 2011, Central Texas also experienced brutal heat with about 90 days with temperatures at or above 100 degrees Fahrenheit. We developed multiple regression relationships to predict runoff using indicators for precipitation, weather, soil moisture, and known groundwater interactions. The relationships explain nearly 80 percent of the variation of observed inflows. Review of the residuals from the relationships reveals periods of low long-term persistence in inflows after accounting for statistically significant the indicators. The periods from 1980 to 1987 and 2011 into 2016 show uncharacteristically low runoff. We propose using regression residuals to monitor for periods of low runoff. We also suggest inflow modifications to avoid overestimating future inflows during periods when residuals suggest low runoff conditions.

  12. Evidence of a role for multiple memory systems in behavioral extinction.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2006-05-01

    The acquisition of learned behavior involves multiple memory systems, and hippocampal system damage impairs cognitive learning while leaving stimulus-response habit learning intact. In view of evidence that extinction also involves new learning, the present experiments examined whether multiple memory systems theory may be applicable to the neural bases of extinction. Adult Long-Evans rats were trained to run in a straight-alley maze for food reward. Twenty-four hours later, rats matched for runway latencies during acquisition received extinction training. In a response extinction condition conducive to habit learning, rats performed a runway approach response to an empty food cup. In a latent extinction condition conducive to cognitive learning, rats were placed at an empty food cup without performing a runway approach response. Prior to daily extinction training, neural activity of the dorsal hippocampus was reversibly inactivated via infusion of bupivacaine (0.75%, 0.5 microl/side). Control rats receiving saline infusions displayed extinction behavior in both the response and latent training conditions. In contrast, rats receiving bupivacaine extinguished normally in the response condition, but did not display latent extinction. The findings (1) confirm that learning underlying extinction of the same overt behavior can occur with or without explicit performance of the previously acquired response, (2) indicate that extinction learning produced by response and latent training procedures can be neuroanatomically dissociated, and (3) suggest that similarly to initial task acquisition, the hippocampus may critically mediate extinction in situations requiring the use of cognitive learning, such as when performance of a previously acquired response habit is prevented.

  13. Making Connections to Students' Lives and Careers Throughout a General Education Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaDue, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Oklahoma's general education lecture course Severe & Unusual Weather, taught in two sections each fall and spring, covers about nine topics. The sections are taught by different instructors, each of whom has flexibility to employ a variety of instructional strategies and choose specific topics to cover while meeting the requirement that general education courses in the natural sciences help students understand the importance of the science for appreciating the world around them. Students enrolled have been approximately 6-10% returning adult students, some of whom were veterans or active duty military, and about 10% members of racial or ethnic groups. Their majors are mostly in the humanities (theater, photography) and social sciences (education, English, journalism, sociology), with some natural science majors (psychology, aviation). For the past two years, Section 001 has been designed with adult and active learning concepts in mind, using deliberate connections between course content and students' lives and careers to motivate meaningful learning. Students were grouped in teams according to similar majors and assigned group presentations connecting course content to topics that should interest them, such as economic impacts of weather, societal and personal impacts of severe weather, risks to aviation, media coverage of weather, and psychological and sociological responses to weather risks. Students learn about the peer review process for scientific papers while also exploring a connection of course content to their future career or life interests through papers that are run through a mock peer review process. Public policy is discussed in several sections of the course, such as hurricane building codes, wind-resistant construction in tornado alley, and the disproportionate impacts of weather and climate on certain socioeconomic groups. Most students deeply appreciate the opportunity to explore how course content intersects with their lives

  14. How extreme was northern hemisphere seasonality during the Younger Dryas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, Øyvind; Paasche, Øyvind

    2006-03-01

    In explaining the rapid transitions associated with the Younger Dryas cooling, a reduced meridional overturning circulation has traditionally been invoked, but such a scenario has been difficult to reproduce in model studies without adding excessive amounts of freshwater to the North Atlantic. More recent studies challenge this view and indicate that the role of an extensive sea ice cover may have been as important in promoting abrupt climate change as reorganisations of the North Atlantic Ocean [Gildor, H., Tziperman, E., 2003. Sea-ice switches and abrupt climate change. Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society Of London Series A—Mathematical Physical And Engineering Sciences 361, 1935-1942]. Based on glacier evidence from eastern Greenland [Denton, G.H., Alley, R.B., Comer, G.C., Broecker, W.S., 2005. The role of seasonality in abrupt climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 1159-1182] suggest that the seasonal temperature amplitude increased by about 20 °C during the Younger Dryas. Such a 'switching of seasonality' lends support to the idea of a fast-expanding sea ice cover, because it allows for extremely cold winters that are balanced by relatively mild summers. However, climatic interpretations based on the geometry and length of glaciers under such conditions as in Scoresby Sund is not well understood, and equilibrium-line-altitude (ELA) estimates should, therefore, be regarded as tentative. Here, we discuss the absolute seasonal amplitude during the Younger Dryas by taking winter precipitation into account and show that the changes in seasonality may have been limited to 10 °C. We propose that by reducing the seasonal response in Greenland compared with western Europe we better understand the hinged-door modus operandi [COHMAP, 1988. Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations. Science 241, 1043-1052] of the polar front and sea-ice cover, where the absolute southward migration of sea-ice is highest in the

  15. Rapid grounding line migration induced by internal variability of a marine-terminating ice stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robel, A.; Schoof, C.; Tziperman, E.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have found significant variability in the velocity of ice streams to be a prominent feature of geomorphologic records in the Siple Coast (Catania et al. 2012) and other regions in West Antarctica (Dowdeswell et al. 2008). Observations indicate that grounding line position is strongly influenced by ice stream variability, producing rapid grounding line migration in the recent past (Catania et al. 2006) and the modern (Joughin & Tulaczyk 2002). We analyze the interaction of grounding line mass flux and position in a marine-terminating ice stream using a stretch-coordinate flowline model. This model is based on that described in Schoof (2007), with a mesh refined near the grounding line to ensure accurate resolution of the mechanical transition zone. Here we have added lateral shear stress (Dupont & Alley 2005) and an undrained plastic bed (Tulaczyk et al. 2000). The parameter dependence of ice stream variability seen in this model compares favorably to both simpler (Robel et al. 2013) and more complex (van der Wel et al. 2013) models, though with some key differences. We find that thermally-induced internal ice stream variability can cause very rapid grounding line migration even in the absence of retrograde bed slopes or external forcing. Activation waves propagate along the ice stream length and trigger periods of rapid grounding line migration. We compare the behavior of the grounding line due to internal ice stream variability to changes triggered externally at the grounding line such as the rapid disintegration of buttressing ice shelves. Implications for Heinrich events and the Marine Ice Sheet Instability are discussed.

  16. A new method to quantify the impact of soil carbon management on biophysical soil properties: the example of two apple orchard systems in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Deurer, Markus; Sivakumaran, Siva; Ralle, Stefanie; Vogeler, Iris; McIvor, Ian; Clothier, Brent; Green, Steve; Bachmann, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    A new method to diagnose the environmental sustainability of specific orchard management practices was derived and tested. As a significant factor for soil quality, the soil carbon (C) management in the topsoil of the tree-row of an integrated and organic apple orchard was selected and compared. Soil C management was defined as land management practices that maintain or increase soil C. We analyzed the impact of the soil C management on biological (microbial biomass C, basal respiration, dehydrogenase activity, respiratory quotient) and physical (aggregate stability, amount of plant-available water, conductive mean pore diameter near water saturation) soil properties. Soil in the alley acted as a reference for the managed soil in the tree row. The total and hot-water-extractable C amounts served as a combined proxy for the soil C management. The soil C management accounted for 0 to 81% of the degradation or enhancement of biophysical soil properties in the integrated and organic system. In the integrated system, soil C management led to a loss of C in the top 0.3 m of the tree row within 12 yr, causing a decrease in microbial activities. In the tree row of the organic orchard, C loss occurred in the top 0.1 m, and the decrease in microbial activities was small or not significant. Regarding physical soil properties, the C loss in the integrated system led to a decrease of the aggregate stability, whereas it increased in the organic system. Generally, the impact of soil C management was better correlated with soil microbial than with the physical properties. With respect to environmental soil functions that are sensitive to the decrease in microbial activity or aggregate stability, soil C management was sustainable in the organic system but not in the integrated system.

  17. Differences in anxiolytic-like profile of two novel nonbenzodiazepine BZ (omega) receptor agonists on defensive behaviors of mice.

