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Sample records for alliaria petiolata garlic

  1. Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Gruner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates. In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were 25 times higher than in leaves of young Arabidopsis thaliana plants and over 150 times higher than in leaves of young Brassica kaber, B. rapa, and B. napus. In first-year plants, cyanide levels were highest in young leaves of seedlings and declined with leaf age on individual plants. Leaves of young plants infested with green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) produced just over half as much cyanide as leaves of healthy plants, suggesting that aphid feeding led to loss of cyanide from intact tissues before analysis, or that aphid feeding inhibited cyanide precursor production. In a developmental study, levels of cyanide in the youngest and oldest leaf of young garlic mustard plants were four times lower than in the youngest and oldest leaf of young Sorghum sudanense (cv. Cadan 97) plants, but cyanide levels did not decline in these leaves with plant age as in S. sudanense. Different populations of garlic mustard varied moderately in the constitutive and inducible expression of cyanide in leaves, but no populations studied were acyanogenic. Although cyanide production could result from breakdown products of glucosinolates, no cyanide was detected in vitro from decomposition of sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of garlic mustard. These studies indicate that cyanide produced from an as yet unidentified cyanogenic compound is a part of the battery of chemical defenses expressed by garlic mustard.

  2. Molecular evidence for multiple introductions of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae) to North America.

    PubMed

    Durka, Walter; Bossdorf, Oliver; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2005-05-01

    Invasive species offer excellent model systems for studying rapid evolutionary change. In this context, molecular markers play an important role because they provide information about pathways of introduction, the amount of genetic variation introduced, and the extent to which founder effects and inbreeding after population bottlenecks may have contributed to evolutionary change. Here, we studied microsatellite variation in eight polymorphic loci among and within 27 native and 26 introduced populations of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), a European herb which is a current serious invader in North American deciduous forests. Overall, introduced populations were genetically less diverse. However, considerable variability was present and when compared to the probable source regions, no bottleneck was evident. Observed heterozygosity was very low and resulted in high inbreeding coefficients, which did not differ significantly between native and introduced populations. Thus, selfing seems to be equally dominant in both ranges. Consequently, there was strong population differentiation in the native (F(ST) = 0.704) and the introduced (F(ST) = 0.789) ranges. The high allelic diversity in the introduced range strongly suggests multiple introductions of Alliaria petiolata to North America. Out of six European regions, the British Isles, northern Europe, and central Europe had significantly higher proportions of alleles, which are common to the introduced range, and are therefore the most probable source regions. The genetic diversity established by multiple introductions, and the lack of inbreeding depression in this highly selfing species, may have contributed to the invasion success of Alliaria petiolata.

  3. First report of natural occurrence of Turnip vein-clearing virus in garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2011-2013 plants of the invasive weed species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) were observed with virus-like disease symptoms in three separate locations in Ramsey and Anoka counties, Minnesota. Symptoms consisted of conspicuous mosaic, leaf deformation and stunting. Numerous virus-like pa...

  4. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  5. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  6. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management. PMID:25912227

  7. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management.

  8. EDAPHIC CONTROLS ON THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF THE INVASIVE PLANT ALLIARIA PETIOLATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America, is associated with decreases in above and below ground species diversity and alterations to nutrient turnover. Garlic mustard produces a set of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family, sp...

  9. Effects of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard; Brassicaceae) on mycorrhizal colonization and community structure in three herbaceous plants in a mixed deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Burke, David J

    2008-11-01

    Herbaceous plant species are important components of forest ecosystems, and their persistence in forests may be affected by invasive plant species that reduce mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. I examined the effect of the invasive plant Alliaria petiolata on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of three forest plant species. AMF root colonization and community structure was examined from plants that were growing either in the absence or presence of Alliaria under natural forest conditions. AMF root colonization varied among the plant species but was not significantly affected by Alliaria. With molecular methods, ∼12 different taxa of AMF could be distinguished among the root samples, and these taxa belonged to the genera Acaulospora and Glomus, with Glomus dominating AMF communities. There were significant differences between the community of AMF colonizing roots of Maianthemum racemosum and Trillium grandiflorum, but only AMF communities of Maianthemum roots were significantly affected by Alliaria. Indicator species analysis found that an Acaulospora species type was a significant indicator of Maianthemum plants grown in the absence of Alliaria. These results suggest invasive plants like Alliaria may selectively suppress AMF fungi, and this suppression can affect AMF communities colonizing the roots of some native plant species.

  10. Palatability and tolerance to simulated herbivory in native and introduced populations of Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Bossdorf, Oliver; Schröder, Stefan; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2004-06-01

    The European herb garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is a serious invader of North American deciduous forests. One explanation for its success could be that in the absence of specialized herbivores, selection has favored less defended but more vigorous genotypes. This idea was addressed by comparing offspring from several native and introduced Alliaria populations with respect to their palatability to insect herbivores and their tolerance to simulated herbivory. Feeding rates of a specialist weevil from the native range were significantly greater on American plants, suggesting a loss of resistance in the introduced range. In contrast, there was significant population variation but no continent effect in the feeding rates of a generalist caterpillar. After simulated herbivory, A. petiolata showed a substantial regrowth capacity that involved changes in plant growth, architecture, and allocation. Removal of 75% leaf area or of all bolting stems reduced plant fitness to 81% and 58%, respectively, of the fitness of controls. There was no indication of a difference in tolerance between native and introduced Alliaria populations or of a trade-off between tolerance and resistance.

  11. The importance of space, time, and stochasticity to the demography and management of Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jeffrey A; Davis, Adam S; Raghu, S; Ragavendran, Ashok; Landis, Douglas A; Schemske, Douglas W

    2012-07-01

    As population modeling is increasingly called upon to guide policy and management, it is important that we understand not only the central tendencies of our study systems, but the consequences of their variation in space and time as well. The invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is actively managed in the United States and is the focus of a developing biological control program. Two weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchus) that reduce fecundity (C. alliariae) and rosette survival plus fecundity (C. scrobicollis) are under consideration for release pending host specificity testing. We used a demographic modeling approach to (1) quantify variability in A. petiolata growth and vital rates and (2) assess the potential for single- or multiple-agent biocontrol to suppress growth of 12 A. petiolata populations in Illinois and Michigan studied over three plant generations. We used perturbation analyses and simulation models with stochastic environments to estimate stochastic growth rates (lambda(S)) and predict the probability of successful management using either a single biocontrol agent or two agent species together. Not all populations exhibited invasive dynamics. Estimates of lambda(S) ranged from 0.78 to 2.21 across sites, while annual, deterministic growth (lambda) varied up to sevenfold within individual sites. Given our knowledge of the biocontrol agents, this analysis suggests that C. scrobicollis alone may control A. petiolata at up to 63% of our study sites where lambda >1, with the combination of both agents predicted to succeed at 88% of sites. Across sites and years, the elasticity rankings were dependent on lambda. Reductions of rosette survival, fecundity, or germination of new seeds are predicted to cause the greatest reduction of lambda in growing populations. In declining populations, transitions affecting seed bank survival have the greatest effect on lambda. This contrasts with past analyses that varied parameters individually

  12. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Robert W; Carr, David E

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring) and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients). However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests. PMID:26312176

  13. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Robert W; Carr, David E

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring) and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients). However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests.

  14. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring) and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients). However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests. PMID:26312176

  15. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism: biosynthesis of hydrogen cyanide and of the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in relation to sinigrin metabolism in Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Tina; Motawia, Mohammed S; Olsen, Carl E; Agerbirk, Niels; Møller, Birger L; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. Sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance to specialized (glucosinolate-adapted) herbivores. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two classes of specialized metabolites, which generally do not occur in the same plant species. Administration of [UL-(14)C]-methionine to excised leaves of A. petiolata showed that both alliarinoside and sinigrin were biosynthesized from methionine. The biosynthesis of alliarinoside was shown not to bifurcate from sinigrin biosynthesis at the oxime level in contrast to the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis. Instead, the aglucon of alliarinoside was formed from metabolism of sinigrin in experiments with crude extracts, suggesting a possible biosynthetic pathway in intact cells. Hence, the alliarinoside pathway may represent a route to hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis resulting from convergent evolution. Metabolite profiling by LC-MS showed no evidence of the presence of cyanogenic glucosides in A. petiolata. However, we detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN) release from sinigrin and added thiocyanate ion and benzyl thiocyanate in A. petiolata indicating an enzymatic pathway from glucosinolates via allyl thiocyanate and indole glucosinolate derived thiocyanate ion to HCN. Alliarinoside biosynthesis and HCN release from glucosinolate-derived metabolites expand the range of glucosinolate-related defenses and can be viewed as a third line of defense, with glucosinolates and thiocyanate forming protein being the first and second lines, respectively.

  16. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism: biosynthesis of hydrogen cyanide and of the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in relation to sinigrin metabolism in Alliaria petiolata

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Tina; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Olsen, Carl E.; Agerbirk, Niels; Møller, Birger L.; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. Sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance to specialized (glucosinolate-adapted) herbivores. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two classes of specialized metabolites, which generally do not occur in the same plant species. Administration of [UL-14C]-methionine to excised leaves of A. petiolata showed that both alliarinoside and sinigrin were biosynthesized from methionine. The biosynthesis of alliarinoside was shown not to bifurcate from sinigrin biosynthesis at the oxime level in contrast to the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis. Instead, the aglucon of alliarinoside was formed from metabolism of sinigrin in experiments with crude extracts, suggesting a possible biosynthetic pathway in intact cells. Hence, the alliarinoside pathway may represent a route to hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis resulting from convergent evolution. Metabolite profiling by LC-MS showed no evidence of the presence of cyanogenic glucosides in A. petiolata. However, we detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN) release from sinigrin and added thiocyanate ion and benzyl thiocyanate in A. petiolata indicating an enzymatic pathway from glucosinolates via allyl thiocyanate and indole glucosinolate derived thiocyanate ion to HCN. Alliarinoside biosynthesis and HCN release from glucosinolate-derived metabolites expand the range of glucosinolate-related defenses and can be viewed as a third line of defense, with glucosinolates and thiocyanate forming protein being the first and second lines, respectively. PMID:26583022

  17. Competitive interactions between a nonmycorrhizal invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, and a suite of mycorrhizal grassland, old field, and forest species.

    PubMed

    Poon, Gary T; Maherali, Hafiz

    2015-01-01

    The widespread invasion of the nonmycorrhizal biennial plant, Alliaria petiolata in North America is hypothesized to be facilitated by the production of novel biochemical weapons that suppress the growth of mycorrhizal fungi. As a result, A. petiolata is expected to be a strong competitor against plant species that rely on mycorrhizal fungi for nutrient uptake services. If A. petiolata is also a strong competitor for soil resources, it should deplete nutrients to levels lower than can be tolerated by weaker competitors. Because the negative effect of losing the fungal symbiont for mycorrhizal plants is greatest when nutrients are low, the ability of A. petiolata to simultaneously suppress fungi and efficiently take up soil nutrients should further strengthen its competitive ability against mycorrhizal plants. To test this hypothesis, we grew 27 mycorrhizal tree, forb and grass species that are representative of invaded habitats in the absence or presence of competition with A. petiolata in soils that had previously been experimentally planted with the invader or left as a control. A history of A. petiolata in soil reduced plant available forms of nitrogen by >50% and phosphorus by 17% relative to control soil. Average mycorrhizal colonization of competitor species was reduced by >50% in A. petiolata history versus control soil. Contrary to expectations, competition between A. petiolata and other species was stronger in control than history soil. The invader suppressed the biomass of 70% of competitor species in control soil but only 26% of species in history soil. In addition, A. petiolata biomass was reduced by 56% in history versus control soil, whereas the average biomass of competitor species was reduced by 15%. Thus, our results suggest that the negative effect of nutrient depletion on A. petiolata was stronger than the negative effect of suppressing mycorrhizal colonization on competitor species. These findings indicate that the inhibitory potential of A

  18. Evolutionary feedbacks on the ecology of the invasive plant Alliaria petiolata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological and evolutionary processes historically have been assumed to operate on significantly different time scales. We know now from theory and work on short-lived organisms that these processes can feed back on each other on mutually relevant time scales. Here, we present evidence of an evoluti...

  19. How Does Garlic Mustard Lure and Kill the West Virginia White Butterfly?

    PubMed

    Davis, Samantha L; Frisch, Tina; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Cipollini, Don

    2015-10-01

    As it pertains to insect herbivores, the preference-performance hypothesis posits that females will choose oviposition sites that maximize their offspring's fitness. However, both genetic and environmental cues contribute to oviposition preference, and occasionally "oviposition mistakes" occur, where insects oviposit on hosts unsuitable for larval development. Pieris virginiensis is a pierine butterfly native to North America that regularly oviposits on an invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, but the caterpillars are unable to survive. Alliaria petiolata has high concentrations of the glucosinolate sinigrin in its tissues, as well as a hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. We investigated sinigrin as a possible cause of mistake oviposition, and sinigrin and alliarinoside as possible causes of larval mortality. We found that sinigrin applied to leaves of Cardamine diphylla, a major host of P. virginiensis that does not produce sinigrin, had no effect on oviposition rates. We tested the effect of sinigrin on larval performance using two host plants, one lacking sinigrin (C. diphylla) and one with sinigrin naturally present (Brassica juncea). We found no effect of sinigrin application on survival of caterpillars fed C. diphylla, but sinigrin delayed pupation and decreased pupal weight. On B. juncea, sinigrin decreased survival, consumption, and caterpillar growth. We also tested the response of P. virginiensis caterpillars to alliarinoside, a compound unique to A. petiolata, which was applied to B. oleracea. We found a significant reduction in survival, leaf consumption, and caterpillar size when alliarinoside was consumed. The 'novel weapon' alliarinoside likely is largely responsible for larval failure on the novel host A. petiolata. Sinigrin most likely contributes to the larval mortality observed, however, we did not observe any effect of sinigrin on oviposition by P. virginiensis females. Further research needs to be done on non-glucosinolate contact cues, and

  20. How Does Garlic Mustard Lure and Kill the West Virginia White Butterfly?

    PubMed

    Davis, Samantha L; Frisch, Tina; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Cipollini, Don

    2015-10-01

    As it pertains to insect herbivores, the preference-performance hypothesis posits that females will choose oviposition sites that maximize their offspring's fitness. However, both genetic and environmental cues contribute to oviposition preference, and occasionally "oviposition mistakes" occur, where insects oviposit on hosts unsuitable for larval development. Pieris virginiensis is a pierine butterfly native to North America that regularly oviposits on an invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, but the caterpillars are unable to survive. Alliaria petiolata has high concentrations of the glucosinolate sinigrin in its tissues, as well as a hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. We investigated sinigrin as a possible cause of mistake oviposition, and sinigrin and alliarinoside as possible causes of larval mortality. We found that sinigrin applied to leaves of Cardamine diphylla, a major host of P. virginiensis that does not produce sinigrin, had no effect on oviposition rates. We tested the effect of sinigrin on larval performance using two host plants, one lacking sinigrin (C. diphylla) and one with sinigrin naturally present (Brassica juncea). We found no effect of sinigrin application on survival of caterpillars fed C. diphylla, but sinigrin delayed pupation and decreased pupal weight. On B. juncea, sinigrin decreased survival, consumption, and caterpillar growth. We also tested the response of P. virginiensis caterpillars to alliarinoside, a compound unique to A. petiolata, which was applied to B. oleracea. We found a significant reduction in survival, leaf consumption, and caterpillar size when alliarinoside was consumed. The 'novel weapon' alliarinoside likely is largely responsible for larval failure on the novel host A. petiolata. Sinigrin most likely contributes to the larval mortality observed, however, we did not observe any effect of sinigrin on oviposition by P. virginiensis females. Further research needs to be done on non-glucosinolate contact cues, and

  1. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  2. Garlic in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far. PMID:25386259

  3. The Mathematics of Garlic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  4. Garlic: Review of literature.

    PubMed

    Adaki, Shridevi; Adaki, Raghavendra; Shah, Kaushal; Karagir, Amol

    2014-01-01

    Garlic is one of the components, which have effects on reducing the risk of cancer. Including garlic in the diet helps for the betterment of the health. Medicinal effects of the garlic were known since 5,000 years. Recently, studies were carried out to known its effect on the cancer cell lines. Many studies have shown its effects not only on carcinomas, but also on the cardiovascular system and immune system. Functions of the each component of the garlic were studied to know exactly, which component has got beneficial effect. So this review has been carried out to know about the component, functions of each component, mode of action, and beneficial effects of the garlic.

  5. Garlic: empiricism or science?

    PubMed

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  6. Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Orekhov, A N; Grünwald, J

    1997-01-01

    This review discusses the use of garlic and garlic preparations as agents for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related diseases. Garlic indirectly effects atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. In addition, in animal models, garlic causes direct antiatherogenic (preventive) and antiatherosclerotic (causing regression) effects at the level of artery wall. Garlic's direct effect on atherosclerosis may be explained by its capacity to reduce lipid content in arterial cells and to prevent intracellular lipid accumulation. This effect, in turn, is accompanied by other atherosclerotic manifestations, i.e., stimulation of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Clinical trials are currently being carried out to reveal the possible effect of garlic therapy on human atherosclerosis. Positive results of these trials may open a new era in the use of garlic for prevention and treatment of many atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:9263259

  7. [Allelopathy of garlic root exudates].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Wang, Yan; Li, Jin-Ying; Xue, Yan-Jie

    2011-05-01

    By the method of water culture, the root exudates of Cangshan garlic and Caijiapo garlic were collected to study their allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, and on the development of pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and F. oxysporium f. sp. niveum. The root exudates of the two garlic cultivars promoted the lettuce seed germination and seedling growth at low concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 g x mL(-1)), but showed inhibitory effects at high concentrations (0.4 and 0.6 g x mL(-1)), with the inhibitory effects being stronger for the root exudates of Caijiapo garlic. The two garlic cultivars' root exudates also had inhibitory effects on the mycelia growth and spore germination of the pathogens, and the effects increased with increasing concentration of the exudates, being stronger for Caijiapo garlic than for Cangshan garlic. F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the root exudates of the two garlic cultivars, as compared to F. oxysporium f. sp. niveum.

  8. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  9. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  10. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  11. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  12. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  16. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    PubMed

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:11238795

  17. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic. PMID:19929845

  18. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NFκB, Nrf2 and enhanced GLUT 4, PPARα and PPARδ. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection; the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S. PMID:19722587

  19. Comparative study of adsorption of Pb(II) on native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Tao, Yaqi; Yu, Youjie; Jiang, Hongmei; Lian, Hongzhen

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity.

  20. Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the Use of Spice in European Prehistoric Cuisine

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  1. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    PubMed

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  2. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  3. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  4. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.

    PubMed

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

    2014-03-25

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, λc, and its geometric mean, λper-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined λc and λper-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (λper-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (λper-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's λper-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (λper-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide.

  5. Chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms of garlic organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; You, Sixiang; He, Xi; He, Jianhua; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used both for culinary and medicinal purposes by many cultures. Population and preclinical investigations have suggested that dietary garlic intake has health benefits, such as lowering the risk of esophageal, stomach and prostate cancers. Extensive studies from laboratory and animal models have revealed that garlic has a wide range of biological activities, and garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are responsible for the biological activities. However, the presence and potency of garlic OSCs vary with respect to the mode of garlic preparation and extraction. Cooked or processed garlic products showed different kinds of garlic OSCs, some of which are highly unstable and instantly decomposed. These facts, possibly gave paradoxical results on the garlic effects. In this review, we first summarized the biotransformation processes of garlic alliin into different garlic OSCs as well as the garlic OSCs compositions from different garlic preparations. Next, we reviewed the chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms focusing on the anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-diabetes and anticancer activity behind different garlic OSCs.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtained from Allium sativum, a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil meets the specifications of...

  7. Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Mehmood S; Iqbal, Javaid

    2009-06-01

    Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements in the field of immunonutrition, physiology, and pharmacology further explored its importance as a functional food against various pathologies. Extensive research work has been carried out on the health promoting properties of garlic, often referred to its sulfur containing metabolites i.e. allicin and its derivatives. Garlic in its preparations are effective against health risks and even used as dietary supplements such as age garlic extract (AGE) and garlic oil etc. Its components/formulations can scavenge free radicals and protect membranes from damage and maintains cell integrity. It also provides cardiovascular protection mediated by lowering of cholesterol, blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation thus providing protection against atherosclerosis and associated disorders. Besides this, it possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that are interesting in chemopreventive interventions. Several mechanisms have been reviewed in this context like activation of detoxification phase-I and II enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reducing DNA damage etc. Garlic could be useful in preventing the suppression of immune response associated with increased risk of malignancy as it stimulates the proliferation of lymphocytes, macrophage phagocytosis, stimulates the release of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and enhances natural killer cells. In this paper much emphasis has been placed on garlic's ability to ameliorate oxidative stress, core role

  8. Cardioprotective actions of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Isensee, H; Rietz, B; Jacob, R

    1993-02-01

    The influence of an intake of garlic powder (1%--corresponding to Kwai/Sapec--added to a standard chow for a 10-week period) on the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias under ischemia and reperfusion was investigated in the isolated rat heart (Langendorff preparation) perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. The incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and fibrillation (VF) after ligation of the descending branch of the left coronary artery (LAD) (20 min) was significantly reduced in the garlic group as compared to untreated controls (VT: 0% vs. 35.5%; VF: 50% vs. 88%). The size of the ischemic zone was significantly smaller (31.7% vs. 40.9% of total heart tissue). The reperfusion experiments (5 min after 10 min ischemia) revealed similar results (VT: 50% vs. 100%; VF: 30% vs. 90%). The time until occurrence of extrasystoles and VT or VF was prolonged in most cases, and the duration of arrhythmias was abbreviated. No significant alterations in cardiac membrane fatty acid composition could be found. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) caused a moderate increase in arrhythmias and ischemic zone in the garlic group as well as in untreated controls under the conditions of the present experiments. Thus, it seems that the prostaglandin system does not play a predominant role in the cardioprotective action of garlic. The significance of free radical scavenging activity of garlic for its antiarrhythmic effects has to be established.

  9. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material. PMID:24598229

  10. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material.

  11. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H; Nakagawa, S

    1987-03-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.

  12. Allexivirus transmitted by eriophyid mites in garlic plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Gu; Koo, Bong Jin; Lee, Eun Tag; Chang, Moo Ung

    2007-11-01

    Viruses in garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) have accumulated and evolved over generations, resulting in serious consequences for the garlic trade around the world. These viral epidemics are also known to be caused by aphids and eriophyid mites (Aceria tulipae) carrying Potyviruses, Carlaviruses, and Allexiviruses. However, little is known about viral epidemics in garlic plants caused by eriophyid mites. Therefore, this study investigated the infection of garlic plants with Allexiviruses by eriophyid mites. When healthy garlic plants were cocultured with eriophyid mites, the leaves of the garlic plants developed yellow mosaic strips and became distorted. In extracts from the eriophyid mites, Allexiviruses were observed using immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM). From an immunoblot analysis, coat proteins against an Allexivirus garlic-virus antiserum were clearly identified in purified extracts from collected viral-infected garlic plants, eriophyid mites, and garlic plants infected by eriophyid mites. A new strain of GarV-B was isolated and named GarV-B Korea isolate 1 (GarV-B1). The ORF1 and ORF2 in GarV-B1 contained a typical viral helicase, RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp), and triple gene block protein (TGBp) for viral movement between cells. The newly identified GarV-B1 was phylogenetically grouped with GarV-C and GarV-X in the Allexivirus genus. All the results in this study demonstrated that eriophyid mites are a transmitter insect species for Allexiviruses. PMID:18092468

  13. Garlic and cardioprotection: insights into the molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Adela, Ramu; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-06-01

    Garlic is widely recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Garlic has been shown to exert its beneficial effects against a wide spectrum of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and microbial infections, as well as immunological and cardiovascular disorders. Most of the research on garlic has indicated that garlic and its active compounds are effective in reducing cardiovascular and metabolic risk by normalizing abnormal plasma lipids, oxidized low density lipoproteins, abnormal platelet aggregation, high blood pressure, and cardiac injury. Some of the beneficial effects of dietary garlic against cardiovascular disorders are mediated via the generation of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Garlic has the potential to protect the heart against myocardial infarction, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The induction of cardiac endogenous antioxidants and the reduction of lipid peroxidation by garlic has been reported by several different groups. Other mechanisms, such as regulating ion channels, modulating Akt signaling pathways, histone deacetylase inhibition, and cytochrome P450 inhibition, could be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of garlic. Although several mechanisms have been identified for the cardioprotective effect of garlic, there is a need for further research to identify the specific molecular mechanism of cardioprotection in different cardiac diseases.

  14. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  15. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  16. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps.

  17. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  18. Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Naz, Nosheen; Khaliq, Saima; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is regarded as both a food and a medicinal herb. Increasing attention has focused on the biological functions and health benefits of garlic as a potentially major dietary component. Chronic garlic administration has been shown to enhance memory function. Evidence also shows that garlic administration in rats affects brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) levels. 5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological functions, is also known to enhance cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the probable neurochemical mechanism responsible for the enhancement of memory following garlic administration. Sixteen adult locally bred male albino Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and test (n = 8) groups. The test group was orally administered 250 mg/kg fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), while control animals received an equal amount of water daily for 21 days. Estimation of plasma free and total tryptophan (TRP) and whole brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For assessment of memory, a step-through passive avoidance paradigm (electric shock avoidance) was used. The results showed that the levels of plasma free TRP significantly increased (P < .01) and plasma total TRP significantly decreased (P < .01) in garlic-treated rats. Brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA levels were also significantly increased following garlic administration. A significant improvement in memory function was exhibited by garlic-treated rats in the passive avoidance test. Increased brain 5-HT levels were associated with improved cognitive performance. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory. PMID:19053859

  19. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health. PMID:26764328

  20. [Does garlic protect against vampires? An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, H; Baerheim, A

    1994-12-10

    Vampires are feared everywhere, but the Balkan region has been especially haunted. Garlic has been regarded as an effective prophylactic against vampires. We wanted to explore this alleged effect experimentally. Owing to the lack of vampires, we used leeches instead. In strictly standardized research surroundings, the leeches were to attach themselves to either a hand smeared with garlic or to a clean hand. The garlic-smeared hand was preferred in two out of three cases (95% confidence interval 50.4% to 80.4%). When they preferred the garlic the leeches used only 14.9 seconds to attach themselves, compared with 44.9 seconds when going to the non-garlic hand (p < 0.05). The traditional belief that garlic has prophylactic properties is probably wrong. The reverse may in fact be true. This study indicates that garlic possibly attracts vampires. Therefore to avoid a Balkan-like development in Norway, restrictions on the use of garlic should be considered.

  1. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries.

  2. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health.

  3. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  4. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics. PMID:25438250

  5. Garlic Revisited: Antimicrobial Activity of Allicin-Containing Garlic Extracts against Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J.; Place, Marc; Govan, John R. W.; Campopiano, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics. PMID:25438250

  6. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  7. Development and performance evaluation of a garlic peeler.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, M; Samuel, D V K; Anurag, Rahul K; Gaikwad, Nilesh

    2014-11-01

    Garlic peeling is a tedious, key, costly and time consuming unit operation in garlic processing. A power operated garlic peeler having a cylinder-concave mechanism was developed with an intention to reduce cost and time. Physical properties of garlic relevant for peeler development were identified and measured. The average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, weight of garlic segment and weight of 1,000 garlic segment were measured as 26.3 mm, 10.4 mm, 8.7 mm, 13.3 mm, 0.5, 1.8 g and 1,813 g, respectively. An experimental garlic peeler having cylinder covered with 10 mm thick rubber was fabricated and evaluated for its performance with crop-machine parameters viz., cylinder speed (29, 36 and 42 rpm), cylinder-concave clearance (8, 10 and 12 mm), moisture content (23.1, 27.7, 33.4 and 40.5 % wet basis) and concave mechanisms. Crop-machine parameters were optimized based peeling efficiency and they found to be cylinder speed of 36 rpm, cylinder-concave clearance of 10 mm, mild steel square (8 × 8 screen). Prototype garlic peeler was evaluated with the optimized crop-machine parameters. The peeling efficiency, yield of peeled garlic and unpeeled garlic, damage and peel separation were 86.6, 86.2, 4.7, 9.15 and 96 %, respectively with a machine throughput capacity of 27 kg/h and the energy requirement of 1.15 kw-h. Operation cost of the peeler was determined on the basis of fixed and variable cost and found to be INR 22.9/h. The developed garlic peeler saved INR 16.11/kg (94.99 %) and 1.63 (97 %) man hours in comparison to the hand peeling of garlic. PMID:26396300

  8. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews.

    PubMed

    Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent literature on the usage and relevance of garlic and its bioactive components in controlling diabetes and diabetes-associated pathologies; and also updates recent patents on the subject. Antidiabetic effect of garlic is well documented even in ancient medical literature. Garlic and its active ingredients have been extensively studied for their antidiabetic efficacies in either experimentally induced or genetic animal models of diabetes. Human studies are also available where hypoglycemic effect of garlic was reported. The beneficial effects of garlic are mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds like alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine, ajoene and allyl mercaptan. Garlic and garlic extracts have been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance. Therefore, considering the importance of garlic in controlling diabetic complications, several preparations and food processes containing garlic have been patented. This review discusses some of the recent progresses made in this field and consolidates the results.

  9. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids. PMID:27300762

  10. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-06-06

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  11. Garlic: a sensory pleasure or a social nuisance?

    PubMed

    Rosin, S; Tuorila, H; Uutela, A

    1992-10-01

    A total of 100 female and male shoppers in Helsinki were interviewed to evaluate beliefs, attitudes and norms concerning the consumption of garlic. In a subsequent postal questionnaire, the annoyance related to the smell of garlic, compared with other social odors, was also measured. The most frequent beliefs about garlic pertained to its good taste, unpleasant smell, and healthiness. Users and non-users showed distinctly different belief patterns. Sweat and alcohol were considered the most annoying social odors, and garlic and perfume/aftershave the least so. The Fishbein-Ajzen model, in which individual beliefs and their evaluations as well as subjective norms were used as predictors, explained 35-36% of the variation of the reported consumption and intention to use garlic. The predictive power of the model rose to 56-62% when past behavior was included as a third independent variable. Although the predictive power of attitudes was greater than that of subjective norms, the latter were also significant predictors. Thus, use of garlic is a somewhat unusual form of food-related behavior in that it is controlled by both attitudes and normative factors.

  12. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  13. In vitro induction of tetraploid garlic with trifluralin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z-H; Zhou, X-J; Khan, M A; Su, L; Meng, H-W

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is propagated asexually. Since sexual cross breeding is almost impossible, means for effective breeding are not currently available and the available production cultivars are seriously aged and degenerated. A possible alternative for breeding is chemical induction. Trifluralin, a type of herbicide, has been reported to provoke chromosome doubling. However, this chemical had not been tested on garlic. We tested various trifluralin concentrations and treatment durations for efficiency in the induction of tetraploid garlic. A clove base of garlic with a stem cv. Gailiang was used as the ex-plant to induce calluses on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium; the calluses were then inoculated onto MS medium containing different levels of trifluralin and cultured to induce chromosome number variation in vitro. Garlic calluses were effectively induced via the ex-plant and both shoots and roots differentiated well on MS medium containing 6-benzylaminopurine at 3.0 mg/L and indole-3-acetic acid at 0.1 mg/L. However, increases in trifluralin concentration and treatment duration reduced the survival rate and differentiation rate of calluses. Garlic callus cultured for 15 days on medium containing 100 μM trifluralin gave the highest rate of chromosome doubling. Through observation of chromosome number in the root apical cells and the morphology of guard cells on the leaf epidermis of the regenerated plantlets, it was clear that chromosome number variation was induced and tetraploids were produced in vitro by trifluralin treatment. PMID:22869078

  14. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  15. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

    PubMed

    Shouk, Reem; Abdou, Aya; Shetty, Kalidas; Sarkar, Dipayan; Eid, Ali H

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management.

  16. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    SciTech Connect

    Knasmueller, S. ); Szakmary, A. ); Domjan, G. ); de Martin, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of {gamma}-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detected with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells.

  17. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116.

  18. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116. PMID:26764332

  19. [Formation of allicin from dried garlic (Allium sativum): a simple HPTLC method for simultaneous determination of allicin and ajoene in dried garlic and garlic preparations].

    PubMed

    Blania, G; Spangenberg, B

    1991-08-01

    In garlic (Allium sativum L.) the enzyme alliin lyase catalyzes the cleavage of alliin into allicin which reacts further to furnish ajoene. A simultaneous determination of allicin and ajoene is introduced which, in contrast to the determination of alliin only, allows for the testing of the activity of alliin lyase. It can be demonstrated that at a pH value of less than 3 the enzyme produces only small amounts of allicin. For this reason preparations from garlic should be administered only as enteric-coated formulations.

  20. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. PMID:24989289

  1. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  2. Physical stability, antioxidative properties, and photoprotective effects of a functionalized formulation containing black garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Kang, Duk Ho; Chang, Un Jae; Hong, Yang-Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-12-01

    When garlic is fermented, certain aspects of its bioactivity are changed. Black garlic is a type of fermented garlic used as a food ingredient in Asian cuisine. Black garlic's popularity has spread around the world as it has become a sought-after ingredient used in high-end cuisine. The formulations containing 10% black garlic extract or 10% normal garlic extract showed stable pH, color, precipitation, and organoleptic features, although these characteristics changed slightly. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the black garlic formulation were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to those of the base formulation and normal garlic formulation. Mice treated with the black garlic formulation (119.63 μM/g) had significant (p<0.05) decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels by lipid peroxidation compared to ultraviolet B (UVB)-control mice (142.37 μM/g). Moreover, significant (p<0.05) prevention of glutathione reduced form (GSH) depletion was observed in the black garlic formulation treated mice (vehicle: 3.46 mM/g vs. black garlic: 5.60mM/g). The formulation containing 10% black garlic extract retained physical stability and had high anti-radical efficiencies. Furthermore, it is possible to suggest that this formulation may be effective in protecting skin from UVB photodamage.