    PubMed

    Griebel, G; Perrault, G; Sanger, D J

    1999-04-01

    The present experiments compared the behavioral effects of two novel BZ (omega) receptor agonists, the pyridazinone Y-23684 (1-30 mg/kg) and the pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole RWJ-46771 (0.01-0.3 mg/kg) with the BZs diazepam (0.5-3 mg/kg) and clobazam (1-30 mg/kg) in the mouse defense test battery (MDTB), a model for the screening of anxiolytic drugs. In the MDTB, Swiss mice were confronted with a natural threat (a rat) and situations associated with this threat. Primary measures taken during and after rat confrontation were flight, risk assessment, defensive threat/attack, and escape attempts. Results showed that clobazam and Y-23684 significantly modified all defense responses in the presence of the rat at doses that did not decrease spontaneous locomotor activity. These drugs decreased avoidance reactions after the rat was introduced into the runway, reduced flight speed and risk assessment activities of mice chased by the rat, increased risk assessment displayed when subjects were constrained in a straight alley, and reduced defensive threat and attack behaviors upon forced contact. Diazepam significantly decreased all but one (number of avoidances when the rat was first introduced into the runway) defensive behaviors. RWJ-46771 reduced risk assessment in the chase test, avoidance responses, flight speed, and defensive threat and attack reactions, but these effects occurred in the great part at motor-impairing doses, suggesting that the decrease in defensiveness may have been contaminated by behavioral suppression. Finally, following the removal of the rat from the runway, only Y-23684 reduced escape behavior at doses that did not decrease spontaneous behavior. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Y-23684 displayed anxiolytic-like activity comparable to that of BZs in the MDTB. Although RWJ-46771 significantly modified most defensive behaviors, the effects may have been confounded by decreases in locomotor activity.

  18. Modelling mean transit time of stream base flow during tropical cyclone rainstorm in a steep relief forested catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Yi; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Mean transit time (MTT) is one of the of fundamental catchment descriptors to advance understanding on hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes and improve water resources management. However, there were few documented the base flow partitioning (BFP) and mean transit time within a mountainous catchment in typhoon alley. We used a unique data set of 18O isotope and conductivity composition of rainfall (136 mm to 778 mm) and streamflow water samples collected for 14 tropical cyclone events (during 2011 to 2015) in a steep relief forested catchment (Pinglin, in northern Taiwan). A lumped hydrological model, HBV, considering dispersion model transit time distribution was used to estimate total flow, base flow, and MTT of stream base flow. Linear regression between MTT and hydrometric (precipitation intensity and antecedent precipitation index) variables were used to explore controls on MTT variation. Results revealed that both the simulation performance of total flow and base flow were satisfactory, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of total flow and base flow was 0.848 and 0.732, respectively. The event magnitude increased with the decrease of estimated MTTs. Meanwhile, the estimated MTTs varied 4-21 days with the increase of BFP between 63-92%. The negative correlation between event magnitude and MTT and BFP showed the forcing controls the MTT and BFP. Besides, a negative relationship between MTT and the antecedent precipitation index was also found. In other words, wetter antecedent moisture content more rapidly active the fast flow paths. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of high precipitation intensity and steep relief forested environments.

  19. Drugs held and sold by pharmacists of the Jewish community of medieval (11-14th centuries) Cairo according to lists of materia medica found at the Taylor-Schechter Genizah collection, Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2007-03-21

    The importance of the Genizah for the research of the medieval Mediterranean communities, supplying information on almost every aspect of life, is well known among historian. Less known is that pharmacy was the most popular of all branches of the healing art in the medieval Jewish community of Cairo, according to the Genizah manuscripts. Sources for study of medieval practical drugs are extremely rare since most records naturally vanish over the years, and only some medical books, which contained theoretical pharmacology, have survived to the present day. Drugs lists enable us to understand medieval practical pharmacy and to reconstruct their inventories. This study reports on 71 original drugs lists that were found in the Genizah; they are different from merchants' letters dealing with commerce in drugs and give no instructions for the use or preparation of formulas as usually found in prescriptions. Twenty-six lists are written in Judeo-Arabic and 45 in Arabic, none of the lists is written in Hebrew. The longest list contains 63 identified substances. These lists were apparently used by pharmacists for professional and business purposes as inventories of drugs, records, orders, or even receipts. Two hundred and six different drugs are mentioned in the drugs lists of which 167 are of plant origin, 16 are of animal origin, and the remaining 23 are inorganic. The lists point directly to the place they occupied on the shelves of the pharmacies that could be found in the lanes and alleys of the Jewish quarter of Cairo. The most frequently mentioned substance were myrobalan (27), pepper and saffron (21), lentisk (15), almond, basil, rose, rosemary (14), cattle products, camphor and spikenard (13).

  20. Soil nitrate leaching in silvopastures compared with open pasture and pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Bambo, Susan K; Nowak, Jarek; Blount, Ann R; Long, Alan J; Osiecka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Wide acceptance of silvopasture as an alternative sustainable agricultural system in the southeastern United States will depend on an improved understanding of the tree-forage interactions and recognition of its environmental benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in soil nitrate leaching in different land-use systems, in north Florida. An 18-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation was thinned in the summer of 2002 to create a fifth-row thinned, nontraditional intensive pine plantation (FO), silvopastures (HE = fourth-row conventionally thinned with random tree distribution and DO = double-row sets of trees with 15-m wide alleys), and an open pasture (PA). 'Argentine' bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge.) was established as understory vegetation in HE, DO, and PA. From 2004 to 2005 soil nitrate leaching was sampled and compared in the DO, HE, PA, and FO systems at 0.3 and 1.2 m depths after fertilizer application. Significant nitrate peaks were observed at 0.3 m depth after N fertilizer application in all systems. At the 1.2 m depth, the maximum nitrate concentrations were 67, 18, and 8 mg L(-1), in the forest plantation, open pasture, and both silvopastures, respectively. In general, reduced nitrate leaching at 1.2 m depth was observed in silvopastures compared with other land-used systems. These results are not intended to have a direct bearing on traditional pine plantation management, but rather support the potential role of silvopasture systems in reducing nitrate losses from the soil.

  1. Detection of Visible Lightning on Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Ewald, S. P.; Porco, C. C.; Kurth, W. S.; Fischer, G.; West, R. A.

    2010-10-01

    Until now, evidence for lightning on Saturn has been indirect - through radio emissions and cloud morphology. Here we report the first visible detection of lightning (Dyudina et al., 2010), on the night side on August 17, 2009 at -36.4° ± 0.1° planetocentric latitude and 10.6° ± 0.9° west longitude. No other locations produced lightning detectable by either imaging or radio. This is the same latitude band on the planet that the imaging team has called `storm alley' for the last 6 years: i.e., where we observe all of the major storms that are believed to produce lightning because of the radio emissions and cloud morphology. The lightning images are consistent with a single cloud flashing once per minute. The visible energy of a single flash is comparable to that on Earth and Jupiter, and ranges up to 1.7 X 109 Joules. The diameter of the lightning flashes is ˜200 km, which suggests the lightning is 125-250 km below cloud tops. This depth is above the base of the liquid H2O-NH3 cloud and may be either in the NH4SH cloud or in the H2O ice cloud. Saturn's lower internal heat transport and likely 5-10 fold enrichment of water largely explain the lower occurrence rate of moist convection on Saturn relative to Jupiter. Dyudina, U. A., A. P. Ingersoll, S. P. Ewald, C. C. Porco, G. Fischer, W. S. Kurth, and R. A. West (2010), Detection of visible lightning on Saturn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37L09205

  2. The double-H maze test, a novel, simple, water-escape memory task: acquisition, recall of recent and remote memory, and effects of systemic muscarinic or NMDA receptor blockade during training.

    PubMed

    Pol-Bodetto, Sarah; Jeltsch-David, Hélène; Lecourtier, Lucas; Rusnac, Nathalia; Mam-Lam-Fook, Célia; Cosquer, Brigitte; Geiger, Karin; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-03-17

    To explore spatial cognition in rodents, research uses maze tasks, which differ in complexity, number of goals and pathways, behavioural flexibility, memory duration, but also in the experimenter's control over the strategy developed to reach a goal (e.g., allocentric vs. egocentric). This study aimed at validating a novel spatial memory test: the double-H maze test. The transparent device made of an alley with two opposite arms at each extremity and two in its centre is flooded. An escape platform is submerged in one arm. For experiments 1-3, rats were released in unpredictable sequences from one of both central arms to favour an allocentric approach of the task. Experiment 1 (3 trials/day over 6 days) demonstrated classical learning curves and evidence for recent and nondegraded remote memory performance. Experiment 2 (2 days, 3 trials/day) showed a dose-dependent alteration of task acquisition/consolidation by muscarinic or NMDA receptor blockade; these drug effects vanished with sustained training (experiment 3; 4 days, 3 trials/day). Experiment 4 oriented rats towards a procedural (egocentric) approach of the task. Memory was tested in a misleading probe trial. Most rats immediately switched from response learning-based to place learning-based behaviour, but only when their initial view on environmental cues markedly differed between training and probe trials. Because this simple task enables the formation of a relatively stable memory trace, it could be particularly adapted to study consolidation processes at a system level or/and the interplay between procedural and declarative-like memory systems.

  3. Characteristics of the meltwater field from a large Antarctic iceberg using δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helly, John J.; Vernet, Maria; Murray, Alison E.; Stephenson, Gordon R.

    2015-03-01

    Large tabular icebergs represent a disruptive influence on a stable water column when drifting in the open ocean. This is a study of one iceberg, C18A, encountered in the Powell Basin in the Weddell Sea in March 2009, formed from iceberg C18 (76×7 km) originating from the Ross Ice Shelf in May 2002. C18A was lunate in shape with longest dimensions of 31 km×7 km×184 m. The meltwater field from C18A was characterized using δ18O from water samples collected near C18A (Near-field, 0.4-2 km) and contrasted with a Far-field comprised of samples from an Away site (19 km from C18A), a Control site (70 km away), and a region populated with small icebergs (Iceberg Alley, 175 km away). The in-sample fractions of meteoric water were calculated relative δ18O in iceberg ice and Weddell Deep Water and converted to meteoric water height (m) and a percentage within 100 m depth bins. The Near-field and Far-field difference from surface to 200 m was 0.51±0.28%. The concentration of meteoric water dropped to approximately half that value below 200 m, approximate keel depth of the iceberg, although detectable to 600 m. From surface to 600 m, the overall difference was statistically significant (P<0.0001). From this, we estimate the Near-field volume astern of the iceberg (0.16 km3d-1) as a continuous source of meteoric water.

  4. Management concept to promote biodiversity-linked ecosystem services in vineyards (Project PromESSinG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesser, Michaela; Schlossnikel, Bettina; Pingel, Martin; Uzman, Deniz; Steiner, Magdalena; Reineke, Annette; Bacher, Sven; van Helden, Maarten; Giffard, Brice; Tolle, Pauline; Preda, Cristina; Forneck, Astrid; Leyer, Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Although vineyards are intensive used agro-ecosystem with high economic importance worldwide the efforts to establish a sustainable viticulture system have been increased dramatically. In accordance with these efforts knowledge about the ecosystem vineyard and the influencing factors is highly needed. In a three years project the question whether and how biodiversity can support ecosystem services is addressed in five European countries, representing temperate vine-growing regions. Vineyards can provide high levels of biodiversity inside the cropped area, which cannot be found in annual cropping systems. Our research will have a strong focus on the biodiversity in the soil, analyzing microorganisms as well as the meso- und macrofauna. These parameters will be linked with different ecosystem services of the soil, like organic matter degradation, provision of water and nutrients, influences on the soil structure and the interaction of beneficial and phytopathogenic microorganisms and insects. In order to find options for promoting biodiversity and ecosystem services we study three different types of vineyard soil management: bare ground, complete vegetation cover, and both types arranged in alternating alleys. Further treatments of green manure and species rich seed mixtures are investigated in single countries. The second influencing factor analyzed is the surrounding landscape structure, as it is known that a high density of semi-natural habitats can provide biodiversity and ecosystem services for agricultural fields. Therefore vineyards with a different density of hedges, woodlands, and grasslands were selected for the study. The project started 2015 and first results concerning the influence of the soil management system on the degradation of the soil organic matter and the abundance of the macrofauna showed already first responsive effects in Austrian vineyards.

  5. Open-ended sensors for microwave nondestructive evaluation of layered composite media. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, S.

    1992-12-31

    The need to monitor the composition, integrity, and maintenance of materials, structures and equipments gave rise to the development of the field of NonDestructive Testing and Examination (NDT & E). With the prevalent use of metals due to their strength, early NDT techniques were established to deal mostly with metallic media. The advent of new lightweight and exceptionally strong dielectric composite materials, replacing metals in many applications, has diversified the field of NDT & E tremendously. The low conductivity associated with these dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics and carbon fiber composites has rendered many traditional and conventional NDT techniques ineffective. The ability of microwaves to penetrate inside dielectric media and their sensitivity to minute structural and dimensional variations within the medium, coupled with availability of large bandwidths are of great significance. Microwave techniques have reemerged recently not only to fill many gaps left vacant by traditional NDT & E techniques, but also to further expose new alleys in this expanding and demanding field. Near-field interaction of electromagnetic waves with different material media is a complex process. Without a thorough understanding of the nature of reflection, attenuation and scattering mechanisms involved, even the most careful measurements may render themselves useless. The objective of this work is to take a forward step toward filling some of the existing gaps for concise theoretical formulations and practical implementation in application to microwave NDT & E of layered dielectric composite media. Models pertaining to analysis of electromagnetic radiation into layered, generally lossy dielectric composite media from two prevalent sensors, namely, an open-ended rectangular waveguide and an open-ended coaxial line are introduced.

  6. Mapping Flash Flood Severity in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharia, M.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Vergara, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Flash floods have been a major natural hazard in terms of both fatalities and property damage. In the United States, flash floods have only been characterized on a case study basis due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics with geospatial and geomorphologic information. To characterize the ability of a basin to produce flash floods, a new variable called "Flashiness" is derived from the slope of the rising limb in hydrograph time series. It is the basis to document and predict the flash flood potential and severity over the U.S. First a representative and long archive of flood events spanning 78 years is used to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of observed flashiness. The areas and seasons prone to flash floods are documented, highlighting the flash flood alley in Texas, Appalachians, West Coast, and North American monsoon in Arizona etc. Then the flashiness is linked to geomorphologic and climatologic attributes to identify the basin characteristics driving the ability to produce flash floods. The significant impact of characteristics such as slope, precipitation, and basin area are quantified. Next the model is used to predict flashiness all over the continental U.S., specifically over regions poorly covered by hydrological observations. It highlights ungauged areas prone to flash floods such as parts of Florida, Southern Wisconsin, Montana and South Dakota etc. Finally these findings are validated using the National Weather Service storm reports and a historical flood fatalities database. This analysis framework will serve as a baseline for evaluating distributed hydrologic model simulations such as the Flooded Locations And Simulated Hydrographs Project (FLASH) (http://flash.ou.edu).

  7. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-06-09

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (<5 m: OR = 8.4, 95% CI: 3.3-21.5; 5-8 m: OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8-12.2), distance from home to school((<100 m: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.8), existence of parking lot (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3), traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  8. A Novel Role for Brain Natriuretic Peptide: Inhibition of IL-1β Secretion via Downregulation of NF-kB/Erk 1/2 and NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Activation in Human THP-1 Monocyte

    PubMed Central

    Antognelli, Cinzia; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a crucial mediator of inflammatory and immune responses. IL-1β processing and release are tightly controlled by complex pathways such as NF-kB/ERK1/2, to produce pro-IL-1β, and NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome, to produce the active secreted protein. Dysregulation of both IL-1β and its related pathways is involved in inflammatory/autoimmune disorders and in a wide range of other diseases. Identifying molecules modulating their expression is a crucial need to develop new therapeutic agents. IL-1β is a strong regulator of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), a hormone involved in cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase Natriuretic Peptide Receptor (NPR-1). An emerging role of BNP in inflammation and immunity, although proposed, remains largely unexplored. Here, we newly demonstrated that, in human THP-1 monocytes, LPS/ATP-induced IL-1β secretion is strongly inhibited by BNP/NPR-1/cGMP axis at all the molecular mechanisms that tightly control its production and release, NF-kB, ERK 1/2, and all the elements of NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome cascade, and that NALP3 inflammasome inhibition is directly related to BNP deregulatory effect on NF-kB/ERK 1/2 activation. Our findings reveal a novel potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role for BNP and open new alleys of investigation for a possible employment of this endogenous agent in the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related and IL-1β/NF-kB/ERK1/2/NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1-associated diseases. PMID:28331244

  9. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics pre-college outreach program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Bacon, L.; Copper, K. K.; Hansen, L. J.; Sanchez, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Many United States, school children perceive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as difficult, boring and often irrelevant subjects. The possible reasons for this problem are endlessly debated. However, the economic, social, and overall national importance of producing graduates who are technically literate and enthusiastic in their support of a rational scientific world is essential to our nation. This apparent STEM crisis should motivate the many scientific and engineering societies to develop STEM outreach programs aimed at students, parents, teachers and schools (grades K-12). The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is among those organizations that have identified the need to educate students and teachers about STEM current events and their direct effects on the United States population in a way that motivates both. The AIAA has established a pre-college outreach program that has several major elements that will be described in this paper. Elements focused on the teachers include a pre-college Educator Associate Membership program, classroom grants to support hands-on learning activities, Educator of the Year awards and recognition program and two national workshop events. The first workshop event, Passport to the Future, is held annually in conjunction with the Joint Propulsion Conference. It is intended to provide summertime training in Aerospace science education to classroom teachers, in conjunction with a national professional conference. The second workshop, Education Alley, is held in the fall in conjunction with the “Space” series of conferences. This program is aimed at direct outreach to local students in the conference host city, providing fun, interesting, and educational events that promote STEM. The AIAA also encourages and supports pre-college outreach activities sponsored by the local AIAA sections through leadership training, activity and material support.