  3. Characterization of an Unusual Cytoplasmic Chimera Detected in Bolting Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a visible flower stalk or bolting has been used as a major trait to categorize garlic clones. Analysis of mitochondrial genome variation with PCR revealed differences between bolting and non-bolting clones of garlic. Screening 333 garlic accessions from diverse geographic origins rev...

  4. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  5. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ..., 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet...

  6. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994) (Order). On November... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China...

  7. The in vitro susceptibility of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and a raw extract of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen R; Perrie, Rosemary; Apitz-Castro, Rafael

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 20 medical isolates of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and raw garlic extract derived from cloves of garlic (Allium sativum) was tested using the NCCLS reference method (with minor modifications) for broth microdilution. The results demonstrate that both garlic derivatives and raw garlic extract appear to have in vitro activity against S. prolificans.

  8. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Ransom, D K; Hughes, B G

    1992-01-15

    The inhibitory effects of adenosine and 16 quantitatively determined organosulfur compounds derived from garlic cloves or commercial garlic preparations on collagen stimulated in vitro platelet aggregation in whole blood were determined. An estimation of the anti-aggregatory activity of several brands of the major types of commercial garlic preparations was determined from the activities of the individual compounds present in each sample. In platelet rich plasma (PRP) most of the anti-aggregatory activity of garlic clove homogenates was due to adenosine; however, in whole blood neither adenosine nor the polar fraction had any effect and all of the anti-aggregatory activity was due to allicin and other thiosulfinates. Allicin was equally active in whole blood and PRP. Among brands there was a several-fold variation in content of the organosulfur compounds and activity for all types of garlic products tested. The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed. PMID:1579891

  9. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in garlic bulbs by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mamani Moreno, Claudia; Stadler, Teodoro; da Silva, Antônio Alberto; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R

    2012-01-30

    In recent years, the release of information about the preventative and curative properties of garlic on different diseases and their benefits to human health has led to an increase in the consumption of garlic. To meet the requirements of international markets and reach competitiveness and profitability, farmers seek to extend the offer period of fresh garlic by increasing post-harvest life. As a result, the use of maleic hydrazide (1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione) [MH], a plant growth regulator, has been widespread in various garlic growing regions of the world. The present work was undertaken to develop and validate a new analytical procedure based on MH extraction from garlic previously frozen by liquid nitrogen and submitted to low temperature clean-up. The applicability of the method by analysis of garlic samples from a commercial plantation was also demonstrated. The influence of certain factors on the performance of the analytical methodology were studied and optimized. The approach is an efficient extraction, clean-up and determination alternative for MH residue-quantification due to its specificity and sensitivity. The use of liquid nitrogen during the sample preparation prevents the degradation of the analyte due to oxidation reactions, a major limiting factor. Moreover, the method provides good linearity (r(2): 0.999), good intermediate precision (coefficient of variation (CV): 8.39%), and extracts were not affected by the matrix effect. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) (0.33 mg kg(-1)) was well below the maximum residue level (MRL) set internationally for garlic (15 mg kg(-1)), with excellent rates of recovery (over 95%), good repeatability and acceptable accuracy (CV averaged 5.74%), since garlic is a complex matrix. The analytical performance of the methodology presented was compared with other techniques already reported, with highly satisfactory results, lower LOD and higher recoveries rates. In addition, the extraction

  10. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop.

    PubMed

    Hata, Fernando T; Ventura, Maurício U; Carvalho, Mateus G; Miguel, André L A; Souza, Mariana S J; Paula, Maria T; Zawadneak, Maria A C

    2016-07-01

    The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations. PMID:27085718

  11. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-02-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  12. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-02-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides.

  13. Development of Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Garlic Viruses and the Incidence of Garlic Viral Disease in Garlic Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Moon; Lee, Yeong-Hoon; Park, Chung Youl; Lee, Min-A; Bae, Yang-Soo; Lim, Seungmo; Lee, Joong Hwan; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed. To effectively detect the twelve different types of garlic viruses, primer mixtures were tested and divided into two independent sets for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The multiplex PCR assays were able to detect specific targets up to the similar dilution series with monoplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Seventy-two field samples collected by the Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. All seventy two samples were infected with at least one virus, and the coinfection rate was 78%. We conclude that the simultaneous detection system developed in this study can effectively detect and differentiate mixed viral infections in garlic. PMID:25774116

  14. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  15. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer; Cekovska, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as ‘Russian penicillin’, ‘natural antibiotic’, ‘vegetable viagra’, ‘plant talisman’, ‘rustic's theriac’, ‘snake grass’ etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life. PMID:22228949

  16. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic. PMID:25549134

  17. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Kh I; Ishioroshi, M; Samejima, K

    2004-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3 degrees C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log(10) CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products.

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Kh.I.; Ishioroshi, M.; Samejima, K.

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3°C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log10 CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products. PMID:17330154

  20. Garlic Revisited: Therapeutic for the Major Diseases of Our Times?

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Tariq H.; Kandil, O.; Elkadi, A.; Carter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Garlic may play an invaluable role in the prevention and therapy of the major causes of death. Anecdotal, basic, and clinical research data are confirming the efficacy of this herb in the treatment of hyperlipemia, cancer, heavy-metal intoxication, infectious diseases, hypertension, free-radical damage, and immune deficiency states. Garlic's broad antimicrobial spectra and its ability to modulate immunity may play a strategic role in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic. A review of the literature supports a greater scrutiny of this herb's therapeutic potential. PMID:3290502

  1. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g(-1), respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g(-1). Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating

  2. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  3. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  4. The invasive plant, Brassica nigra, degrades local mycorrhizas across a wide geographical landscape.

    PubMed

    Pakpour, Sepideh; Klironomos, John

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of mycorrhizal fungi that form symbioses with local native plants is a strategy used by some invasive exotic plants for competing within their resident communities. Example invasive plants include Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and Brassica nigra (black mustard), both non-mycorrhizal plants in the Family Brassicaceae. Although there is clear evidence for mycorrhizal degradation, it is not known if such an effect is widespread across the naturalized range. In this study, we tested the ability of black mustard to degrade the local mycorrhizal symbiosis and supress the growth of native flora from across a variety of locations where black mustard has invaded. We found that the effects on mycorrhizal fungi and on the growth of native plants were consistently negative at the various sites. The present results indicate that degradation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis by black mustard is of general significance, and may be highly problematic considering the large range that it has occupied in open fields across North America. PMID:26473052

  5. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and atherogenic parameters in rabbits supplemented with cholesterol and garlic powder.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Myung-Ja; Song, Young-Sun; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Sang-Joon; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Song, Yeong-Ok

    2003-05-16

    The current study was conducted to examine the effect of garlic supplementation on CETP activity, along with its anti-atherosclerotic effect in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks, including a 1% garlic powder supplement. The garlic-supplemented group exhibited significantly lower CETP activity than the control group during the experimental period (P < 0.05). Among the atherogenic parameters, the total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and atherogenic index were all significantly lower in the garlic group than in the control group during the experimental period (P < 0.05), whereas the HDL-C concentration was significantly higher in the garlic group than in the control group after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Atherosclerotic lesion area in the aorta arch was also significantly lower in the garlic group (P < 0.05). In the morphological examination, the garlic-supplemented group exhibited far fewer fat droplet deposits than the control group. Furthermore, the garlic supplement also lowered the aortic and hepatic cholesterol, and triglyceride. Accordingly, the current results suggest that garlic exerts hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherogenic and that plasma CETP activity might be a risk marker related with atherogenesis. As such, the inhibition of CETP activity may delay the progression of atherosclerosis, thereby supporting the atherogenicity of CETP and the inhibitory activity of garlic supplementation against CETP. PMID:12706483

  6. The Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Organosulfur Compounds in Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor. PMID:24237225

  7. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). PMID:26551789

  8. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  9. Immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of garlic extract on Eimeria vermiformis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Atef Mohammed; Yasuda, Masahiro; Farid, Ayman Samir; Desouky, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohi-Eldin, Mouchira Mohammed; Haridy, Mohie; Horii, Yoichiro

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the immunomodulatory and parasiticidal effects of garlic extract on coccidiosis caused by Eimeria vermiformis infection in male ICR mice. One group received garlic extract daily until the end of the experiment by the oral route from 10 days prior to oral infection with 300 sporulated E. vermiformis oocysts (infected-garlic(+)). The other group served as a control positive with E. vermiformis infection alone (infected-garlic(-)). In the infected-garlic(+) group, garlic extract treatment induced a significant reduction in fecal oocyst output when compared with the infected-garlic(-) group. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analysis for inflammatory cytokines in ileal tissues showed that the garlic extract treatment impaired intracellular development of E. vermiformis during the early stages by increasing the number of intraepithelial CD8(+) T cells and decreasing IL-10 expression. This induced cell cytotoxicity which was reflected by a decrease in oocyst numbers in the intestinal villi and the feces, indicating anticoccidial effects of the garlic extract. However, further studies to explore the precise mechanism of the observed effects of garlic treatment during Eimeria infection are needed to verify our results.

  10. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  11. The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H

    2014-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor.

  12. Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic compounds.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  13. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-11-28

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  14. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

  15. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  16. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54487) and determined on December 5, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 78694, December 19, 2011). The Commission... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  17. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic. PMID:24579375

  18. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  19. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments.

  20. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  1. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  2. Changes in blood profile in sheep receiving raw garlic, garlic oil or monensin.

    PubMed

    Anassori, E; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Pirmohammadi, R; Hadian, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing a basal diet (CTR) with raw garlic (GAR) or garlic oil (GAO) on blood profile in sheep. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Four ruminally fistulated rams were used in three experiments each arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Experiments 1 and 2 differed in the dose of GAR (75 vs. 100 g/kg DM) and GAO (500 vs. 750 mg/kg DM), while experiment 3 was designed to compare the two doses of each additive (GAR and GAO). The animals were fed a basal diet as TMR consisting of 77.83% forage (alfalfa hay and corn silage) and 22.17% concentrate, providing 10.50 MJ/kg DM (metabolizable energy) and 16.5% crude protein to cover maintenance energy and protein requirements. Supplementation of monensin decreased (P < 0.05) β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in the blood compared with other treatments. There was no significant effect of additives on serum concentration of glucose, total triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Although the serum insulin concentration was elevated in sheep receiving MON and GAO (P < 0.01), no change was observed in blood glucose concentration. No significant effect of GAO and GAR was observed in key energy and protein-related blood metabolites. However, administration of monensin had a positive influence on energy indices. In conclusion, whereas parameters characterizing the energy balance did not show a significant effect of GAR supplementation, a higher insulin concentration in GAO-treated animals was observed.

  3. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  4. Insilico studies of organosulfur-functional active compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yogendra P; Singh, Ram A

    2010-01-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity because of its antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, ability to reduce cardiovascular diseases, improving immune functions, and antidiabetic activities and also in reducing cardiovascular diseases and improving immune functions. Recent studies identify that the wide variety of medicinal functions are attributed to the sulfur compounds present in garlic. Epidemiological observations and laboratory studies in animal models have also showed anticarcinogenic potential of organosulfur compounds of garlic. In this study, in silico analysis of organosulfur compounds is reported using the methods of theoretical chemistry to elucidate the molecular properties of garlic as it is more time and cost efficient, reduces the number of wet experiments, and offers the possibility of replacing some animal tests with suitable in silico models. The analysis of molecular descriptors defined by Lipinski has been done. The solubility of drug in water has been determined as it is of useful importance in the process of drug discovery from molecular design to pharmaceutical formulation and biopharmacy. All toxicities associated with candidate drug have been calculated. P-Glycoprotein expressed in normal tissues as a cause of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been examined. Drug-plasma protein binding and volume of distribution have also been calculated. To avoid rejection of drugs, it is becoming more important to determine pK(a), absorption, polar surface area, and other physiochemical properties associated with a drug, before synthetic work is undertaken. The present in silico study is aimed at examining these compounds of garlic to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:20641079

  5. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum L.) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Camargo, Alejandra; Galmarini, Claudio R; Simon, Philipp W

    2007-02-21

    The raw form of garlic and some of its preparations are widely recognized as antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Herein, we examined the in-vitro antiaggregatory activity (IVAA) of human blood platelets induced by extracts of garlic samples that were previously heated (in the form of crushed versus uncrushed cloves) using different cooking methods and intensities. The concentrations of allicin and pyruvate, two predictors of antiplatelet strength, were also monitored. Oven-heating at 200 degrees C or immersing in boiling water for 3 min or less did not affect the ability of garlic to inhibit platelet aggregation (as compared to raw garlic), whereas heating for 6 min completely suppressed IVAA in uncrushed, but not in previously crushed, samples. The latter samples had reduced, yet significant, antiplatelet activity. Prolonged incubation (more than 10 min) at these temperatures completely suppressed IVAA. Microwaved garlic had no effect on platelet aggregation. However, increasing the concentration of garlic juice in the aggregation reaction had a positive IVAA dose response in crushed, but not in uncrushed, microwaved samples. The addition of raw garlic juice to microwaved uncrushed garlic restored a full complement of antiplatelet activity that was completely lost without the garlic addition. Garlic-induced IVAA was always associated with allicin and pyruvate levels. Our results suggest that (1) allicin and thiosulfinates are responsible for the IVAA response, (2) crushing garlic before moderate cooking can reduce the loss of activity, and (3) the partial loss of antithrombotic effect in crushed-cooked garlic may be compensated by increasing the amount consumed.

  6. Biomonitoring the intake of garlic via urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Hageman, G J; Rauma, A L; Versluis-de Haan, G; van Herwijnen, M H; de Groot, J; Törrönen, R; Mykkänen, H

    2001-08-01

    Allium vegetables (onions, leeks, chives) and in particular garlic have been claimed to have health-promoting potential. This study was conducted to get insight into the perspectives for monitoring the intake of garlic by a biomarker approach. Chemically, the biomarker results from exposure to gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, which is first hydrolysed by gamma-glutamine-transpeptidase resulting in the formation of S-allyl-l-cysteine. The latter compound is subsequently N-acetylated by N-acetyltransferase into S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) and excreted into urine. The mercapturic acid was measured in urine using gaschromatography with mass spectrometry. Thus the intake of garlic was determined to check the compliance of garlic intake in a placebo-controlled intervention study. Results indicate that S-allyl-mercapturic acid could be detected in 15 out of 16 urine samples of garlic supplement takers, indicating good compliance. In addition, the intake of garlic was also monitored in a cross-section study of vegans versus controls in Finland, in which no differences in garlic consumption nor in ALMA output were recorded between vegans and controls. These data indicate good possibilities for further studies in the field of biomarkers to investigate the putative chemopreventive effects of garlic and garlic-containing products. PMID:11520428

  7. Composition, stability, and bioavailability of garlic products used in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Larry D; Gardner, Christopher D

    2005-08-10

    In support of a new clinical trial designed to compare the effects of crushed fresh garlic and two types of garlic supplement tablets (enteric-coated dried fresh garlic and dried aged garlic extract) on serum lipids, the three garlic products have been characterized for (a) composition (14 sulfur and 2 non-sulfur compounds), (b) stability of suspected active compounds, and (c) availability of allyl thiosulfinates (mainly allicin) under both simulated gastrointestinal (tablet dissolution) conditions and in vivo. The allyl thiosulfinates of blended fresh garlic were stable for at least 2 years when stored at -80 degrees C. The dissolution release of thiosulfinates from the enteric-coated garlic tablets was found to be >95%. The bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from these tablets, measured as breath allyl methyl sulfide, was found to be complete and equivalent to that of crushed fresh garlic. S-Allylcysteine was stable for 12 months at ambient temperature. The stability of the suspected active compounds under the conditions of the study and the bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from the dried garlic supplement have validated the use of these preparations for comparison in a clinical trial.

  8. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    PubMed

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (p<0.05) reduced infection prevalence and intensity as compared to the control. Oral treatments using dry garlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) mean prevalence and mean intensity of parasites as compared to the control. Dietary application of garlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (p<0.05) parasite prevalence and mean intensity as compared to the control. Histopathology revealed elevated muscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic

  9. Garlic supplementation prevents oxidative DNA damage in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Veena; Jain, Sanjay

    2005-07-01

    Oxygen-free radicals and other oxygen/nitrogen species are constantly generated in the human body. Most are intercepted by antioxidant defences and perform useful metabolic roles, whereas others escape to damage biomolecules like DNA, lipids and proteins. Garlic has been shown to contain antioxidant phytochemicals that prevent oxidative damage. These include unique water-soluble organosulphur compounds, lipid-soluble organosulphur compounds and flavonoids. Therefore, in the present study, we have tried to explore the antioxidant effect of garlic supplementation on oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide generation and on the total antioxidant status (TAS) in patients of essential hypertension (EH). Twenty patients of EH as diagnosed by JNC VI criteria (Group I) and 20 age and sex-matched normotensive controls (Group II) were enrolled in the study. Both groups were given garlic pearls (GP) in a dose of 250 mg per day for 2 months. Baseline samples were taken at the start of the study, i.e. 0 day, and thereafter 2 months follow-up. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), lipids, lipid peroxidation (MDA), NO and antioxidant vitamins A, E and C were determined. A moderate decline in blood pressure (BP) and a significant reduction in 8-OHdG, NO levels and lipid peroxidation were observed in Group I subjects with GP supplementation. Further, a significant increase in vitamin levels and TAS was also observed in this group as compared to the control subjects. These findings point out the beneficial effects of garlic supplementation in reducing blood pressure and counteracting oxidative stress, and thereby, offering cardioprotection in essential hypertensives. PMID:16335787

  10. Garlic provides protection to mice heart against isoproterenol-induced oxidative damage: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Tarak Nath; Padiya, Raju; Karnewar, Santosh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Agawane, Sachin B; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-06-30

    Garlic has been widely recognized as a cardioprotective agent. However, the molecular mechanism of its cardioprotective effects is not well established. Here we hypothesized that aqueous garlic homogenate may mediate cardioprotection via nitric oxide (NO). Mice were fed with saline and aqueous garlic homogenate (250 and 500 mgkg(-1)day(-1) orally) for 30 days. In another set of experiment, mice were pre-treated with saline, aqueous garlic homogenate (AGH) (250 mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 30 days), and AGH (30 days) along with L-NAME (20 mgkg(-1)day(-1) i.p. for last 7 days) before inducing acute myocardial infarction by isoproterenol (s.c. injection of isoproterenol 150 mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 2 days) and sacrificed after 48 h. Dose dependent increase in serum NO level was observed after garlic 250 and 500 mgkg(-1) dose feeding. While no change in serum SGPT and SGOT level, a significant decrease in serum LDH level was observed after garlic feeding. Garlic-induced NO formation was further confirmed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Administration of isoproterenol caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants i.e., myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx activity, and mitochondrial enzyme activities like citrate synthase and β hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase. All those deleterious cardiac changes induced by isoproterenol were significantly attenuated by garlic homogenate. However this beneficial effect of garlic was blunted when garlic was administered with L-NAME, a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Further, a significant increase in myocardial TBARS and decrease in total antioxidant activity was observed in L-NAME treated group compared to isoproterenol treated group. Administration of L-NAME in mice from control group lowered serum and cardiac NO levels without any change of oxidative stress parameters. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence that garlic homogenate is protective in myocardial infarction via NO-signaling pathway in mice.

  11. 76 FR 54487 - Fresh Garlic From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... fresh garlic from China (59 FR 59209). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... garlic from China (66 FR 14544). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... garlic from China (71 FR 61708). The Commission is now conducting a third review to determine...

  12. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M.; Morella, Jacob D.; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications. PMID:24683414

  13. Antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Seema; Trivedi, Niyati A.; Bhatt, Jagat D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance has been a global concern. Currently, interest has been focused on exploring antimicrobial properties of plants and herbs. One such botanical is Allium sativum (garlic). Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of fresh juice of garlic. Materials and Methods: Varying concentrations of fresh garlic juice (FGJ) were tested for their antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara, using well diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of FGJ were tested using broth dilution method. Sensitivity pattern of the conventional antimicrobials against common pathogenic bacteria was tested using disc diffusion method. Results: FGJ produced dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition at a concentration of 10% and higher. MIC of FGJ against the pathogens ranged from 4% to 16% v/v whereas MLC value ranged from 4% to 32% v/v with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus spp. showed highest sensitivity. Conclusion: FGJ has definite antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara. Further studies are needed to find out the efficacy, safety, and kinetic data of its active ingredients. PMID:27011724

  14. Organosulfur compounds and possible mechanism of garlic in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Omar, S.H.; Al-Wabel, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), a member of the family Liliaceae, contains an abundance of chemical compounds that have been shown to possess beneficial effects to protect against several diseases, including cancer. Evidence supports the protective effects of garlic in stomach, colorectal, breast cancer in humans. The protective effects appear to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds, predominantly allyl derivatives, which also have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Organosulfur compounds in garlic are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans. PMID:23960721

  15. Ephemeral disturbances have long-lasting impacts on forest invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2014-07-01

    Ephemeral disturbances are common in many systems. Often, these brief events are assumed to be a nuisance with little long-term ecological impact. We quantified the impact of the ephemeral forest disturbance caused by gypsy moth canopy defoliation on exotic plant invasion in eight hardwood forests in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, USA. Six years following the gypsy moth disturbance, we were able to predict 59% of the increase in Alliaria petiolata abundance and 42% of the increase in Microstegium vimineum abundance with models incorporating an interaction between disturbance severity and propagule pressure. In addition, we found that the disturbance timing had substantial impacts on the invasion dynamics of Alliaria petiolata. Our results suggest that ephemeral disturbances can have important and long-lasting impacts on plant communities, and highlight the need to account for variations in disturbance characteristics and the role of propagule pressure in determining the disturbance-invasion relationship.

  16. Ephemeral disturbances have long-lasting impacts on forest invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2014-07-01

    Ephemeral disturbances are common in many systems. Often, these brief events are assumed to be a nuisance with little long-term ecological impact. We quantified the impact of the ephemeral forest disturbance caused by gypsy moth canopy defoliation on exotic plant invasion in eight hardwood forests in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, USA. Six years following the gypsy moth disturbance, we were able to predict 59% of the increase in Alliaria petiolata abundance and 42% of the increase in Microstegium vimineum abundance with models incorporating an interaction between disturbance severity and propagule pressure. In addition, we found that the disturbance timing had substantial impacts on the invasion dynamics of Alliaria petiolata. Our results suggest that ephemeral disturbances can have important and long-lasting impacts on plant communities, and highlight the need to account for variations in disturbance characteristics and the role of propagule pressure in determining the disturbance-invasion relationship. PMID:25163111

  17. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The raw form of garlic and some of its preparations are widely recognized as antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Herein, we examined the in-vitro antiaggregatory activity (IVAA) of human blood platelets induced by extracts of garlic samples that were ...

  18. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 54430 (September 1, 2011). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR... reasonably foreseeable time.\\3\\ \\3\\ See Fresh Garlic From China; Determination, 77 FR 26579 (May 4,...

  19. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  20. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  1. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic has been used as a folk medicine for a long history. Numerous studies demonstrated that garlic extracts and its sulfur-containing compounds inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation induced by various receptor agonist including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These effects suggest that garl...

  2. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  3. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  4. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... given in the Federal Register (74 FR 40567, 8-12-2009) and the application has been processed pursuant... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located...

  5. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994..., 62 FR 27296, 27319-27320 (May 19, 1997). In this instance, Jinyan's sale of subject merchandise was... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  7. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-05-15

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  8. In vitro assessment of the digestibility of forage based sheep diet, supplemented with raw garlic, garlic oil and monensin

    PubMed Central

    Anassori, Ehsan; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farahmand-Azar, Safa; Besharati, Maghsoud; Tahmoozi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL-1, raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL-1 and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL-1 of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisyII and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for DaisyII OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM® Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), DaisyII and gas production techniques overestimated (P < 0.05) OMD. The addition of EO and MON reduced (P < 0.05) the organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) digestion, and gas production volume. The potential of gas production and rate of gas production for EO and MON were the lowest; however, these variables were higher for GAR supplemented groups. It was concluded that raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation. PMID:25653739

  9. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  10. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  11. Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Kłębukowska, Lucyna; Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic mayonnaise sauce. The authors decided to undertake studies following a report from one of the manufacturers of garlic sauces on product defects which originated in dried garlic used in the production process. Samples of garlic (n = 26) were examinated using standard cultural methods (counts of fungi, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, spore-producing Bacillus sp. and the presence of anaerobic saccharolytic and proteolytic clostridia), automated system TEMPO (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae), immunoenzymatic method using VIDAS tests (occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes). The number of total viable count was ranged from 3.51 to 6.85 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in one sample. Comparably low values were recorded for fungi (1.30 to 3.47 log CFU/g). The number of LAB was ranged from 2.34 to 5.49 log CFU/g. Clostridium sp. were detected in 22 samples. Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. It was found that garlic, regardless of th preservation procedure, might be a source of contamination of garlic mayonnaise sauce especially with lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. spores. PMID:25745260

  12. Effects of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Akmal, M; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Al-Waili, Hamza; Ali, Amjed; Al-Sahlani, Karem

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice and its bacteriocidal activity against common human pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice was tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus hemolyticus B, S. hemolyticus A, Klebsiella sp., Shigella dysenteriae, and Candida albicans using the disc method. The dilution method was performed by addition of garlic juice to broth media to obtain 1-100% concentrations as vol/vol or wt/vol. Garlic juice was used after 24 hours of storage at 4 degrees C, heating to 100 degrees C for 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes, heating to 80 degrees C for 60 minutes, and 4 hours of exposure to ultraviolet light. Re-culture of specimens taken from garlic-induced negative media was performed in fresh broth free of garlic juice. Results showed that all the isolates were sensitive to fresh garlic juice; the most sensitive was C. albicans, and the least sensitive was S. hemolyticus A. Heating to 100 degrees C for 30 and 60 minutes completely abolished the antimicrobial activity, while heating for 5 and 10 minutes, storage for 24 hours, and 4 hours of ultraviolet exposure decreased it. Garlic juice was bactericidal at concentrations of 5% and more. Thus garlic juice has marked antimicrobial activity that makes it a potential agent to be tested in clinical trials. The antimicrobial activity was compromised by storage and heating; therefore it is advisable to use fresh garlic and avoid boiling it for more than 5 minutes during cooking. PMID:17472490

  13. Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Kłębukowska, Lucyna; Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic mayonnaise sauce. The authors decided to undertake studies following a report from one of the manufacturers of garlic sauces on product defects which originated in dried garlic used in the production process. Samples of garlic (n = 26) were examinated using standard cultural methods (counts of fungi, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, spore-producing Bacillus sp. and the presence of anaerobic saccharolytic and proteolytic clostridia), automated system TEMPO (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae), immunoenzymatic method using VIDAS tests (occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes). The number of total viable count was ranged from 3.51 to 6.85 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in one sample. Comparably low values were recorded for fungi (1.30 to 3.47 log CFU/g). The number of LAB was ranged from 2.34 to 5.49 log CFU/g. Clostridium sp. were detected in 22 samples. Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. It was found that garlic, regardless of th preservation procedure, might be a source of contamination of garlic mayonnaise sauce especially with lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. spores.

  14. Mercury modulates selenium activity via altering its accumulation and speciation in garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiating; Hu, Yi; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Dong, Yuanxing; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    Combined pollution of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been known in Wanshan district (Guizhou Province, China). A better understanding of how Se and Hg interact in plants and the phytotoxicity thereof will provide clues about how to avoid or mitigate adverse effects of Se/Hg on local agriculture. In this study, the biological activity of Se has been investigated in garlic with or without Hg exposure. Se alone can promote garlic growth at low levels (<0.1 mg L(-1)), whereas it inhibits garlic growth at high levels (>1 mg L(-1)). The promotive effect of Se in garlic can be enhanced by low Hg exposure (<0.1 mg L(-1)). When both Se and Hg are at high levels, there is a general antagonistic effect between these two elements in terms of phytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data suggest that Se is mainly concentrated in garlic roots, compared to the leaves and the bulbs. Se uptake by garlic in low Se medium (<0.1 mg L(-1)) can be significantly enhanced as Hg exposure levels increase (P < 0.05), while it can be inhibited by Hg when Se exposure levels exceed 1 mg L(-1). The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) mapping further shows that Se is mainly concentrated in the stele of the roots, bulbs and the veins of the leaves, and Se accumulation in garlic can be reduced by Hg. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study indicates that Se is mainly formed in C-Se-C form in garlic. Hg can decrease the content of inorganic Se mainly in SeO3(2-) form in garlic while increasing the content of organic Se mainly in C-Se-C form (MeSeCys and its derivatives). Hg-mediated changes in Se species along with reduced Se accumulation in garlic may account for the protective effect of Hg against Se phytotoxicity.

  15. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect. PMID:26220304

  16. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect.

  17. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. PMID:26666973

  18. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented.

  19. GARLIC: GAmma Reconstruction at a LInear Collider experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, D.; Brient, J.-C.; Reinhard, M.

    2012-06-01

    The precise measurement of hadronic jet energy is crucial to maximise the physics reach of a future Linear Collider. An important ingredient required to achieve this is the efficient identification of photons within hadronic showers. One configuration of the ILD detector concept employs a highly granular silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeter to identify and measure photons, and the GARLIC algorithm described in this paper has been developed to identify photons in such a calorimeter. We describe the algorithm and characterise its performance using events fully simulated in a model of the ILD detector.

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract.

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract. PMID:18299719

  2. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells. PMID:27176674

  3. Effects of garlic supplementation on energy status of pre-partum Mahabadi goats.

    PubMed

    Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Anassori, Ehsan; Zakeri, Zahra; Tahmouzi, Mortaza

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of garlic on some blood metabolites in pre-partum dairy goats, the ration was supplemented with raw garlic at the doses of 0, 30, 50 and 70 g kg(-1) of Dry matter (DM) in eight pregnant Mahabadi breed goats (59 ± 1 kg initial live weight) in a replicated Latin square design during the last two months of pregnancy. Each experimental period lasted 14 days with the first 12 days used for diet adaptation and two days of data collection with a 3-days wash-out period between treatments. The results revealed a beneficial increasing effect of garlic (at the level of 70 g kg(-1) of DM) on serum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). No effects of garlic supplementation on blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), total triglycerides, total protein, and albumin concentration were observed, except for serum cholesterol concentration, which was reduced (p < 0.05) with 70 g kg(-1) of DM of garlic supplementation. Dry matter intake was the same between the different treatment groups and throughout the trial period. Concerning the blood indicators of negative energy balance, no significant effects were found for NEFA and BHB in pre-partum goats however, serum glucose was improved significantly, which showed that garlic supplementation may improve the efficiency of feed utilization. In conclusion, garlic, as feed additives in ruminant nutrition, holds promise for improving feed efficiency and controlling the negative energy balance.

  4. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  5. Regression of preestablished cholesterol gallstones by dietary garlic and onion in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sambaiah, Kari; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-10-01

    We have recently reported the health beneficial potential of dietary garlic and onion in reducing the incidence and severity of cholesterol gallstone (CGS) during its experimental induction in mice. In the current study, the efficacy of dietary garlic and onion in regressing preestablished CGS was investigated in experimental mice. After inducing CGS in mice with a lithogenic diet for 10 weeks, they were maintained on basal diets containing 0.6% dehydrated garlic or 2% dehydrated onion for a further 10 weeks. Dietary garlic and onion, either raw or heat processed, regressed preformed CGS in mice up to 53% to 59%, whereas the regression in the basal control diet group was only 10%. The antilithogenic potency of garlic was decreased by its heat processing, but not in the case of onion. Biliary cholesterol was significantly decreased in garlic- and onion-fed animals. Biliary cholesterol saturation index and hydrophobicity index were significantly lowered by dietary garlic and onion. Serum and liver cholesterol levels were decreased by feeding these spices during post-CGS induction period. Hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity was increased after feeding garlic and onion, whereas activities of the cholesterol-degrading enzymes cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and sterol-27-hydroxylase were increased in spice-fed groups. These results indicate that feeding garlic and onion effectively accelerates the regression of preformed CGS by promoting cholesterol desaturation in bile. This observation is significant in the context of evolving dietary intervention strategy to address regression of existing CGS and stopping the possible recurrence.

  6. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi protect a native plant from allelopathic effects of an invader.

    PubMed

    Barto, Kathryn; Friese, Carl; Cipollini, Don

    2010-04-01

    The allelopathic potential of the Eurasian invasive plant Alliaria petiolata has been well documented, with the bulk of the effects believed to be mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We exposed the herbaceous annual Impatiens pallida, which is native to North America, to fractionated A. petiolata extracts at four developmental stages (germination, presymbiosis growth, symbiosis formation, and symbiosis growth) by using exposure levels expected to be similar to field levels. Surprisingly, we found strong direct effects on I. pallida germination and growth, but no indirect effects on I. pallida growth mediated by AMF. We also observed strong synergistic effects with a complete A. petiolata extract that inhibited I. pallida germination and presymbiosis root growth more than either a glucosinolate or flavonoid enriched fraction alone. In fact, the flavonoid enriched fraction tended to stimulate germination and presymbiosis root growth. In contrast to these strong direct effects, I. pallida plant growth during both the symbiosis formation and symbiosis growth phases was unaffected by A. petiolata extracts. We also found no inhibition of AMF colonization of roots or soils by A. petiolata extracts. We show that AMF can actually ameliorate allelopathic effects of an invasive plant, and suggest that previously observed allelopathic effects of A. petiolata may be due to direct inhibition of plant and fungal growth before symbiosis formation. PMID:20229215

  8. Onion and garlic dehydration in the San Emidio Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Ingredients dedicated their new onion and garlic processing plant on May 25th. {open_quotes}Grunion{close_quotes} as the new community of 72 employees has been labeled, is located just south of Empire and Gerlach and about 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada. The plant, run by Integrated Ingredients (based in Alameda, CA), is a division of Burns Philp Food, Inc., which owns brands such as Spice Islands, Durkee-French and Fleischmann`s. This plant gives the company the ability to produce its own products for industrial and consumer markets instead of purchasing them. The plant was located in the San Emidio Desert at the edge of the vast Black Rock Desert and the Great Basin to take advantage of the high temperature geothermal resource (approximately 270{degrees}F). The resource is also used by the OESI/AMOR II 3.6 MW binary plant about a mile south of the dehydration plant and a gold heap leaching operation just to the north of the plant (Wind Mt. mine operated by AMAX). In addition to the geothermal energy, the high desert is an ideal location for onion and garlic processing because the cold winters kill damaging microbes. Dry winters and summers also help.