  10. The prehistory of haemodialysis as a treatment for uraemia.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2016-02-01

    Less is generally known about the ideas, events and personalities which drove developments permitting the evolution of haemodialysis as a clinically useful form of palliation and treatment, than its subsequent success and failures. This pre-history of haemodialysis is summarized here. One must remember that with hindsight we can now discern connections between ideas and developments which were not perceptible in their time, and that progress towards any new idea, material or piece of hardware was usually random and undirected, and outcomes uncertain. We must also remember the many blind alleys we can now safely ignore, to give a spurious continuity to the development of ideas. The prehistory of dialysis begins with study of the diffusion of solute and solvent in osmosis in living systems and experimental settings, and the retention of potentially toxic substances in kidney failure, during the 18th and early 19th centuries. These two areas came together in work in the mid-19th century on diffusion of gases and liquids, and showed that natural and synthetic membranes could selectively hinder different solutes. This explained osmosis and allowed semi-permeable membranes to be used and designed. These ideas underpinned the subsequent history of both dialysis using body cavities such as the peritoneum (not discussed here) and ex vivo dialysis of blood. To perform this, new membranes and anticoagulants were needed. These led to the first attempts in animals in 1912-3, and human patients in 1924-8, but only the purification and synthesis of newer materials such as cellulose and heparin allowed practical and successful haemodialysis to evolve in the 1940s.

  11. Helping street kids cope with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Margolis, M

    1993-05-01

    In Brazil, more than 35,000 people have been diagnosed as having AIDS and 425,000 of the country's 150 million population are HIV seropositive. HIV infections continue to take place through infections in the blood supply and ongoing risky behavior associated with sexual relations and IV drug use. A marked lack of knowledge, prejudices and public myths persist about AIDS and despite the continued tide of HIV infection, Brazilians have been reluctant to shed the notion that AIDS is the problem of only discrete risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts. Few have changed their sexual behavior or use condoms regularly. Heterosexuals, however, especially women, are the fastest growing group of people with AIDS; 1 of every 6 Brazilians infected with HIV are women. In response, the health ministry has mounted an aggressive STD program which operates regionally in almost all 27 Brazilian states. Many nonprofit organizations have also risen to the challenge of AIDS and HIV infection, and reach out to various target audiences. BEMFAM, for example the major nonprofit family planning agency in Brazil, has become a leader in AIDS prevention. For the first time since its creation in 1965, the group distributed more condoms than oral contraceptive packages in 1992; 15.6 million and 2.9 million, respectively. SOS Crianca is another organization fighting against HIV and AIDS in Brazil. It has sent psychologists and social workers to plazas, alleys, and subway stations where street youths congregate to distribute condoms, counsel male and female prostitutes, educate them about their rights as minors, provide educational games to increase consciousness about health, and work to improve self-esteem.

  12. A Peek into a Cul-De-Sac and a Mews of Martian Dust Storm Activity: Western Hellas and Syria-Claritas Fossae During Mars Year 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2016-12-01

    Western Hellas Planitia (WHP) and the region encompassed by Syria Planum and Claritas Fossae are the main centers of textured dust storm activity in Mars's southern low to mid-latitudes. (Texture in this context refers to distinct fine structure at the cloud tops indicative of active lifting.) WHP is a well-known initiation zone for regional and global dust storm activity and often the end point of the Utopia "flushing storm" track. Syria-Claritas Fossae (SCF), too, can be a lifting center in global dust storm activity. Indeed, SCF and the area to its west was the region most denuded of dust by the Mars Year (MY) 25 global dust storm, perhaps suggesting that SCF contained the principal lifting center of the storm. Thus, if the Acidalia and Utopia storm tracks are Mars's dust storm alleys, through which dust storms pass quickly again and again; WHP might be a cul-de-sac and SCF something like a mews, where dust storm activity can enter more or less easily but may not as easily leave. In this presentation, I will focus on dust storm activity in these areas in a typical non-global dust storm year, MY 29. Synthesizing visible imagery by the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) also on board MRO, I will consider the climatology, morphology, texture, and vertical structure of dust storm activity in these areas in order to infer their governing dynamics. This investigation has two aims: (1) to understand why these areas are centers of textured dust storm activity; and (2) to connect the characteristics of smaller-scale dust storm activity in these regions to the underlying dynamics in order to understand the role of WHP and SCF in the dynamics of global dust storms. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G).

  13. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    other springs, the cumulative discharge from springs was over 90 percent of the river discharge at most of the spring locations, and was 92 percent at Big Spring and at the lower end of the ONSR. The discharge from the 1.9-mile long Pulltite Springs Complex measured in the 2006 seepage run was 88 ft3/s. Most of this (77 ft3/s) was from the first approximately 0.25 mi of the Pulltite Springs Complex. It has been estimated that the annual mean discharge from the Current River Springs Complex is 125 ft3/s, based on an apparent discharge of 50 ft3/s during a 1966 U.S. Geological Survey seepage run. However, a reinterpretation of the 1966 seepage run data shows that the discharge from the Current River Springs Complex instead was about 12.6 ft3/s, and the annual mean discharge was estimated to be 32 ft3/s, substantially less than 125 ft3/s. The 2006 seepage run showed a gain of only 12 ft3/s from the combined Round Spring and Current River Springs Complex from the mouth of Sinking Creek to 0.7 mi upstream from Root Hollow. The 2006 temperature profile measurements did not indicate any influx of spring discharge throughout the length of the Current River Springs Complex. The spring recharge areas with the largest number of identified sinkholes are Big Spring, Alley Spring, and Welch Spring. The spring recharge areas with the largest number of sinkholes per square mile of recharge area are Alley Spring, Blue Spring (Jacks Fork), Welch Spring, and Round Spring and the Current River Springs Complex. Using the currently known locations of losing streams, the Big Spring recharge area has the largest number of miles of losing stream, and the Bass Rock Spring recharge area has the largest number of miles of losing stream per unit recharge area. The spring recharge areas with the most open land and the least forested land per unit recharge area are Blue Spring (Jacks Fork), Welch Spring, Montauk Springs, and Alley Spring. The spring recharge areas with the least amount

  14. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  15. Swath-bathymetric Mapping of Glacial Landforms in the Central Pine Island Trough, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Anderson, J. B.; Nitsche, F. O.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Kirshner, A. E.; Kirchner, N.; O'regan, M. A.; Mohammad, R.; Eriksson, B.

    2011-12-01

    at about 73°S in our surveyed area took between 600 and 2000 years to form. The ice stream retreated landward of this wedge at about 12.3 cal ka BP. Jakobsson, M., Anderson, J.B., Nitsche, F.O., Dowdeswell, J.A., Gyllencreutz, R., Kirchner, N., O'Regan, M.A., Alley, R.B., Anandakrishnan, S., Mohammad, R., Eriksson, B., Fernandez, R., Kirshner, A., Minzoni, R., Stolldorf, T., Majewski, W., 2011. Geological record of Ice Shelf Breakup and Grounding Line Retreat, Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica. Geology 39, 691-694.

  16. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and physiological response to different handling techniques.

    PubMed

    Hagenmaier, J A; Reinhardt, C D; Ritter, M J; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Vogel, G J; Guthrie, C A; Siemens, M G; Lechtenberg, K F; Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U

    2017-05-01

    Feedlot cattle ( = 128; BW = 549 ± 60 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance, physiological response to handling, and mobility during shipment for slaughter in a study utilizing a split-plot design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) diet (CON [no β-adrenergic agonist] vs. RAC [400 mg·animal·d ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 d]) and 2) handling intensity (HI; low-stress handling [LSH; cattle moved at a walking pace with no electric prod use] vs. high-stress handling [HSH; cattle moved at a minimum of a trot and an electric prod applied while in the alley for posthandling restraint and during loading for shipment to the abattoir]). Cattle fed RAC tended to have greater ADG and G:F ( = 0.06), and had greater HCW and LM area ( = 0.04). The HI treatments were applied on the day after the 28-d growth performance period. Blood samples were collected before HI treatment (baseline), after HI treatments (POSTHAND), after transport to the abattoir (POSTTRANS), and during exsanguination at slaughter. A diet × HI interaction ( = 0.01) was observed in the change in cortisol from baseline to POSTTRANS, and there tended ( ≤ 0.07) to be diet × HI interactions for the change in epinephrine from baseline to POSTHAND and for the change in creatine kinase (CK) from baseline to POSTTRANS. Feeding RAC and HSH both increased the change from baseline to POSTHAND in norepinephrine and pH ( ≤ 0.05). The HSH cattle also had greater changes from baseline to POSTHAND in blood HCO, base excess, partial pressure of CO, lactate, cortisol, and glucose ( ≤ 0.01). Ractopamine and HSH both produced greater increases in CK concentrations from baseline to slaughter ( < 0.01). Mobility was not affected by RAC at the feedlot or following an average 6-h lairage ( ≥ 0.43). This study confirms RAC improves growth performance and suggests metabolic acidosis, a precursor to fatigued cattle syndrome, develops in cattle

  17. Effect of shade on animal welfare, growth performance, and carcass characteristics in large pens of beef cattle fed a beta agonist in a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Hagenmaier, J A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U

    2016-12-01

    Feedlot cattle ( = 1,395; BW = 568 ± 43 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of shade on animal welfare, growth performance, and carcass quality during the summer of 2013 in a Kansas commercial feedlot. Seven lots of predominately black steers and heifers (4 and 3, respectively) visually determined to be approaching the final mo on feed were identified, randomly gate-sorted, and allocated to pens located across the feed alley from each other to receive 1 of 2 treatments: 1) Shade (mean shade area = 1.5 m/ animal) or 2) No shade. Shade was provided using a 13-ounce polyethylene fabric and pens were oriented northwest to southeast. The mean starting date was June 13 and the mean days on feed for lots while on the study was 38 d. Cattle were fed a 77.67% DM steam-flaked corn-based diet and had ad libitum access to water throughout the duration of the trial. Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZIL) was included in the finishing ration at an inclusion rate of 8.3 mg/kg of DM for the last 20 d on feed with a 3 d withdrawal period. Pen floor temperatures (PFT) were measured using an infrared thermometer and prevalence of cattle open-mouth breathing (OMB) was recorded on a pen basis. In addition to shade treatment, the effect of temperature humidity index (THI) on PFT and OMB was analyzed by classifying days as either "Alert" (THI < 79) or "Danger" (THI > 79). On the day of slaughter, pens within a replicate were kept separate through all stages of the marketing channel from loading at the feedlot until stunning at the plant. Pen served as the experimental unit for all measurements. There was a THI × shade treatment interaction for PFT and OMB ( < 0.001) where days classified as "Danger" increased PFT and prevalence of OMB compared to "Alert" days in unshaded but not shaded cattle. Shaded cattle had greater DMI ( = 0.01); however, unshaded cattle had greater G:F ( = 0.05) and therefore no differences were observed in ADG ( = 0.39). Shaded cattle had greater dressing percentage

  18. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  19. The Gujarat earthquake (2001) experience in a seismically unprepared area: community hospital medical response.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nobhojit; Shah, Hemant; Patel, Vikas; Coughlin, R Richard

    2002-01-01

    At 08:53 hours on 26 January 2001, an earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale devastated a large, drought-affected area of northwestern India, the state of Gujarat. The known number killed by the earthquake is 20,005, with 166,000 injured, of whom 20,717 were "seriously" injured. About 370,000 houses were destroyed, and another 922,000 were damaged. A community health worker using the local language interviewed all of the patients admitted to the Gandhi-Lincoln hospital with an on-site, oral, real-time, Victim Specific Questionnaire (VSQ). The census showed a predominance of women, children, and young adults, with the average age being 28 years. The majority of the patients had other family members who were also injured (84%), but most had not experienced deaths among family members (86%). Most of the patients (91%) had traveled more than 200 kilometers using their family cars, pick-ups, trucks, or buses to reach the buffer zone hospitals. The daily hospital admission rate returned to pre-event levels five days after the event, and all of the hospital services were restored by nine days after the quake. Most of the patients (83%) received definitive treatment in the buffer zone hospitals; 7% were referred to tertiary-care centers; and 9% took discharge against medical advice. The entrapped village folk with their traditional architecture had lesser injuries and a higher rescue rate than did the semi-urban townspeople, who were trapped in collapsed concrete masonry buildings and narrow alleys. However, at the time of crisis, aware townspeople were able to tap the available health resources better than were the poor. There was a low incidence of crush injuries. Volunteer doctors from various backgrounds teamed up to meet the medical crisis. International relief agencies working through local groups were more effective. Local relief groups needed to coordinate better. Disaster tourism by various well-meaning agencies took a toll on the providers. Many surgeries

  20. Geology and petrology of the plutonic complexes in the Wadi Fizh area: Multiple magmatic events and segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Sumio

    2003-09-01

    Multiple magmatic events are recorded in the gabbroic unit in the Fizh area of the northern Oman ophiolite. Gabbroic blocks intruded by sheeted dike complex and upper gabbros of the main crustal sequence show the oldest event. Gabbronorite sills in the gabbroic blocks are nearly coeval with the host gabbro. Wehrlitic intrusions (wehrlite I) mark the third event of magmatism. These three magmatic events occurred at the retreating (dying) ridge axis because all these rocks are intruded by dolerite dike swarm, which is generally regarded as a precursor of advancing ridge axis. The next stage of magmatism is a main phase of oceanic crust generation in this area. Wehrlite II and then gabbronorite dikes intrude the still hot main gabbro unit. All of these above rocks have similar signatures with respect to clinopyroxene compositions and covariations between plagioclase and mafic minerals, though slight differences are present in the compositional ranges and clinopyroxene compositions of each unit. After considerable cooling of the main gabbro unit, primitive basalt dikes intrude the main gabbro unit, which may correspond to the Lasail unit. Finally, the Fizh-South complex intrudes into considerably cooled crustal sequence, being below the brittle-plastic transition temperatures. The Fizh-South complex, which was regarded as a common wehrlitic intrusion, is significantly different from all of the above mentioned rocks, with respect to the covariation between plagioclase and associating mafic minerals, crystallization order, and clinopyroxene compositions. The clinopyroxenes are characterized by extremely low Ti and Na contents, comparable with those of the V2 unit (Alley volcanics), suggesting that the Fizh-South complex correlates with the plutonic facies of the V2 unit during arc stage. Layered gabbros in the Wadi Zabin area, about 10 km north of the Fizh area, may be a northern extension of the gabbro blocks of the Fizh area, because they are intruded by numerous

  1. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Schutz, M M; Lossie, A C; Eicher, S D

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, immune status, and expression of genes associated with lameness during the dry and periparturient periods. Cows were assigned to freestall housing with either rubber (RUB; n = 13) or concrete (CON; n = 14) at the feed-bunk and alley immediately after their first calving, and managed on this system during all subsequent lactations. At dry off, cows were moved to a straw bedded-pack dry cow pen, and remained there until about 2 d before subsequent calving. To investigate whether greater exposure to RUB or CON increased the differences between cows on each treatment, cows at the end of either their first (n = 16) or second (n = 11) lactations were included in the experiment. Locomotion scores and blood samples were obtained at -60 (beginning of the dry period), -30, 0 (after calving), +10 and +18 d relative to calving. Leukocyte counts were obtained by using an automated cell counter. Phagocytic activity, and cells positive for CD14 and CD18 expression were measured by flow cytometry using labeled microbeads and antibodies. Expression of tachikinin 1(TAC1), histamine receptor 1 (H1), and metalloproteinase (MMP)13 in blood leukocytes was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment effects were determined using a repeated measures model. Provision of rubber flooring did not improve dairy cow locomotion during the subsequent study period. However, time relative to calving had an effect on locomotion score and speed, which were worst on d 0, probably because of the discomfort associated with calving. An interaction occurred between treatment and time for neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. The RUB cows had greater neutrophil and lesser lymphocyte numbers postpartum than CON. These cows also had more cells positive for CD14 postpartum compared with prepartum. Moreover, RUB cows showed upregulation of MMP13 and TAC1 compared with CON. These genes are associated with lameness and pain