  9. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  10. Characterization of phenolic constituents inhibiting the formation of sulfur-containing volatiles produced during garlic processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Mei-Yun; Hu, Xing-Peng; Ou, Shi-Yi; Yan, Ri-An; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Song; Fu, Liang

    2015-01-28

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.), which is a widely distributed plant, is globally used as both spice and food. This study identified five novel phenolic compounds, namely, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)diosmetin, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, 6-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, and Alliumones A and B, along with nine known compounds 6-14 from the ethanol extract of garlic. The structures of these five novel phenolic compounds were established via extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. The effects of the phenolic compounds isolated from garlic on the enzymatical or nonenzymatical formation of sulfur-containing compounds produced during garlic processing were examined. Compound 12 significantly reduced the thermal decomposition of alliin, whereas compound 4 exhibited the highest percentage of alliinase inhibition activity (36.6%).

  11. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:26770698

  12. Mechanism of the greening color formation of "laba" garlic, a traditional homemade chinese food product.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhao, Guanghua; Hu, Xiaosong

    2005-09-01

    While green discoloration during garlic processing is of a major concern, this greening is desirable and required for the traditional homemade Chinese "Laba" garlic. To obtain insights into the mechanism of color formation, simulation of the greening of "Laba" garlic was carried out in the laboratory by soaking aged garlic in 5% (v/v, pH 2.33) acetic acid solution. After 2 days, the garlic cloves turned green. Up to 4 days, pigment(s) diffused from garlic cloves to the pickling solution. The solution exhibits two maximal absorbances at approximately 440 and approximately 590 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue species, respectively, the combination of which creates the green coloration. With increasing time from 4 to 25 days, the concentration of both yellow and blue species increases at nearly the same rate, while after 25 days, the concentration of the yellow species increases faster than that of the blue species. Interestingly, most thiosulfinates ( approximately 85%) in garlic cloves were converted within 4 days, suggesting that thiosulfinate conversion is proportional to the formation of the pigments. Consistent with this conclusion, alliinase and acetic acid were required for the color formation. UV-vis spectral measurements and pH results suggest that the color formation occurs by two kinds of processes: one enzymatic and the other nonenzymatic. Low pH (2.0-3.0) favors nonenzymatic reactions, while high pH (6.0 or above) is conducive to enzymatic reactions. Thus, the ideal pH for the entire process of garlic greening is between 4.0 and 5.0, which is a compromise of the optimal pH of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions.

  13. Development and evaluation of garlic incorporated ready-to-eat extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Haritha, D; Vijayalakshmi, V; Gulla, S

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate ready to eat extruded snacks incorporated with garlic powder at various levels (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %). The organoleptic evaluation was conducted for the developed products and the well accepted products were selected for further studies like physical properties and shelf life (stored at room temperature for 2 months). The organoleptic evaluation of the developed snacks revealed that 15 % and 20 % garlic incorporated snacks were not acceptable due to strong garlic flavor, therefore T1 (control), T2 (5 % garlic) and T3 ( 10 % garlic) were selected for further studies. The physical properties showed significant changes with incorporation of garlic powder at 0 %-10 % level. There was an increase in mass flow rate, tap density and bulk density but decrease in the water holding capacity, oil absorption capacity and expansion ratio. The water soluble index and moisture retention of the products showed the same values for all the three selected treatments. The products were packed by ordinary, nitrogen and vacuum packing and stored for 2 months. It was found that there was an increase in moisture content and microbial load, however the increase was within limits. The increase in the moisture content was low in nitrogen packed products where as the microbial load decreased with increase in the percentage of garlic incorporation. The nitrogen and vacuum packed products showed less microbial load than the ordinary packed products. Garlic powder can be incorporated at 5 and 10 % levels in ready-to-eat extruded snacks with well acceptability and can be stored for a period of 2 months with nitrogen packing as an effective packaging. PMID:26396341

  14. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil. PMID:26710622

  15. Cardioprotective actions of wild garlic (allium ursinum) in ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Rietz, B; Isensee, H; Strobach, H; Makdessi, S; Jacob, R

    1993-02-17

    The susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias under the conditions of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion was investigated in the Langendorff heart preparation of rats fed for eight weeks a standard chow enriched with 2% of pulverized wild garlic leaves. The isolated hearts were perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during 20 min occlusion of the descending branch of the left coronary artery (LAD) was significantly reduced in the wild garlic group as compared to untreated controls (20% vs 88%). The same holds for the size of the ischemic zone (33.6% vs 40.9% of heart weight). In the reperfusion experiments (5 min after 10 min ischemia), ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 70% of the wild garlic group vs 100% in untreated controls and VF in 50% vs 90%. The time until occurrence of extrasystoles, VT or VR was prolonged. No significant alterations in cardiac fatty acid composition could be observed. Although the prostacyclin production was slightly increased in hearts of the wild garlic group, inhibition of cyclooxygenase by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) could not completely prevent the cardioprotective effects suggesting that the prostaglandin system does not play a decisive role in the cardioprotective action of wild garlic. Furthermore, a moderate angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting action of wild garlic was found in vitro as well as in vivo that could contribute to the cardioprotective and blood pressure lowering action of wild garlic. Whether a free radical scavenging activity of wild garlic is involved in its cardioprotective effects remains to be established.

  16. Mechanism of the greening color formation of "laba" garlic, a traditional homemade chinese food product.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhao, Guanghua; Hu, Xiaosong

    2005-09-01

    While green discoloration during garlic processing is of a major concern, this greening is desirable and required for the traditional homemade Chinese "Laba" garlic. To obtain insights into the mechanism of color formation, simulation of the greening of "Laba" garlic was carried out in the laboratory by soaking aged garlic in 5% (v/v, pH 2.33) acetic acid solution. After 2 days, the garlic cloves turned green. Up to 4 days, pigment(s) diffused from garlic cloves to the pickling solution. The solution exhibits two maximal absorbances at approximately 440 and approximately 590 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue species, respectively, the combination of which creates the green coloration. With increasing time from 4 to 25 days, the concentration of both yellow and blue species increases at nearly the same rate, while after 25 days, the concentration of the yellow species increases faster than that of the blue species. Interestingly, most thiosulfinates ( approximately 85%) in garlic cloves were converted within 4 days, suggesting that thiosulfinate conversion is proportional to the formation of the pigments. Consistent with this conclusion, alliinase and acetic acid were required for the color formation. UV-vis spectral measurements and pH results suggest that the color formation occurs by two kinds of processes: one enzymatic and the other nonenzymatic. Low pH (2.0-3.0) favors nonenzymatic reactions, while high pH (6.0 or above) is conducive to enzymatic reactions. Thus, the ideal pH for the entire process of garlic greening is between 4.0 and 5.0, which is a compromise of the optimal pH of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. PMID:16131117

  17. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  18. The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Bostan, Kamil; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Bingöl, Bariş

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (çig köfte), which is a traditional food product eaten raw. Fresh minced ground beef and raw meatball batter prepared with traditional methods were separated into groups. Chopped and crushed garlic was added to each batch in order to reach various concentrations from 0% to 10%. The ground beef samples were stored at refrigerator and ambient temperatures. The raw meatball samples were only stored at room temperature. All samples were analyzed in order to determine the microbial counts at the 2(nd), 6(th), 12(th), and 24(th) hours of storage. Garlic addition decreased the microbial growth in some ground beef samples kept either at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, microbial growth increased in some ground beef samples kept in similar conditions. The difference was found in samples kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform bacteria when garlic used at 10%. The effects of garlic on the microbial growth of both coliforms and Staphylococcus/Micrococcus in the samples kept at room temperature were increased. The yeast and mold counts in ground beef samples kept in any condition were not affected by garlic addition. However, the addition of garlic to the raw meatball mix decreased the microbial count, in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts, when the garlic was added at 5% or 10% (P < .05). The addition of 10% garlic to raw meatball caused a permanent decrease in yeast and mold count, unlike in ground beef. The results of this study indicate that the chopped garlic has a slowing-down effect on microbiological growth in ground meat depending on the garlic concentration, but this effect was not at an expected level even at the highest concentration, because potential antimicrobial agents in chopped garlic were probably insufficiently extracted. PMID

  19. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  20. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  2. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4℃. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p<0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls. PMID:26761498

  3. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27191676

  4. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  5. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Results: Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect. PMID:26609039

  6. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ..., Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Kazakhstan... request from the Government of Egypt to allow the importation of garlic bulbs from Egypt into...

  7. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  8. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  9. Antimutagenic effects of ajoene, an organosulfur compound derived from garlic.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K; Naganawa, R; Yoshida, H; Iwata, N; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T; Suzuki, A

    1996-12-01

    The antimutagenic effects of ajoene, which is an organosulfur compound derived from garlic, were investigated by the Ames test. Ajoene inhibited mutagenesis induced by both benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, NPD-induced mutagenesis was more effectively suppressed by ajoene than the B[a]P-induced type. Furthermore, the inhibition of mutagenesis by ajoene was more effective for transition-type mutations than for the frame shift type. HPLC analysis of B[a]P metabolism in the presence of the rat liver microsomal fraction (S-9) showed that ajoene dose-dependently inhibited the metabolic activation of B[a]P. This suggests that ajoene affected the metabolic enzymes in the S-9 fraction.

  10. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  11. Aversion of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to garlic oil treated granules: garlic oil as an avian repellent. Garlic oil analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hile, Arla G; Shan, Zhixing; Zhang, Shao-Zhong; Block, Eric

    2004-04-21

    European starlings significantly reduced their consumption of a food mixture that was 50% food-grade garlic oil (GO)-impregnated granules, even after overnight food deprivation, as demonstrated by "one-choice" ("no-choice") tests. Food consumption during 3 h following overnight food deprivation was reduced by 61-65% compared to controls. By testing the same subjects with 25, 10, and 1% mixtures of granules in feed, it was shown that commercial GO granules were repellent to birds in lower concentrations, with more than a 50% decrease in feeding for birds presented with a 10% mixture of commercial GO granules in food and a 17% decrease for the 1% treatment. Products containing GO show considerable promise as inexpensive, environmentally benign, nonlethal bird repellents. In comparing various GO preparations used in this work, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods prove to be particularly useful for rapid quantitation of major and minor components without requiring fractionation or isolation procedures, which could adversely effect the less stable components. PMID:15080619

  12. The mechanisms responsible for garlic - drug interactions and their in vivo relevance.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2013-01-01

    Garlic phytochemicals and garlic supplements influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of concomitantly ingested drugs. In this paper we have summarized the mechanisms responsible for first-pass intestinal pharmacokinetic interactions by investigating the intestinal permeability of some cardiovascular, antiviral drugs, their transport with hepatic transporters and CYP3A4 metabolism. Transporter-enzyme interplay was studied with several in vitro models of varying complexity: rat small intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers were used in studies of intestinal processes, and hepatic pharmacokinetics was monitored in HepG2 cells, isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver slices. Garlic phytochemicals from aged garlic extract modified the activities of secretory and absorptive transporters in both intestine and liver and competitively inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme. The increased activities of the most important intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein - Pgp, Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 2 - MRP-2, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein - BCRP) and uptake (MonoCarboxylate Transporter 1 - MCT1, Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide - OATP, Peptide transporter 1 - PepT1) transporters were caused by changes in electrophysiological membrane properties and by allosteric modifications. Because clinical studies investigating interactions between garlic and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir have already been performed, we used these in vivo data to evaluate the in vitro results and the reliability of the models employed as screening tools for forecasting the potential of first-pass intestinal metabolism changes. We also assessed the probability of pharmacokinetic interactions with garlic of the novel drug darunavir and other cardiovascular drugs. Finally, selected garlic phytochemicals were tested for their ability to influence P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 activities. PMID:21838705

  13. A single meal containing raw, crushed garlic influences expression of immunity- and cancer-related genes in whole blood of humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preclinical and epidemiological studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. To probe mechanisms of garlic action in humans, we conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing...

  14. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  15. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. PMID:25366263

  16. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Elephant Garlic and Its Effect against U2OS Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zehao; Ren, Jianwu

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial function and pharmacological effect of elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) on U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. Materials and Methods: Seven kinds of bacteria were reconstituted, inoculated and tested in this research to evaluate elephant garlic antibacterial activity. By the means of FACS analysis, cell proliferation assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy and Transwell migration assays, the effect of elephant garlic against U2OS human osteosarcoma cells was unveiled. Rerults: The antimicrobial activity of elephant garlic was stronger than ampicillin when used against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus actinomycetes, and gray actinomycetes. Even at a very low concentration (12.5%), elephant garlic still had an antibacterial effect on common bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. The G0/G1 ratio of elephant garlic treated group cells increased while S phase decreased. Elephant garlic extract inhibited the growth of human osteosarcoma cells, U2OS, through preventing the transition from G1 phase to S phase. It reduced osteosarcoma cell, U2OS, invasion ability and significantly increased the proportion of apoptosis. It significantly affected the cytoskeleton generation. Conclusion: Elephant garlic exhibits antibacterial property and has an inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) proliferation and cell activity, suggesting the mechanism of its anticancer effects on U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. PMID:24379966

  18. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 38986 (July 7, 2010). Extension of Time Limit for... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...: Jacqueline Arrowsmith (Yantai Jinyan Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co.,...

  19. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ..., and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). On February 12, 2010, the... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1,...

  20. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Pursuant to the requirements set forth in 19 CFR 351... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's...

  1. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... FR 24857 (May 3, 2011) (Preliminary Intent to Rescind). Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(2)(B)(iv... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jining Yifa...

  2. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Review, 75 FR 24578 (May 5, 2010). Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(2)(B)(iv) of the Tariff Act of... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Qingdao...

  3. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion.

  4. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31,...

  5. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and Preliminary Rescission, in Part, 75 FR 69415... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jinxiang Chengda...

  6. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Qingshui and Merry each certified... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of...

  7. 75 FR 32362 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 343 (January 5, 2010). On... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Jinxiang Chengda Imp &...

  8. Validated HPLC method and temperature stabilities for oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic macerated oil.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miyoung; Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Shin, Dongbin

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the utilization of garlic macerated oil as functional foods, oil-soluble organosulfur compounds were investigated using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of compounds, it was simply extracted with 98% n-hexane in 2-propanol followed by sensitive and selective determination of all compounds. These method exhibited excellent linearity for oil-soluble organosulfur compounds with good coefficient (r > 0.999). Average recoveries were in the range of 80.23-106.18%. The limits of quantitation of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds ranged from 0.32 to 9.56 μg mL(-1) and the limits of detection were from 0.11 to 3.16 μg mL(-1). Overall, the precision of the results, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.55 to 11.67%. The proposed method was applied to determining the contents of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in commercial garlic macerated oils. Also, the stability of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic macerated oil were evaluated during 3 months of storage at four difference temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 35°C). The results showed the studied oil-soluble compounds in garlic macerated oil were stable at 4°C and relatively unstable at 35°C with varied extents degradation. Therefore, these validation data and temperature stability may be useful for quality evaluation of garlic macerated oils.

  9. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  10. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  11. Soil Properties, Nutrient Dynamics, and Soil Enzyme Activities Associated with Garlic Stalk Decomposition under Various Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5∶100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5∶100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks. PMID:23226411

  12. [Ajoene the main active compound of garlic (Allium sativum): a new antifungal agent].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Eliades; Apitz-Castro, Rafael

    2006-06-01

    The curative properties of garlic in medicine have been known for a long time. But, it was only in the last three decades when garlic properties were seriously investigated confirming its potential as therapeutic agent. Allicin, ajoene, thiosulfinates and a wide range of other organosulphurate compounds, are known to be the constituents linked to the garlic properties. Regarding the biochemical properties of these compounds, ajoene [(E,Z)-4,5,9 Trithiadodeca 1,6,11 Triene 9-oxide] is stable in water, and it can be obtained by chemical synthesis. There is evidence that some of the garlic constituents exert a wide variety of effects on different biological systems. However, ajoene is the garlic compound related to more biological activities, as showed in in vitro and in vivo systems. Those studies found that ajoene has antithrombotic, anti-tumoral,antifungal, and antiparasitic effects. This study deals with a recently described antifungal property of ajoene, and its potential use in clinical trails to treat several fungal infections.

  13. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  14. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  15. Correlation between antioxidant activity of garlic extracts and WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma tumor growth in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Taji, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2011-09-01

    The biological activities of garlic may be affected by different processing methods. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate potential anticancer effects of different type of processed garlic extracts on WEHI-164 tumor cells in inbred BALB/c mice and correlate the tumor growth rates with some garlic constituents. In a preclinical trial 60 BALB/c mice were injected with WEHI-164 tumor cells and divided into six groups of 10 animals. Group 1 mice received 200 μL of saline, and groups 2-6 were injected intraperitoneally with fresh, microwaved, 3-month-old, leaves, and boiled garlic extracts, respectively, at 20 mg/kg/0.2 mL. Three weeks following tumor inoculation, the mean tumor size in garlic extract-treated groups was reduced with significant reductions observed in the fresh and microwaved extract groups compared with the control group (P<.05). The antioxidant capacity and the amounts of allicin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in differentially processed garlic were evaluated and correlated with their anticancer activities. There was a linear correlation between the amounts of allicin, flavonoids, or phenolic components derived from fresh, microwaved, 3-month-old, leaves, and boiled garlic and cancer growth prevention. In conclusion, garlic has anticancer activity against WEHI-164 tumor cells, and processing such as heating reduces its effect dramatically. The anticancer activities of different kinds of garlic are related to the level of allicin, flavonoids, and phenolic components. Therefore, fresh garlic has the highest content of bioactive components and the greatest anticancer efficacy.

  16. Dietary garlic and onion reduce the incidence of atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sambaiah, Kari; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2009-06-01

    Mice fed with diet containing 0.5 % cholesterol for 10 weeks resulted in cholesterol supersaturation in gallbladder bile which promoted the formation of cholesterol gallstones (CGS). In this study, dietary hypocholesterolaemic spices, garlic and onion (both raw or heat-processed) were examined for their antilithogenic potential by including at 0.6 and 2.0 % level, respectively, along with lithogenic (LG) diet for 10 weeks. Dietary garlic and onion reduced the CGS incidence by 15-39 %, the effect being maximum in the heat-processed onion group. Dietary garlic and onion markedly reduced biliary cholesterol. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio which was 1.58 in the LG diet group was reduced to 0.73-0.96 in the garlic and onion groups. The biliary cholesterol saturation index was 0.92, 1.25, 1.09 and 0.86, respectively, in the heat-processed onion, raw garlic, heat-processed garlic and raw onion groups, while it was 1.9 in the LG group. The hydrophobicity index of bile was - 0.08, - 0.079, - 0.032 and - 0.073, respectively, in the heat-processed onion, raw garlic, heat-processed garlic and raw onion groups, while it was +0.054 in the LG group. Hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA reductase activity was lowered in the LG diet-fed group, while dietary garlic or onion countered this alteration and also increased the activities of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase. Serum and liver cholesterol were decreased by feeding garlic or onion compared to the LG diet. Thus, dietary Allium spices exerted antilithogenic influence by decreasing the cholesterol hyper-secretion into bile and increasing the bile acid output thus decreasing the formation of lithogenic bile in experimental mice.

  17. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. PMID:22137346

  18. L-arginine augments the antioxidant effect of garlic against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Harisa, Gamal Eldin I; Abo-Salem, Osama M; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M; Taha, Ehab I; El-Halawany, Nermin

    2009-10-01

    Garlic contains many sulfhydryl compounds that act as antioxidants. However, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammation is controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effect of garlic against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats, as well as the probable modulatory effect of L-arginine (NO precursor) on garlic activity. Intra-rectal inoculation of rats with 4% acetic acid for 3 consecutive days caused a significant increase in the colon weight and marked decrease in the colon length. In addition, acetic acid induced a significant increase in serum levels of nitrate as well as colonic tissue content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, colonic tissue contents of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were markedly reduced. On the other hand, pre-treatment of rats with garlic (0.25 g/kgbwt, orally) for 4 consecutive weeks and 3 days during induction of colitis significantly reduced the increase in the colon weight induced by acetic acid and ameliorated alterations in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Interestingly, oral co-administration of garlic (0.25 g/kgbwt) and L-arginine (625 mg/kgbwt) for the same period of garlic administration mitigated the changes in both colon weight and length induced by acetic acid and increased garlic effect on colon tissue contents of MDA and GSH. In conclusion, L-arginine can augment the protective effect of garlic against ulcerative colitis; an effect that might be mainly attributed to its NO donating property resulting in enhancement of garlic antioxidant effect. Further studies will be needed to determine which one of the active ingredients of garlic has the main antioxidant effect to be used with L-arginine. PMID:19783514

  19. Electrochemical bromination of organosulfur containing species for the determination of the strength of garlic (A. sativum).

    PubMed

    Hall, Elise M; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2016-05-15

    The extraction by ethyl acetate and subsequent electrochemical detection of organosulfur containing molecules from garlic is demonstrated. The electrochemical results first evidence the high sensitivity of the process towards the model compound propyl disulfide. Through the in situ formation of bromine at a platinum electrode the propyl disulfide can be readily detected at concentrations as low as 12.5 μM. Second, the work focuses on the detection of organosulfur from fresh garlic samples. Extraction of the organosulfur 'flavour' molecules is achieved with ethyl acetate. Addition of this extract to the electrochemical cell results in an analytically useful signal allowing the voltammetric peak height to be successfully correlated with the garlic strength, as measured using an organoleptic tasting panel.

  20. Aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; González, Roxana Elizabeth; Renna, Nicolás Federico; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2010-06-01

    The organosulfur profile and the effect on oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed rats (FFR) were evaluated in Fuego INTA and Morado INTA garlic cultivars. Wistar rats were fed either normal rat chow (control) or the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. During the last 6 weeks of a 12 week period of the corresponding diet, a subgroup of control and FFR received an aqueous extract of Fuego INTA and Morado INTA. Fuego INTA showed higher levels of total thiosulfinates, allicin, and pungency than Morado INTA. FFR showed an increase of systolic blood pressure, aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and vascular remodeling that was significantly reduced after both garlic administrations. The beneficial effect was slightly higher when Fuego INTA was administered. Both aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in rats with metabolic syndrome, suggesting the existence of slight differences among cultivars.

  1. Mutualism-disrupting allelopathic invader drives carbon stress and vital rate decline in a forest perennial herb

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Nathan L.; Hale, Alison N.; Kalisz, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect belowground processes and alter soil microbial communities. For native plants that depend on soil resources from root fungal symbionts (RFS), invasion could compromise their resource status and subsequent ability to manufacture and store carbohydrates. Herbaceous perennials that depend on RFS-derived resources dominate eastern North American forest understories. Therefore, we predict that forest invasion by Alliaria petiolata, an allelopathic species that produces chemicals that are toxic to RFS, will diminish plant carbon storage and fitness. Over a single growing season, the loss of RFS could reduce a plant's photosynthetic physiology and carbon storage. If maintained over multiple growing seasons, this could create a condition of carbon stress and declines in plant vital rates. Here we characterize the signals of carbon stress over a short timeframe and explore the long-term consequence of Alliaria invasion using Maianthemum racemosum, an RFS-dependent forest understory perennial. First, in a greenhouse experiment, we treated the soil of potted Maianthemum with fresh leaf tissue from either Alliaria or Hesperis matronalis (control) for a single growing season. Alliaria-treated plants exhibit significant overall reductions in total non-structural carbohydrates and have 17 % less storage carbohydrates relative to controls. Second, we monitored Maianthemum vital rates in paired experimental plots where we either removed emerging Alliaria seedlings each spring or left Alliaria at ambient levels for 7 years. Where Alliaria is removed, Maianthemum size and vital rates improve significantly: flowering probability increases, while the probability of plants regressing to non-flowering stages or entering prolonged dormancy are reduced. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disruption of a ubiquitous mutualism following species invasion creates symptoms of carbon stress for species dependent on RFS. Disruption

  2. The insecticidal activity of recombinant garlic lectins towards aphids.

    PubMed

    Fitches, Elaine; Wiles, Duncan; Douglas, Angela E; Hinchliffe, Gareth; Audsley, Neil; Gatehouse, John A

    2008-10-01

    The heterodimeric and homodimeric garlic lectins ASAI and ASAII were produced as recombinant proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The proteins were purified as functional dimeric lectins, but underwent post-translational proteolysis. Recombinant ASAII was a single homogenous polypeptide which had undergone C-terminal processing similar to that occurring in planta. The recombinant ASAI was glycosylated and subject to variable and heterogenous proteolysis. Both lectins showed insecticidal effects when fed to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in artificial diet, ASAII being more toxic than ASAI at the same concentration. Acute toxicity (mortality at < or =48 h exposure; similar timescale to starvation) was only apparent at the highest lectin concentrations tested (2.0 mg ml(-)1), but dose-dependent chronic toxicity (mortality at >3d exposure) was observed over the concentration range 0.125-2.0 mg ml(-1). The recombinant lectins caused mortality in both symbiotic and antibiotic-treated aphids, showing that toxicity is not dependent on the presence of the bacterial symbiont (Buchnera aphidicola), or on interaction with symbiont proteins, such as the previously identified lectin "receptor" symbionin. A pull-down assay coupled with peptide mass fingerprinting identified two abundant membrane-associated aphid gut proteins, alanyl aminopeptidase N and sucrase, as "receptors" for lectin binding. PMID:18707000

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

  4. Role of Garlic Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Tabinda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Rapidly growing prevalence of cardiovascular disease is a major threat for the developed as well as developing world warranting urgent need of intervention. Complementary and alternative medicines are gaining popularity among general population because of their safety profile and easy administration. Garlic, in particular, is considered to be one of the best disease-preventive foods because of its potent and widespread effects. This study was done to find out the role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention. Methodology. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for the literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Results. Various clinical trials and meta-analyses conducted have shown positive impact of garlic in cardiovascular-disease prevention especially its effects on lipid levels; however, some contradictory results are also reported. Similarly, its effects on hypertension control, and platelet are also mild with limited data availability. The possible reason for these inconsistent results is the difference in preparations with diverse composition, variations in sulphur content present in different garlic preparations used, and methodological variations in subject recruitment, duration of study, dietary control and so forth. Conclusion. Garlic can be used as an adjuvant with lipid-lowering drugs for control of lipids, however, its role as a main therapeutic agent cannot be recommended and it is suggested that more meta-analyses using standardized preparations with a close watch on methodological shortfalls should be conducted to prove its role. PMID:23690831

  5. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Yeon; Paek, Ju Eun; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Dong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. MATERIALS/METHODS We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct and EMBASE through May 2014. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 22 trials reporting total cholesterol (TC), 17 trials reporting LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), 18 trials reporting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), 4 trials reporting fasting blood glucose (FBG), 9 trials reporting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 10 trials reporting diastolic blood pressure (DBP). RESULTS The overall garlic powder intake significantly reduced blood TC and LDL-C by -0.41 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69, -0.12) (-15.83 mg/dL [95% CI, -26.64, -4.63]) and -0.21 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.40, -0.03) (-8.11 mg/dL [95% CI, -15.44, -1.16]), respectively. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was -0.96 mmol/L (95% CI, -1.91, -0.01) (-17.30 mg/dL [95% CI, -34.41, -0.18]). Evidence for SBP and DBP reduction in the garlic supplementation group was also demonstrated by decreases of -4.34 mmHg (95% CI, -8.38, -0.29) and -2.36 mmHg (95% CI, -4.56, -0.15), respectively. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis provides consistent evidence that garlic powder intake reduces the CVD risk factors of TC, LDL-C, FBG and BP. PMID:25489404

  6. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  7. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    PubMed Central

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  8. Tomato and garlic can modulate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Ghosh, S; Das, S

    2003-06-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Compounds like diallyl sulfides, diallyl disulfides and quercetin, which are active components of garlic, have known anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic activities. Similarly, active components in tomato, such as kaempferol and chlorogenic acid, have antimutagenic activities and lycopene is the most active oxygen quencher with potential chemopreventive activities. In view of this, an endeavour was made to evaluate the anticarcinogenic effect, if any, of tomato and garlic consumption individually and in combination on azoxymethane-induced colonic precancerous lesion, the aberrant crypt foci in animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats (4-5 weeks old) were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg b.w.) and orally administered with 2% (w/v) of tomato, garlic and a combination of both. After 12 weeks of first azoxymethane injection, colons were assessed for aberrant crypt foci and compared with the carcinogen control group. Lipid peroxidation level and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were assessed in liver as well as in colon. Furthermore, in situ cell proliferation and apoptosis were estimated using the Brdu incorporation method and TUNEL method respectively. It was observed that aberrant crypt foci were reduced in all treated groups (by 32.11% in garlic, by 76.14% in tomato and by 55.96% in the combination group). Among treated groups, GST activity was found to be induced in both liver and colon, whereas considerable reduction in lipid peroxidation level was observed in liver as well as in colon with respect to the carcinogen control group. Significant reduction in Brdu labelling index and increase in apoptotic index in colon was noted in the treated groups. These results suggest that tomato and garlic suspensions have a protective effect on colon carcinogenesis, which is mediated by modulation of different biological pathways during carcinogenesis. PMID:12771557

  9. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  10. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences of attenuated and severe isolates of Leek yellow stripe virus from garlic in northern Japan: identification of three distinct virus types in garlic and leek world-wide.

    PubMed

    Takaki, F; Sano, T; Yamashita, K; Fujita, T; Ueda, K; Kato, T

    2005-06-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of three isolates (two severe and one attenuated) of the potyvirus Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the main causal agent of the garlic mosaic disease that is prevalent in Aomori prefecture, northern Japan. They contained 10,296-10,297 nucleotides and encoded a deduced polyprotein of 3,215 amino acids. Sequence variation among the three isolates was 1.5% at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Surprisingly, the sequences of all three isolates were quite different from that of recently described garlic isolate of LYSV from China. Sequence similarities among the 5'-UTR and P1 regions were only 56-57% and 52-53%, respectively, raising the possibility that these isolates may actually be distinct virus species. Phylogenetic analyses using 5'-UTR, P1 protein and coat protein revealed that all LYSV isolates described to date can be divided into three groups; i.e., those from leek, those from garlic in northern Japan, and those from garlic in southern Japan, China, and other parts of the world. The garlic isolates from northern Japan were more closely related to LYSV isolates from leek than to garlic isolates from southern Japan and China, suggesting a different origin for the garlic cultivars now cultivated in northern Japan.

  13. The effect of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract on infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free embryonic egg

    PubMed Central

    Mohajer Shojai, Tabassom; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Barin, Abbas; Sadri, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV. Materials and Methods: The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10-3 titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract. Results: Based on our results, in the second group, IBV vaccine strain (4/91) at all titration and M41 in 10-2 and 10-3 titration and in the third group both variants of virus the embryonic Index (EI) was significantly increased. Conclusion: The garlic extract had inhibitory effects on IBV in the chickens embryo. PMID:27516987

  14. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis.

  15. Effects of garlic on Schistosoma mansoni harbored in albino mice: molecular characterization of the host and parasite.

    PubMed

    Riad, Nahed H A; Taha, Hoda A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2013-04-15

    Garlic has been used for its health benefits for thousands of years. Modern research confirmed many of the healing properties of garlic, including its antiparasitic activity. This study was designed to evaluate the antischistosomal action of garlic through detecting the changes in DNA profile of Schistosoma mansoni worms and the infected mouse. Forty mice were subcutaneously infected with ~200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae/mouse. Infected mice were divided into four equal groups: non-treated, prophylactic, therapeutic, and continuously-treated. Non-infected control and garlic-treated groups were assigned for the sake of comparison. Garlic extract (50mg/kg bw/mouse) was given orally, day after day, at a fixed daytime. Seven weeks post-infection, adult schistosomes were recovered by perfusion and the livers of the mice were excised out and were processed for DNA extraction and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). The results showed that garlic exerted no major changes in the genome of schistosomes. Nevertheless, that schistosomal infection induced genetic alterations in the DNA of mice, and garlic was able to ameliorate such alterations to a great extent.

  16. Determination of added sulfites in dried garlic with a modified version of the optimized Monier-Williams method.

    PubMed

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefevre, Stephane; Achouri, Djamila

    2007-01-01

    The optimized Monier-Williams method is slightly modified so that it could be applied for determining sulfite content in dried garlic. Dried garlic sample is directly acidified in a reactor at a pH below 3. At this pH level, the alliinase enzyme activity is irreversibly blocked, and the sulfur-containing amino acids such as alliin (the most abundant) present in dried garlic cannot be transformed into corresponding thiosulfinates such as allicin, which is absent in dried garlic. This prevents allicin from reacting with added sulfites and being probably converted to S-allyl thiosulfate, which is not volatile and has no taste. It is found that at a pH below 2.4 and at boiling water temperature, allicin produces sulfur dioxide in adequate quantity to explain the false-positive results when utilizing the optimized Monier-Williams method with allicin suppression for unsulfited dried garlic samples. Finally, when garlic samples are stabilized in a phosphoric acid buffer at a final pH around 2.4, no sulfite is produced during the Monier-Williams distillation, which is further proof there are no naturally occurring sulfites in unsulfited dried garlic under these mild conditions.