  2. An assessment tool to help producers improve cow comfort on their farms.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, E; Gibbons, J; Rushen, J; Pellerin, D; Pajor, E; Lefebvre, D; de Passillé, A M

    2015-01-01

    Effective management and an appropriate environment are essential for dairy cattle health and welfare. Codes of practice provide dairy producers with best practice guidance for the care and handling of their cattle. New Canadian recommendations have been established for the dairy industry. The objectives of this study were to develop an on-farm assessment tool that helps producers assess how well they are meeting their code of practice and that identifies management and environment modifications that could improve dairy cow comfort on their farms. The assessment tool addressed critical areas of dairy cow comfort, including accommodation and housing (stall design, space allowance, stall management, pen management, milking parlor, and transfer alleys), feed and water (body condition scoring, nutrition), and health and welfare (lameness, claw health, and hoof-trimming). Targets of good practices were identified from the requirements and recommendations of the code of practice. Each farm received a score for each target, ranging from 0 (target not reached) to 100 (target reached). One hundred tiestall and 110 freestall farms were surveyed in 3 provinces of Canada (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta). The duration of the assessment, in 2 visits lasting, on average, 8 and 9h (range between freestall and tiestall farms) and 4 and 4.1h, was beyond the targeted 3 to 4h due mainly to the animal-based measures; strategies to reduce the duration of the assessment were discussed. Standard operating procedures were developed to ensure consistency in measuring and recording data. Periodical checks were conducted by trainers to ensure all 15 assessors remained above target agreement of weighted kappa ≥0.6. Average scores for all critical areas ranged from 25 to 89% for freestall farms and from 48 to 95% for tiestall farms. These scores need to be considered with caution when comparing farms because scores could not always be calculated the same way between housing systems. An

  3. Geochemistry of surface and pore water at USGS coring sites in wetlands of South Florida, 1994 and 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Lerch, Harry E.; Rawlik, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Conservation Area 2A may inhibit mercury methylation here. At sites in Water Conservation Area 3A south of Alligator Alley, sulfide levels are much lower and sulfate reduction in the sediments here may be conducive to methyl mercury formation. Concentration versus depth profiles of biogeochemically important chemical species in pore water at most sites are smoth curves amenable to modelling using standard diagenetic equations. This should allow prediction of rates of biogeochemical processes in these sediments for incorporation in ecosystem models.

  4. Response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Periphery to Late Pleistocene MWP-1a Event: Sedimentologic, Geomorphologic, and Chronologic Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domack, E. W.; Leventer, A.

    2005-12-01

    Nowhere were ice sheets grounded to such depth and were exposed to such rapid increases in sea level as they were around the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during Termination 1, a unique period in the last 100,000 years. We document the conditions within nine ice drainage systems including the NW Weddell Sea, Palmer Deep, western Ross Sea, Mertz Trough, Mertz-Ninnis Trough, Svenner Channel, Prydz Channel, Nielsen Basin, and Iceberg Alley. In so doing we demonstrate that recession of these systems was a response to, not a cause of, the global MWP-1a event. Explicit in our model for deglaciation is the pattern of recession (exclusive of the Ross and NW Weddell seas), which we demonstrate involved the development of distinctive calving bay re-entrants within the troughs occupied by former ice streams. This pattern and style of deglaciation is consistent with early conceptual models of calving bays which developed in association with linear zones of convergent flow constrained by surrounding banks or pinning points. Our conceptual model is supported by observed seafloor morphology, sediment lithofacies, and constrains of glacial meltwater and bed softening (deformation). The initiation of calving bay conditions we believe was a response to a rapid rise in sea level in combination with a lowering of ice thickness, due to enhanced ice flow within confining troughs. The rapid encroachment of a dynamic calving line into the interior of the ice sheet margin means that subglacial conditions of meltwater drainage were suddenly enhanced, due to reduced ice overburden pressure and a lower hydrostatic (seawater) pressure at the grounding line. Evidence for energetic meltwater discharge at grounding lines comes from the observation of channels cut into and sediment fans on top of recessional (back-stepping) morainal banks. These features are unambiguously indicative of subglacial meltwater discharge at the grounding line of a receding ice margin. In support of the timing of

  5. Prevalence of and factors associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries on dairy cows in freestall housing in Canada.

    PubMed

    Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; LeBlanc, S J; DeVries, T J; Nash, C G R; Gibbons, J; Orsel, K; Barkema, H W; Solano, L; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Haley, D B

    2014-01-01

    with rubber flooring in the alley along the feed bunk compared with bare concrete floors (OR=0.19). These results demonstrate that individual animal characteristics, as well as barn design and animal management, are associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries. These data can help to guide investigations into causes and prevention of injuries.

  6. Nitrogen Fertilization of Corn: Plant Biochemistry Effects and Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Masiello, C. A.; McSwiney, C. P.; Robertson, G. P.; Baldock, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are rising due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Alley et al. 2007; Prentice et al. 2001). About half of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted during the 1990s was absorbed by the terrestrial biosphere and ocean (Prentice et al. 2001). It is possible to estimate the size of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks individually using atmospheric CO2 and O2 measurements (Keeling et al. 1996). To best estimate the sizes of these carbon sinks, we need to accurately know the oxidative ratio (OR) of the terrestrial biosphere (Randerson et al. 2006). OR is the ratio of the moles of O2 released per moles of CO2 consumed in gas fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere. Though it is likely that the net OR of the biosphere varies with ecosystem type and nutrient status, OR is assumed constant in carbon sink apportionment calculations (e.g. Prentice et al. 2001). Small shifts in OR can lead to large variations in the calculated sizes of the terrestrial biosphere and ocean carbon sinks (Randerson et al. 2006). OR likely shifts with changes in climate, nutrient status, and land use. These shifts are due, in part, to shifts in plant biochemistry. We are measuring ecosystem OR in corn agricultural ecosystems under a range of nitrogen fertilization treatments at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. We measure OR indirectly, through its relationship with organic carbon oxidation state (Cox) (Masiello et al. in press 2008). Cox can be measured through elemental analysis and, with basic knowledge of plant nitrogen use patterns, Cox values can be converted to OR values. Cox can also be measured through 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which can be combined with a molecular mixing model to determine Cox, OR, and plant biochemical composition (i.e. percentage carbohydrates, lignin, lipids, and proteins) (Baldock et al. 2004). Here we present data showing the effects of

  7. Changes in hoof health and animal hygiene in a dairy herd after covering concrete slatted floor with slatted rubber mats: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, F; Platz, S; Link, C; Mahling, M; Meyer, H H D; Erhard, M H

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of changing the flooring in the alleys of a barn from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats on hoof disorders and animal hygiene in 44 loose-housed Brown Swiss dairy cows. Cows were examined for disorders of the hind hooves (hemorrhages, white line fissures, ulcers, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis) and for skin lesions. The dirtiness of the animals and of the floor was recorded. Climatic (temperature, humidity) and ammonia gas conditions were measured. Evaluations were carried out when the cows were housed on a concrete slatted floor and after 4 and 10 mo on soft flooring (slatted rubber mats, 29-mm thick). The anatomical portion of claw (medial, lateral), number of lactations (parity), and days in milk were included as covariates in the statistical model. Changing the flooring from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats increased the score for white line fissures [1.0 ± 0.3 (concrete) vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 (10 mo rubber mats)] and influenced air humidity (i.e., the difference in the absolute humidity between the inside and outside of the barn increased from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2g/m(3)), whereas the other hoof disorders, skin lesions (score of 8.7 ± 0.3), the dirtiness of the animals (score of 5.9 ± 0.3), and the floor (score of 2.1 ± 0.1), and ammonia gas concentration (2.6 ± 0.3mg/kg) were not affected (overall scores or measures; mean ± SE). Lateral claws were more affected (except for heel horn erosion) than medial claws (estimated effects between 1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.0 ± 0.6). Parity influenced hoof disorders (except for hemorrhages) and skin lesions (estimated effects between -0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2). Days in milk influenced hoof disorders, but had no effect on skin lesions and on the dirtiness of the animal. Irrespective of floor type, the slots (2.6 ± 0.1) were dirtier than the slats (1.6 ± 0.1). In conclusion, covering slatted concrete flooring with slatted rubber mats partially impaired hoof

  8. Urban air quality of Kathmandu valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley occupying about 600 sq. km. of area is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the alley, i.e. Kathmandu, Litilpur, and Bhaktapur. Out of the three the most populated is the Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has 668,000 population in an area of approximately 50 sq. km. The city population consumes energy about 1/3 of total imports of Nepal in the form of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicle has increased several fold leading in recent months to 100,000 in number in a road of about 900 kms., out of which 25% is only metalled. Most of two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission gases as well as dust particulate. SO{sub 2} has been found to go as high as 202 micro grams per cubic meter and NO{sub 2} to 126 micro gram particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10:00 AM in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m{sup 3} a day and also liquid waste directly dumping in Bagmati river to the tune of 500,000 liters per day makes city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water, and land are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals are considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50 to 60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce legal frame work for pollution control but it will take time to be effective like in other developing countries unless government is strong.

  9. Automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores, developed and evaluated using nitrogen and argon isotope data measured on the Gisp2 ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Leuenberger, Markus

    2017-04-01

    densification of polar firn including heat diffusion: Application to close-off characteristics and gas isotopic fractionation for Antarctica and Greenland sites. J. Geophys. Res.,108, NO. D24, 4792. Severinghaus, J. P., Sowers, T., Brook, E. J., Alley, R. B., and Bender, M. L. (1998). Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice. Nature, 391:141-146. Schwander, J., Sowers, T., Barnola, J., Blunier, T., Fuchs, A., and Malaizé, B. (1997). Age scale of the air in the summit ice: implication for glacial-interglacial temperature change. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos., 102(D16):19483-19493.

  10. Stormy season on Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowollik, S.

    2008-09-01

    Stormy season on Saturn? Amateur astronomers using telescopes with apertures of 8" or larger now are able to document weather phenomena in the atmosphere of the gas giant planet Saturn. To do this, they use highly sensitive black/white CCD cameras and filters in different wavelengths. Hurricanes with diameters of several thousand km can be observed continuously for weeks or months. The position of the storms within the individual cloud bands of Saturn can be determined by precise measuring of the acquired CCD images. In November 2007 a single, small storm area appeared in the Southern Tropical Zone (STrZ) of Saturn. Until the end of January the storm remained constant in brightness and size and its measured drift [rate] of 1 degree per week corresponds to earlier observations of storms on Saturn. However, beginning in the first week of February 2008 the measurement of the position showed surprising results. The storm appeared brighter and brighter along the "Storm Alley" on the southern hemisphere. In the beginning of March 2008 a further hurricane formed at a distance of about 20 degrees, following the first storm. Bad weather over Germany prevented the observation of Saturn, but observers in Spain, America and the Pacific area could do further observations. The observations were published via the internet and Saturn was nearly continuously observed. During the first half of March the first storm reduced its brightness, whereas the new emerged storm increased in brightness and extent. New small storms emerged and merged into one larger storm. During some days in April 2008 all three storms could be observed several times under good viewing conditions on the disc of Saturn. In May occasionally even five storms were observed. At present, Saturn approaches the ring plane crossing position, when the rings are seen edge-on. It is an open question whether the resulting change in flux of sunlight thereby supplies the energy for the accumulated appearance of the

  11. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  12. Estimation of Stream Flow Losses to the Highland Lakes Inflows during the Recent Period of Run-off Non-stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R.; Rose, B.; Oliver, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Highland Lakes are operated by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) in Texas to provide water supply to municipal, industrial, agricultural users and environmental flows for the river and Matagorda Bay. The Highland Lakes also provide for hydroelectric generation and recreation. Subject to extended droughts interrupted by intense rainfall, the region has the nickname of Flash Flood Alley. Recently the Lower Colorado River has experienced a seven year historic drought. While precipitation have been 80% of average, runoff into the Highland lakes have been at historic lows. Multiple regression relationships were developed to predict runoff to the LCRA lakes from rainfall and other factors which explain about 2/3 of the variation of observed inflows. This explanation is good considering the inherent error in stream flow measurement and inflow estimation. It is also comparable to the skill of much more complex dynamical models. Review of the residuals from the relationships reveals periods of unfavorable non-stationarity in inflows after accounting for statistically significant climate and seasonality variables. In particular the periods from 1977 to 1987 as well as 2002 to present showed uncharacteristically low runoff as can be seen in the figure below. Through use of dummy variables for the periods of apparent non-stationarity, the effects of climate and non-stationarity can be quantitatively estimated. At a 90% confidence level, the excess losses in run-off from 2002 to 2015 that can be attributed to lower than median rainfall ranges from 101,000 to 137,000 acre-feet. About another 32,200 to 45,300 acre-feet annually of unrealized inflows can be attributed to typical drought processes. Finally, about another 182,000 to 478,000 acre-feet per year of unrealized inflows can be attributed to unexplained factors in this recent period. These losses are in contrast to runoff during the calendar year of 2011 in which low runoff was better described by extreme

  13. Design and Operation of Infrasound Stations for Hazardous Weather Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepyne, D.

    2012-04-01

    Each year tornadoes cause property damage and death, some of which could be avoided with increased warning lead time. The year 2011 was particularly severe, with more than 1600 tornadoes causing in excess of 500 deaths in the U.S. It is known that tornadoes and their precursors generate infrasound in the 0.5Hz to 10Hz frequency band, with precursors occurring some 30-60 minutes prior to tornado touch down, which is some 15-45 minutes earlier than the average tornado warning lead time in the U.S. Given the potential of infrasound to improve tornado early warning and emergency response, the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in conjunction with its research on small, boundary-layer observing X-band weather radars, has begun a research project whose goal is to combine the passive detection of tornado infrasound with active tracking of the parent storms that carry the tornadoes with its weather radars. In the spring of 2011 CASA conducted an infrasound field-test in Oklahoma, in the heart of the so-called "tornado-alley" where statistically the majority of springtime tornadoes in the U.S. occur. This being CASA's first infrasound experiment, the goal of the field-test was to gain an understanding of the issues involved in the design and operation of infrasound stations for severe weather monitoring and early warning. In this application, it is not so much the ability of infrasound to travel long distances that is of importance, but rather the fact that there can be precursor signals that unlike radar do not require line-of-sight to detect. In fact, for early warning, detection distance would generally need to be less than 100 km, since a propagation delay of much more than 5 minutes would be too late. Challenges encountered included persistent infrasound "clutter" from a nearby large windfarm, accurate bearing detection over a wide bandwidth with a fixed four sensor aperture, and the need to operate in the the high winds that surround

  14. Convection in tropical cyclones associated with vapor volume reduction - a new concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    low pressure zone due to the condensation is instantaneous. The moment the condensation takes place, the low pressure zone and the consequent pressure gradient force is formed at that instant, hence this phenomenon enhances the fuel input process. Thus, the combination of the convection and the low pressure zone formation due to condensation and vapor volume reduction plays a combined role in the dynamics of a tropical cyclone. In case of tornadoes in the tornado alley, tornadoes are formed where warm vapor-rich air from the Gulf of Mexico meets the cold dry air from Canada. Here the same phenomena of vapor volume reduction and consequent formation of the low pressure zone as explained above is dominantly contributing in initiating and maintaining the flow of air forming a tornado. Since this phenomenon is taking place on land and vapour supply is limited, the tornadoes have a short life span.

  15. Reaching Out Beyond The "Usual Suspects" And Traditional Media: Re-Branding Climate Change As A Problem With Feasible Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an experiment, funded by NSF, to see how combining PBS TV broadcasts, online resources including both website and social media, plus on-site events at science centers could engage and inform large public audiences about both the science of climate change and renewable energy solutions. ETOM was structured to address the findings of social science researchers indicating that scaring audiences into changed behavior through doom and gloom scenarios was unlikely to work. While the three primetime broadcasts were relatively traditional in approach—classic public TV hours presented by noted geoscientist, Richard Alley—focus groups tested the impact of introducing him as a "church-going, registered Republican." Findings indicated this would engage a wider audience. Alley's key science arguments were also repackaged into a series of nine "How to Talk to an Ostrich" videos, complete with actual ostrich sounds, and encouraging viewers to ASK ETOM further questions about common misperceptions. The ClimateBite blog said, "Simply the best short videos on climate. Ever… each segment a clear, concise and compelling climate story, in everyday language, with great visuals." In addition, web-exclusive videos profiled diverse "Energy Heroes" such as West Texas rancher Steve Oatman, Fort Worth solar enthusiast, German Vasquez, and Baltimore "Energy Captain," Robbyn Lewis. Understanding that who says what is as important as what is said, ETOM featured an unusual and diverse set of "messengers." Houston's Mayor, Annise Parker, explained why she wanted her city to be America's renewable energy capital, and Marine Brigadier General Bob Hedelund argued that cutting back on fossil fuel could save soldiers' lives. West Texas cotton farmer Cliff Etheredge participated in outreach events in Washington DC, and high-ranking former military men were part of MILITARY GOES GREEN events in Raleigh NC and San Diego. Surveys and focus groups showed

  16. Gust-Front and Outflow Related Waterspouts: Timely Warnings, Formation, and Impact on Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappucci, M.