  17. Histopathological study of the combination of metformin and garlic juice for the attenuation of gentamicin renal toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Azar; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tubular toxicity is one of the most important side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially gentamicin.Objectives: We histopathologically studied the effect of garlic extract and metformin co-administration, in attenuation of genetamicin induced tubular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study seventy rats were divided into seven equal groups and except group 1 (control) were injected 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (GM) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days. Other than GM, group III received 20 mg/kg garlic (i.p.), group IV metformin (MF) (100 mg/kg, orally), group V a combination of MF with garlic juice (100 and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively) and group VI a combination of MF and garlic juice (50 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) for following 10 days. Group VII received a combination of MF and garlic juice (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) along with GM. Animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of the experiment and the kidneys were removed for histological examinations. Results: GM induced nephrotoxicity and garlic or MF alone and a combination of both with high doses (not low doses) significantly abolished the kidney tubular injury induced by GM. In addition, co-administration of GM, MF and garlic (group 7) prevented the GM- induced tissue damage more than the groups in which MF and garlic were injected 10 days post GM administration. Conclusion: Garlic extract and Metformin, alone or in a combination, might be safely used to ameliorate GM induced tubular toxicity. PMID:25340116

  18. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  19. Invader disruption of belowground plant mutualisms reduces carbon acquisition and alters allocation patterns in a native forest herb.

    PubMed

    Hale, Alison N; Lapointe, Line; Kalisz, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants impose novel selection pressures on naïve mutualistic interactions between native plants and their partners. As most plants critically rely on root fungal symbionts (RFSs) for soil resources, invaders that disrupt plant-RFS mutualisms can significantly depress native plant fitness. Here, we investigate the consequences of RFS mutualism disruption on native plant fitness in a glasshouse experiment with a forest invader that produces known anti-fungal allelochemicals. Over 5 months, we regularly applied either green leaves of the allelopathic invader Alliaria petiolata, a nonsystemic fungicide to simulate A. petiolata's effects, or green leaves of nonallelopathic Hesperis matronalis (control) to pots containing the native Maianthemum racemosum and its RFSs. We repeatedly measured M. racemosum physiology and harvested plants periodically to assess carbon allocation. Alliaria petiolata and fungicide treatment effects were indistinguishable: we observed inhibition of the RFS soil hyphal network and significant reductions in M. racemosum physiology (photosynthesis, transpiration and conductance) and allocation (carbon storage, root biomass and asexual reproduction) in both treatments relative to the control. Our findings suggest a general mechanistic hypothesis for local extinction of native species in ecosystems challenged by allelopathic invaders: RFS mutualism disruption drives carbon stress, subsequent declines in native plant vigor, and, if chronic, declines in RFS-dependent species abundance. PMID:26506529

  20. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  1. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) fertility: transcriptome and proteome analyses provide insight into flower and pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh-Mayer, Einat; Ben-Michael, Tomer; Rotem, Neta; Rabinowitch, Haim D.; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Perlikowski, Dawid; Sherman, Amir; Kamenetsky, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Commercial cultivars of garlic, a popular condiment, are sterile, making genetic studies and breeding of this plant challenging. However, recent fertility restoration has enabled advanced physiological and genetic research and hybridization in this important crop. Morphophysiological studies, combined with transcriptome and proteome analyses and quantitative PCR validation, enabled the identification of genes and specific processes involved in gametogenesis in fertile and male-sterile garlic genotypes. Both genotypes exhibit normal meiosis at early stages of anther development, but in the male-sterile plants, tapetal hypertrophy after microspore release leads to pollen degeneration. Transcriptome analysis and global gene-expression profiling showed that >16,000 genes are differentially expressed in the fertile vs. male-sterile developing flowers. Proteome analysis and quantitative comparison of 2D-gel protein maps revealed 36 significantly different protein spots, 9 of which were present only in the male-sterile genotype. Bioinformatic and quantitative PCR validation of 10 candidate genes exhibited significant expression differences between male-sterile and fertile flowers. A comparison of morphophysiological and molecular traits of fertile and male-sterile garlic flowers suggests that respiratory restrictions and/or non-regulated programmed cell death of the tapetum can lead to energy deficiency and consequent pollen abortion. Potential molecular markers for male fertility and sterility in garlic are proposed. PMID:25972879

  2. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum ) in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Laura; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; García, Marta; Iglesias, Concepción; Palmero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors), iprodione (dicar-boximide), and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors) were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC50 values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage. PMID:27721688

  3. In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Snow Mountain Garlic.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an important medicinal herb of culinary value by imparting its flavors and odors to the food. Allicin, a notable flavonoid in garlic, is a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound. Due to poor bioavailability, garlic is of limited use for oral human consumption. Being sexually sterile, propagation of garlic is done by individual cloves from a bulb which increases the chances of transfer of viral diseases. In this chapter, an efficient and improved regeneration protocol for explant establishment and shoot multiplication under in vitro conditions is described. A high rate of shoot multiplication is obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l KN, and 2.0 mg/l GA3. Addition of 1.0 mg/l NAA to MS medium resulted in rooting at the shoot bases. A detailed method for encapsulation of explant in sodium alginate beads and their cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration is also described. PMID:27108328

  4. A Classroom Demonstration of Garlic Extract and Conventional Antibiotics' Antimicrobial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekunsanmi, Toye J.

    2005-01-01

    The Kirby-Bauer method is regularly used to test bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and is often employed in the classroom for teaching this concept. In this exercise, additional materials and instructions were given to students for the preparation of garlic extract and loading on blank BBL paper discs. They were further instructed to test…

  5. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  6. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  7. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77 FR 73980 (December 12, 2012) (Preliminary Results), and... limit for these final results by 60 days to June 10, 2013.\\3\\ \\2\\ Id., 77 FR at 73981. \\3\\ See...: Final Results of New Shipper Review, 75 FR 61130 (October 4, 2010) (08/09 Garlic NSR). Because the...

  8. Microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin using maltodextrin as wall material by spray drying technology.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, P; Palaniswamy, P T; Visvanathan, R; Thirupathi, V; Subbarayan, A; Prakash Maran, J

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin by spray drying with garlic oleoresin concentration (10%, 20% and 30%) as core material, maltodextrin concentration (40%, 50% and 60%) as wall material and inlet temperature of drying air (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) as process parameters. The process in-terms of encapsulation efficiency was optimised following response surface methodology and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second order polynomial regression model showed good fit of the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) along with predicted values. The relationships between the independent and dependent parameters were represented using response surface and contour plots. The optimum levels of process parameters, viz., garlic oleoresin concentration, maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature of air drying were found to be 10%, 60% and 200 °C, respectively with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 81.9% and desirability of 0.998. The microencapsulated garlic oleoresin powder obtained at optimized conditions was spherical with smooth surface as analysed through scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Chemical and Genetic Evaluation of Somaclonal Variants of Egyptian Garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Badria, F A; Ali, A A

    1999-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is used in the household and as an ingredient in many pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture technique provides an excellent source for induction of both chemical and genetic variation in garlic. A callus was induced on root meristem cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in the presence of kinetin, indole acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Shoots with a small bulb were produced on medium containing MS salts, B vitamins, and naphthalene acetic acid. Regenerated plants were transplanted into soil, and a nondivided bulb was formed in the first somaclonal generation (SCI). Plants were normal in their phenotypes in SC2. After four cycles of field cultivation, the selected somaclones (variants) in the fourth generation showed significant differences in bulb character compared with the original plants. Mitotic division and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated in meristimic root tip cells of regenerated plants for the first and fourth regeneration and for control plants. Somaclonal variant metaphase cells had the same chromosome number (2n = 16) as those of the controls. Allicin was measured quantitatively in the regenerated clones by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that some clones contained as much as 14.50 mg/g allicin, compared with 3.80 mg/g in the control plant. This finding suggests that this technique may be useful to improve the allicin content of Egyptian garlic, which could be utilized as a good source for garlic-containing pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:19281347

  10. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34-7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  11. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... interested party group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 54487, September 1, 2011) of the subject... rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review AGENCY: United...

  12. Development and validation of new SSR markers from expressed regions in the garlic genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers is available for the genome of garlic (Allium sativum L.) although SSR markers have become one of the most preferred marker systems because they are typically co-dominant, reproducible, cross species transferable and highly polymorphic. In this ...

  13. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a compound including secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulfinatate oxide (PTSO), on in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound of P...

  14. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, F M; Yousef, M I; El-Naga, N I Abou

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120 mg/kg BW) to induce diabetes. A dose of 1 ml of either onion or garlic juices/100 g body weight (equivalent to 0.4 g/100 g BW) was orally administered daily to alloxan-diabetic rats for four weeks. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared to the control group. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline and acid phosphatases (AlP, AcP) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma and testes of alloxan-diabetic rats, while these activities were decreased in liver compared with the control group. Brain LDH was significantly (p<0.05) increased. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of glutathione S-transferase in plasma, liver, testes, brain, and kidney were increased in alloxan-diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of either garlic or onion juices could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels. The present results showed that garlic and onion juices exerted antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes. PMID:15582196

  15. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices. PMID:25679258

  16. Inhibitory effect of allicin and garlic extracts on growth of cultured hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Aala, Farzad; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Nulit, Rosimah; Rezaie, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is one of the most common dermatophytes worldwide. This fungus invaded skin appendages of humans and animals. Recently, resistance to antifungal drugs as well as appearance of side effects due to indication of these kinds of antibiotics has been reported. Besides, using some plant extracts have been indicated in herbal medicine as an alternative treatment of these fungal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) and pure allicin on the growth of hypha in T. rubrum using Electron miscroscopy. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out to observe the morphological changes of T. rubrum treated with allicin as well as aqueous garlic extract using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: SEM surveys, showed that hypha treated with allicin has rough and granular like surface, abnormal and irregularly-shape. However, hypha treated with garlic extract had rough and fluffy surface and also irregularly-shape. TEM studies also found that hypha treated with allicin displays disintegration of cytoplasm, breaking down in cell membrane and the cell wall, and collapsing of hypha, meanwhile hypha treated with garlic extract exhibiting degradation and dissolution of cytoplasm components, demolition of cell wall and cell membrane, and hypha appeared to break. Conclusion: The present study revealed that pure allicin (6.25 µg/ml and 12.5 µg/ml) is more efficient in inhibition of the growth in hyphal cells compare to the garlic extract (2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml) and they could be used as alternatives in treatment of dermatophytosis. PMID:24847416

  17. Speciation and identification of tellurium-containing metabolites in garlic, Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Yoshida, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Saki; Katai, Ryota; Tokumoto, Maki; Ouerdane, Laurent; Łobiński, Ryszard; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-09-01

    Tellurium (Te) is a widely used metalloid in industry because of its unique chemical and physical properties. However, information about the biological and toxicological activities of Te in plants and animals is limited. Although Te is expected to be metabolized in organisms via the same pathway as sulfur and selenium (Se), no precise metabolic pathways are known in organisms, particularly in plants. To reveal the metabolic pathway of Te in plants, garlic, a well-known Se accumulator, was chosen as the model plant. Garlic was hydroponically cultivated and exposed to sodium tellurate, and Te-containing metabolites in the water extract of garlic leaves were identified using HPLC coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). At least three Te-containing metabolites were detected using HPLC-ICP-MS, and two of them were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS for identification. The MS spectra obtained by ESI-MS-MS indicated that the metabolite was Te-methyltellurocysteine oxide (MeTeCysO). Then, MeTeCysO was chemically synthesized and its chromatographic behavior matched with that of the Te-containing metabolite in garlic. The other was assigned as cysteine S-methyltellurosulfide. These results suggest that garlic can assimilate tellurate, an inorganic Te compound, and tellurate is transformed into a Te-containing amino acid, the so-called telluroamino acid. This is the first report addressing that telluroamino acid is de novo synthesized in a higher plant.

  18. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices.

  19. 77 FR 65171 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994), remains dispositive. Methodology The Department has... covered by the order includes all grades of garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves....

  20. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...'') Review, 76 FR 54430 (September 1, 2011). The Department received a notice of intent to participate from... garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves, whether or not peeled, fresh, chilled,...

  1. Treatment with garlic restores membrane thiol content and ameliorates lead induced early death of erythrocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Avik; Sengupta, Dipanwita; Mandal, Samir; Sen, Gargi; Dutta Chowdhury, Kaustav; Chandra Sadhukhan, Gobinda

    2015-04-01

    Sequelae of chronic lead (Pb(2+) ) toxicity includes anemia that is partially due to early death of erythrocytes characterized by excess accumulation of ROS and downregulation of antioxidant system causing oxidative stress and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In this study, pathophysiological based therapeutic application of garlic was evaluated against erythrocyte death. Results suggest that garlic administration prevents oxidative stress, restored the antioxidant balance in erythrocytes of Pb(2+) exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that activity of both scramblase and aminophospholipid translocase could be changed by modifying the critical sulfhydryl groups in presence of dithiothreitol during Pb(2+) exposure. Data also indicated that garlic treatment in Pb(2+) exposed mice exhibited sharp decline in PS exposure and increase in erythrocyte membrane thiol group followed by increase in aminophospholipid translocase activity and decline in scramblase activity. Findings indicated that garlic has the ability to restore the lifespan of erythrocytes during Pb(2+) exposure.

  2. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

  3. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  4. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  5. Evaluating the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw and steamed garlic as well as five organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Su, Min-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25365295

  6. Volatile garlic odor components: gas phases and adsorbed exhaled air analysed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laakso, I; Seppänen-Laakso, T; Hiltunen, R; Müller, B; Jansen, H; Knobloch, K

    1989-06-01

    Combined headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGC-MS) was used in the analysis of garlic volatile compounds. Twenty major components were identified in the gas phases enriched by fresh, sliced garlic cloves ( ALLIUM SATIVUM L, Allioceae, Liliidae). Suspended dry garlic powder and crushed garlic, incubated in vegetable oil, revealed a different pattern since mainly the amounts of di- and trisulfides were decreased. The considerable compositional differences found in the analyses for the gas phase of garlic cloves, kept in oil, are likely associated with the poor stability of allicin in a lipophilic environment; a marked increase in the amounts of 2-propene-1-thiol, acetic acid, and ethanol was observed in the gas phase, whereas trisulfides were present in traces only. The occurrence of 2-propene-1-thiol and diallyl disulfide, the two principal sulfur components in exhaled air, also may indicate a rapid degradation of most garlic volatile components probably caused by the enzymatically active human salivary or digestive system. PMID:17262412

  7. The Effect of Garlic Extract on Expression of INFγ And Inos Genes in Macrophages Infected with Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Gharavi, MJ; Nobakht, M; Khademvatan, SH; Bandani, E; Bakhshayesh, M; Roozbehani, M

    2011-01-01

    Background The study was aimed to show the effect of molecular mechanism of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) on expression of IFNγ and iNOS genes in Leishmania major. Methods Leishmania major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) were added to the in-vitro cultured J774 cell line, the cells were incubated for 72 hours. Various concentrations of garlic extract (9.25, 18.5, 37, 74, 148 mg/ml) were added to the infected cells. MTT assay was applied for cellular proliferation. After 72 hours of incubation, supernatants were collected and total RNA was extracted from the infected cells. The express of IFNγ and iNOS genes were studied by RT-PCR method. Results The colorimetric MTT assay after 3 days of incubation showed cytotoxic effect of garlic extract with an IC50 of 37 mg/ml. In addition, IFNγ and iNOS genes expression by RT-PCR indicated that garlic extract lead to over expression of these genes in J774 cell line infected with L. major. Conclusion Garlic extract exerts cytotoxic effect on infected J774 cell line. In addition, the hypothesis that garlic can improve cellular immunity with raising the expression of IFNγ and of iNOS genes confirmed. PMID:22347300

  8. Can garlic oil ameliorate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in a rat liver model? A correlated histological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdultawab, Hanem Saad; Ayuob, Nasra N

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the structural changes in liver of an alloxan-induced diabetic rat and to explain such changes in terms of the biochemical changes in free radicals and antioxidants. In addition, it aimed to determine the potential ability of garlic oil to alter these changes. The study groups were: control (n=12), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n=10) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with garlic oil (10 mg/kg body weight (n=10)). Markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Small pieces of the liver were processed for transmission electron microscopic study. Garlic oil caused a significant decrease in levels of LPO in plasma (0.26 vs 0.53), erythrocyte lysate (14.4 vs 24.8) and liver tissue homogenate (1.04 vs 2.08), whereas those of thiols were significantly elevated (1.2 vs 0.46), (24 vs 15) in plasma and erythrocyte lysate respectively. SOD activity and G-S-T activity were significantly elevated in erythrocyte lysate (5.7 vs 3.3) (377 vs 179) and liver homogenate (1.4 vs 0.5) (752 vs 623) respectively after garlic oil administration. Ultrastructural study of the liver confirmed the ability of garlic to retard lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes induced by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. Therefore, garlic could normalise oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) extract applied as a therapeutic immersion treatment for Neobenedenia sp. management in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Militz, T A; Southgate, P C; Carton, A G; Hutson, K S

    2014-05-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum L., extract administered as a therapeutic bath was shown to have antiparasitic properties towards Neobenedenia sp. (MacCallum) (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). The effect of garlic extract (active component allicin) immersion on Neobenedenia sp. egg development, hatching success, oncomiracidia (larvae) longevity, infection success and juvenile Neobenedenia survival was examined and compared with freshwater and formalin immersion. Garlic extract was found to significantly impede hatching success (5% ± 5%) and oncomiracidia longevity (<2 h) at allicin concentrations of 15.2 μL L(-1) , while eggs in the seawater control had >95% hatching success and mean oncomiracidia longevity of 37 ± 3 h. At much lower allicin concentrations (0.76 and 1.52 μL L(-1)), garlic extract also significantly reduced Neobenedenia infection success of L. calcarifer to 25% ± 4% and 11% ± 4%, respectively, compared with 55% ± 7% in the seawater control. Juvenile Neobenedenia attached to host fish proved to be highly resistant to allicin with 96% surviving 1-h immersion in 10 mL L(-1) (15.2 μL L(-1) allicin) of garlic extract. Allicin-containing garlic extracts show potential for development as a therapy to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the egg and larval stages.

  10. Evaluating the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw and steamed garlic as well as five organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Su, Min-Sheng

    2014-10-31

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Distinct intraspecific variations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) revealed by the exon-intron sequences of the alliinase gene.

    PubMed

    Endo, Aki; Imai, Yukiko; Nakamura, Mizuho; Yanagisawa, Eri; Taguchi, Takaaki; Torii, Kosuke; Okumura, Hidenobu; Ichinose, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used worldwide as a food and for medicinal purposes since early times. Garlic cultivars exhibit considerable morphological diversity despite the fact that they are mostly sterile and are grown only by vegetative propagation of cloves. Considerable recombination occurs in garlic genomes, including the genes involved in secondary metabolites. We examined the genomic DNAs (gDNAs) from garlic, encoding alliinase, a key enzyme involved in organosulfur metabolism in Allium plants. The 1.7-kb gDNA fragments, covering three exons (2, 3, and 4) and all four introns, were amplified from total DNAs prepared from garlic samples produced in Asia and Europe, leading to 73 sequences in total: Japan (JPN), China (CHN), India (IND), Spain (ESP), and France (FRA). The exon sequences were highly conserved among all the sequences, probably reflecting the fully functional alliinase associated with the flavor quality. Distinct intraspecific variations were detected for all four intron sequences, leading to the haplotype classifications. A close relationship between JPN and CHN was observed for all four introns, whereas IND showed a more divergent distribution. ESP and FRA afforded clearly different variants compared with those from Asian sequences. The present study provides information that could be useful in the development of an additional molecular marker for garlic authentication and quality control.

  12. Study of the effects of raw garlic consumption on the level of lipids and other blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, M; Islami, M R; Asadi Karam, G R; Khaksari, M; Sahebghadam Lotfi, A; Hajizadeh, M R; Mirzaee, M R

    2006-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the famous disorders that can lead to atherosclerosis. Garlic has been considered as one of the blood lipids lowering agents for ages, and various studies have been carried out, some of them confirmed this effect of garlic and some did not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of raw garlic consumption on human blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals. This clinical trial was conducted on 30 volunteer individuals with blood cholesterol higher than 245 mg/dl. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical tests. The volunteers consumed 5 g raw garlic twice a day for 42 days. Second fasting blood samples were collected and the individuals did not use any kind of garlic for next 42 days. After that, the third fasting blood samples were collected and the biochemical factors were measured. After 42 days of garlic consumption the mean of blood total cholesterol (p<0.001) triglycerides (p<0.01) and FBS (p<0.01) were reduced significantly, but HDL-C was increased (p<0.001) significantly. Following 42 days of no garlic consumption total cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides and FBS (p<0.05) were significantly increased and HDL-C (p<0.01) decreased. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum lipids, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. Garlic can be used in mild hyperlipidemia or when the patients cannot tolerate the chemical drugs.

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.

    PubMed

    Booyens, J; Labuschagne, M C; Thantsha, M S

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. SEM micrographs revealed unusual morphological changes such as cell elongation, cocci-shaped cells with cross-walls, and distorted cells with bulbous ends. With TEM, observed changes included among others, condensation of cytoplasmic material, disintegration of membranes, and loss of structural integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any differences in whole-cell protein profiles of untreated and garlic clove extract-treated cells. The current study is the first to reveal the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on probiotic Bifidobacterium species. The results indicate that garlic affects these beneficial bacteria in a manner similar to that exhibited in pathogens. These results therefore further highlight that caution should be taken especially when using raw garlic and probiotic bifidobacteria simultaneously as viability of these bacteria could be reduced by allicin released upon crushing of garlic cloves, thereby limiting the health benefits that the consumer anticipate to gain from probiotics.

  14. A novel reductive amination method with isotopic formaldehydes for the preparation of internal standard and standards for determining organosulfur compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Cheng; Liu, Meng-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Reng; Huang, Mei-Fang; Liang, Shih-Shin

    2016-04-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is a long-cultivated plant that is widely utilized in cooking and has been employed as a medicine for over 4000 years. In this study, we fabricated standards and internal standards (ISs) for absolute quantification via reductive amination with isotopic formaldehydes. Garlic has four abundant organosulfur compounds (OSCs): S-allylcysteine, S-allylcysteinine sulfoxide, S-methylcysteine, and S-ethylcysteine are abundant in garlic. OSCs with primary amine groups were reacted with isotopic formaldehydes to synthesize ISs and standards. Cooked and uncooked garlic samples were compared, and we utilized tandem mass spectrometry equipped with a selective reaction monitoring technique to absolutely quantify the four organosulfur compounds.

  15. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from garlic.

    PubMed

    Pan, Saikun; Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, the polysaccharides were prepared from garlic by using a cellulase-assisted extraction method and the antioxidant activity of garlic polysaccharides (GPs) was evaluated. To improve the yield of GPs, the influences of the several factors such as extraction time, temperature, pH, and cellulase amount on the extraction efficiency were studied. The optimal conditions for extraction of GPs were determined as follows: time, 80 min; temperature, 45 °C; pH, 5; cellulase amount, 8000 U/g. Under the optimised extraction conditions, the yield of GPS reached up to 35.34%. The GPs product exhibited strong antioxidant activity including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The results suggest that the GPs could be used as potential antioxidants.

  16. Garlic-derived anticancer agents: structure and biological activity of ajoene.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Parker, M Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Garlic has been used throughout the centuries to treat infections, heart disease, and cancer. Ajoene is one of the main compounds formed from heating crushed garlic as a mixture of E- and Z-isomers (E- and Z-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide). Ajoene possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities that include anticancer activity. It's cytotoxicity towards cancer cells is postulated to occur via an apoptotic mechanism involving activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade. Structure-activity studies on ajoene and ajoene analogues have revealed that the Z-isomer is moderately more active than the E-isomer at inhibiting in vitro tumor cell growth, suggesting that specific protein interactions may be important. Substitution of the terminal end allyl groups in ajoene for alkyl, aromatic, or heteroaromatic groups produces some analogs with superior in vitro anticancer activity to ajoene, opening up the way to developing ajoene-based anticancer agents.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of garlic-derived allyl sulfides in the inhibition of skin cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Chi; Pao, Jung; Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a serious concern whose incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Allyl sulfides—i.e., sulfur metabolites in garlic oil—have been demonstrated to have anticancer activity against several cancer types, although the mechanisms underlying these effects remain enigmatic. Our previous study showed that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is more potent than mono- and disulfides against skin cancer. DATS inhibits cell growth of human melanoma A375 cells and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells by increasing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage and by inducing G2/M arrest, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, including the caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. This short review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of garlic-derived allyl sulfides on skin cancer prevention. PMID:23050963

  18. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  19. Intakes of garlic and dried fruits are associated with lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Eggesbø, Merete; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have found associations between microbial infections during pregnancy and preterm delivery (PTD). We investigated the influence of food with antimicrobial and prebiotic components on the risk of spontaneous PTD. A literature search identified microbes associated with spontaneous PTD. Subsequently, 2 main food types (alliums and dried fruits) were identified to contain antimicrobial components that affect the microbes associated with spontaneous PTD; they also contained dietary fibers recognized as prebiotics. We investigated intake in 18,888 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa), of whom 950 (5%) underwent spontaneous PTD (<37 gestational weeks). Alliums (garlic, onion, leek, and spring onion) [OR: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.94), P = 0.005] and dried fruits (raisins, apricots, prunes, figs, and dates) [OR: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.94); P = 0.005] were associated with a decreased risk of spontaneous PTD. Intake of alliums was related to a more pronounced risk reduction in early spontaneous PTD (gestational weeks 28-31) [OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.80)]. The strongest association in this group was with garlic [OR: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.89)], followed by cooked onions. Intake of dried fruits showed an association with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) [OR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.95)]; the strongest association in this group was with raisins [OR: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92)]. The strongest association with PPROM in the allium group was with garlic [OR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)]. In conclusion, intake of food with antimicrobial and prebiotic compounds may be of importance to reduce the risk of spontaneous PTD. In particular, garlic was associated with overall lower risk of spontaneous PTD. Dried fruits, especially raisins, were associated with reduced risk of PPROM.

  20. Effect of garlic and allium-derived products on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Millet, Coralie O M; Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin; Williams, David; Evans, Gareth; Saunders, Robert A; Cable, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    Spironucleus is a genus of small, flagellated parasites, many of which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and are a significant problem in aquaculture. Following the ban on the use of metronidazole in food fish due to toxicity problems, no satisfactory chemotherapies for the treatment of spironucleosis are currently available. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and automated optical density monitoring of growth, we investigated in vitro the effect of Allium sativum (garlic), a herbal remedy known for its antimicrobial properties, on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens, a parasite of tropical fish and putative agent of hole-in-the-head disease. The allium-derived thiosulfinate compounds allicin and ajoene, as well as an ajoene-free mixture of thiosulfinates and vinyl-dithiins were also tested. Whole, freeze-dried garlic and allium-derived compounds had an inhibitory effect on gas metabolism, exponential growth rate and final growth yield of S. vortens in Keister's modified, TY-I-S33 culture medium. Of all the allium-derived compounds tested, the ajoene-free mixture of dithiins and thiosulfinates was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 107 μg ml(-1) and an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC(50%)) of 58 μg ml(-1). It was followed by ajoene (MIC = 83 μg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 56 μg ml(-1)) and raw garlic (MIC >20 mg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 7.9 mg ml(-1)); allicin being significantly less potent with an MIC and IC(50%) above 160 μg ml(-1). All these concentrations are much higher than those reported to be required for the inhibition of most bacteria, protozoa and fungi previously investigated, indicating an unusual level of tolerance for allium-derived products in S. vortens. However, chemically synthesized derivatives of garlic constituents might prove a useful avenue for future research.

  1. Multiple inhibitory effects of garlic extracts on cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R

    1993-07-01

    Exposure of primary rat hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells to water-soluble garlic extracts resulted in the concentration-dependent inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis at several different enzymatic steps. At low concentrations, sterol biosynthesis from [14C]acetate was decreased in rat hepatocytes by 23% with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibition) value of 90 micrograms/mL and in HepG2 cells by 28% with an IC50 value of 35 micrograms/mL. This inhibition was exerted at the level of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) as indicated by direct enzymatic measurements and the absence of inhibition if [14C]mevalonate was used as a precursor. At high concentrations (above 0.5 mg/mL), inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis was not only seen at an early step where it increased considerably with dose, but also at later steps resulting in the accumulation of the precursors lanosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol. No desmosterol was formed which, however, was a major precursor accumulating in the presence of triparanol. Thus, the accumulation of sterol precursors seems to be of less therapeutic significance during consumption of garlic, because it requires concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above those affecting HMG-CoA reductase. Alliin, the main sulfur-containing compound of garlic, was without effect itself. If converted to allicin, it resulted in similar changes of the sterol pattern. This suggested that the latter compound might contribute to the inhibition at the late steps. In contrast, nicotinic acid and particularly adenosine caused moderate inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity and of cholesterol biosynthesis suggesting that these compounds participate, at least in part, in the early inhibition of sterol synthesis by garlic extracts. PMID:8394977

  2. Disrupted intracellular redox balance of the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens by 5-nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Williams, C F; Lloyd, D; Kolarich, D; Alagesan, K; Duchêne, M; Cable, J; Williams, D; Leitsch, D

    2012-11-23

    The 5-nitroimidazole, metronidazole, has traditionally been employed in veterinary medicine to treat a range of infections including the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus. This study aims to determine the mode of action of metronidazole on Spironucleus vortens, including the specific mechanism of activation of the pro-drug and subsequent cellular targets of the drug metabolites. Due to the ban on use of metronidazole in the treatment of production animals in Europe and USA, garlic-derived compounds were also investigated as natural alternatives to metronidazole chemotherapy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided an overview of gross cellular damage caused by metronidazole and garlic derivatives. Proteomic analyses by 2D gel electrophoresis identified the proteins involved in specific covalent adduct formation with nitroimidazoles. Furthermore, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and non-protein thiol concentration were assayed in extracts of S. vortens before and after treatment with nitroimidazoles and garlic-derivatives. Metronidazole and garlic-derived compounds caused severe damage of trophozoites indicated by membrane blebbing and lysed cell debris. Analysis of the S. vortens proteome identified several proteins capable of specific nitroimidazole binding, including; uridine phosphorylase, enolase, protein disulphide isomerase, aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase and malic enzyme. Of the compounds tested, metronidazole and the garlic-derived compound ajoene were the most effective at inhibiting TrxR activity and depleting non-protein thiols. These data suggest TrxR-mediated activation of nitroimidazoles, leading to depletion of non-protein thiols. Redox imbalance due to antioxidant failure is implicated as the mode of action of nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds, ultimately leading to cell death. Possible synergy between garlic derivatives and metronidazole should be further investigated in vitro in order to determine their theoretical

  3. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of sulfur-containing compounds from garlic.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Yeon; Li, Hua; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2012-11-01

    We identified four anti-inflammatory sulfur-containing compounds from garlic, and their chemical structures were identified as Z- and E-ajoene and oxidized sulfonyl derivatives of ajoene. The sulfur compounds inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these sulfur compounds attenuated the LPS-induced expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and mRNA. Moreover, these sulfur-containing compounds suppressed the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the degradation of inhibitory-κBα in LPS-activated macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that they markedly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) at 20 μM. These data demonstrate that the sulfur compounds from garlic, (Z, E)-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs, can suppress the LPS-induced production of NO/PGE(2) and the expression of iNOS/COX-2 genes by inhibiting the NF-κB activation and the phosphorylations of p38 and ERK. Taken together, these data show that Z- and E-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs from garlic might have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential.

  5. Chemiluminescence measurements on irradiated garlic powder by the single photon counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvaiz, P.

    1995-02-01

    The feasibility of identifying irradiated garlic powder measuring chemiluminescence by liquid scintillation spectrometry was studied. Samples packed in 100 μm thick polyethylene bags were irradiated in a 60Co semi-industrial facility, with doses of 10 and 30 kGy. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 20 ± 4°C and 70 ± 10% RH in darkness for 2 years. Assays were performed to establish the best sample concentration and pH of the buffer solution in which garlic powder was to be suspended for its measurement. The water content of garlic samples was also analyzed throughout storage time, as it related to the stability of the species causing luminescence. Chemiluminescence values diminished in every sample over storage time following an exponential pattern. Irradiated samples showed values significantly higher than those of the control samples, according to the radiation dose, throughout the storage period. This does not necessarily imply that the identification of the irradiated samples would be certain, since values of control samples coming from different origins have been found to fluctuate within a rather wide range. Nonetheless, in principle, the method looks promising for the measurement of chemiluminescence in irradiated samples

  6. Effect of volatile metabolites of dill, radish and garlic on growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Ushakova, S. A.; Rygalov, V. Ye; Gitelson, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    In a model experiment plants were grown in sealed chambers on expanded clay aggregate under the luminance of 150 W/m 2 PAR and the temperature of 24°C. Seven bacterial strains under investigation, replicated on nutrient medium surface in Petri dishes, were grown in the atmosphere of cultivated plants. Microbial response was evaluated by the difference between colony size in experiment and in control. In control, bacteria grew in the atmosphere of clean air. To study the effect of volatile metabolites of various plant on microbial growth, the experimental data were compared with the background values defined for each individual experiment. Expanded clay aggregate, luminance, temperature and sealed chamber (without plants) for the background were the same. Volatile metabolites from 28-days old radish plants have been reliably established to have no effect on the growth of microbes under investigation. Metabolites of 30-days old dill and 50-days old garlic have been established to have reliable bacteriostatic effect on the growth of three bacterial strains. Dill and garlic have been found to have different range of effects of volatile substances on bacterial growth. Volatile metabolites of dill and garlic differed in their effect on the sensitivity spectrum of bacteria. An attempt has been made to describe the obtained data mathematically.

  7. Analysis of lifespan-promoting effect of garlic extract by an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Wu, Yuan-Heng; Zhong, Linda; Tseng, Mu-Yun; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) consumption in treating human diseases have been reported worldwide over a long period of human history. The strong antioxidant effect of garlic extract (GE) has also recently been claimed to prevent cancer, thrombus formation, cardiovascular disease and some age-related maladies. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, aqueous GE was herein shown to increase the expression of longevity-related FOXO transcription factor daf-16 and extend lifespan by 20%. By employing microarray and proteomics analysis on C. elegans treated with aqueous GE, we have systematically mapped 229 genes and 46 proteins with differential expression profiles, which included many metabolic enzymes and yolky egg vitellogenins. To investigate the garlic components functionally involved in longevity, an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach was employed to identify metabolites and protein components associated with treatment of aqueous GE. Among potential lifespan-promoting substances, mannose-binding lectin and N-acetylcysteine were found to increase daf-16 expression. Our study points to the fact that the lifespan-promoting effect of aqueous GE may entail the DAF-16-mediated signaling pathway. The result also highlights the utility of metabolo-proteomics for unraveling the complexity and intricacy involved in the metabolism of natural products in vivo. PMID:25940980

  8. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  9. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 μgmL−1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 μgmL−1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 μgmL−1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin. PMID:24948941

  10. Glutathione-garlic sulfur conjugates: slow hydrogen sulfide releasing agents for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Ashif Iqbal; Papajani, Vilma Toska; Paci, Maurizio; Melino, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS) or without (GaWS) glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S), also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST) enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25608858

  11. The chemopreventive effects of aged garlic extract against cadmium-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Akeem O; Ellis, Elizabeth M

    2011-09-01

    Garlic has been reported in many previous studies as a potent chemopreventive agent. The protective effect of garlic has been ascribed to the presence of organosulphur compounds (OSC). In this study, the efficacy of aged garlic extract (AGE) compared to diallyl disulfide (DADS) in protecting against toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd) in 1321N1 and HEK293 cells was investigated. The involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in this protection was also examined. The results show that AGE significantly prevented loss of cell viability in Cd-treated 1321N1 and HEK293 cells. In comparison DADS had no significant effect in protecting HEK293 cells but did protect 1321N1 cells. AGE significantly reduced Cd-induced TBARS production and LDH leakage in the two cell lines, and AGE and DADS both increased GSH levels in Cd-treated cell lines. Pre-treatment of cells with AGE or DADS increased expression of the protective enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and this was associated with the accumulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. These results show that AGE and DADS have beneficial effects against Cd-induced toxicity, and this protection appears to be mediated via induction of cytoprotective enzymes in an Nrf2-dependent manner. This indicates the potential for using AGE as a chemoprevention strategy for Cd toxicity. PMID:21843808

  12. Genome organization and variation in the 3'-partial sequence of garlic latent virus in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiong; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Jianping; Yang, Chongliang

    2002-08-01

    Ten different isolates of a carlavirus were detected by degenerate PCR from 12 garlic samples collected from 6 provinces in China, and the complete genome sequence of the Zhejiang isolate ZJ1 and 3'-terminal sequences of 9 other isolates were determined. The RNA genome of isolate ZJ1 consisted of 8363nts excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, and the genome organization was similar to other carlaviruses with 6 open reading frames encoding a replicase, TGB1, TGB2, TGB3, CP and NABP respectively. Sequence comparisons showed that all 10 isolates were Garlic latent virus (GarLV). The variations in the TGB2, TGB3 and NABP were more significant than those in the CP. High homology was also detected between those isolates and Shallot latent virus (ShLV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GarLV isolates from garlic can be divided into 4 main groups and Chinese isolates belonged to each group. This is the first reported molecular analysis of members of the genus Carlavirus in China. PMID:18759032

  13. Phytoremediation potentiality of garlic roots for 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Xing; Ren, He-Jun; Wang, Ying; Pan, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Lan-Ying

    2015-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is considered as an important pollutant because of its high toxicity and wide distribution in wastewaters. Innocuous remediation technologies have been studied for the removal of this pollutant. This study investigated the feasibility of using garlic roots as a plant system for the removal of 2,4-DCP. The optimal conditions for its removal were established based on orthogonal experiments (OA25 matrix). Significant factors that affect removal efficiency, arranged from high to low importance, include pH, reaction time, 2,4-DCP concentration, and H2O2 concentration. In addition, garlic roots could be re-used for as much as three consecutive cycles. The decrease in pH and the increase of Cl(-) ion content in the post-removal solutions indicated that 2,4-DCP dehalogenation occurred during transformation. Changes in the deposition pattern of lignin in roots exposed to 2,4-DCP suggested that several of the products deposited were lignin-type polymers. The acute toxicity test revealed that the post-removal solutions were less toxic than the parent solutions. Therefore, garlic roots have considerable potential to effectively and safely remove 2,4-DCP from wastewater.

  14. Analysis of lifespan-promoting effect of garlic extract by an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Wu, Yuan-Heng; Zhong, Linda; Tseng, Mu-Yun; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) consumption in treating human diseases have been reported worldwide over a long period of human history. The strong antioxidant effect of garlic extract (GE) has also recently been claimed to prevent cancer, thrombus formation, cardiovascular disease and some age-related maladies. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, aqueous GE was herein shown to increase the expression of longevity-related FOXO transcription factor daf-16 and extend lifespan by 20%. By employing microarray and proteomics analysis on C. elegans treated with aqueous GE, we have systematically mapped 229 genes and 46 proteins with differential expression profiles, which included many metabolic enzymes and yolky egg vitellogenins. To investigate the garlic components functionally involved in longevity, an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach was employed to identify metabolites and protein components associated with treatment of aqueous GE. Among potential lifespan-promoting substances, mannose-binding lectin and N-acetylcysteine were found to increase daf-16 expression. Our study points to the fact that the lifespan-promoting effect of aqueous GE may entail the DAF-16-mediated signaling pathway. The result also highlights the utility of metabolo-proteomics for unraveling the complexity and intricacy involved in the metabolism of natural products in vivo.

  15. Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg−1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg−1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg−1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg−1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  16. Soil chemical property changes in eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems under continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg(-1), significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg(-1) in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg(-1) in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg(-1) in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  17. Soil chemical property changes in eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems under continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg(-1), significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg(-1) in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg(-1) in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg(-1) in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  19. Indian food ingredients and cancer prevention - an experimental evaluation of anticarcinogenic effects of garlic in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Archana; Ghosh, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Das, Sukta

    2004-01-01

    The major food items of Indian cuisine include rice, wheat, diary products, and abundant fruits and vegetables. Beside these, there are several kinds of herbs and spices as important ingredients, containing many phytochemicals with medicinal properties, adding taste to Indian cuisine. An impressive body of data exists in support of the concept that Indian food ingredients can be used in preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and mortality of different types of cancers because of their antioxidative, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Vital ingredients used in Indian cooking include turmeric, cloves, ginger, aniseed, mustard, saffron, cardamom and garlic Garlic is an indispensable ingredient of Indian food and this report concerns the chemopreventive efficacy of garlic in an azoxymethane induced rodent colon carcinogenesis model. The effect of garlic was evaluated in terms of aberrant crypt foci, putative preneoplastic lesions in the colon. In addition, cell proliferation and levels of apoptosis were determined and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein was analyzed. Following treatment, significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, as well as suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 activity were observed, associated with significant reduction in the incidence of aberrant crypt foci. The study points to combined protective effects of garlic components on colon carcinogenesis. PMID:15244513

  20. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Agmy, Sherif M; Gaur, Rajiv L; Fernando, Augusta; Raj, Madhwa Hg; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  1. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of compositional changes for organosulfur compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Park, So-Lim; Lee, Sanghee; Lee, So-Young; Ko, Sungho; Yoo, Miyoung

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of 11 organosulfur compounds and analysis of their compositional changes in garlic during fermentation using 3 different microbe strains. The calibration curves of all 11 analytes exhibited good linearity (R⩾0.995), and the mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were greater than 81.63% with relative standard deviations of less than 12.79%. Investigation of the compositional changes revealed that the γ-glutamyl peptides content in fermented blanched garlic reduced, whereas the content of the compounds in biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteines from γ-glutamyl peptides increased significantly. Our results also indicated that starter cultures can be used selectively in the production of fermented garlic to increase the amounts of the desired organosulfur compounds. PMID:27283666

  2. Effect of dietary garlic and onion on biliary proteins and lipid peroxidation which influence cholesterol nucleation in bile.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sambaiah, Kari; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-03-01

    Formation of cholesterol gallstones in gallbladder is controlled by procrystallizing and anticrystallizing factors present in bile. Dietary garlic and onion have been recently observed to possess anti-lithogenic potential in experimental mice. In this investigation, the role of biliary proteins from rats fed lithogenic diet or garlic/onion-containing diet in the formation of cholesterol gallstones in model bile was studied. Cholesterol nucleation time of the bile from lithogenic diet group was prolonged when mixed with bile from garlic or onion groups. High molecular weight proteins of bile from garlic and onion groups delayed cholesterol crystal growth in model bile. Low molecular weight (LMW) proteins from the bile of lithogenic diet group promoted cholesterol crystal growth in model bile, while LMW protein fraction isolated from the bile of garlic and onion groups delayed the same. Biliary LMW protein fraction was subjected to affinity chromatography using Con-A and the lectin-bound and unbound fractions were studied for their influence on cholesterol nucleation time in model bile. Major portion of biliary LMW proteins in lithogenic diet group was bound to Con-A, and this protein fraction promoted cholesterol nucleation time and increased cholesterol crystal growth rate, whereas Con-A unbound fraction delayed the onset of cholesterol crystallization. Biliary protein from garlic/onion group delayed the crystallization and interfered with pronucleating activity of Con-A bound protein fraction. These data suggest that apart from the beneficial modulation of biliary cholesterol saturation index, these Allium spices also influence cholesterol nucleating and antinucleating protein factors that contribute to their anti-lithogenic potential.

  3. Preparation methods for monodispersed garlic oil microspheres in water using the microemulsion technique and their potential as antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua Ming; Li, Hou Bin; Wang, Da Wei; Liu, Dun

    2013-08-01

    Garlic oil is considered as a natural broad-spectrum antibiotic because of its well-known antimicrobial activity. However, the characteristics of easy volatility and poor aqueous solubility limit the application of garlic oil in industry. The purpose of the present work is to develop and evaluate an oil-free microemulsion by loading garlic oil in microemulsion system. Microemulsions were prepared with ethoxylated hydrogenated castor (Cremophor RH40) as surfactant, n-butanol (or ethanol) as cosurfactant, oleic acid-containing garlic oil as oil phase, and ultrapure water as water phase. The effects of the ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant and different oil concentration on the area of oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion region in pseudoternary phase diagrams were investigated. The particle size and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency of the formed microemulsions with different formulations were also investigated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. The experimental results show that a stable microemulsion region can be obtained when the mass ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant is, respectively, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Especially, when the mixture surfactants of RH40/n-butanol 2/1 (w/w) is used in the microemulsion formulation, the area of O/W microemulsion region is 0.089 with the particle size 13.29 to 13.85 nm and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency 99.5%. The prepared microemulsion solution exhibits remarkable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. PMID:23957416

  4. The Global Trade in Fresh Produce and the Vagility of Plant Viruses: A Case Study in Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

  5. Preparation methods for monodispersed garlic oil microspheres in water using the microemulsion technique and their potential as antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua Ming; Li, Hou Bin; Wang, Da Wei; Liu, Dun

    2013-08-01

    Garlic oil is considered as a natural broad-spectrum antibiotic because of its well-known antimicrobial activity. However, the characteristics of easy volatility and poor aqueous solubility limit the application of garlic oil in industry. The purpose of the present work is to develop and evaluate an oil-free microemulsion by loading garlic oil in microemulsion system. Microemulsions were prepared with ethoxylated hydrogenated castor (Cremophor RH40) as surfactant, n-butanol (or ethanol) as cosurfactant, oleic acid-containing garlic oil as oil phase, and ultrapure water as water phase. The effects of the ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant and different oil concentration on the area of oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion region in pseudoternary phase diagrams were investigated. The particle size and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency of the formed microemulsions with different formulations were also investigated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. The experimental results show that a stable microemulsion region can be obtained when the mass ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant is, respectively, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Especially, when the mixture surfactants of RH40/n-butanol 2/1 (w/w) is used in the microemulsion formulation, the area of O/W microemulsion region is 0.089 with the particle size 13.29 to 13.85 nm and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency 99.5%. The prepared microemulsion solution exhibits remarkable antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

  6. The global trade in fresh produce and the vagility of plant viruses: a case study in garlic.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G K

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

  7. Protective effects of ascorbic acid and garlic extract against lead-induced apoptosis in developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Ali-Reza; Hami, Javad; Alipour, Fatemeh; Haghir, Hossein; Fazel, Ali-Reza; Sadeghi, Akram

    2016-10-01

    Lead exposure has negative effects on developing nervous system and induces apoptosis in newly generated neurons. Natural antioxidants (i.e. Ascorbic acid and Garlic) might protect against lead-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid and Garlic administration during pregnancy and lactation on lead-induced apoptosis in rat developing hippocampus. Timed pregnant Wistar rats were administrated with Lead (1500 ppm) via drinking water (Pb group) or lead plus Ascorbic acid (Pb + AA Group, 500 mg/kg, IP), or lead plus Garlic Extract (Pb + G Group, 1 ml garlic juice/100 g BW, via Gavage) from early gestation (GD 0) until postnatal day 50 (PN 50). At the end of experiments, the pups' brains were carefully dissected. To identify neuronal death, the brain sections were stained with TUNEL assay. Mean of blood and brain lead levels increased significantly in Pb group comparing to other studied groups (P < 0.01). There was significant reduction in blood and brain lead level in Pb + AA and Pb + G groups when compared to those of Pb group (P < 0.01). The mean number of TUNEL positive cells in the CA1, CA3, and DG was significantly lower in the groups treated by either Ascorbic acid or Garlic (P < 0.05). Administration of Ascorbic acid and Garlic during pregnancy and lactation protect against lead-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups partially via the reduction of Pb concentration in the blood and in the brain.

  8. The global trade in fresh produce and the vagility of plant viruses: a case study in garlic.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G K

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed.

  9. Protective effects of ascorbic acid and garlic extract against lead-induced apoptosis in developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Ali-Reza; Hami, Javad; Alipour, Fatemeh; Haghir, Hossein; Fazel, Ali-Reza; Sadeghi, Akram

    2016-10-01

    Lead exposure has negative effects on developing nervous system and induces apoptosis in newly generated neurons. Natural antioxidants (i.e. Ascorbic acid and Garlic) might protect against lead-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid and Garlic administration during pregnancy and lactation on lead-induced apoptosis in rat developing hippocampus. Timed pregnant Wistar rats were administrated with Lead (1500 ppm) via drinking water (Pb group) or lead plus Ascorbic acid (Pb + AA Group, 500 mg/kg, IP), or lead plus Garlic Extract (Pb + G Group, 1 ml garlic juice/100 g BW, via Gavage) from early gestation (GD 0) until postnatal day 50 (PN 50). At the end of experiments, the pups' brains were carefully dissected. To identify neuronal death, the brain sections were stained with TUNEL assay. Mean of blood and brain lead levels increased significantly in Pb group comparing to other studied groups (P < 0.01). There was significant reduction in blood and brain lead level in Pb + AA and Pb + G groups when compared to those of Pb group (P < 0.01). The mean number of TUNEL positive cells in the CA1, CA3, and DG was significantly lower in the groups treated by either Ascorbic acid or Garlic (P < 0.05). Administration of Ascorbic acid and Garlic during pregnancy and lactation protect against lead-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups partially via the reduction of Pb concentration in the blood and in the brain. PMID:27311610

  10. A chemical burn from a garlic poultice applied to the face to treat toothache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sisson, D; Balmer, C

    2014-02-01

    This case report is of a significant chemical burn to the face resulting from the use of an external garlic poultice for toothache. The patient used internet search engines to seek a toothache remedy and did not identify any reports of this complication. This report aims to inform all dentists of the risks of raw garlic application to the skin and also to ensure that in the future any patient using the internet for a toothache remedy will be made aware of the potential risk and how to avoid it. PMID:25198327

  11. An exploration of the antioxidant effects of garlic saponins in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Sook; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Cheol Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm the protective effects of garlic saponins against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. Relative cell viability was determined by 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and oxidative stress was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blot analysis and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown were used in order to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results revealed that garlic saponins prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS. We also observed that garlic saponins prevented H2O2-induced comet tail formation and decreased the phosphorylation levels of γH2AX expression, suggesting that they can prevent H2O2-induced DNA damage. In addition, garlic saponins increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol into the nucleus. However, the protective effects of garlic saponins on H2O2-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition were significantly reduced by zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor. In addition, the potential of garlic saponins to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against H2O2‑mediated growth inhibition was adversely affected by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA. Garlic saponins activated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, whereas a specific ERK inhibitor was able to inhibit HO-1 upregulation, as well as Nrf2 induction and phosphorylation. Taken together, the findings of our study suggest that garlic saponins activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by enabling

  12. An exploration of the antioxidant effects of garlic saponins in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Sook; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Cheol Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm the protective effects of garlic saponins against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. Relative cell viability was determined by 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and oxidative stress was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blot analysis and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown were used in order to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results revealed that garlic saponins prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS. We also observed that garlic saponins prevented H2O2-induced comet tail formation and decreased the phosphorylation levels of γH2AX expression, suggesting that they can prevent H2O2-induced DNA damage. In addition, garlic saponins increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol into the nucleus. However, the protective effects of garlic saponins on H2O2-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition were significantly reduced by zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor. In addition, the potential of garlic saponins to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against H2O2‑mediated growth inhibition was adversely affected by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA. Garlic saponins activated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, whereas a specific ERK inhibitor was able to inhibit HO-1 upregulation, as well as Nrf2 induction and phosphorylation. Taken together, the findings of our study suggest that garlic saponins activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by enabling

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sulfur-Containing Compounds from Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Yeon; Li, Hua; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Jeon, Raok

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We identified four anti-inflammatory sulfur-containing compounds from garlic, and their chemical structures were identified as Z- and E-ajoene and oxidized sulfonyl derivatives of ajoene. The sulfur compounds inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Western blotting and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these sulfur compounds attenuated the LPS-induced expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and mRNA. Moreover, these sulfur-containing compounds suppressed the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the degradation of inhibitory-κBα in LPS-activated macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that they markedly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) at 20 μM. These data demonstrate that the sulfur compounds from garlic, (Z, E)-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs, can suppress the LPS-induced production of NO/PGE2 and the expression of iNOS/COX-2 genes by inhibiting the NF-κB activation and the phosphorylations of p38 and ERK. Taken together, these data show that Z- and E-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs from garlic might have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential. PMID:23057778

  14. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    PubMed

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (P<0.05) and increased plasma fibrinolytic activity by 22.4% (P<0.05). One more study was performed in high-risk patients to evaluate the changes of prognostic cardiovascular risk that was calculated using algorithms derived from Framingham and Muenster Studies. Twelve-months treatment lowered 10-years prognostic risk of CHD by 13.2% in men (P=0.005), and by 7.1% in women (P=0.040). Ten-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden coronary death was lowered by 26.1% in men (P=0.025). The Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction Study (AMAR) was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with garlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Onuma, Misato; Mizuno, Shinya; Sugino, Yuka; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Imai, Shinsuke; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides are cysteine-derived secondary metabolites highly accumulated in the genus Allium. Despite pharmaceutical importance, the enzymes that contribute to the biosynthesis of S-alk-(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a flavin-containing monooxygenase, AsFMO1, in garlic (Allium sativum), which is responsible for the S-oxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). Recombinant AsFMO1 protein catalyzed the stereoselective S-oxygenation of S-allyl-l-cysteine to nearly exclusively yield (RC SS )-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide, which has identical stereochemistry to the major natural form of alliin in garlic. The S-oxygenation reaction catalyzed by AsFMO1 was dependent on the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), consistent with other known flavin-containing monooxygenases. AsFMO1 preferred S-allyl-l-cysteine to γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine as the S-oxygenation substrate, suggesting that in garlic, the S-oxygenation of alliin biosynthetic intermediates primarily occurs after deglutamylation. The transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins indicated that AsFMO1 is localized in the cytosol. AsFMO1 mRNA was accumulated in storage leaves of pre-emergent nearly sprouting bulbs, and in various tissues of sprouted bulbs with green foliage leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that AsFMO1 functions as an S-allyl-l-cysteine S-oxygenase, and contributes to the production of alliin both through the conversion of stored γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine to alliin in storage leaves during sprouting and through the de novo biosynthesis of alliin in green foliage leaves.

  16. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  17. The antitrichomonal efficacy of garlic and metronidazole against Trichomonas gallinae infecting domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Seddiek, Sh A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of canker in pigeon. This work was carried out to investigate in the vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous water extract of garlic (AGE) on the growth of T. gallinae infecting pigeons compared to those of metronidazole (MTZ). MTZ and AGE were added, at different concentrations, to glucose-serum broth medium containing 1 × 10(4) trophozoites/ml. In the in vivo experiment, 48 squabs were grouped into four groups. The first group (gr. I) was not infected and not treated. Each squab of the other group was infected with 1 × 10(4) trophozoites. The second group (gr. II) was infected and not treated. On day 0, the third group (gr. III) was treated with MTZ (50 mg/kg BW) and the fourth group (gr. IV) was treated with AGE (200 mg/kg BW) for seven successive days in drinking water. In vitro study revealed that the MLC, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment were 50, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for MTZ and 75, 50, and 50 mg/ml, respectively, for AGE. Garlic (200 mg/kg BW) had the highest antitrichomonal effect and shortened course of treatment of pigeons from 7 days in gr. III to 5 days. Squabs in gr. II suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia, whereas squabs in grs. III and IV showed normal blood pictures. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were increased, whereas AST, ALT, and the total cholesterol were decreased in grs. III and IV when compared to those of gr. II. Pigeons protected with AGE showed increased body weight and reduced mortality percentage than the other groups. Our results indicated that garlic may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for protection against trichomoniasis in pigeons.

  18. Identification and characterization of two bacteriocin-producing bacteria isolated from garlic and ginger root.

    PubMed

    Janes, M E; Nannapaneni, R; Johnson, M G

    1999-08-01

    Two bacteriocin-producing bacterial strains were isolated from garlic and ginger root by the agar overlay method. The bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analyses and fermentation patterns as Leuconostoc mesenteroides (garlic isolate) and Lactococcus lactis (ginger isolate). The bacteriocins were assigned the names leucocin BC2 and lactocin GI3, respectively. Physiochemical properties and antimicrobial spectra of the bacteriocins were determined by the spot-on-lawn method. Both bacteriocins were inhibited by proteolytic enzymes. Leucocin BC2 exhibited a narrow antimicrobial spectrum, inhibiting only Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Listeria species. Lactocin GI3 had a broader spectrum, inhibiting Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Staphylococcus species. Both bacteriocins remained active when heated at 90 degrees C for 15 min or 120 degrees C for 20 min. Leucocin BC2 assayed at 37 degrees C showed an inhibitory activity of 1,600 AU/ml, whereas at 8 degrees C the activity was 12,800 AU/ml. Conversely, lactocin GI3 activity was the same at both assay temperatures. Both bacteriocins remained active over a pH range of 2.0 to 9.0 and in various organic solvents. The activity of leucocin BC2 was increased when treated with 0.5% acetic acid and 0.5% lactic acid, whereas lactocin GI3 activity was decreased with either acid. The molecular mass values were 3.7 kDa for leucocin BC2 and 3.9 kDa for lactocin GI3. These results show that the inhibitory substances produced by the bacteria isolated from garlic and ginger are bacteriocins that appear to be different in some characteristics from previously reported bacteriocins. PMID:10456744

  19. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  20. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  1. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets. PMID:26445200

  2. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C-14 h and 25°C/18°C-14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb formation under 20

  3. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations.

  4. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C–14 h and 25°C/18°C–14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb

  5. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations. PMID:27381763

  6. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets.

  7. Evaluation of lamprey larvicides in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1969-01-01

    Bayluscide (5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) and TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) were evaluated as selective larvicides for control of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake in Marquette County, Michigan. Population estimates and movement of ammocetes were determined from the recapture of marked ammocetes released before chemical treatment. In 1966 the estimated population of 3136 ammocetes off the stream mouth in Saux Head Lake was reduced 89% by treatment with granular Bayluscide; this percentage was supported by a population estimate of 120 ammocetes in 1967, an indicated reduction of 96% from 1966. Post-marking movement of ammocetes was greater upstream than downstream.

  8. Garlic arrests MDA-MB-435 cancer cells in mitosis, phosphorylates the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BimEL and induces apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lund, T; Stokke, T; Olsen, Ø E; Fodstad, Ø

    2005-01-01

    Components of garlic (Allium sativum) can cause disruption of microtubules, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We show here that a water-soluble extract of garlic arrested MDA-MB-435 cancer cells in mitosis and caused apoptosis. The proapoptotic BH3-only, bcl-2 family protein BimEL, which in healthy cells can be tightly sequestered to the microtubule-associated dynein motor complex, was modified after garlic treatment. The main effect of garlic on BimEL was a considerable increase in a phosphorylated form of the protein. This phosphorylation(s), probably partly dependent on c-jun N-terminal kinase activity, promoted mitochondrial localisation of BimEL. Furthermore, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 increased the amount of another form of BimEL present in the mitochondrial cellular fraction. Treatment of cells with the garlic compound diallyl disulphide had similar effects on BimEL. The results indicate that the apoptotic effect of garlic and a combination of garlic and the inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in MDA-MB-435 cells partly is due to modifications that are necessary for translocation of the proapoptotic protein BimEL to mitochondria where it executes its proapoptotic function. PMID:15827557

  9. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  10. Effects of Adaptation of In vitro Rumen Culture to Garlic Oil, Nitrate, and Saponin and Their Combinations on Methanogenesis, Fermentation, and Abundances and Diversity of Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of garlic oil (0.25 g/L), nitrate (5 mM), and quillaja saponin (0.6 g/L), alone and in binary or ternary combinations, on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and abundances of select microbial populations using in vitro rumen cultures. Potential adaptation to these compounds was also examined by repeated transfers of the cultures on alternate days until day 18. All treatments except saponin alone significantly decreased methanogenesis. Ternary combinations of garlic oil, nitrate, and saponin additively/synergistically suppressed methane production by 65% at day 2 and by 40% at day 18. Feed digestion was not adversely affected by any of the treatments at day 2, but was decreased by the combinations (binary and ternary) of garlic oil with the other inhibitors at days 10 and 18. Saponin, alone or in combinations, and garlic oil alone lowered ammonia concentration at day 2, while nitrate increased ammonia concentration at days 10 and 18. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was decreased by garlic oil alone or garlic oil-saponin combination. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate were affected to different extents by the different treatments. The abundances of methanogens were similar among treatments at day 2; however, garlic oil and its combination with saponin and/or nitrate at day 10 and all treatments except saponin at day 18 significantly decreased the abundances of methanogens. All the inhibitors, either alone or in combinations, did not adversely affect the abundances of total bacteria or Ruminococcus flavefaciens. However, at day 18 the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were lowered in the presence of garlic oil and saponin, respectively. The results suggest that garlic oil-nitrate-saponin combination (at the doses used in this study) can effectively decreases methanogenesis in the rumen, but its efficacy may decrease while inhibition to feed digestion can increase over time. PMID:26733975

  11. Survival and growth of Salmonella and Vibrio in som-fak, a Thai low-salt garlic containing fermented fish product.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Paludan-Müller, Christine; Gram, Lone

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation of raw fish is a common process in Asia for improvement of shelf life and safety, however, little is known about the survival of pathogenic bacteria in these products. Raw fish may be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio species. The purpose of this study was to determine survival and potential growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus as influenced by the preservation parameters (sodium chloride, garlic and lactic acid) present in the Thai fermented fish product som-fak. The inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (0-4%), garlic (0-10%) and lactic acid (pH levels as in som-fak) were measured in modified brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 30 degrees C. All bacteria were inhibited by 8-10% sodium chloride. Salmonella grew in all concentrations of garlic whereas Vibrio spp. were inhibited by 1.0-1.5%. Lactic acid was inhibitory at levels above 1.5%. The combinations of sodium chloride, lactic acid and garlic showed a distinct hurdle effect in the broth system. Neither S. Enteritidis, V. cholerae nor V. parahaemolyticus grew in garlic (0.5-1%), regardless of the level of sodium chloride (0.5-4% (w/v)), when lactic acid (0.5-2%) was present. S. Weltevreden was the least inhibited of the four bacteria and grew in the combination of 0.5% garlic and 0.5% lactic acid regardless of the NaCl level (0.5-4% (w/v)). Som-fak with 0 to 10% garlic or 2% glucose was inoculated with either (i) 10(3) CFU/g Salmonella Weltevreden, (ii) 10(6) CFU/g garlic fermenting Lactobacillus plantarum strain 509 or (iii) a combination of the two strains and stored at 30 degrees C. The Salmonella count increased to >10(8) CFU/g (>10(6) CFU/g for 10% garlic) in all types of som-fak inoculated with S. Weltevreden within the first day. Only a combination of at least 6% garlic and L. plantarum 509 was enough to prevent growth of the inoculated Salmonella whereas adding the Lactobacillus strain alone or in

  12. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15279-15280, Docket No. APHIS-2011... sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the... disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of garlic into the continental United States....

  13. Antibacterial Effects of Allspice, Garlic, and Oregano Essential Oils in Tomato Films Determined by Overlay and Vapor-Phase Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5-3.0% (w/w) concentrations w...

  14. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  15. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P < 0.001) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels, whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were markedly (P < 0.001) decreased. We also observed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ACPtotal and ACPprostatic activities in prostate glands and a concomitant significant (P < 0.001) increase in the plasma. However, treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with onion and/or garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  16. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  17. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  18. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  19. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Owoloye, Tosin R; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Results Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues' malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. Conclusions These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents. PMID:23730560

  20. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  1. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews; 2010-2011, 77 FR 65171 (October 25, 2012) (Preliminary Rescission... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268. Notification to Importers This notice serves as a... constituent cloves. Fresh garlic that is ] subject to the order is currently classified under the...

  2. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ..., 74 FR 50952 (October 2, 2009) (Final Results) and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum. DATES... determine the surrogate value (SV) for the single-clove raw garlic input.\\8\\ On December 9, 2011, the... origin and thereafter used a simple average methodology to determine the SV for the single-clove...

  3. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  4. 78 FR 44928 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 70 FR 34082 (June 13, 2005) (``Final Results''). \\3...'s Republic of China, 70 FR 56639 (September 28, 2005) (``Amended Final Results''). On June 29, 2009... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

  5. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others. PMID:27393431

  6. 77 FR 36255 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ministerial error in the calculation of the surrogate financial ratios that Jinan Yipin raised for the first... ministerial error in the calculation of the surrogate financial ratios, as alleged by Jinan Yipin, and... Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 69 FR 33626 (June 16,2004) (``Garlic AR8 Final Results''),...

  7. 78 FR 77653 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 77017 (December 31, 2012... description, available in Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR... consumption, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.212(c)(2). \\3\\ See Initiation Notice, 77 FR at 77020-77022....

  8. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ..., 74 FR 68229, 68230-68231 (December 23, 2009). On December 22, 2010, the Department published the... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 80458 (December 22, 2010) (Preliminary Results). The period of... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

  9. [Effect of cadmium stress on physiological characteristics of garlic seedlings and the alleviation effects of exogenous calcium].

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lian, Hai-feng; Liu, Shi-qi; Yu, Xin-hui; Sun, Ya-li; Guo, Hui-ping

    2015-04-01

    In the experiment, the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd2+) and calcium (Ca2+) in nutrient solution on growth, photosynthetic characteristics, enzymes activities, main mineral elements absorption of garlic seedlings were studied. The results showed that cadmium could obviously inhibit the growth of garlic seedlings, decrease the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves, reduced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and increase the MDA content of leaves, and also could reduce the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and increase the Cd content of roots. The growth was promoted after adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress, which reflected that the morphological indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous calcium concentrations, and were maximized when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). At the same time, the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves showed a similar tendency with the morphological indexes, and they were the highest when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). In addition, adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress enhanced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and decreased the MDA content of leaves, also added the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and reduced the Cd content of roots, and the effect was best when the exogenous calcium concentration was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1).

  10. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  11. Synthesis and visible light photoactivity of anatase Ag, and garlic loaded TiO2 nanocrystalline catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light activated Ag and S doped TiO2 nanocatalyst was prepared by using AgNO3 and garlic (Allium sativum) as Ag+ and sulfur sources, respectively. The catalyst resisted the change from anatase to rutile phase even at calcination at 700 oC. The photocatalytic e...

  12. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 73 FR 79055 (December 24, 2008). On December 8, 2009..., the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 64677 (December 8, 2009) (Preliminary Results). The... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

  13. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  14. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide < diallyl disulfide < diallyl trisulfide). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that organosulfur compounds are responsible for the substantial antimicrobial activity of garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  15. Isolation, purification and identification of antioxidants in an aqueous aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yukun; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    An aqueous aged garlic extract (AGE) was prepared by soaking sliced garlic in water for 20days at room temperature (23-25 °C). In order to locate the antioxidant ingredients of the aqueous AGE, an activity-guided fractionation approach using ABTS assay, DPPH assay and FRAP assay were conducted to guide the fractionation by means of extraction, column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Some phenols and organosulfur compounds were identified as antioxidants in AGE by GC-MS. Furthermore, UV, IR, ESI-MS, NMR and specific rotation experiments led to the identification of l-phenylalanine, l-tryptophan, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as the major antioxidants in the AGE. The EC50 values of these purified tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives were 0.625-1.334 μmol/mL and 1.063-2.072 μmol/mL in ABTS assay and DPPH assay, respectively. It is the first time for us to identify (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as an in vitro antioxidant in AGE.