    2013-12-01

    Massachusetts may be over a thousand miles away from the traditional "tornado alley", but as the deadly tornadoes that killed four on June 1st 2011 proved, we are not immune to such storms. Over the course of half a century or so, Massachusetts has bore witness to scores of tornadoes, including an F5 twister that touched down on June 9th 1953, resulting in the death of 94 people. Since this tornado, none other in the United States had caused as many deaths, until the Joplin, Missouri catastrophe of May 22, 2011 (161 deaths). In Massachusetts, however, storms of such destructive magnitude are generally confined to the western half of the state, as the June 1, 2011 tornadoes in South Central Massachusetts illustrated. Despite this, a recently observed trend has revealed that the eastern Massachusetts coastline may boast as many, if not more, tornadoes, albeit undocumented. On June 23rd, 2012, a strong thunderstorm produced a spectacular gust front over Boston Harbor. This gust front was associated with intense thunderstorm outflow that helped to spawn a waterspout that roared ashore in Scituate as an EF-0 tornado. This waterspout, however, developed ahead of the gust front, yet merged with the cloud structure of the outflow, hinting at a type of interaction between the thunderstorm downdraft and the waterspout. This tornado caused minor damage. A similar situation occurred in Plymouth, MA, on July 24th, when three waterspouts formed ahead of the gust front of a severe thunderstorm; one of these tempests roared ashore on White Horse Beach as an EF-0 storm, causing minor damage to the sum of a few hundred dollars. Photos taken of these spouts reveal their formation ahead of the gust front, with a downdraft/waterspout interaction similar to the situation of June 23rd. Time-lapse videography of the gust front taken moments after the dissipation of the spouts reveals a horizontally oriented vortex a few hundred meters ahead of the storm's outflow boundary. The spinning of

  17. Evidence for in-situ metabolic activity in ice sheets based on anomalous trace gas records from the Vostok and other ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T.

    2003-04-01

    the last glacial period are consistent with methanogenic CH4 from acetogenesis. References Campen, R.K., T. Sowers, and R.B. Alley, Evidence of Microbial Consortia Metabolizing Within a Low-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Geology, 31 (No. 3), 231-234, 2003. Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.M. Barnola, I. Basile, B. M., J. Chappellaz, J. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmontte, J.M. Kotyakov, M. Legrand, V. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica, Nature, 399, 429-436, 1999. Sowers, T., The N2O record spanning the penultimate deglaciation from the Vostok ice core, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (D23), 31,903-31,914, 2001.

  18. PBS Plus Facebook: The Old And New Communication Of Climate Science (Please "Like" And "Share" This Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional and innovative communications strategies were combined in "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM; writer & director Geoff Haines-Stiles, producer Erna Akuginow, presenter Richard Alley). We attempted both a clear and accessible presentation of some key essentials of current climate science and an experiment in new messaging and new media for outreach and education. ETOM is a 3-part TV series broadcast by PBS ("…one of the more interesting documentary series to come along in years", said the New York Times) and a 320 plus page tradebook, with 110 pages of footnotes referencing peer-reviewed science, published by Norton. But it's also a lively and growing Facebook page with a clear voice sharing positive examples of how renewable energy can reduce polluting emissions here in the US and worldwide, alongside headlines of climate science, and a website—relaunched for the 2012 Earth Day PBS broadcasts—where all three programs can be streamed, and teachers can register to download HD segments for classroom use. The TV programs were designed to offer a highly accessible statement of core climate science, literally explaining how ice cores show us today's climate is changing in ways not seen in the last 800,000 thousand years and why physics and chemistry let us know "It's Us" who are changing CO2 levels in the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels. But the project's outreach components also includes a "Science Pub" in a converted theater in Portland, where the audience consumes food, drink and climate science, and "Adventures of a Climate Scientist in the Age of Politics and Punditry," a dynamic live performance recorded for TV and the web. Messaging includes a Navy Rear Admiral in dress whites explaining why the Pentagon believes climate change is real, and scenes showing Marines and Army implementing solar technologies to enhance mission security and reduce their carbon bootprint. Similarly, outreach events at the North Carolina Museum of Natural

  19. A Paradigm shift to an Old Scheme for Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Alastair B.

    2016-04-01

    nérales Sur Les Températures Du Globe Terrestre Et Des Espaces Planétaires.' Annales de Chimie et de Physique 27: 136-67, translated by Raymond T. Pierrehumbert http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v432/n7018/extref/432677a-s1.pdf Philipona, Rolf, Bruno Dürr, Atsumu Ohmura, and Christian Ruckstuhl. 2005. 'Anthropogenic Greenhouse Forcing and Strong Water Vapor Feedback Increase Temperature in Europe'. Geophysical Research Letters 32 (19): L19809. doi:10.1029/2005GL023624. Saussure, Horace-Benedict de. 1786. 'Chapter XXXV. Des Causes du Froid qui Regne sur les Montagnes'. In Voyages dans les Alpes, II:347-71. Neuchatel: Fauche-Borel. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1029499.r=.langFR, translated by Alastair B. McDonald, http://www.abmcdonald.freeserve.co.uk/saussure/CHAPTER%2035.pdf. Thorne, Peter W., Philip Brohan, Holly A. Titchner, et al. 2011. 'A Quantification of Uncertainties in Historical Tropical Tropospheric Temperature Trends from Radiosondes'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 116 (D12): n/a - n/a. doi:10.1029/2010JD015487. Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Christoph Schär, et al. 2013. 'The Global Energy Balance from a Surface Perspective'. Climate Dynamics 40 (11-12): 3107-34. doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1569-8. White, James W.C., Alley, Richard B., Archer, David E., et al. 2013. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18373.

  20. Overcoming adverse effects of hailnets on fruit quality and microclimate in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Solomakhin, Alexej A; Blanke, Michael M

    2007-11-01

    With the increase of hailstorms as a possible result of global warming, fruit crops are increasingly grown under hailnets. This results in lesser fruit quality in terms of colouration, fruit mass, firmness, starch and taste, i.e. sugar and acid, and vitamin content under hailnet due to altered microclimate and light deprivation. Reflective mulches (Extenday and Daybright) were spread in autumn 2006 to improve fruit quality and light utilisation under hailnet at Klein-Altendorf Research Station near Bonn, Germany. A monophosphate (Seniphos) was applied twice for the same purpose; untreated apple cv. 'Elstar' trees served as control. Under the translucent, 'white' hailnet, humidity was increased by ca. 6%, air temperature reduced by ca. 1.6 °C, soil temperature increased by ca. 0.5 °C and light reduced by 11-15% resulting in lesser fruit quality of 2.5% less sugar and less taste. The two reflective mulches increased light reflection at 45° and 90° angles by 2.5- to 6.3-fold. No differences in fruit ripening and firmness were observed, but fruit from trees under hailnet with reflective mulch contained up to 2.4% (from 13.3 to 15.7%) more sugar than those of the control (uncovered grass alleys). A less negative normalised differential vegetation index (NDVI) of - 0.3 on the red compared with - 0.5 on the green fruit side indicated more chlorophyll in the outer, sun-exposed, red side of the apples relative to the shaded side. Monophosphate-treated fruits maintained the peel chlorophyll with a greener ground colour of 92-97° hue and a NDVI of - 0.3 as in the grassed control. Fruit in the lower canopy with reflective mulch were darker red (a value 30; 22° hue) relative to the grassed control with a = 25 and 43° hue (light red), expressed in a 4-fold increase in normalised anthocyanin index (NAI), but showed enhanced chlorophyll breakdown (NDVI from - 0.2 to - 0.5); similarly, the monophosphate increased the NAI by up to 2.5-fold. The effect of both reflective mulch