  16. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O.; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and Vmax for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range. PMID:25401128

  17. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

  18. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Dirsch, V M; Kiemer, A K; Wagner, H; Vollmar, A M

    1998-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has recently been shown to be present in human atherosclerotic lesions and to promote the formation of deleterious peroxynitrite. Allicin and ajoene are discussed as active compounds with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of allicin and ajoene on the iNOS system in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ajoene (IC50 2.5-5 microM) and allicin (IC50 15-20 microM) dose dependently reduced nitrite accumulation, a parameter for NO synthesis, in supernatants of LPS-stimulated (1 microg/ml, 20 h) macrophages. Accordingly, reduced iNOS enzyme activities were measured by conversion of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline in homogenates of LPS-activated cells treated with ajoene or allicin. None of these compounds, however, showed a direct effect on the catalytic-activity of iNOS. Consequently, iNOS protein and mRNA expression in ajoene (10 microM) or allicin (50 microM) treated cells were evaluated by Western blot and Northern blot analysis, respectively. Markedly reduced iNOS protein as well as mRNA levels were demonstrated. These observations indicate that allicin and ajoene inhibit the expression of iNOS in activated macrophages. The possible link of this effect to the beneficial features attributed to garlic is discussed.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of garlic-induced hepatoprotection against alcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Rajasekaran; Liu, Chun-Ting; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Tang, Xiaojia; Kalari, Krishna R; Subramanian, Subbaya; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Fatty liver induced by alcohol abuse is a major worldwide health hazard leading to morbidity and mortality. Previous studies indicate antifatty liver properties of garlic. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of garlic oil (GO) or diallyl disulfide (DADS) imparted hepatoprotection against alcohol induced fatty liver in C57BL/6 mice using microarray-based global gene expression analysis. Alcohol liquid diet resulted in severe fatty liver with increased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferease and alanine aminotransferease as well as triglycerides and decreased levels of liver glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. The major canonical pathways implicated by alcohol treatment are the metabolisms of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, glutathione, and arachidonic acid. Treatment with DADS or GO normalized the serum aminotransferease levels and liver antioxidant enzymes and reduced the contents of triglycerides and cholesterol. The canonical pathways involved in the amelioration of liver include arachidonic acid metabolism, altered T cell and B cell signaling, tryptophan metabolism, antigen presentation pathway for DADS, metabolism of xenobiotics, mitotic roles of Polo-like kinase, fatty acid metabolism, LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR function, and C21-steroid hormone metabolism for GO.

  20. Garlic ointment inhibits biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens from burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Nidadavolu, Pushpalatha; Amor, Wail; Tran, Phat L; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2012-05-01

    When thermal injury damages the skin, the physical barrier protecting underlying tissues from invading micro-organisms is compromised and the host's immune system becomes supressed, facilitating colonization and infection of burn wounds with micro-organisms. Within the wound, bacteria often develop biofilms, which protect the bacteria from the immune response and enhance their resistance to antibiotics. As the prophylactic use of conventional antibiotics drives selection of drug-resistant strains, the use of novel agents to prevent biofilm formation by wound pathogens is essential. In the present study, we utilized our recently developed in vitro wound biofilm model to examine the antibiofilm activity of garlic (Allium sativum). Wound pathogens were inoculated on sterile cellulose discs, exposed to formulated garlic ointment (GarO) or ointment base, and incubated to allow biofilm development. Biofilms were quantified and visualized microscopically. GarO prevented biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and caused a 2-5 log reduction of the bioburden within Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Additionally, GarO disrupted partially developed biofilms produced by S. aureus, S. epidermidis and A. baumannii. The antistaphylococcal activity of GarO was stable for over 3 months at room temperature. Thus, GarO could be used as a prophylactic therapy to prevent wound biofilms caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from forming, and may be a potential therapy for disrupting established staphylococcal biofilms. PMID:22301617

  1. Mechanisms of cardioprotective effect of aged garlic extract against Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alkreathy, Huda M; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Ahmed, Nessar; Slevin, Mark; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M

    2012-12-01

    Aged garlic has been extensively studied and has been shown to have a number of medicinal properties, including immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE), a widely used herbal medicine with potent antioxidant activity, against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Moreover, the study investigated if the cardioprotective effect of AGE might be at the expense of the antitumor effect of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Primary cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were treated with DOX, AGE, and their combination for 24 hours. DOX increased p53 and caspase 3 activity-induced apoptotic cell death, whereas AGE pretreatment suppressed the action of DOX. AGE pretreatment did not interfere with the cytotoxic activity of DOX, but it increased the DOX uptake into tumor cells and increased the long term survivors of tumor-bearing mice from 30% to 70%. In conclusion, DOX impairs viability of cardiac myocytes, at least partially by activating the p53-mediated apoptotic signaling. AGE can effectively and extensively counteract this action of DOX and may potentially protect the heart from severe toxicity of DOX. At the same time, AGE did not interfere with antitumor activity of DOX. PMID:22172987

  2. Isolation, purification and identification of antioxidants in an aqueous aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yukun; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    An aqueous aged garlic extract (AGE) was prepared by soaking sliced garlic in water for 20days at room temperature (23-25 °C). In order to locate the antioxidant ingredients of the aqueous AGE, an activity-guided fractionation approach using ABTS assay, DPPH assay and FRAP assay were conducted to guide the fractionation by means of extraction, column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Some phenols and organosulfur compounds were identified as antioxidants in AGE by GC-MS. Furthermore, UV, IR, ESI-MS, NMR and specific rotation experiments led to the identification of l-phenylalanine, l-tryptophan, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as the major antioxidants in the AGE. The EC50 values of these purified tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives were 0.625-1.334 μmol/mL and 1.063-2.072 μmol/mL in ABTS assay and DPPH assay, respectively. It is the first time for us to identify (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as an in vitro antioxidant in AGE. PMID:25976995

  3. Aged black garlic extract induces inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jiao, Fei; Wang, Qin-Wen; Wang, Juan; Yang, Ke; Hu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Han-Chen; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that garlic extracts possess significant anticancer actions. However, no studies have been reported on the effects of aged black garlic extracts (ABGE) on gastric cancer in vitro or in vivo. To examine the potential action of ABGE against gastric cancer, the present study evaluated its effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. Additionally, we performed an in vivo study by inoculating the murine foregastric carcinoma cell line in Kunming mice and treating them with various doses of ABGE (0, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 2 weeks. Dose-dependent apoptosis was detected in ABGE-treated cells in in vitro studies. In tumor-bearing mice, significant antitumor effects of ABGE were observed, such as growth inhibition of inoculated tumors. Further investigation of serum superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-2 and the increased indices of spleen and thymus indicated that the anticancer action of ABGE may be partly due to its antioxidant and immunomodulative effects. PMID:21922142

  4. The antioxidant mechanisms underlying the aged garlic extract- and S-allylcysteine-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana L; Santana, Ricardo A; Silva-Islas, Carlos A; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo--in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress--and in vitro conditions--using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor--a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels. PMID:22685624

  5. Effects of Selenylation Modification on Immune-Enhancing Activity of Garlic Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tao; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun; Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Cunshuai; Chen, Xingying; Chen, Xiaolan; Liu, Cui; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Xiuping

    2014-01-01

    The garlic polysaccharide was modified by HNO3-Na2SeO3 method according to orthogonal design L9(34) to obtain nine selenizing garlic polysaccharides, sGPS1-sGPS9. Their effects on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation in vitro were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocytes proliferation, sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 presented stronger efficacy. In vivo experiment, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine taking unmodified GPS as control. The results showed that three sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, IFN-γ and IL-2 contents. These results indicated that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of GPS, sGPS6 possessed the best efficacy and could be as a candidate drug of immunoenhancer. Its optimal modification conditions were 400 mg of sodium selenite for 500 mg of GPS, reaction temperature of 70°C and reaction time of 6 h. PMID:24497946

  6. Garlic ointment inhibits biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens from burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Nidadavolu, Pushpalatha; Amor, Wail; Tran, Phat L; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2012-05-01

    When thermal injury damages the skin, the physical barrier protecting underlying tissues from invading micro-organisms is compromised and the host's immune system becomes supressed, facilitating colonization and infection of burn wounds with micro-organisms. Within the wound, bacteria often develop biofilms, which protect the bacteria from the immune response and enhance their resistance to antibiotics. As the prophylactic use of conventional antibiotics drives selection of drug-resistant strains, the use of novel agents to prevent biofilm formation by wound pathogens is essential. In the present study, we utilized our recently developed in vitro wound biofilm model to examine the antibiofilm activity of garlic (Allium sativum). Wound pathogens were inoculated on sterile cellulose discs, exposed to formulated garlic ointment (GarO) or ointment base, and incubated to allow biofilm development. Biofilms were quantified and visualized microscopically. GarO prevented biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and caused a 2-5 log reduction of the bioburden within Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Additionally, GarO disrupted partially developed biofilms produced by S. aureus, S. epidermidis and A. baumannii. The antistaphylococcal activity of GarO was stable for over 3 months at room temperature. Thus, GarO could be used as a prophylactic therapy to prevent wound biofilms caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from forming, and may be a potential therapy for disrupting established staphylococcal biofilms.

  7. Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Diana M; Movahed, Pouya; Hinman, Andrew; Axelsson, Helena E; Sterner, Olov; Högestätt, Edward D; Julius, David; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Zygmunt, Peter M

    2005-08-23

    Garlic belongs to the Allium family of plants that produce organosulfur compounds, such as allicin and diallyl disulfide (DADS), which account for their pungency and spicy aroma. Many health benefits have been ascribed to Allium extracts, including hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Intriguingly, allicin and DADS share structural similarities with allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in wasabi and other mustard plants that induces pain and inflammation by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway. Here we show that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings. Moreover, allicin and DADS activate the cloned TRPA1 channel when expressed in heterologous systems. These and other results suggest that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1. Thus different plant genera, including Allium and Brassica, have developed evolutionary convergent strategies that target TRPA1 channels on sensory nerve endings to achieve chemical deterrence. PMID:16103371

  8. The Antioxidant Mechanisms Underlying the Aged Garlic Extract- and S-Allylcysteine-Induced Protection

    PubMed Central

    Colín-González, Ana L.; Santana, Ricardo A.; Silva-Islas, Carlos A.; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E.; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D.

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo—in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress—and in vitro conditions—using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor—a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels. PMID:22685624

  9. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield. PMID

  10. Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and.or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Din, Sayed H Seif; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; Ebeid, Fatma A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from mild steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. This study investigates the hepatoprotective properties of garlic and onion in NAFLD rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups; normal (I), NAFLD induced with high fat diet (HFD; II), NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or NAFLD-RD treated with garlic (IV, V), onion (VI, VII) or the combined garlic+onion (VIII, IX) respectively. A NAFLD rat model was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet for 12 wk. These animals were then treated with garlic or/and onion or vehicle for 8 wk (weeks 13-20) and then killed to obtain serum samples and liver tissues. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured. The liver in NAFLD-HFD showed typical steatosis, accompanied with mild to moderate lobular inflammatory cell infiltration. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, TNF-α, TGF-β and hepatic MDA' were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with normal group. This was accompanied with reduction of hepatic GSH, GR, GPx, GST, SOD and serum adiponectin. These changes were to a less degree in NAFLD-RD group. Combined administration of garlic+onion produced a better and significant decrease in liver steatosis, serum liver enzymes, oxidative markers and lipid peroxidation versus each one alone. In the same time, NAFLD-induced inflammation was also mitigated via reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, these results were better in the group IX versus group VIII.

  11. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  12. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield. PMID

  13. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield.

  14. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  15. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  16. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed.

  17. Efficacy of Co-administration of Garlic Extract and Metformin for Prevention of Gentamicin–Renal Toxicity in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Baradaran, Azar; Merrikhi, Alireza; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Madihi, Yahya; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity has been related to oxidative stress. Garlic and metformin (MF) have anti-oxadant activity and therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative effects of garlic, MF and their combination on GM indeced tubular toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In a pre-clinical study, 70 male Wistar rats were randomly designated into 7 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group 1: Received saline for 20 days. Group 2: Were injected 100 mg/kg/d of GM intraperitoneally (ip), for 10 days and saline for 10 more days. Group 3: Received GM for 10 days then 20 mg/kg garlic ip for the next 10 days. Group 4: Received GM for 10 days and MF (100 mg/kg) orally for the next 10 days. Group 5: Received GM for 10 days and a combination of MF and garlic for the next 10 days (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Group 6: The same as group 5but with half-doses of MF and Garlic. Group 7: Received GM for 10 days together with a combination ofMF and garlic. On 20th day of the experiment the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured and compared in different groups. Results: GM injection significantly increased the serum BUN and Cr (P < 0.05). Administration of MF, garlic or their combination with or after injection of GM (high doses) could atenuate BUN and Cr. Conclusions: The results indicate that MF and garlic or their combination have curative and protective activity against GM nephrotoxicity. PMID:23626881

  18. Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2013-07-01

    Protective effect of garlic on the development of cancer has been reported in the in vitro and in vivo experimental studies; however, few human epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship. A population-based case-control study has been conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010, with the aim to explore the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer. Epidemiologic data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standard questionnaire among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), and to evaluate ratio of ORs (ROR) for multiplicative interactions between raw garlic consumption and other risk factors. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, raw garlic consumption of 2 times or more per week is inversely associated with lung cancer (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44-0.72) with a monotonic dose-response relationship (Ptrend < 0.001). Furthermore, strong interactions at either additive and/or multiplicative scales were observed between raw garlic consumption and tobacco smoking [synergy index (SI) = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; and ROR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.90], as well as high-temperature cooking oil fume (ROR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). In conclusion, protective association between intake of raw garlic and lung cancer has been observed with a dose-response pattern, suggesting that garlic may potentially serve as a chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Effective components in garlic in lung cancer chemoprevention warrant further in-depth investigation.

  19. Ajoene (natural garlic compound): a new anti-leukaemia agent for AML therapy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H T

    2004-07-01

    The reputation of garlic (Allium sativum) as an effective remedy for tumours extends back to the Egyptian Codex Ebers of 1550 b.c. Several garlic compounds including allicin and its corresponding sulfide inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of several human non-leukaemia malignant cells including breast, bladder, colorectal, hepatic, prostate cancer, lymphoma and skin tumour cell lines. Ajoene (4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide) is a garlic-derived compound produced most efficiently from pure allicin and has the advantage of a greater chemical stability than allicin. Several clinical trials and in vitro studies of ajoene have demonstrated its best-known anti-thrombosis, anti-microbial and cholesterol lowering activities. Recently, topic application of ajoene has produced significant clinical response in patients with skin basal cell carcinoma. Ajoene was shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of several human leukaemia CD34-negative cells including HL-60, U937, HEL and OCIM-1. Also, ajoene induces 30% apoptosis in myeloblasts from chronic myeloid leukaemia patient in blast crisis. More significantly, ajoene profoundly enhanced the apoptotic effect of the two chemotherapeutic drugs: cytarabine and fludarabine in human CD34-positive resistant myeloid leukaemia cells through enhancing their bcl-2 inhibitory and caspase-3 activation activities. The two key anti-leukaemia biological actions of ajoene were the inhibition of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Studies have shown the anti-proliferation activity of ajoene to be associated with a block in the G2/M phase of cell cycle in human myeloid leukaemia cells. The apoptosis inducing activity of ajoene is via the mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade through a significant reduction of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 that results in release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3. Since acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignant disease in which disease

  20. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  1. Recent Research Progress on Garlic (大蒜 dà suàn) as a Potential Anticarcinogenic Agent Against Major Digestive Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; the bulb of Allium sativum), bestowed with an array of organosulfur compounds finds its application in treating many ailments including cardiovascular problems, common cold, bacterial and fungal infections and cancer. Numerous epidemiological evidences document the beneficial effects of various bioactive organosulfur compounds of garlic against different types of cancer. Studies involving the animal and cell models indicate garlic bioactive compounds could be effective in treating all the stages of cancer. This review gives an update on the recent pre-clinical and clinical trials, carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various garlic bioactive compounds along with the mechanism of action pertaining to major digestive cancers including liver, gastric and colorectal cancers. The major anti-carcinogenic mechanisms are caspase dependent and/or independent induction of apoptosis, anti-proliferative, anti-metastasis, anti-oxidant and immunomodulative properties. Form the clinical trials an increase in the garlic consumption of 20 g/day reduced the risk of gastric and colorectal cancer. In summary, increased uptake of garlic in diet may prevent the incidence of digestive cancers. PMID:24716132

  2. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  3. The inhibitory effects of γ-glutamylcysteine derivatives from fresh garlic on glycation radical formation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fei; Bai, Bing; Ma, Shufeng; Ji, Shujuan; Liu, Ling

    2016-03-01

    The effects of three reactive peptides, γ-glutamylmethylcysteine (γ-GMC), γ-glutamylpropylcysteine (γ-GPC), and γ-glutamylbutylcysteine (γ-GBC) on the suppression of reactive radicals during the heating of l-lysine in the presence or absence of glucose was studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. γ-GMC and γ-GPC were extracted from fresh garlic, and γ-GBC was a synthetic peptide. The results showed that γ-GMC and γ-GPC effectively suppress formation of l-lysine radicals, but that γ-GBC exhibits low radical inhibition. The origin of the short peptides, and the length of their side chain, influenced their surface hydrophobicity and subsequent radical inhibition. In addition, the oxidation of l-lysine was inhibited by the peptides in a similar manner to their inhibition of the Maillard reaction (MR), and their radical inhibition was consistent with similar activity towards N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML).

  4. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  5. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  6. HPLC-MTT assay: anticancer activity of aqueous garlic extract is from allicin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenny; Gupta, Shalini; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi P; Lee, Bao-Shiang

    2013-05-15

    A strategy using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical synthesis, and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay to identify allicin as the active anticancer compound in aqueous garlic extract (AGE) is described. Changing the pH of AGE from 7.0 to 5.0 eliminated interfering molecules and enabled a clean HPLC separation of the constituents in AGE. MTT assay of the HPLC fractions identified an active fraction. Further analysis by TLC, MS, and NMR verified the active HPLC fraction as allicin. Chemically synthesized allicin was used to provide further confirmation. The results clearly identify the active compound in AGE as allicin.

  7. Hypertension after ingestion of baked garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-04-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Schnauzer was referred 2-days after accidental ingestion of baked garlic. Regenerative anemia (Hematocrit 22%) and the elevated methemoglobin (8.7%) concentration were detected upon hematological examination. Eccentrocytes, Heinz bodies and ruptured red blood cells were also noted on blood smear films, which were the results from the oxidative injury of the Allium species. The dog was hypertension (systolic mean 182 mmHg) concurrent with other clinical signs, such as vomiting and dark brown urination. Treatment with continuous oxygen, antioxidant drugs and antihypertensive therapy resulted in good progress. The dog was discharged 4 days after hospitalization. There were no remarkable findings in the follow up hematologic examination 24 days after discharge, but the dog still had a high blood pressure and continued on antihypertensive therapy. No recurrence was noted and the blood pressure returned to normal levels 4 months later.

  8. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26036599

  9. Applications of thin-layer chromatography in extraction and characterisation of ajoene from garlic bulbs.

    PubMed

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Novel and inexpensive methods of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were employed for the extraction, characterisation and mechanism of quorum sensing inhibition by ajoene, a component from toluene garlic bulb (Allium sativum L.) extract (TGE). TLC profiling of TGE was carried out using ethyl acetate as solvent. Out of total spots extracted from TLC, four spots exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential. Among those, spot 5 was identified as Z-ajoene by TLC and confirmed by NMR and MS. HPLC analysis indicated 97.7% purity for purified ajoene. TLC densitometric analysis quantified 221.08 μmol/g of ajoene in TGE and indicated that ajoene is stable at 4°C and at acidic pH. HPTLC profiling showed that ajoene exhibits QSI effect by inhibiting the production of both long-chain acyl homoserine lactones and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) by P. aeruginosa and also by inactivating PQS molecules.

  10. The cytotoxic effect of ajoene, a natural product from garlic, investigated with different cell lines.

    PubMed

    Scharfenberg, K; Wagner, R; Wagner, K G

    1990-09-01

    The sulfur-containing compound ajoene (4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide) which arises from alliin, a cysteine derivative stored in garlic bulbs, was produced synthetically by decomposition of allicin. Its cytotoxic effect was tested using human primary fibroblasts (FS4), a permanent, non-tumorgenic cell line derived from baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21) and a tumorgenic lymphoid cell line derived from a Burkitt lymphoma (BJA-B). The cytotoxic action was in the range 2-50 micrograms/ml depending on the cell density. ED50 values, estimated on the basis of fmol ajoene/cell, revealed slightly higher doses for the primary cell (FS4) than the permanent line (BHK), whereas the tumorgenic BJA-B cells were most sensitive.

  11. The field efficacy of garlic extract against Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms of Babol, Iran.

    PubMed

    Faghihzadeh Gorji, Shohreh; Faghihzadeh Gorji, Sina; Rajabloo, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite in layer farms in many countries. The reproduction rate of the parasite is rapid and can be completed in a week under favorable conditions. The parasite has direct and indirect effects on birds. It can also act as a vector for some important pathogens. Many researchers have investigated the effects of essential oils, plant extracts, oriental medicinal plant extracts, and silica against red mite. They can be used as killing agents or repellents. In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract was investigated for controlling red mite infestation in a layer farm in Babol, North of Iran. Our results showed that the extract was effective and we obtained a 96% success after two successive sprays.

  12. Aged garlic extract attenuates cerebral damage and cyclooxygenase-2 induction after ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Barrera, Diana; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Maldonado, Perla D

    2011-11-01

    Different garlic products reduce the cerebral ischemic damage due to their antioxidant properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels and activity, and its role as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. AGE (1.2 ml/kg weight, i.p.) was administered at onset of reperfusion. To evaluate the damage induced by cerebral ischemia, the neurological deficit, the infarct area, and the histological alterations were measured. As an oxidative stress marker to deoxyribonucleic acid, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were determined. Finally, as inflammatory markers, TNFα levels and COX-2 protein levels and activity were measured. AGE treatment diminished the neurological alterations (61.6%), the infarct area (54.8%) and the histological damage (37.7%) induced by cerebral ischemia. AGE administration attenuated the increase in 8-OHdG levels (77.8%), in TNFα levels (76.6%), and in COX-2 protein levels (73.6%) and activity (30.7%) induced after 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of AGE is associated not only to its antioxidant properties, but also with its capacity to diminish the increase in TNFα levels and COX-2 protein expression and activity. AGE may have the potential to attenuate the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation.

  13. Attenuation of rat ischemic brain damage by aged garlic extracts: a possible protecting mechanism as antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Numagami, Y; Sato, S; Ohnishi, S T

    1996-08-01

    Effects of an aged garlic extract and its thioallyl components on rat brain ischemia were examined using a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and a transient global ischemia model. In focal ischemia, an aged garlic extract, S-allyl cysteine (SAC), Allyl sulfide (AS) or Allyl disulfide (ADS) was administered 30 min prior to ischemic insult. Three days after ischemic insult, water contents of both ischemic and contralateral hemispheres were measured to assess the degree of ischemic damage. The water content of the ischemic control (no drug treatment) group was 81.50 +/- 0.07% (mean +/- SEM). It was significantly reduced with the administration of 300 mg/kg of SAC; the water content was 80.66 +/- 0.11% (P < 0.001). The histological observation using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining demonstrated that the administration of SAC reduced infarct volume. Neither AS nor ADS was effective. In global ischemia, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured ex vivo using a spin-trapping agent, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The production of ROS had two peaks; first at 5 min and second at 20 min after reperfusion. Both SAC and 7-nitro indazole, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, did not attenuate the amount of ROS produced at the first peak, but did the amount of the second peak. A possible involvement of peroxinitrite, which may be formed from superoxide and nitric oxide and is known to be highly toxic in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the brain, was suggested.

  14. Aged garlic extract attenuates cerebral damage and cyclooxygenase-2 induction after ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Barrera, Diana; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Maldonado, Perla D

    2011-11-01

    Different garlic products reduce the cerebral ischemic damage due to their antioxidant properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels and activity, and its role as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection in a cerebral ischemia model. Animals were subjected to 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. AGE (1.2 ml/kg weight, i.p.) was administered at onset of reperfusion. To evaluate the damage induced by cerebral ischemia, the neurological deficit, the infarct area, and the histological alterations were measured. As an oxidative stress marker to deoxyribonucleic acid, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were determined. Finally, as inflammatory markers, TNFα levels and COX-2 protein levels and activity were measured. AGE treatment diminished the neurological alterations (61.6%), the infarct area (54.8%) and the histological damage (37.7%) induced by cerebral ischemia. AGE administration attenuated the increase in 8-OHdG levels (77.8%), in TNFα levels (76.6%), and in COX-2 protein levels (73.6%) and activity (30.7%) induced after 1 h of ischemia plus 24 h of reperfusion. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of AGE is associated not only to its antioxidant properties, but also with its capacity to diminish the increase in TNFα levels and COX-2 protein expression and activity. AGE may have the potential to attenuate the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation. PMID:21850441

  15. Effectiveness of Garlic for the Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Residential Properties in Western Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Anuja; Hayes, Laura E; Stafford, Kirby C

    2015-07-01

    We conducted field trials to evaluate the ability of a garlic juice-based product to control or suppress nymphal activity of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, at residential properties in Connecticut in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The product was applied at a rate of 0.2 g AI/m2. Percent control of nymphal densities achieved by the spray treatment at 6, 11, and 18 d postspray for the 3 yr was 37.0, 59.0, and 47.4%, respectively. Differences between nymphal densities were greatest during the first post-spray sampling period. While garlic may require multiple applications for the suppression of tick activity, this product could provide a minimal-risk option for the short-term control of nymphal I. scapularis in the residential landscape.

  16. In vitro sensitivity of Blastocystis hominis to garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper used in diet.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Beg, Muhammad Asim; Naz, Shagufta; Awan, Safia; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2011-08-01

    To determine the growth pattern and in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole (MTZ), garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper. Stool specimens were collected from 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 10 controls between July-November 2010. Stool microscopy and culture for B. hominis was performed. Drug susceptibility assays was done using 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml of MTZ, garlic, ginger, white cumin, and black pepper. Effect was assessed on B. hominis culture after 48 h. Stool DNA was extracted using stool DNA extraction kit (Qiagen) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) done using subtype-specific sequence-tagged-site primers. B. hominis genotype 3 and coinfection of 1 and 3 tended to grow well in culture compared to isolated type 1 infection. Exposed to MTZ at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, 38% (6/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in culture compared to 100% (10/10) of B. hominis from control (p = 0.001). When they were exposed to MTZ at 0.1 mg/ml, 56% (9/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in cultures compared to 100% (10/10) from control (p = 0.01). Forty-four percent (7/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in culture compared to 100% (10/10) B. hominis from control when exposed to garlic at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.003) and following exposure to garlic at 0.1 mg/ml, 38% (6/16) B. hominis from IBS did not grow in cultures compared to 100% (10/10) from control (p = 0.001). B. hominis isolates from IBS had a cell count of 6,625 at a MTZ concentration of 0.01 mg/ml that reduced to 1,250 as MTZ concentration was increased to 0.1 mg/ml (p = 0.08). B. hominis from IBS with a mean cell count of 3 × 10(5) at baseline decreased to 1 × 10(4) when exposed to garlic at 0.01 mg/ml (p < 0.001) and to 1 × 10(3) (p < 0.001) when garlic was 0.1 mg/ml. B. hominis from IBS cell count decreased to 1 × 10(5) when exposed to white cumin at 0.01 mg/ml (p = 0.01) and to 1 × 10(5) (p < 0.001) when white cumin was 0.1 mg/ml. Exposed to black

  17. Regeneration of whole plants from protoplasts isolated from tissue-cultured shoot primordia of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ayabe, M; Taniguchi, K; Sumi, S

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts derived from tissue-cultured shoot primordia of garlic (Allium sativum L.) initiated successive cell divisions within 4 days and formed small individual calli (0.2mm in diameter) after 5 weeks of culture on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 0.1% casein hydrolysate, 1mg/1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 1mg/1 6-benzylaminopurine. Plating efficiency was roughly 5% at the density of 1x10(4) protoplasts/ml of medium. Adventitious buds developed from the calli during subsequent subculture on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 40mg/l adenine and 10% coconut milk. When transferred to the same medium without supplements, these buds grew into shoots and rooted. The regenerated garlic plantlets were successfully transferred to the greenhouse and grew into whole plants. PMID:24185646

  18. Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, E; DeSousa, L; Jorquera, A; Sanchez, J; Lander, A; Rodriguez, E; Jain, M K; Apitz-Castro, R

    1996-01-01

    The present report shows the efficacy of ajoene, a garlic-derived organic trisulphur, for short-term therapy of tinea pedis. The use of ajoene as a 0.4% (w/w) cream resulted in complete clinical and mycological cure in 27 of 34 patients (79%) after 7 days of treatment. The remaining seven patients (21%) achieved complete cure after seven additional days of treatment. All patients were evaluated for recurrence of mycotic infections 90 days after the end of treatment, yielding negative cultures for fungus. These results show that ajoene is an alternative, efficient and low-cost antimycotic drug for short-term therapy of tinea pedis. The fact that ajoene can be easily prepared from an alcoholic extract of garlic may make it suitable for Third World public health care.

  19. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review.

    PubMed

    Dini, Catia; Fabbri, Alessia; Geraci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  20. Effect of selenium treatment on mineral nutrition, bulb size, and antioxidant properties of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Põldma, Priit; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Viitak, Anu; Luik, Anne; Moor, Ulvi

    2011-05-25

    Foliar selenium (Se) treatment of garlic at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg of Se/mL was carried out in open field conditions in 2008 and 2009 in Estonia. Bulb weight and yield structure, content of total Se, S, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, ascorbic acid content (AAC), pungency, total phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. The highest level of Se decreased total S, K, and Ca in both years; no negative impact on bulb weight was observed. In 2009 Se10 treatment had significantly more bulbs with the largest diameter compared to the other treatments. In 2008, the AAC was decreased by Se50 and the content of total phenolics by all Se treatments; however, TAC was increased. Foliar Se fertilization of garlic at rates of 10-50 μg of Se/mL can be recommended to increase the number of large bulbs and increase bulb antioxidant capacity.

  1. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    PubMed Central

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  2. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  3. Storage life of field-grown garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) as influenced by nitrogen and sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Schnug, Ewald

    2011-05-11

    The most important active compound in garlic is alliin. Sulfur (S) fertilization was shown to significantly increase the alliin concentration in garlic cloves, while high nitrogen (N) levels had an adverse effect. The effect of graded N and S application on the storage life of garlic has been paid little attention so far. A bifactorial field trial with 4 levels of N and S was conducted in a randomized block design. At harvest, 40 bulbs per treatment were stored under terms comparable to the storage conditions in average households (20 °C, dry, and dim) for 83 days. Every 3 weeks, samples were analyzed for their alliin and water content. The alliin concentration in peeled garlic cloves increased during storage from on average 9.2 mg g(-1) dry weight at harvest to 21.4 mg g(-1) dry weight after 83 days of storage. S fertilization increased the alliin concentration by a factor of 2.3 from 11.4 mg g(-1) in the control treatment to 26.6 mg g(-1) dry weight at the highest S level of 45 kg ha(-1) after 83 days of storage. N fertilization decreased by a trend of the alliin content. Fertilizer rates had only a minor influence on water losses from bulbs at short-term storage. After 83 days of storage, water losses were by trend lower at higher S levels, and this relationship proved to be significant when no N was applied. Best quality in terms of high alliin contents was obtained during the entire storage time at an S level of at minimum 30 kg ha(-1) S if no N was applied. The results show that the physiological S demand of 15 kg ha(-1) S for optimum yield is lower than the S requirement of 30 kg ha(-1) S for a longer storage life. PMID:21417465

  4. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Veena; Jain, Sanjay

    2004-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including hypertension. Therefore, certain compounds with antioxidative capacity are believed to be protective against such diseases. Some components of garlic are known to possess antioxidative properties. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of short-term garlic supplementation in essential hypertensive patients (EH) on indices of oxidative stress. Twenty patients of EH as diagnosed by JNC VI criteria (Group I) and 20 age and sex-matched normotensive controls were enrolled for the study. Both groups were given garlic pearls (GP) in a dose of 250 mg per day for 2 months. Baseline samples were obtained at start of the study, i.e. 0 day, and thereafter, 2 months (follow-up). Lipids and lipoprotein subfractions, plasma-oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), plasma and urinary concentration of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) as a biomarker of oxidative stress in vivo, and the total antioxidant status (TOS) of these individuals were determined. We observed a moderate hypercholesterolemia and a significantly raised blood pressure in hypertensive patients as compared to the controls. The indices of oxidative stress, i.e. plasma ox-LDL and plasma and urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2alpha were significantly increased in EH group. Further, hypertensive patients had a significantly low TOS as compared to the control group. With in 2 months of GP supplementation, there was a significant decline in both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) and a significant reduction in ox-LDL and 8-iso-PGF2alpha levels in Group I patients. Further, a moderate increase in the TOS was also observed in this group as compared to their control counterparts. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of garlic may be beneficial in reducing blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive individuals. PMID:15646031

  5. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  6. An in-vitro evaluation of the efficacy of garlic extract as an antimicrobial agent on periodontal pathogens: A microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sunaina; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Veena; Bhandary, Rahul; Shetty, Raghavendra M.

    2013-01-01

    With the rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, there is considerable interest in the development of other classes of antimicrobials for the control of infection. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) has been used as medicine since ancient times and has long been known to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. This study was undertaken to assess the inhibitory effect of garlic on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, to assess the time-kill curve of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and to determine the antiproteolytic activity of garlic on P. gingivalis. Ethanolic garlic extract (EGE) and aqueous garlic extract (AGE) were prepared and the inhibitory effects of these extracts for two periodontal pathogens (P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans) were tested. Antiproteolytic activity on protease of P. gingivalis was determined. 25 microliter (μl), 50 μl, and 75 μl of AGE showed 16 mm, 20 mm, and 25 mm zone of inhibition, respectively, on P. gingivalis. The AGE showed greater bacteriostatic activity against the P. gingivalis with minimum inhibitory concentration determined at 16.6 μl/ml. The time-kill assay of AGE and EGE were compared for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. AGE showed better antiproteolytic activity on total protease of P. gingivalis compared to the EGE. Thus, the study concludes the antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its action against P. gingivalis includes inhibition of total protease activity, and this raises the possibility that garlic may have therapeutic use for periodontitis and possibly other oral infections. PMID:24695825

  7. Effect of feeding garlic leaf on microbial nitrogen supply, kinetics of plasma phenylalanine, tyrosine and protein synthesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Md; Liang, Xi; Sekiguchi, Natsumi; Sano, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the feeding effects of garlic leaf on microbial N supply (MNS), turnover rates of plasma phenylalanine (PheTR) and tyrosine (TyrTR) and whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) in sheep. The sheep were fed either mixed hay (Hay-diet, as control) or hay plus garlic leaf diet (GL-diet, at a ratio of 9:1) in a crossover design each for a 21 day period. The isotope dilution method using [(2) H5 ]Phe and [(2) H2 ]Tyr was performed on the 21st day of each dietary treatment. Nitrogen intake remained similar between the diets and N absorption and N digestibility were higher (P<0.05) in the GL-diet than Hay-diet. Total purine derivatives excretion and MNS were greater (P<0.05) in the GL-diet than the Hay-diet. Plasma PheTR tended to be higher (P=0.06) during GL feeding and TyrTR did not differ between the diets. Further, WBPS tended to be greater (P=0.05) for the GL-diet compared with the Hay-diet. Hence, the present results suggest that garlic leaf may have positive effects on N metabolism by influencing MNS in sheep and could be used as a potential ruminant feed in the future.

  8. Evaluation of the antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) on Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Sepahvand, Peyman; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Azadpour, Mozhgan

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects and drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of garlic extracts against promastigote forms of Leishmania tropica and murine macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT) assay. The results revealed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic were effective in inhibiting promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 (50 % inhibitory concentrations) values 12.3 and 19.2 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic showed low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50 % of cells) values 291.4 and 348.2 µg/ml, respectively. Findings of present study were the first step in the search for new antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in volunteer human subjects. PMID:27413315

  9. Ultra-sensitive detection of two garlic potyviruses using a real-time fluorescent (Taqman) RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Lunello, Pablo; Mansilla, Carmen; Conci, Vilma; Ponz, Fernando

    2004-06-01

    A method for the detection of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the two most prevalent garlic potyviruses, has been developed that combines IC-RT-PCR/RT-PCR with the use of TaqMan probes. Comparisons with ELISA results obtained with identical OYDV and LYSV infected samples showed sensitivity in detecting these viruses increased up to 10(6)-fold. OYDV and LYSV were detected using different fluorochromes in the probe, thus allowing unequivocal diagnosis for each of them. The polyvalence of the designed virus-specific primers and probes was shown through their application to the detection of three isolates from very different geographical areas and from different hosts. A second version of the method avoids the need for an immunocapture step through the performance of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay directly on extracts of garlic cloves. This modification on the proposed basic method allows the analysis of bulb samples in 3-4h but did not give reproducible results with leaves. Both versions of the new diagnostic method bear great potential for their implementation in virus-free certification schemes in garlic, a vegetatively propagated crop for which such a certification is critical for a high-quality product.

  10. Garlic oil as a modulating agent for oxidative stress and neurotoxicity induced by sodium nitrite in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Hafez, Hani S; Zeghebar, Fawzia E

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neurobiochemical alterations and oxidative stress induced by food preservative; sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as well as the role of the garlic oil in amelioration of the neurotoxicity in male albino rats. Serum and brain homogenates of the rats received NaNO2 (80 mg/kg body weight) for 3 months exhibited significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as well as the levels of phospholipids, total protein and the endogenous antioxidant system (glutathione; GSH and superoxide dismutase; SOD). In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased. On the other hand, the oral administration of garlic oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 months significantly improved the neurobiochemical disorders and inhibited the oxidative stress induced by NaNO2 ingestion. So, this study reveals the neural toxic effects of NaNO2 by exerting oxidative stress and retrograde the endogenous antioxidant system. However, garlic oil has a promising role in attenuating the obtained hazard effects of sodium nitrite by its high antioxidant properties which may eventually be related with the preservation of SOD activity and primary mitochondrial role against nitrite-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  11. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  12. Optimizing conditions for E-and Z-ajoene formation from garlic juice using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sunyoung; Shin, Dongbin

    2014-09-01

    The optimum conditions for the formation of E- and Z-ajoene from garlic juice mixed with soybean oil were determined using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables temperature (°C, X 1), reaction time (hours, X 2), and oil volume (multiplied by weight, X 3). The dependent variables were Z-ajoene (Y 1) and E-ajoene (Y 2) in oil-macerated garlic. The optimal conditions for E- and Z-ajoene using ridge analysis were 98.80°C, 6.87 h, and weight multiplied by weight 2.57, and 42.24°C, 9.71 h, and weight multiplied by weight 3.08, respectively. These conditions resulted in E- and Z-ajoene compound predicted values of 234.17 and 752.62 μg/g from garlic juice, respectively. The experimental values of E- and Z-ajoene were 222.75 and 833.59 μg/g, respectively. The estimated maximum values at the predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  13. Effects of a garlic-derived principle (ajoene) on aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K C; Tyagi, O D

    1993-08-01

    When garlic cloves are chopped or crushed several dialkyl thiosulfinates are rapidly formed by the action of the enzyme alliin lyase or alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) on S(+)-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides. Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate or allyl 2-propene thiosulfinate) is the dominant thiosulfinate released. A variety of sulfur containing compounds are formed from allicin and other thiosulfinates depending on the way in which garlic is handled. One such compound identified recently is ajoene which has been reported to possess antithrombotic properties. We present here data on the antiplatelet properties of ajoene together with its effects on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in intact platelets. Thus, ajoene was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by AA, adrenaline, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187; the nature of the inhibition was irreversible. In washed platelets stimulated by labelled arachidonate, ajoene inhibited the formation of thromboxane A2; 12-lipoxygenase product(s) were reduced at higher ajoene concentrations. This garlic-derived substance inhibited the incorporation of labelled AA into platelet phospholipids at higher concentration. In labelled platelets, on stimulation with either calcium ionophore A23187 or collagen, reduced amounts of thromboxane and 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) were produced in ajoene-treated platelets compared to control platelets. This substance had no effect on the deacylation of platelet phospholipids. The results suggest that at least one of the mechanisms by which ajoene shows antiplatelet effects could be related to altered metabolism of AA.

  14. Optimizing conditions for E-and Z-ajoene formation from garlic juice using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sunyoung; Shin, Dongbin

    2014-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the formation of E- and Z-ajoene from garlic juice mixed with soybean oil were determined using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables temperature (°C, X1), reaction time (hours, X2), and oil volume (multiplied by weight, X3). The dependent variables were Z-ajoene (Y1) and E-ajoene (Y2) in oil-macerated garlic. The optimal conditions for E- and Z-ajoene using ridge analysis were 98.80°C, 6.87 h, and weight multiplied by weight 2.57, and 42.24°C, 9.71 h, and weight multiplied by weight 3.08, respectively. These conditions resulted in E- and Z-ajoene compound predicted values of 234.17 and 752.62 μg/g from garlic juice, respectively. The experimental values of E- and Z-ajoene were 222.75 and 833.59 μg/g, respectively. The estimated maximum values at the predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values. PMID:25473520

  15. Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Lian; Brown, Linda M; Li, Ji-You; Shen, Lin; Pan, Kai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Han, Zhong-Xiang; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J; Fraumeni, Joseph F; You, Wei-Cheng; Gail, Mitchell H

    2012-03-21

    In the Shandong Intervention Trial, 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori reduced the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions, whereas 7.3 years of oral supplementation with garlic extract and oil (garlic treatment) or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium (vitamin treatment) did not. Here we report 14.7-year follow-up for gastric cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among 3365 randomly assigned subjects in this masked factorial placebo-controlled trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of gastric cancer incidence, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative hazard of cause-specific mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 3.0% of subjects who received H pylori treatment and in 4.6% of those who received placebo (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.96, P = .032). Gastric cancer deaths occurred among 1.5% of subjects assigned H pylori treatment and among 2.1% of those assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.28). Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014). PMID:22271764

  16. Comparison of antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic fresh and aged garlic extracts and their effects on cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Maria Isabel; de Oca Balderas, Pavel Montes; de Jesús Gutiérrez-Baños, José; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Espinoza-Rojo, Mónica; Ruiz-Tachiquín, Martha; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Calzada, Fernando; Aguilera, Penélope

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant properties and protective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and of 20% hydroethanolic fresh extracts from garlic clove (GCE) and skin (GSE) on cerebral ischemia were evaluated by administering extracts at the beginning of reperfusion in a rat model of stroke. All three extracts scavenged superoxide anion, peroxynitrite anion, and peroxyl radicals, but with different efficiencies; furthermore, GCE and GSE scavenged hydroxyl radicals and GSE scavenged singlet oxygen. These extracts significantly prevented reduction of neuronal nuclear antigen in the infarcted area, although no improvement in neurological function was observed. Importantly, GCE and GSE contained S-allylcystein, a compound associated with AGE's neuroprotective effect against damage induced by cerebral ischemia. Extracts decreased mRNA expression of NR1- and NR2B-NMDA-receptor subunits and prevented ischemia-induced reduction in mitochondrial potential and in ATP synthesis. These results indicate that antioxidants present in garlic extracts may regulate ROS concentrations during ischemia, favour pro-survival pathways, and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23578652

  17. Comparison of in vitro activity of metronidazole and garlic-based product (Tomex®) on Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ayman Nabil

    2013-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite in humans. Metronidazole has been the gold standard for treatment of trichomoniasis. The prevalence of metronidazole resistance and its unpleasant adverse effects drew the attention to the investigation of other lines of treatment, as that of herbal medicine. Garlic has been proven to have antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antihelminthic activity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available garlic (Tomex®) on T. vaginalis in vitro. The effect of different concentrations of garlic (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) was determined on multiplication and motility of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h) in comparison to the same concentrations of metronidazole at the same different time points. The results showed that parasite multiplication inhibition was noticed in proportion of concentration of Tomex and incubation time. The minimal lethal concentration of Tomex was 100 μg/ml after 24 h, 50 μg/ml after 48 h, 25 μg/ml after 72 h, and 12.5 μg/ml after 96 h. These results were similar to that of metronidazole as its minimal lethal concentration was 50 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h and 12.5 μg/ml after 72 and 96 h. Garlic had completely inhibited the motility of trophozoites with concentration of 100 μg/ml after 24 h, 50 μg/ml after 48 h, 25 μg/ml after 72 h, and 12.5 μg/ml after 96 h while metronidazole had completely inhibited the motility of trophozoites with concentration of 50 μg/ml after 24 h, 25 μg/ml after 48 h, and 12.5 μg/ml after 72 and 96 h. This suggests that commercially available garlic (Tomex®) may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for trichomoniasis.

  18. The Influence of α-Lipoic Acid and Garlic Administration on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rabbits Exposed to Oxidized Nutrition Oils.

    PubMed

    Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Rokicki, Wojciech; Dąbrowska, Natalia; Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Owczarek, Aleksander; Błaszczyk, Urszula; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Stawiarska-Pięta, Barbara; Birkner, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that addition of substances with antioxidant activity could decrease the concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory process, thus inhibiting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development. We investigated the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA) and garlic administration on the development of adverse changes in rabbit liver and serum under oxidative stress conditions induced with HFD from oxidized oils. We determined 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates, total oxidant status (TOS), lipid peroxides (LOO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in blood serum, and TNFα and IL-1α genes expression in liver. The results indicate that the intake of dietary ALA and garlic was significantly associated with decreases of 8 OHdG and MDA levels in rabbits' liver tissue as well as TOS and LOO levels in rabbits' serum. Similarly, TNFα and IL-1α gene expressions were suppressed due to ALA and garlic supplementation. The histopathological analysis confirmed that HFD results in liver disorder leading to steatosis. This adverse effect of HFD was ameliorated by the supplementation of ALA and garlic. The obtained results indicate a beneficial effect of ALA and garlic administration by reducing the oxidative stress intensity and the levels of some proinflammatory cytokines in rabbits fed HFD. PMID:26634212

  19. Effects of garlic oil on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of lovastatin and 17beta-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, M; Das, A S; Das, D; Mukherjee, S; Mitra, S; Mitra, C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antiosteoporosis effects of garlic oil in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat model of osteoporosis and to compare its efficacy with lovastatin (a synthetic hypocholesterolemic drug) and 17beta-estradiol (a potent antiosteoporotic agent). Animals were divided into five groups: sham-operated control, ovariectomized, ovariectomized supplemented with lovastatin, ovariectomized supplemented with garlic oil and ovariectomized supplemented with 17beta-estradiol. In our study, the development of a high rate of bone turnover and osteoporosis in the ovariectomized animals were confirmed by significant alterations of serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, hydroxyproline and urinary calcium to creatinine ratio, when compared with the sham-operated control group. Supplementation of these animals with either garlic oil or lovastatin or 17beta-estradiol, in addition to their hypocholesterolemic effect, could counterbalance all these changes. The results revealed that all three compounds significantly protected the hypogonadal bone loss as reflected by higher bone densities and higher bone mineral contents than the ovariectomized group of animals. The results emphasize that, like 17beta-estradiol, the hypocholesterolemic compounds garlic oil and lovastatin are also effective in suppressing bone loss owing to estrogen deficiency and their efficacy in the order of lower to higher is garlic < lovastatin < 17beta-estradiol.

  20. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489

  1. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production.

  2. Antioxidant role of oils isolated from garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and onion (Allium cepa Linn) on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Helen, A; Rajasree, C R; Krishnakumar, K; Augusti, K T; Vijayammal, P L

    1999-10-01

    Nicotine, a major component of tobacco, is partly responsible for the development of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that antioxidant nutrients are protective against degenerative diseases. So we have studied the antioxidant effect of oils isolated from onion and garlic on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissues. The lipid peroxidation products and scavenging enzymes were assessed in liver, lungs, heart and kidney. The rats were treated with 0.6 mg nicotine/kg bw and simultaneously given 100 mg garlic or onion oils/kg bw for 21 d. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides concentrations were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine-treated rats. Both the garlic oil and onion oil supplementation to nicotine-treated rats increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in nicotine-treated rats, but there was a trend to increased glutathione content. With garlic oil or onion oil supplementation, nicotine-treated rats had increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of glutathione. These results indicate that oils of garlic and onion are effective antioxidants against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine. PMID:10509436

  3. The Influence of α-Lipoic Acid and Garlic Administration on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rabbits Exposed to Oxidized Nutrition Oils

    PubMed Central

    Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Rokicki, Wojciech; Dąbrowska, Natalia; Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Owczarek, Aleksander; Błaszczyk, Urszula; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Stawiarska-Pięta, Barbara; Birkner, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that addition of substances with antioxidant activity could decrease the concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory process, thus inhibiting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development. We investigated the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA) and garlic administration on the development of adverse changes in rabbit liver and serum under oxidative stress conditions induced with HFD from oxidized oils. We determined 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates, total oxidant status (TOS), lipid peroxides (LOO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in blood serum, and TNFα and IL-1α genes expression in liver. The results indicate that the intake of dietary ALA and garlic was significantly associated with decreases of 8OHdG and MDA levels in rabbits' liver tissue as well as TOS and LOO levels in rabbits' serum. Similarly, TNFα and IL-1α gene expressions were suppressed due to ALA and garlic supplementation. The histopathological analysis confirmed that HFD results in liver disorder leading to steatosis. This adverse effect of HFD was ameliorated by the supplementation of ALA and garlic. The obtained results indicate a beneficial effect of ALA and garlic administration by reducing the oxidative stress intensity and the levels of some proinflammatory cytokines in rabbits fed HFD. PMID:26634212

  4. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.

  5. The Influence of α-Lipoic Acid and Garlic Administration on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rabbits Exposed to Oxidized Nutrition Oils.

    PubMed

    Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Rokicki, Wojciech; Dąbrowska, Natalia; Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Owczarek, Aleksander; Błaszczyk, Urszula; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Stawiarska-Pięta, Barbara; Birkner, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that addition of substances with antioxidant activity could decrease the concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory process, thus inhibiting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development. We investigated the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA) and garlic administration on the development of adverse changes in rabbit liver and serum under oxidative stress conditions induced with HFD from oxidized oils. We determined 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates, total oxidant status (TOS), lipid peroxides (LOO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in blood serum, and TNFα and IL-1α genes expression in liver. The results indicate that the intake of dietary ALA and garlic was significantly associated with decreases of 8 OHdG and MDA levels in rabbits' liver tissue as well as TOS and LOO levels in rabbits' serum. Similarly, TNFα and IL-1α gene expressions were suppressed due to ALA and garlic supplementation. The histopathological analysis confirmed that HFD results in liver disorder leading to steatosis. This adverse effect of HFD was ameliorated by the supplementation of ALA and garlic. The obtained results indicate a beneficial effect of ALA and garlic administration by reducing the oxidative stress intensity and the levels of some proinflammatory cytokines in rabbits fed HFD.

  6. Garlic and Resveratrol Attenuate Diabetic Complications, Loss of β-Cells, Pancreatic and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Padiya, Raju; Adela, Ramu; Putcha, Uday K.; Reddy, G. S.; Reddy, B. R.; Kumar, K. P.; Chakravarty, Sumana; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at finding the effect of garlic and resveratrol on loss of β-cells and diabetic complication in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type-I diabetic rats. Rats were injected with single dose STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for induction of type 1 diabetes (Dia) and compared with control group. Rats from third (Dia+Gar), fourth (Dia+Resv), and fifth (Dia+Met) groups were fed raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day), resveratrol (25 mg/kg/day), and metformin (500 mg/kg/day) orally, respectively, for a period of 4 weeks. Diabetic group had decreased serum insulin and hydrogen sulfide levels along with increased blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, uric acid, and nitric oxide levels. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in pancreatic and hepatic TBARS, conjugated dienes, nitric oxide, and AGE level and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in SOD, catalase, H2S, GSH level were observed in diabetic group. Administration of garlic, resveratrol, and metformin significantly (p < 0.05) normalized most of the altered metabolic and oxidative stress parameters as well as histopathological changes. Administration of garlic, resveratrol, and metformin in diabetic rat decreases pancreatic β-cell damage and hepatic injury. Our data concluded that administration of garlic showed more promising effect in terms of reducing oxidative stress and pathological changes when compared to resveratrol and metformin groups. PMID:27790139

  7. Determination of Pb and Cd in Garlic Herb (Allium sativum) Planted in Gilan and Khuzestan Provinces Using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Zahra; Aghel, Nasrin; Amirabedin, Negar

    2012-01-01

    Background Foods are enriched with variety of chemical elements. Some of these elements are necessary for human health. These elements enter in liquid, the cells and other organs, certain amount of these elements are essential for body organs to work properly. Objectives This research was conducted to compare the level of lead and cadmium contamination in garlic species planted in Ramhormoz and Rasht and discuss about the source of this contaminations. Materials and Methods Twenty composite samples were collected from each province, Khozestan (Ramhormoz) and Gilan (Rasht). Each sample was burned according to instruction reported in AOAC. Then the white residue was dissolved in diluted nitric acid then the Pb and Cd contents were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer at 217 and 228.8 nm, respectively. No Pb level was detected in garlic cultured in both cities. The mean concentration of cadmium was 0.40 and 0.58 mg/kg in garlics planted in Ramhormoz and Rasht, respectively. Results Statistical analysis showed significant difference between mean concentration of cadmium in Rasht garlic and the permitted value (P < 0.001). The cadmium level in Rasht garlic is much higher than the standard level. Conclusions In order to test the reliability of the data obtained using this method, randomly selected samples were spiked with Pb and Cd standard solutions. The cadmium and lead recovery were reported 93.93 and 90.18 percent. PMID:24624152

  8. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur species in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and shallot (Allium ascalonicum) by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-(octopole reaction system)-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Iwashita, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2005-11-01

    The simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and a weakly odorous Allium plant, shallot (Allium ascalonicum), was performed by means of a hyphenated technique, a HPLC coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS). The aqueous extracts of them contained the common seleno compound that was identified as gamma-glutamylmethylselenocysteine by an electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Normal garlic contains alliin as the major sulfur-containing compound, which is the biological precursor of the garlic odorant, allicin. Alliin, however, was not detected in the extracts of the selenized odorless garlic. At least, four unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were detected in odorless garlic and shallot. Moreover, these Allium plants showed chemopreventive effects against human leukemia cells.

  9. Fresh Garlic Extract Induces Growth Arrest and Morphological Differentiation of MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.; Reddy, Thipparthi R.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is often associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer, particularly breast cancer. Considering that 1 in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in the course of her lifetime, dietary manipulation could have a major impact on the incidence of breast cancer. We report here that fresh extracts of garlic (not boiled) arrested the growth and altered the morphology of MCF7 breast cancer cells. Deregulated levels of E-cadherin, cytokeratin8/18, and β-catenin correlated with the altered phenotype. We propose that early down-regulation of cyclin D1, reduced phosphorylation of ERK1, and increased phosphorylation of eIF2-α triggered the phenotypical changes. Reduced expression of hsp27 and sam68 and elevated levels of Rb and p21 further contributed to the sustained growth reduction. These findings provide a better understanding of the cellular responses to dietary supplements and provide potential options to treat breast cancer. PMID:23050048

  10. Optimization of selenylation modification for garlic polysaccharide based on immune-enhancing activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jin; Qiu, Shulei; Li, Youying; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Liu, Jie; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-01-20

    Garlic polysaccharide (GPS) was modified in selenylation respectively by nitric acid-sodium selenite (NA-SS), glacial acetic acid-selenous acid (GA-SA), glacial acetic acid-sodium selenite (GA-SS) and selenium oxychloride (SOC) methods each under nine modification conditions of L9(3(4)) orthogonal design and each to obtain nine selenizing GPSs (sGPSs). Their structures were identified, yields and selenium contents were determined, selenium yields were calculated, and the immune-enhancing activities of four sGPSs with higher selenium yields were compared taking unmodified GPS as control. The results showed that among four methods the selenylation efficiency of NA-SS method were the highest, the activity of sGPS5 was the strongest and significantly stronger than that of unmodified GPS. This indicates that selenylation modification can significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of GPS, NA-SS method is the best method and the optimal conditions are 0.8:1 weight ratio of sodium selenite to GPS, reaction temperature of 70 °C and reaction time of 10h.

  11. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  12. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  13. Effect of ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound from garlic, on platelet thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Apitz-Castro, R; Badimon, J J; Badimon, L

    1992-10-15

    Ajoene, (E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, is a potent antiplatelet compound isolated from alcoholic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum). Ajoene reversibly inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation as well as release reaction induced by all known agonists. We used a well characterized cylindrical perfusion chamber to study the effect of ajoene on platelet deposition onto physiological substrates such as pig aortic subendothelium and tunica media as a model of mildly and severely damaged vessel wall respectively. Experiments were performed under flow conditions of high and low shear rate that mimic laminar blood flow in small and medium size arteries (1690 sec-1 and 212 sec-1). Our results indicate that ajoene prevents thrombus formation both at low and high shear rate in citrated whole blood. The inhibitory effect of ajoene on platelet-thrombus formation seems to be dependent on its inhibition of fibrinogen binding, since significantly higher concentrations of ajoene are needed to affect von Willebrand factor binding to GPIIb/IIIa receptors. Further, ajoene does not impair Ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, mediated by GPIb. Our results suggest that ajoene may be useful for the acute prevention of thrombus formation induced by vascular damage.

  14. The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tilli, C M L J; Stavast-Kooy, A J W; Vuerstaek, J D D; Thissen, M R T M; Krekels, G A M; Ramaekers, F C S; Neumann, H A M

    2003-07-01

    Although the therapeutic role of ajoene, an organosulfur compound of garlic, in cardiovascular diseases and mycology has been established, its usefulness in cancer treatment has only recently been suggested. We applied ajoene topically to the tumors of 21 patients with either nodular or superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). A reduction in tumor size was seen in 17 patients. Immunohistochemical assays for Bcl-2 expression in a selection of these tumors before and after treatment showed a significant decrease in this apoptosis-suppressing protein. On average, the percentage of tumor cells expressing the proliferation marker Ki-67 was not decreased, which suggests that the action of ajoene is not explained by a cytostatic effect. To obtain further insight into the mode of action of ajoene, the BCC cell line TE354T and a short-term primary culture of BCC were analyzed for apoptosis induction after treatment with the drug. Apoptosis was detected by morphology of the cells and by flow cytometry. Ajoene induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in these cultures. Taking together the results of the in vivo and in vitro studies, we conclude that ajoene can reduce BCC tumor size, mainly by inducing the mitochondria-dependent route of apoptosis.

  15. Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, R; Iwata, N; Ishikawa, K; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T; Suzuki, A

    1996-11-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound that prevents platelet aggregation, exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Growth of gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Streptomyces griseus, was inhibited at 5 micrograms of ajoene per ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus plantarum also were inhibited below 20 micrograms of ajoene per ml. For gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Xanthomonas maltophilia, MICs were between 100 and 160 micrograms/ml. Ajoene also inhibited yeast growth at concentrations below 20 micrograms/ml. The microbicidal effect of ajoene on growing cells was observed at slightly higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. B. cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were killed at 30 micrograms of ajoene per ml after 24 h of cultivation when cultivation was started at 10(5) cells per ml. However, the minimal microbicidal concentrations for resting cells were at 10 to 100 times higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. The disulfide bond in ajoene appears to be necessary for the antimicrobial activity of ajoene, since reduction by cysteine, which reacts with disulfide bonds, abolished its antimicrobial activity.

  16. Optimization of selenylation modification for garlic polysaccharide based on immune-enhancing activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jin; Qiu, Shulei; Li, Youying; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Liu, Jie; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-01-20

    Garlic polysaccharide (GPS) was modified in selenylation respectively by nitric acid-sodium selenite (NA-SS), glacial acetic acid-selenous acid (GA-SA), glacial acetic acid-sodium selenite (GA-SS) and selenium oxychloride (SOC) methods each under nine modification conditions of L9(3(4)) orthogonal design and each to obtain nine selenizing GPSs (sGPSs). Their structures were identified, yields and selenium contents were determined, selenium yields were calculated, and the immune-enhancing activities of four sGPSs with higher selenium yields were compared taking unmodified GPS as control. The results showed that among four methods the selenylation efficiency of NA-SS method were the highest, the activity of sGPS5 was the strongest and significantly stronger than that of unmodified GPS. This indicates that selenylation modification can significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of GPS, NA-SS method is the best method and the optimal conditions are 0.8:1 weight ratio of sodium selenite to GPS, reaction temperature of 70 °C and reaction time of 10h. PMID:26572388

  17. S-Allylcysteine, a garlic compound, increases ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Malekpour-Dehkordi, Zahra; Javadi, Ebrahim; Doosti, Mahmood; Paknejad, Maliheh; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Yassa, Narguess; Gerayesh-Nejad, Siavash; Heshmat, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-loaded macrophages, which is the first step of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), the most abundant organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract, on the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in human THP-1 macrophages. The human monocyte THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophage cells in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA). Macrophage cells were then treated with different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mM) of SAC for 24 h. Total RNA of treated macrophages was extracted and analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed with western blotting. Results showed that SAC increased the ABCA1 mRNA (1.82-, 2.07- and 2.23-fold) and protein (1.37-, 1.55- and 2.08-fold) expression in macrophage THP-1 cells compared with control (untreated cells). Results suggested that SAC can increase ABCA1 expression in macrophages and may be beneficial in promoting reverse cholesterol efflux. PMID:22610793

  18. In vitro activity-guided identification of antioxidants in aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-27

    Activity-guided fractionation was applied on an aged garlic extract (AGE), reported to show strong antioxidant activity, in order to locate the key in vitro antioxidant ingredients by means of the hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS) assay as well as the ORAC assay. Besides the previously reported four tetrahydro-β-carbolines, (1R,3S)- and (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and (1R,3S)- and (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments led to the identification of coniferyl alcohol and its dilignols (-)-(2R,3S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, (+)-(2S,3R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-O-4'-coniferyl ether, and threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-O-4'-coniferyl ether as the major antioxidants in AGE. The purified individual compounds showed high antioxidant activity, with EC50 values of 9.7-11.8 μM (HPS assay) and 2.60-3.65 μmol TE/μmol (ORAC assay), respectively. PMID:23448127

  19. Receptors of garlic (Allium sativum) lectins and their role in insecticidal action.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh K; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2012-08-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) lectins are promising candidate molecules for the protection against chewing (lepidopteran) as well as sap sucking (homopteran) insect pests. Molecular mechanism of toxicity and interaction of lectins with midgut receptor proteins has been described in many reports. Lectins show its effect right from sensory receptors of mouth parts by disrupting the membrane integrity and food detection ability. Subsequently, enter into the gut lumen and interact with midgut glycosylated proteins like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminopeptidase-N (APN), cadherin-like proteins, polycalins, sucrase, symbionin and others. These proteins play critical role in life cycle of insect directly or indirectly. Lectins interfere with the activity of these proteins and causes physiological disorders leading to the death of insects. Lectins further transported across the insect gut, accumulated in various body parts (like haemolymph and ovary) and interact with intracellular proteins like symbionin and cytochrome p450. Binding with cytochrome p450 (which involve in ecdysone synthesis) might interfere in the development of insects, which results in growth retardation and pre-mature death.

  20. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  1. Detoxification and antioxidant effects of garlic and curcumin in Oreochromis niloticus injected with aflatoxin B₁ with reference to gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    El-Barbary, Manal I

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of both garlic and curcumin through evaluating their therapeutic properties as antioxidants on liver and kidney functions, hepatic antioxidants and GPx gene expression against aflatoxicosis of O. niloticus. In total, 180 of tilapia were divided into ten groups; T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was injected with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AFB1 (6 mg/kg b.w.). Fish in T3-T6 were fed on a basal diet supplemented with both garlic (T3 and T4) and curcumin (T5 and T6) at the two concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg diet, respectively. Fish in T7-T10 groups were injected with AFB1 and fed on the garlic (T7 and T8) and curcumin (T9 and T10) dietaries. The results showed that AFB1 has significant potency for increasing the activity of plasma AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid values, and hepatic MDA as well as for reducing the concentrations of plasma TP, AL, GL and hepatic activity of TAC, while AFB1 led to up-regulated GPx gene expression when compared to the control (T1). These harmful effects of AFB1 were alleviated due to the garlic and curcumin dietaries in some studied parameters. Garlic reflected the highest induction of gene expression (T7); however, curcumin showed significant down-regulated (T9). These results concluded that the effects of garlic were better than curcumin at the two concentrations and the low concentration of them is more beneficial than the high concentration when it used against AFB1 in O. niloticus.

  2. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  3. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  4. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment. PMID:27363055

  5. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects and methods A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Results Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Conclusion Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation

  6. Renoprotective effect of a combination of garlic and telmisartan against ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sousou Ibrahim; Alhusseini, Naglaa Fathy; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Idris, Reham Abd El-Satar; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-09-01

    Obesity enhances the frequency and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Telmisartan pre-treatment was used experimentally in the amelioration of ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding its beneficial effects on AKI in obese animals. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore the protective effects of garlic and/or telmisartan against renal damage induced by unilateral IR in obese rats. Meloxicam was used as a standard anti-inflammatory agent. Prophylactic oral administration of meloxicam (3 mg kg(-1)), garlic (500 mg kg(-1)) and/or telmisartan (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) for 4 wk protected against renal function deterioration induced by IR in obese rats. Both doses of telmisartan significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triacyglycerol levels as well as peri-renal adipocytes size and renal fibrosis. Renal nuclear factor-kappa B immunoreactivity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha content as well as interleukin-10, adiponectin receptor 1 and macrophages (M1, M2) polarization markers (CD11c, CD206) mRNA expressions were down-regulated in ischemic kidney tissues and white adipose tissues around them by all treatments. Moreover, garlic, telmisartan and their combinations significantly suppressed oxidative stress in renal ischemic tissues. Histological picture was also improved by these treatments. Interestingly, the combinations provided a greater protection than their monotherapy in a dose-dependent manner. We suppose that this combination may be a promising prophylactic regimen for managing AKI in case of obesity. Thus, future experimental and clinical large-scale studies are necessary.

  7. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P < 0.05) for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  8. Aged garlic extract inhibits 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumor development by suppressing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jikihara, Hiroshi; Qi, Guangying; Nozoe, Koichiro; Hirokawa, Mayumi; Sato, Hiromi; Sugihara, Yuka; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    Garlic and its constituents are reported to have a preventive effect against colorectal cancer in animal models. Aged garlic extract (AGE), which is produced by natural extraction from fresh garlic for more than 10 months in aqueous ethanol, also has reputed chemopreventive effects on colon carcinogenesis, but has never been studied for its effects on colon cancer development. We investigated the antitumor effects of AGE in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis, and the mechanism of AGE in human colon cancer cell proliferation. F344 rats randomly divided into three groups were administered DMH (20 mg/kg weight) subcutaneously once a week for 8 weeks in a basal diet. After the last injection, one group of rats was then moved onto a basal diet containing 3% wt/wt AGE, and rats were sacrificed at 8 or 31 weeks. The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), histological type of tumor and proliferative activity of the tumor lesions were analyzed by macroscopic, pathological and immunohistochemical methods. DLD-1 human colon cancer cells were utilized to investigate the effect of AGE on anti-cell proliferation. AGE decreased the number of ACF but had no effect on gross tumor pathology. AGE showed a lower number of adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that AGE suppressed the proliferative activity in adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions, but showed no effect on normal colon mucosa. Moreover, we demonstrated that AGE delayed cell cycle progression by downregulating cyclin B1 and cdk1 expression via inactivation of NF-κB in the human colorectal cancer cells but did not induce apoptosis. These findings suggest that AGE has an antitumor effect through suppression of cell proliferation. PMID:25573280

  9. Renoprotective effect of a combination of garlic and telmisartan against ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sousou Ibrahim; Alhusseini, Naglaa Fathy; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Idris, Reham Abd El-Satar; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-09-01

    Obesity enhances the frequency and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Telmisartan pre-treatment was used experimentally in the amelioration of ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding its beneficial effects on AKI in obese animals. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore the protective effects of garlic and/or telmisartan against renal damage induced by unilateral IR in obese rats. Meloxicam was used as a standard anti-inflammatory agent. Prophylactic oral administration of meloxicam (3 mg kg(-1)), garlic (500 mg kg(-1)) and/or telmisartan (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) for 4 wk protected against renal function deterioration induced by IR in obese rats. Both doses of telmisartan significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triacyglycerol levels as well as peri-renal adipocytes size and renal fibrosis. Renal nuclear factor-kappa B immunoreactivity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha content as well as interleukin-10, adiponectin receptor 1 and macrophages (M1, M2) polarization markers (CD11c, CD206) mRNA expressions were down-regulated in ischemic kidney tissues and white adipose tissues around them by all treatments. Moreover, garlic, telmisartan and their combinations significantly suppressed oxidative stress in renal ischemic tissues. Histological picture was also improved by these treatments. Interestingly, the combinations provided a greater protection than their monotherapy in a dose-dependent manner. We suppose that this combination may be a promising prophylactic regimen for managing AKI in case of obesity. Thus, future experimental and clinical large-scale studies are necessary. PMID:27405440

  10. In vivo antiprotozoan effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on experimentally infected mice with Blastocystis spp.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Kamal, Amany M; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Abdelgelil, Noha H

    2015-09-01

    Controversy surrounding the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in humans and lack of well-established diagnostic criteria led to debates concerning the treatment for that organism. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against the recommended drugs. Thus, using natural medicine has many positive aspects to address these points. In an earlier study, we addressed in vitro effect of garlic and ginger on Blastocystis spp. isolates as an alternative treatment. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate in vivo activities of these two herbs on mice infected with Blastocystis spp. Antiprotozoan activities were determined by monitoring Blastocystis shedding in stools and histopathological changes of the intestine of infected mice. Additionally, assessment of the antioxidant effect (via measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production) of these herbs on the treated groups of mice was done. Also, their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed. In this work, treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and nitazoxanide (NTZ) reduced the shedding of cysts significantly compared to the infected untreated group, P value ≤0.001, 0.0001, and 0.0003, respectively. As well, histopathological examination revealed that Blastocystis was frequently observed within the lumen, at the tip of the epithelium, and/ or infiltrated in an enterocyte in the infected group without treatment compared to that of the infected treated ones. Furthermore, mice infected with Blastocystis exhibited increased levels of NO (440.09 ± 3.7 vs. 276.66 ± 0.8, P ≤ 0.001) and MDA production (106.19 ± 0.43 vs. 63.06 ± 0.45, P ≤ 0.0004) compared to that of the uninfected controls. Treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and NTZ reduced NO levels to 54.41 ± 1.2, 47.70 ± 1.2, and 37.43 ± 0.98 and MDA levels to 22.38 ± 0.17, 63.34 ± 3.89, and 66.76 ± 9.1, respectively. We conclude that using ginger and garlic for treatment of blastocystosis is beneficial.

  11. Efficacies of garlic and L. sakei in wine-based marinades for controlling Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in Chouriço de Vinho, a dry sausage made from wine-marinated pork.

    PubMed

    Linares, María Belén; Garrido, María Dolores; Martins, Conceição; Patarata, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Chouriço de vinho is made from roughly minced (10 to 30 mm) pork and fat, seasoned with a marinade made from wine, salt, garlic, and other facultative seasonings used according to the recipe of each producer. The batter is maintained at 4 to 7 ºC for 24 to 48 h. It is then stuffed into natural thin pork gut, cold smoked and matured at a low temperature for 1 to 4 wk. The effect of garlic used in wine-based marinade and a starter culture of indigenous Lactobacillus sakei on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in the processing of chouriço was investigated. The garlic (as powder and fresh juice) was found to contribute (P < 0.05) to the control of both pathogens in broth. Garlic dose, as tested within the usual limits used for seasoning, did not impact the reduction of pathogens. Garlic-wine-based marinade and a starter culture of indigenous L. sakei contribute to controlling L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in the processing of chouriço. Their presence was responsible for the loss of viability of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. following 5 d of drying, even sooner than situations where no garlic was used. The results of the present work show that the use of a wine-based marinade with garlic has an important role in ensuring the safety of the product.

  12. Dietary garlic and hip osteoarthritis: evidence of a protective effect and putative mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of food intake and prevalent osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee were studied using the twin design to limit the effect of confounding factors. Compounds found in associated food groups were further studied in vitro. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted in a large population-based volunteer cohort of twins. Food intake was evaluated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire; OA was determined using plain radiographs. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI and physical activity. Subsequent in vitro studies examined the effects of allium-derived compounds on the expression of matrix-degrading proteases in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. Results Data were available, depending on phenotype, for 654-1082 of 1086 female twins (median age 58.9 years; range 46-77). Trends in dietary analysis revealed a specific pattern of dietary intake, that high in fruit and vegetables, showed an inverse association with hip OA (p = 0.022). Consumption of 'non-citrus fruit' (p = 0.015) and 'alliums' (p = 0.029) had the strongest protective effect. Alliums contain diallyl disulphide which was shown to abrogate cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression. Conclusions Studies of diet are notorious for their confounding by lifestyle effects. While taking account of BMI, the data show an independent effect of a diet high in fruit and vegetables, suggesting it to be protective against radiographic hip OA. Furthermore, diallyl disulphide, a compound found in garlic and other alliums, represses the expression of matrix-degrading proteases in chondrocyte-like cells, providing a potential mechanism of action. PMID:21143861

  13. When foods become remedies in ancient Greece: The curious case of garlic and other substances

    PubMed Central

    Totelin, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The debate on the food-drug continuum could benefit from a historical dimension. This study aims at showing this through one case: the food-drug continuum in Greece in the fifth- and fourth-century BCE. I suggest that at the time the boundary between food and drug – and that between dietetics and pharmacology – was rather blurred. Materials and methods I study definitions of ‘food’ and ‘medicine’ in texts from the fifth- and fourth-century BCE: the Hippocratic texts, the botanical treatises of Theophrastus and the pseudo-Aristotelian Problems. To illustrate these abstract definitions, I focus on two substances: garlic and silphium. Results and discussion The Hippocratics were writing in a context of increased professionalization and masculinization of medicine, a context in which dietetics became the most prestigious branch of medicine, praised above pharmacology and surgery. While medicine was becoming more specialised, professionalised and masculine, it avoided becoming too conspicuously so. The Hippocratic authors sometimes noted that medical discoveries are serendipitous and can be made by anyone, whether medically trained or not. By doing so, they allowed themselves to integrate common knowledge and practice into their writings. Conclusion In the context of the professionalization of ancient medicine, the Hippocratic authors started to address the difference between food and medicine. They saw, however, some advantage in acknowledging the continuum between food and medicine. Scholars should avoid drawing too strict a boundary between ancient dietetics and pharmacology and should instead adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to the therapeutics of the Hippocratic texts. PMID:25173971

  14. The garlic compound ajoene targets protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Cotton, Jonathan; Tuveri, Rossana; Ngarande, Ellen; Dzobo, Kevin; Schäfer, Georgia; Siyo, Vuyolwethu; Lang, Dirk; Kusza, Daniel A; Davies, Bronwen; Katz, Arieh A; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Ajoene is a natural allylsulfur compound found in crushed garlic that arrests growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To gain mechanistic insights into the cytotoxicity of ajoene in cancer cells, two fluorescently labelled ajoene analogs with dansyl- (DP) and fluorescein- (FOX) tags were synthesized. The tagged ajoenes were found to retain their activity at inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast-cancer and WHCO1 human esophageal-cancer cells. Both tagged ajoenes localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and confirmed by generating an MDA-MB-231 cell line expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the ER. DP appears to S-thiolate multiple protein targets in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions only; and a competition assay demonstrated that DP and Z-ajoene in fact share the same target. Ajoene S-thiolation interfered with protein folding and led to an accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consistent with this mechanism, increased levels of GRP78 and total ubiquitinated proteins were observed; and an ER-folded protein, type-1 collagen, was tracked to the proteasome following ajoene treatment. The intracellular protein aggregates were observed by CLSM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is the first time that ajoene has been shown to target protein folding in the ER of cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ajoene, a garlic compound, inhibits protein prenylation and arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Nicola; Yokoyama, Kohei; Sadilek, Martin; Paoletti, Rodolfo; Apitz-Castro, Rafael; Gelb, Michael H; Corsini, Alberto

    2003-03-01

    (1) Ajoene is a garlic compound with anti-platelet properties and, in addition, was shown to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis by affecting 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and late enzymatic steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. (2) MVA constitutes the precursor not only of cholesterol, but also of a number of non-sterol isoprenoids, such as farnesyl and geranylgeranyl groups. Covalent attachment of these MVA-derived isoprenoid groups (prenylation) is a required function of several proteins that regulate cell proliferation. We investigated the effect of ajoene on rat aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation as related to protein prenylation. (3) Cell counting, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle analysis showed that ajoene (1-50 micro M) interfered with the progression of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and inhibited rat SMC proliferation. (4) Similar to the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin, ajoene inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis. However, in contrast to simvastatin, the antiproliferative effect of ajoene was not prevented by the addition of MVA, farnesol (FOH), and geranylgeraniol (GGOH). Labelling of smooth muscle cell cellular proteins with [3H]-FOH and [3H]-GGOH was significantly inhibited by ajoene. (5) In vitro assays for protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGTase-I) confirmed that ajoene inhibits protein prenylation. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry analyses also demonstrated that ajoene causes a covalent modification of the cysteine SH group of a peptide substrate for protein PGGTase-I. (6) Altogether, our results provide evidence that ajoene interferes with the protein prenylation reaction, an effect that may contribute to its inhibition of SMC proliferation.

  16. Ajoene, a garlic compound, inhibits protein prenylation and arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Nicola; Yokoyama, Kohei; Sadilek, Martin; Paoletti, Rodolfo; Apitz-Castro, Rafael; Gelb, Michael H; Corsini, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Ajoene is a garlic compound with anti-platelet properties and, in addition, was shown to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis by affecting 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and late enzymatic steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. MVA constitutes the precursor not only of cholesterol, but also of a number of non-sterol isoprenoids, such as farnesyl and geranylgeranyl groups. Covalent attachment of these MVA-derived isoprenoid groups (prenylation) is a required function of several proteins that regulate cell proliferation. We investigated the effect of ajoene on rat aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation as related to protein prenylation. Cell counting, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle analysis showed that ajoene (1–50 μM) interfered with the progression of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and inhibited rat SMC proliferation. Similar to the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin, ajoene inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis. However, in contrast to simvastatin, the antiproliferative effect of ajoene was not prevented by the addition of MVA, farnesol (FOH), and geranylgeraniol (GGOH). Labelling of smooth muscle cell cellular proteins with [3H]-FOH and [3H]-GGOH was significantly inhibited by ajoene. In vitro assays for protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGTase-I) confirmed that ajoene inhibits protein prenylation. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry analyses also demonstrated that ajoene causes a covalent modification of the cysteine SH group of a peptide substrate for protein PGGTase-I. Altogether, our results provide evidence that ajoene interferes with the protein prenylation reaction, an effect that may contribute to its inhibition of SMC proliferation. PMID:12642382

  17. Effect of aged garlic extract on wound healing: a new frontier in wound management.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Chekarova, Irina; Cho, Jae Woo; Lee, Seung Yeon; Ashraf, Shoaib; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-01-01

    Successful wound healing depends upon angiogenesis, and impaired angiogenesis is a hallmark of the chronic wounds encountered with diabetes and venous or arterial insufficiency. To intervene and improve wound closure, it is essential to investigate the effects of different natural remedies in wound healing. The chicken dorsum skin excisional wound assay was used to investigate the influence of different concentrations of aged garlic solution (AGS) on wound healing. Gross, histopathology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and computer-based three-dimensional (3D) image-probing techniques were utilized to determine the effects of AGS on wound closure, re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration, and angiogenesis. Ninety chicks, aged 1 week and divided in 6 groups, were topically exposed to different concentrations of AGS for 6 days: control (group A), 1% (group B), 5% (group C), 10% (group D), 15% (group E), and skin lotion (group F). Different patterns, ranging from incomplete to almost complete wound closure, were observed among different groups with highly significant results (P < 0.001) in group E. Histological investigations revealed a positive augment in the re-epithelialization of all AGS exposed wounds. An increase in the number of new loosely packed collagen and maturation of collagen bundles was observed in all treated wounds at days 4 and 6 post-wounding, respectively. Similar results were achieved through SEM of treated wounds. Histological investigations revealed the profuse dose-dependent neovascularization among AGS-treated wounds. Abbott curve, angular spectrum, and different parameters of 3D surface roughness of wounds were also measured for the precise quantification of angiogenesis. A very highly significant (P < 0.001) increase in angiogenesis was observed among all treated groups. No significant change was observed among control and skin lotion-treated groups. These observations substantiate the beneficial use of AGS in the treatment of

  18. The garlic compound ajoene targets protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Cotton, Jonathan; Tuveri, Rossana; Ngarande, Ellen; Dzobo, Kevin; Schäfer, Georgia; Siyo, Vuyolwethu; Lang, Dirk; Kusza, Daniel A; Davies, Bronwen; Katz, Arieh A; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Ajoene is a natural allylsulfur compound found in crushed garlic that arrests growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To gain mechanistic insights into the cytotoxicity of ajoene in cancer cells, two fluorescently labelled ajoene analogs with dansyl- (DP) and fluorescein- (FOX) tags were synthesized. The tagged ajoenes were found to retain their activity at inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast-cancer and WHCO1 human esophageal-cancer cells. Both tagged ajoenes localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and confirmed by generating an MDA-MB-231 cell line expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the ER. DP appears to S-thiolate multiple protein targets in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions only; and a competition assay demonstrated that DP and Z-ajoene in fact share the same target. Ajoene S-thiolation interfered with protein folding and led to an accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consistent with this mechanism, increased levels of GRP78 and total ubiquitinated proteins were observed; and an ER-folded protein, type-1 collagen, was tracked to the proteasome following ajoene treatment. The intracellular protein aggregates were observed by CLSM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is the first time that ajoene has been shown to target protein folding in the ER of cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26207910

  19. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sankhadip; Laha, Bibek; Banerjee, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well. PMID:24991105

  20. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients. PMID:25838894

  1. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  2. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients. PMID:25838894

  3. Ajoene, a compound of garlic, induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor kappaB.

    PubMed

    Dirsch, V M; Gerbes, A L; Vollmar, A M

    1998-03-01

    The pharmacological role of garlic in prevention and treatment of cancer has received increasing attention, but thorough investigations into the molecular mechanisms of action of garlic compounds are rare. The present study demonstrates that ajoene, a major compound of garlic induces apoptosis in human leukemic cells, but not in peripheral mononuclear blood cells of healthy donors. The effect was dose and time dependent. Apoptosis was judged by three criteria, morphology of cells, quantification of subdiploid DNA content by flow cytometry, and detection of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis. Ajoene increased the production of intracellular peroxide in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which could be partially blocked by preincubation of the human leukemic cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Interestingly, N-acetylcysteine-treated cells showed a 50% loss of ajoene-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ajoene was demonstrated to activate nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB, an effect that was abrogated in N-acetylcysteine-loaded cells. These results suggested that ajoene might induce apoptosis in human leukemic cells via stimulation of peroxide production and activation of nuclear factor kappaB. This is a novel aspect in the biological profile of this garlic compound and an important step in elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of its antitumor action.

  4. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients.

  5. Effects of garlic oil and two of its major organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, on intestinal damage in rats injected with endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Y.-H.; Jen, L.-N.; Su, H.-Y.; Lii, C.-K.; Sheen, L.-Y.; Liu, C.-T. . E-mail: ctl@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-05-15

    Garlic and its active components are known to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Wistar rats received by gavage 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight garlic oil (GO), 0.5 mmol/kg body weight diallyl disulfide or diallyl trisulfide, or the vehicle (corn oil; 2 ml/kg body weight) every other day for 2 weeks before being injected with endotoxin (i.p., 5 mg/kg body weight). Control rats were administered with corn oil and were injected with sterile saline. Samples for the measurement of proinflammatory cytokines were collected 3 h after injection, and all other samples were collected 18 h after injection. The low dose of GO suppressed endotoxin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, ulceration, and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The high dose of GO significantly lowered the peripheral level of nitrate/nitrite and endotoxin-induced iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05) but worsened intestinal mucosal damage accompanied by elevated peripheral proinflammatory cytokines. Diallyl trisulfide but not diallyl disulfide showed similar toxic effect as that of high-dose GO. These results suggest the preventive effect and possible toxicity of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation and intestinal damage.

  6. Investigation the growth, yield and yield components of rice varieties in rotation with garlic, Faba bean, lettuce, pea and fallow in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Morteza; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Tari, Davood Barari

    2007-08-15

    In order to investigating the effects of second crop cultivation on growth, yield and yield components of rice, a field experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol) during 2004 and 2005. Tarom as a traditional variety and Fajr as a improved variety were used in this research. Faba, pea, Lettuce and garlic were used as a second crop in rotation with rice. Second crop cultivation, variety and interaction between them had a significant effect on tiller number at 0.01 probability level. Results showed that rice yield after lettuce and garlic rotation was lower than with Faba bean, pea and fallow rotation. These results indicated that rice varieties had different reaction to second crop cultivation. For example, Tarom variety in rotation with lettuce and garlic had higher yield deficiency than Fajr variety. These results suggested that Lettuce and garlic can not be a permanent second crop in paddy field. According to results, pea and faba bean in rotation with rice for the best performance of yield attributes of rice varieties were recommended.

  7. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  8. Pretreatment of garlic powder using sweep frequency ultrasound and single frequency countercurrent ultrasound: optimization and comparison for ACE inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haile; Huang, Liurong; Peng, Lei; Wang, Zhenbin; Yang, Qiaorong

    2015-03-01

    The sweep frequency ultrasound (SFU) and single frequency countercurrent ultrasound (SFCU) pretreatments were modeled and compared based on production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from garlic hydrolysates. Two mathematical models were developed to show the effect of each variable and their combinatorial interactions on ACE inhibitory activity. The optimum levels of the parameters in SFU were determined using uniform design, which revealed these as follows: total ultrasonic time 1.5 h, on-time of pulse 18 s and off-time of pulse 3 s. Under optimized conditions, the experimental values of SFU and SFCU were 65.88% and 67.78%, which agreed closely with the predicted values of 63.44% and 67.33%. The SFU and SFCU pretreatments both resulted in higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with untreated garlic (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the ACE inhibitory activities and IC₅₀ values obtained from SFCU and SFU pretreatments under optimum conditions (p>0.05).

  9. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account.

  10. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS. PMID:27043510

  11. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

  12. Antibacterial effects of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils in tomato films determined by overlay and vapor-phase methods.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Mandrell, R; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film-forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor-phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: oregano oil > allspice oil > garlic oil. Listeria monocytogenes was less resistant to EO vapors, while E. coli O157:H7 was more resistant to EOs as determined by both overlay and vapor-phase diffusion tests. The presence of plant EO antimicrobials reduced the viscosity of TPFFS at the higher shear rates, but did not affect water vapor permeability of films. EOs increased elongation and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that the 3 plant-derived EOs can be used to prepare tomato-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  13. In Vitro Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Aqueous Garlic Extract and Imipenem against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Akhter, S M; Khatun, S; Islam, M M; Roy, P

    2016-07-01

    An interventional study was performed to determine and compare the MICs of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Imipenem against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 & Eschericha coli ATCC 25922. The study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2015. The MIC of AGE and antibiotic Imipenem were determined with the help of broth dilution method. The MIC of AGE was determined as 400μg/ml and 700μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli respectively and the MIC of Imipenem was 1μg/ml against Staphylococus aureus and 1.5μg/ml against Escherichia coli. The MICs of Imipenem was much lower in comparison to MICs of AGE for the test organisms. The subculture study showed the same results with that of the primary isolates. From the study it was clearly observed that AGE have anti bacterial effect but is not potent like antibiotic Imipenem. In this regard active ingredient present in garlic needs to be separated & purified for further study. PMID:27612894

  14. Cold tolerance in CCl4-treated rats and its modification by administration of garlic oil and glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, B.; Ahujarai, P. L.

    1984-06-01

    Male Wistar rats weighing 150 200 g maintained under standard laboratory conditions and given Hindustan Lever Pellets and water ad libitum were exposed to -20°C for determination of the rate of fall of rectal temperature and survival time. The rate of fall of body temperature was significantly increased and the survival time was reduced, when animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg BW of CCl4 24 h but not 2 h earlier. Pre-treatment of the animals with 0.006 ml of garlic oil in a 2% solution of arachis oil for 3 days gave a significant protection to the animals against the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. Administration of glucose orally 300 mg in 2 ml of saline eliminated the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. The animals displayed a hypoglycemia 24 h, but not 2 h after injection of CCl4. CCl4-induced hypoglycemia was reduced by pre-treatment with garlic oil. The results indicate that the CCl4-induced reduction in cold tolerance is secondary to hypoglycemia and not due to the direct effect of CCl4 on the thermoregulatory mechanism in the CNS. The critical level of blood glucose below which the cold tolerance is reduced was found to be 76 mg/100 ml of blood.

  15. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  16. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    NAKASONE, YASUSHI; SATO, NORIMASA; AZUMA, TAKAYUKI; HASUMI, KEIJI

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The trial was conducted in subjects aged between 30 and 60 years whose rate of salivary sIgA release was moderately low. Subjects consumed 2.49 g of placebo or black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food (active food) daily for 8 weeks. The data obtained with 54 eligible subjects (n=28 and 26 for placebo and active, respectively) were analyzed for efficacy. The rates of salivary sIgA release in the active food group (35.9±84.6 and 47.9±123.4 µg/min at weeks 4 and 8 of intake; changes from pretrial value) were higher compared to the respective rates in the placebo food group (−12.3±72.1 and −3.2±85.9 µg/min, P=0.028 and 0.082, respectively). These findings indicate that intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food enhanced the intraoral immune response. There was no adverse event associated with the intake of active food. PMID:27347407

  17. Effect of garlic powder consumption on body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Davood; Paknahad, Zamzam; Askari, Gholamreza; Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease that is becoming a public health problem in recent decades. Obesity and overweight play a key role in NAFLD pathogenesis. Thus, weight loss (especially body fat mass) is one component of therapeutic strategies in NAFLD. Results from experimental studies have shown that garlic (Allium sativum L.) can reduce body weight and body fat mass. However, the effect of garlic on body fat mass and weight in the human population, which is addressed in this study, is still obscure. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 110 subjects with NAFLD were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received two garlic tablets (containing 400 mg of garlic powder) daily while the control group received placebo tablets. Dietary intake and physical activity of participants were obtained by a validated questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results: In the intervention group, significant reductions were observed in body weight and body fat mass (P < 0.05). We also observed a significant reduction in body weight in the control group, but there were no significant changes in total body water and lean body mass in both groups (P > 0.05). In the intervention group, the percentage change in body weight was significantly greater than the control group (−2.6 vs. −0.7, P = 0.02). No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion: Our trial suggests that garlic supplemfrom experimental studies have shown thatentation can reduce body weight and fat mass among subjects with NAFLD. PMID:26955623

  18. Comparison of antiplatelet activity of garlic tablets with cardio-protective dose of aspirin in healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Shafiekhani, Mojtaba; Faridi, Pouya; Kojuri, Javad; Namazi, Soha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Some of the adverse effects of aspirin including peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and aspirin resistance compelled researchers to find a suitable alternative with fewer adverse effects. In this clinical trial, we aimed to find the effective antiplatelet dose of garlic. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted on 62 healthy volunteers of 20-50 years old. All volunteers used 80 mg aspirin per day for 1 week and at the end of this time, platelet aggregation (PA) induced by 4 agonists acting in aggregation pathway including adenosinediphosphate (20 μmol/l), epinephrine (20 μmol/l), collagen(0.19 mg/ ml) and arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ ml) was measured by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA) in all participants. After one month washout period, volunteers were randomized into 3 groups and each received 1, 2 or 3 garlic tablets (1250 mg) a day for 1 month. After one month, PA was examined in all groups. Results: The mean ±SD of the age of all volunteers was 28.60 ± 9.00 years. In addition, 52.00 % of our volunteers were male and 48.00% of them were female. Garlic tablet didnot have significant effect on PA at any dose. However, 30% of volunteers in the group that used 3 garlic tablets/day reported adverse effect (i.e. bleeding). No significant association between sex, age and PA was observed. Conclusion: In this study, we were unable to determine the effective anti-platelet dose of garlic which that could be equal to that of aspirin anti-platelet activity, as assessed LTA method. PMID:27761425

  19. Ruminal methane inhibition potential of various pure compounds in comparison with garlic oil as determined with a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec).

    PubMed

    Soliva, Carla R; Amelchanka, Sergej L; Duval, Stéphane M; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Ruminants represent an important source of methane (CH(4)) emissions; therefore, CH(4) mitigation by diet supplementation is a major goal in the current ruminant research. The objective of the present study was to use a rumen simulation technique to evaluate the CH(4)-mitigating potential of pure compounds in comparison with that achieved with garlic oil, a known anti-methanogenic supplement. A basal diet (15 g DM/d) consisting of ryegrass hay, barley and soyabean meal (1:0·7:0·3) was incubated with the following additives: none (negative control); garlic oil (300 mg/l incubation liquid; positive control); allyl isothiocyanate (75 mg/l); lovastatin (150 mg/l); chenodeoxycholic acid (150 mg/l); 3-azido-propionic acid ethyl ester (APEE, 150 mg/l); levulinic acid (300 mg/l); 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid (PABA, 300 mg/l). Fermentation profiles (SCFA, microbial counts and N turnover) and H(2) and CH(4) formation were determined. Garlic oil, allyl isothiocyanate, lovastatin and the synthetic compound APEE decreased the absolute daily CH(4) formation by 91, 59, 42 and 98 %, respectively. The corresponding declines in CH(4) emitted per mmol of SCFA were 87, 32, 40 and 99 %, respectively, compared with the negative control; the total SCFA concentration was unaffected. Garlic oil decreased protozoal numbers and increased bacterial counts, while chenodeoxycholic acid completely defaunated the incubation liquid. In vitro, neutral-detergent fibre disappearance was lower following chenodeoxycholic acid and PABA treatments (- 26 and - 18 %, respectively). In conclusion, garlic oil and APEE were extremely efficient at mitigating CH(4) without noticeably impairing microbial nutrient fermentation. Other promising substances were allyl isothiocyanate and lovastatin. PMID:21554814

  20. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, fluoride with essential oils, alum, green tea, and garlic with lime mouth rinses on cariogenic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ann; Thakur, Sneha; Mhambrey, Sanjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of natural mouth rinse formulations are being proposed as an alternative to the widely used chemical mouth rinses. Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.2%), sodium fluoride (0.05%), fluoride with essential oils (0.05%), alum (0.02 M), green tea, and garlic with lime mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The three microbes were isolated from the saliva samples collected from children with severe early childhood caries. The zone of minimum inhibition was assessed using agar diffusion method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Against S. mutans and lactobacilli, chlorhexidine mouth rinse was found to be the most effective as compared to sodium fluoride (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), green tea (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and garlic with lime (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) mouth rinses, respectively. But against C. albicans, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be the most effective as compared to chlorhexidine (P < 0.001), sodium fluoride (P < 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001), and green tea (P < 0.001) mouth rinses. Against S. mutans and lactobacilli, after chlorhexidine mouth rinse, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be significantly more effective than sodium fluoride (P = 0.053, P = 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and green tea (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) mouth rinses. Conclusion: As a natural mouth rinse, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be the most promising. However, further studies are needed in this field. PMID:26312230

  1. Computational identification and characterization of conserved miRNAs and their target genes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Panda, Debashis; Dehury, Budheswar; Sahu, Jagajjit; Barooah, Madhumita; Sen, Priyabrata; Modi, Mahendra K

    2014-03-10

    The endogenous small non-coding functional microRNAs (miRNAs) are short in size, range from ~21 to 24 nucleotides in length, play a pivotal role in gene expression in plants and animals by silencing genes either by destructing or blocking of translation of homologous mRNA. Although various high-throughput, time consuming and expensive techniques like forward genetics and direct cloning are employed to detect miRNAs in plants but comparative genomics complemented with novel bioinformatic tools pave the way for efficient and cost-effective identification of miRNAs through homologous sequence search with previously known miRNAs. In this study, an attempt was made to identify and characterize conserved miRNAs in garlic expressed sequence tags (ESTs) through computational means. For identification of novel miRNAs in garlic, a total 3227 known mature miRNAs of plant kingdom Viridiplantae were searched for homology against 21,637 EST sequences resulting in identification of 6 potential miRNA candidates belonging to 6 different miRNA families. The psRNATarget server predicted 33 potential target genes and their probable functions for the six identified miRNA families in garlic. Most of the garlic miRNA target genes seem to encode transcription factors as well as genes involved in stress response, metabolism, plant growth and development. The results from the present study will shed more light on the understanding of molecular mechanisms of miRNA in garlic which may aid in the development of novel and precise techniques to understand some post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in response to stress tolerance.

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of garlic, tea tree oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and ultraviolet sanitizing device in the decontamination of toothbrush

    PubMed Central

    Chandrdas, Dithi; Jayakumar, H L; Chandra, Mahesh; Katodia, Lavleen; Sreedevi, Athira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the efficacy of 3% garlic extract, 0.2% tea tree oil, 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, and ultravoilet (UV) toothbrush sanitizing device as toothbrush disinfectants against Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A double blind randomized controlled parallel study was done on 210 dental students. The subjects were divided into one control group using distilled water and five study groups representing 0.2% tea tree oil, 3% garlic extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and UV toothbrush sanitizing device. Participants were provided with new toothbrushes and toothpastes for both baseline and intervention phases. The toothbrushes were collected after two weeks for microbial analysis in both phases. The data were analysed and compared using appropriate statistical analysis. Results: On comparing pre– and post–intervention, S. mutans colony counts, a highly significant (P < 0.001) difference was observed in all the groups. Differences of 77.74 colony forming units (CFU) in tea tree oil group, 102.87 CFU in garlic group, 68.13 CFU in chlorhexidine group, 82.47 CFU in cetylpyridinium group and 42.67 CFU in UV toothbrush sanitizer group were observed. Garlic group showed the highest reduction (100%) whereas UV toothbrush sanitizer group showed the least reduction (47.4%) in S. mutans colonies. Conclusions: The antimicrobial agents used in this study effectively reduced the S. mutans counts and hence can be considered as toothbrush disinfectants to prevent dental caries. The 3% garlic was the most effective among the antimicrobial agents. PMID:25565751

  3. Effect of garlic extract on some serum biochemical parameters and expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Bazrafshani, Mohamad Reza; Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi

    2013-12-01

    Some compounds in the garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL level. However, the mechanism of this specific effect is not fully understood. In the small intestine, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5, G8 and A1 (ABCG5, ABCG8 and ABCA1), as well as Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein have important roles in cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on lipid profile and also expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of N-Marry mice fed a high cholesterol diet as a possible mechanism of garlic effect. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: hypercholesterolmic (received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); Group 2: garlic (received chow + 4% (w/w) garlic extract + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); and Group 3: received chow only. After one month, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected from their heart. The jejunum was removed, washed with PBS and entrocytes were scraped and used for the experiments. Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and expression of mRNA levels for the above-mentioned proteins was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Garlic extract significantly reduced serum lipids (p < 0.05), compared with the hypercholesterolemic group. Expression of the intestinal npc1l1 was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the garlic group, compared with the chow group, while abcg5 (p < 0.01), abcg8 (p < 0.01) and abca1 (p < 0.05) expressions were significantly increased. In conclusion, this study reveals a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of the garlic in lowering serum lipids by decreasing the intestinal lipid absorption and increasing excretion of cholesterol back into the intestinal lumen.

  4. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  5. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Smita; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of an oil extract of garlic on the in vivo intestinal transference of calcium, and also to verify its role in maintaining the bone mineral content and bone tensile strength in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The results suggest that, in this experimental model, oil extract of garlic promotes intestinal transference of calcium by modulating the activities of both intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca(2+) activated ATPase. Also the observed low bone mineral content and low bone tensile strength in these rats were significantly restored by garlic oil supplementation. Further, garlic oil supplementation was able to revive partially the bilateral ovariectomy-induced decrease in the serum estrogen titer. The serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was found unaltered in these rats. The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery in serum estrogen titer in bilaterally ovariectomized rat was found to be persistently associated with enhanced calcium transference and better preservation of bone mineral content. The results of this study propose that the phytoestrogenic efficacy of an oil extract of garlic prevents ovarian hormone deficiency induced bone mineral loss possibly by promoting intestinal transference of calcium through the partial revival of the serum estrogen titer.

  6. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.

  7. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  8. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different. PMID:27548984

  9. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined