Science.gov

Sample records for alliaria petiolata garlic

  1. First report of natural occurrence of Turnip vein-clearing virus in garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2011-2013 plants of the invasive weed species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) were observed with virus-like disease symptoms in three separate locations in Ramsey and Anoka counties, Minnesota. Symptoms consisted of conspicuous mosaic, leaf deformation and stunting. Numerous virus-like pa...

  2. Estimating functional nonlinearity in Alliaria petiolata demographic rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande) invades and degrades woodland habitats in North America. Coupled-plant herbivore population models will be helpful in the design and implementation of effective biological control strategies for this species. Such models will be most u...

  3. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  4. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  5. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management. PMID:25912227

  6. EDAPHIC CONTROLS ON THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF THE INVASIVE PLANT ALLIARIA PETIOLATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard), an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America, is associated with decreases in above and below ground species diversity and alterations to nutrient turnover. Garlic mustard produces a set of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family, sp...

  7. Possible evolution of alliarinoside biosynthesis from the glucosinolate pathway in Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Tina; Møller, Birger L

    2012-05-01

    Nitrile formation in plants involves the activity of cytochrome P450s. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are widespread among plants but generally do not occur in glucosinolate producing species. Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) is the only species known to produce glucosinolates as well as a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside. Furthermore, A. petiolata has been described to release diffusible cyanide, which indicates the presence of unidentified cyanogenic glucoside(s). Our research on A. petiolata addresses the molecular evolution of P450s. By integrating current knowledge about glucosinolate and hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in other species and new visions on recurrent evolution of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis, we propose a pathway for biosynthesis of the γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. Homomethionine and the corresponding oxime are suggested as shared intermediates in the biosynthesis of alliarinoside and 2-propenyl glucosinolate. The first committed step in the alliarinoside pathway is envisioned to be catalysed by a P450, which has been recruited to metabolize the oxime. Furthermore, alliarinoside biosynthesis is suggested to involve enzyme activities common to secondary modification of glucosinolates. Thus, we argue that biosynthesis of alliarinoside may be the first known case of a hydroxynitrile glucoside pathway having evolved from the glucosinolate pathway. An intriguing question is whether the proposed hydroxynitrile intermediate may also be converted to novel homomethionine-derived cyanogenic glucoside(s), which could release cyanide. Elucidation of the pathway for biosynthesis of alliarinoside and other putative hydroxynitrile glucosides in A. petiolata is envisioned to offer significant new knowledge on the emerging picture of P450 functional dynamics as a basis for recurrent evolution of pathways for bioactive natural product biosynthesis. PMID:22212644

  8. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring) and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients). However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests. PMID:26312176

  9. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Robert W; Carr, David E

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring) and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients). However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests. PMID:26312176

  10. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism: biosynthesis of hydrogen cyanide and of the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in relation to sinigrin metabolism in Alliaria petiolata

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Tina; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Olsen, Carl E.; Agerbirk, Niels; Møller, Birger L.; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. Sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance to specialized (glucosinolate-adapted) herbivores. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two classes of specialized metabolites, which generally do not occur in the same plant species. Administration of [UL-14C]-methionine to excised leaves of A. petiolata showed that both alliarinoside and sinigrin were biosynthesized from methionine. The biosynthesis of alliarinoside was shown not to bifurcate from sinigrin biosynthesis at the oxime level in contrast to the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis. Instead, the aglucon of alliarinoside was formed from metabolism of sinigrin in experiments with crude extracts, suggesting a possible biosynthetic pathway in intact cells. Hence, the alliarinoside pathway may represent a route to hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis resulting from convergent evolution. Metabolite profiling by LC-MS showed no evidence of the presence of cyanogenic glucosides in A. petiolata. However, we detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN) release from sinigrin and added thiocyanate ion and benzyl thiocyanate in A. petiolata indicating an enzymatic pathway from glucosinolates via allyl thiocyanate and indole glucosinolate derived thiocyanate ion to HCN. Alliarinoside biosynthesis and HCN release from glucosinolate-derived metabolites expand the range of glucosinolate-related defenses and can be viewed as a third line of defense, with glucosinolates and thiocyanate forming protein being the first and second lines, respectively. PMID:26583022

  11. Density-dependent phytotoxicity of impatiens pallida plants exposed to extracts of Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Barto, E Kathryn; Cipollini, Don

    2009-04-01

    Invasive plants are by definition excellent competitors, either indirectly through competition for resources or directly through allelopathic inhibition of neighboring plants. Although both forms of competition are commonly studied, attempts to explore the interactions between direct and indirect competition are rare. We monitored the effects of several doses of extracts of Alliaria petiolata, a Eurasian invader in North America, on the growth of Impatiens pallida, a North American native, at several planting densities. The density-dependent phytotoxicity model predicts that as plant density increases, individual plant size will decrease, unless a toxin is present in the soil. In this case, individual plant size is predicted to increase as plant density increases, as plants share a limited toxin dose. We tested this model using fractions of an A. petiolata extract enriched in flavonoids or glucosinolates, as well as a combined fraction. The flavonoid-enriched fraction and the combined fraction suppressed I. pallida growth but only when applied at a dose eight times higher than that expected in the field. When treated with a dose equivalent to estimated field exposure levels, I. pallida growth was not distinguishable from that of control plants that received no extract, showing that indirect competition for resources was more important for determining the growth of I. pallida than direct allelopathic inhibition by A. petiolata. This is an important reminder that, even though many plants have the demonstrated potential to exert strong allelopathic effects, those effects may not always be apparent when other forms of competition are considered as well. PMID:19381723

  12. Competitive interactions between a nonmycorrhizal invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, and a suite of mycorrhizal grassland, old field, and forest species

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Gary T.

    2015-01-01

    The widespread invasion of the nonmycorrhizal biennial plant, Alliaria petiolata in North America is hypothesized to be facilitated by the production of novel biochemical weapons that suppress the growth of mycorrhizal fungi. As a result, A. petiolata is expected to be a strong competitor against plant species that rely on mycorrhizal fungi for nutrient uptake services. If A. petiolata is also a strong competitor for soil resources, it should deplete nutrients to levels lower than can be tolerated by weaker competitors. Because the negative effect of losing the fungal symbiont for mycorrhizal plants is greatest when nutrients are low, the ability of A. petiolata to simultaneously suppress fungi and efficiently take up soil nutrients should further strengthen its competitive ability against mycorrhizal plants. To test this hypothesis, we grew 27 mycorrhizal tree, forb and grass species that are representative of invaded habitats in the absence or presence of competition with A. petiolata in soils that had previously been experimentally planted with the invader or left as a control. A history of A. petiolata in soil reduced plant available forms of nitrogen by >50% and phosphorus by 17% relative to control soil. Average mycorrhizal colonization of competitor species was reduced by >50% in A. petiolata history versus control soil. Contrary to expectations, competition between A. petiolata and other species was stronger in control than history soil. The invader suppressed the biomass of 70% of competitor species in control soil but only 26% of species in history soil. In addition, A. petiolata biomass was reduced by 56% in history versus control soil, whereas the average biomass of competitor species was reduced by 15%. Thus, our results suggest that the negative effect of nutrient depletion on A. petiolata was stronger than the negative effect of suppressing mycorrhizal colonization on competitor species. These findings indicate that the inhibitory potential of A

  13. functional analysis of nonlinearity in garlic mustard demographic parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande) invades and degrades woodland habitats in North America. Coupled-plant herbivore population models will be helpful in the design and implementation of effective biological control strategies for this species. Such models will be most u...

  14. Garlic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wilkins; 2000:139–148. Garlic. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June 16, 2009. Garlic ( Allium sativum L.). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  15. Evolutionary feedbacks on the ecology of the invasive plant Alliaria petiolata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological and evolutionary processes historically have been assumed to operate on significantly different time scales. We know now from theory and work on short-lived organisms that these processes can feed back on each other on mutually relevant time scales. Here, we present evidence of an evoluti...

  16. The importance of space, time and stochasticity to the demography and management of Alliaria petiolata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability in demographic rates among natural plant populations can have large impacts on population structure and cause populations to exhibit subtle or radical differences in behavior over time. As population modeling studies are increasingly called upon to guide policy and management decisions, ...

  17. How Does Garlic Mustard Lure and Kill the West Virginia White Butterfly?

    PubMed

    Davis, Samantha L; Frisch, Tina; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Cipollini, Don

    2015-10-01

    As it pertains to insect herbivores, the preference-performance hypothesis posits that females will choose oviposition sites that maximize their offspring's fitness. However, both genetic and environmental cues contribute to oviposition preference, and occasionally "oviposition mistakes" occur, where insects oviposit on hosts unsuitable for larval development. Pieris virginiensis is a pierine butterfly native to North America that regularly oviposits on an invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, but the caterpillars are unable to survive. Alliaria petiolata has high concentrations of the glucosinolate sinigrin in its tissues, as well as a hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. We investigated sinigrin as a possible cause of mistake oviposition, and sinigrin and alliarinoside as possible causes of larval mortality. We found that sinigrin applied to leaves of Cardamine diphylla, a major host of P. virginiensis that does not produce sinigrin, had no effect on oviposition rates. We tested the effect of sinigrin on larval performance using two host plants, one lacking sinigrin (C. diphylla) and one with sinigrin naturally present (Brassica juncea). We found no effect of sinigrin application on survival of caterpillars fed C. diphylla, but sinigrin delayed pupation and decreased pupal weight. On B. juncea, sinigrin decreased survival, consumption, and caterpillar growth. We also tested the response of P. virginiensis caterpillars to alliarinoside, a compound unique to A. petiolata, which was applied to B. oleracea. We found a significant reduction in survival, leaf consumption, and caterpillar size when alliarinoside was consumed. The 'novel weapon' alliarinoside likely is largely responsible for larval failure on the novel host A. petiolata. Sinigrin most likely contributes to the larval mortality observed, however, we did not observe any effect of sinigrin on oviposition by P. virginiensis females. Further research needs to be done on non-glucosinolate contact cues, and

  18. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  19. Consequences of parameterization and structure of applied demographic models: a comment on Pardini et al. (2009)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a recently published study, Pardini et al. (2009, hereafter "PDCK" after the authors' initials) developed a demographic model of the invasive weed Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae [M. Bieb] Cavara and Grande). This was then used to identify optimal stages in the plant's life histo...

  20. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GARLIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic is a vegetatively propagated crop. In constrast to seed-propagated crops, in garlic, cloves are separated from the underground bulbs and planted each fall. By the following summer, each planted clove has grown into a garlic plant which produces a new bulb underground. Most grocery stores s...

  1. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    PubMed

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  2. The Mathematics of Garlic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  3. Regional specificity of genetically diverse garlic varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic is a profitable crop for small to medium-sized vegetable farmers. Despite the increasing market for specialty garlic, it is remarkable how little is known about the diverse types of garlic available. Farmers need to know which garlic types perform well under their growing conditions, and th...

  4. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  5. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Min; Gweon, Oh-Cheon; Seo, Yeong-Ju; Im, Jieun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myo-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were 13.3 ± 0.5 and 59.2 ± 0.8 µmol/g wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:20016716

  6. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  7. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  8. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  11. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  12. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  13. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic. PMID:19929845

  14. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  15. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  16. Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the Use of Spice in European Prehistoric Cuisine

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  17. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    PubMed

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  18. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.

    PubMed

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

    2014-03-25

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, λc, and its geometric mean, λper-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined λc and λper-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (λper-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (λper-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's λper-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (λper-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. PMID:24616522

  19. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtained from Allium sativum, a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil meets the specifications of...

  1. [Antioxidant action of garlic oil and allitridi].

    PubMed

    Fu, N

    1993-08-01

    The lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence (CL) of mouse liver mitochondria induced by a Vc/FeSO4 reaction system was greatly inhibited by garlic oil (GO) and allitridi (Alt) at 0.1 mg/ml. HpD-induced photohemolysis was moderately inhibited by garlic oil (25 micrograms/ml) and allitridi (20 micrograms/ml). Allitridi (200 micrograms/ml) effectively prevented inactivation of red cell membrane acetylcholine sterase (AchEs) caused by .OH, and at 250 micrograms/ml it markedly inhibited blood CL stimulated by croton oil. Garlic oil (5 micrograms/ml) and allitridi (100 micrograms/ml) significantly increased O2-. production. Allitridi at 0.25 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml enhanced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and blood CL caused by H2O2. PMID:8168210

  2. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjay K; Maulik, Subir K

    2002-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficary of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic. PMID:12537594

  3. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material. PMID:24598229

  4. Reproductive and worker castes in the primitively eusocial wasp Belonogaster petiolata (DeGeer) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): evidence for pre-imaginal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Keeping, M G.

    2002-09-01

    Until recently, morphological differences between castes in independent-founding polistine wasps were considered absent. This paper investigates the extent of morphological and physiological differences between reproductive (foundress and gyne) and worker castes of Belonogaster petiolata, and tests the hypothesis that caste differentiation in this species occurs pre-imaginally.Foundresses were significantly larger than workers, to the extent that foundress/worker ratios were comparable with those between queens and workers in some swarm-founding Polistinae. Early emerging workers were small, but body size increased over the colony cycle such that late-season workers were similar in size to gynes. In proportion to body size, workers possessed broader heads while foundresses and gynes had broader thoraces and gasters. All queens, 98% of subordinate foundresses, and 95% of over-wintering gynes were inseminated. Workers were never inseminated and lacked mature ovaries in colonies with active queens. However, in the absence of the queen (and other foundresses), 11% of workers developed mature ovaries. Ovarian size and fat content of foundresses and gynes was significantly greater than that of workers. The differences in external morphology and reproductive physiology between castes support the hypothesis that differentiation occurs pre-imaginally. However, imaginal factors, in particular social dominance of the queen, maintain the reproductive subordinance of workers. PMID:12770049

  5. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Groppo, F C; Ramacciato, J C; Motta, R H L; Ferraresi, P M; Sartoratto, A

    2007-05-01

    The antimicrobial activity of two garlic clones' (1: purple and 2: white) crude extracts against oral microbiota was evaluated in vitro (study 1) and in vivo (study 2). Study 1 consisted of the evaluation of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations against nine streptococci strains. In study 2, a 2.5% garlic (clone 2) solution was used as a mouthwash in a 5-week study by 30 subjects. Blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar were inoculated with subjects' saliva to quantify oral microorganisms and mutans streptococci. Study 1 showed MIC ranging from 0.5 to 32.0 mg ml(-1) for clone 2 and from 8 to 64.0 mg ml(-1) for clone 1. MBC ranged from 1.0 to 128.0 mg ml(-1) and from 8.0 to 128.0 mg ml(-1) regarding clones 2 and 1 respectively. Study 2 showed that 2.5% garlic mouthwash solution had good antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci and oral microorganisms. Maintenance of reduced salivary levels of streptococci was observed after 2 weeks at the end of mouthwash use. Unpleasant taste (100%), halitosis (90%) and nausea (30%) were reported by subjects after the end of the study. It was concluded that the garlic clones have antimicrobial properties in vitro against streptococci and anticariogenic properties against oral microorganism in spite of its adverse effects. PMID:17461963

  6. Mammary cancer prevention by regular garlic and selenium-enriched garlic.

    PubMed

    Ip, C; Lisk, D J; Stoewsand, G S

    1992-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic activities of regular (soil-grown) garlic and selenium-enriched garlic (cultivated in the greenhouse) were evaluated using the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-(DMBA) induced mammary tumor model in rats. In Experiment 1, milled regular garlic powder was added to the basal AIN-76A diet at 20 g/kg. The results from different schedules of supplementation suggested that a continuous treatment, which started before DMBA and persisted for the entire duration of the study, was most effective in tumor suppression. In Experiment 2, selected allyl group-containing sulfides that are normal constituents of garlic extract were given by gavage in three single doses immediately before DMBA. Several structurally related compounds were found to be protective during the initiation phase in the mammary cancer model. Although the present study was not designed specifically to elucidate the structure-activity relationship with respect to sulfur chain length or alkyl versus alkenyl substitution, our data showed that diallyl disulfide was more active than diallyl sulfide or allyl methyl sulfide. In Experiment 3, the anticarcinogenic activity of selenium-enriched garlic (containing 150 ppm Se dry weight from growth in a selenium-fertilized medium) was compared with that of regular garlic as well as selenite. Animals given the selenium-enriched garlic (final concentration 3 ppm Se in the diet) developed the fewest mammary tumors. Tissue selenium levels, however, were lower in these animals than in those fed the same amount of selenium from selenite. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of achieving cancer prevention with the use of a selenium-rich food system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1437646

  7. Effects of garlic preparations on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Kashimoto, N; Kasuga, S

    2001-03-01

    The effects of garlic preparations, including dehydrated raw garlic powder (RGP), dehydrated boiled garlic powder (BGP) and aged garlic extract (AGE), on the gastric mucosa were determined using a newly established endoscopic air-powder delivery system, which can deliver solid materials directly into the stomach. Among the three preparations, RGP caused severe damage, including erosion. BGP also caused reddening of the mucosa, whereas AGE did not cause any undesirable effects. The safety of enteric-coated garlic products was also determined. Direct administration of pulverized enteric-coated products on the gastric mucosa caused reddening of the mucosa. When an enteric-coated tablet was administered orally, it caused loss of epithelial cells at the top of crypts in the ileum. These results suggest that caution be used with regard to safety and effectiveness when choosing a garlic preparation because some preparations may have undesirable effects, including gastrointestinal problems. PMID:11238827

  8. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  9. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  10. Effect of onion and garlic on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagda, K K; Ganeriwal, S K; Nagda, K C; Diwan, A M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts of onion and garlic as well as of garlic oil were studied on the process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro. Only onion was found to exhibit anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic activity while garlic extract as well as garlic oil were inactive. PMID:6885127

  11. Diseases and Disease Management in Seed Garlic: Problems and Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although garlic is occasionally propagated via true seed, routine planting of garlic uses seed cloves as vegetative propagules. The size of seed cloves (large relative to seed of most agronomic crops), their vegetative habit, and routine storage conditions for seed cloves (permissive for most fungi...

  12. [Does garlic protect against vampires? An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, H; Baerheim, A

    1994-12-10

    Vampires are feared everywhere, but the Balkan region has been especially haunted. Garlic has been regarded as an effective prophylactic against vampires. We wanted to explore this alleged effect experimentally. Owing to the lack of vampires, we used leeches instead. In strictly standardized research surroundings, the leeches were to attach themselves to either a hand smeared with garlic or to a clean hand. The garlic-smeared hand was preferred in two out of three cases (95% confidence interval 50.4% to 80.4%). When they preferred the garlic the leeches used only 14.9 seconds to attach themselves, compared with 44.9 seconds when going to the non-garlic hand (p < 0.05). The traditional belief that garlic has prophylactic properties is probably wrong. The reverse may in fact be true. This study indicates that garlic possibly attracts vampires. Therefore to avoid a Balkan-like development in Norway, restrictions on the use of garlic should be considered. PMID:7825135

  13. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  14. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  15. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics. PMID:25438250

  16. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids. PMID:27300762

  17. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  18. Impact of garlic feeding (Allium sativum) on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Hammami, I; El May, M V

    2013-08-01

    Many medicinal plants are designed to improve health but their mechanism of action remains not clear. Among these plants, garlic (Allium sativum) has attracted particular attention of modern medicine because of its widespread use for the prevention and treatment of some human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, the impact of garlic on the male reproductive system has not been clearly defined. Some studies have reported that garlic improves male sexual function and has beneficial effect in the recovery of testicular functions. However, other authors have shown that this plant impairs testicular functions (such as inhibition of testosterone production) and has spermicidal effect on spermatozoa. In this review, we attempt to clarify the current ambiguity regarding the effects of garlic and its preparations on the male reproductive system. PMID:22943423

  19. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    SciTech Connect

    Knasmueller, S. ); Szakmary, A. ); Domjan, G. ); de Martin, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of {gamma}-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detected with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells.

  20. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  1. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  2. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116. PMID:26764332

  3. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. PMID:24989289

  4. Characterization of an Unusual Cytoplasmic Chimera Detected in Bolting Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a visible flower stalk or bolting has been used as a major trait to categorize garlic clones. Analysis of mitochondrial genome variation with PCR revealed differences between bolting and non-bolting clones of garlic. Screening 333 garlic accessions from diverse geographic origins rev...

  5. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  6. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994) (Order). On November... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China...

  7. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ..., 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet...

  8. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Ransom, D K; Hughes, B G

    1992-01-15

    The inhibitory effects of adenosine and 16 quantitatively determined organosulfur compounds derived from garlic cloves or commercial garlic preparations on collagen stimulated in vitro platelet aggregation in whole blood were determined. An estimation of the anti-aggregatory activity of several brands of the major types of commercial garlic preparations was determined from the activities of the individual compounds present in each sample. In platelet rich plasma (PRP) most of the anti-aggregatory activity of garlic clove homogenates was due to adenosine; however, in whole blood neither adenosine nor the polar fraction had any effect and all of the anti-aggregatory activity was due to allicin and other thiosulfinates. Allicin was equally active in whole blood and PRP. Among brands there was a several-fold variation in content of the organosulfur compounds and activity for all types of garlic products tested. The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed. PMID:1579891

  9. Effects of garlic fractions consumption on male reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Imen; Nahdi, Afef; Atig, Fatma; Kouidhi, Wided; Amri, Mohamed; Mokni, Mehrzia; May, Ahmed El; May, Michèle El

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have focused on the preventive and curative effects of garlic (Allium sativum), particularly on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, its impacts on the male reproductive system have not been clearly defined. In this study, the effect of chronic consumption of two garlic fractions was tested: one soluble in water (aqueous solution obtained by grinding and centrifugation) and the other one precipitated by ethanol (alcoholic precipitate obtained by precipitation of the aqueous solution), on different variables of male rats' reproductive functions. These two fractions were targeted to try to identify the nature of the active garlic compounds responsible for the different modifications observed on testicular parameters. The observation of seminiferous tubules of rats treated with garlic fractions showed an increased number of tubules deprived of spermatozoa. In addition, garlic fractions induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick-end labeling [TUNEL] approach) and a decrease of serum testosterone levels and seminiferous tubule DNA concentrations. In summary, our histological and molecular results suggest that one or several substances, soluble in water and precipitated by alcohol, impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:23297714

  10. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-02-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  11. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop.

    PubMed

    Hata, Fernando T; Ventura, Maurício U; Carvalho, Mateus G; Miguel, André L A; Souza, Mariana S J; Paula, Maria T; Zawadneak, Maria A C

    2016-07-01

    The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations. PMID:27085718

  12. Development of Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Garlic Viruses and the Incidence of Garlic Viral Disease in Garlic Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Moon; Lee, Yeong-Hoon; Park, Chung Youl; Lee, Min-A; Bae, Yang-Soo; Lim, Seungmo; Lee, Joong Hwan; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed. To effectively detect the twelve different types of garlic viruses, primer mixtures were tested and divided into two independent sets for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The multiplex PCR assays were able to detect specific targets up to the similar dilution series with monoplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Seventy-two field samples collected by the Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. All seventy two samples were infected with at least one virus, and the coinfection rate was 78%. We conclude that the simultaneous detection system developed in this study can effectively detect and differentiate mixed viral infections in garlic. PMID:25774116

  13. [Biologically active garlic compounds and perspectives of their use in the therapeutic and prophylactic diet (review)].

    PubMed

    Slepko, G I; Lobareva, L S; Mikhalenko, L Ia; Shatniuk, L N

    1994-01-01

    Therapeutic action of garlic and garlic's preparations at diseases of vessels and heart, organs of digestion, breachs of lipid exchange and system mycosis was connected with presence of complex of sulfur contain compounds:thiosulfinates, dialkilsulfides, dithiins, adgoens, thioglycosidepeptides. These compounds were picked out from garlic or synthesired rendered corresponding action to blood's properties, metabolism and infection processes in organism. Garlic preparations in composition of products of nutrition can be effective for different system of prophylactice nutrition and dietotherapy. Scientific and technical dataes were essential for preparation of technology of new products from garlic. PMID:7871772

  14. Bioactive substances of garlic and their role in dietoprophylaxis and dietotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Franciszek; Dabrowska, Monika; Rusaczonek, Anna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    Garlic is characterised by medicinal properties due to the content of over 2000 biologically active substances. Numerous commercially processed garlic forms, which differ in the content of bioactive compounds, especially sulphuric, are available on the market. The knowledge of the types of bioactive substances present in garlic and its products, their changes during treatment and pro-health influence is of crucial importance to the diet supplement producers, doctors, pharmacists and consumers. Therefore, this work has aimed to characterise the most important bioactive substances of garlic, its preparations and describe in detail the role of garlic in dietoprophylaxis and dietotherapy. PMID:17711089

  15. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer; Cekovska, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as ‘Russian penicillin’, ‘natural antibiotic’, ‘vegetable viagra’, ‘plant talisman’, ‘rustic's theriac’, ‘snake grass’ etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life. PMID:22228949

  16. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Kh.I.; Ishioroshi, M.; Samejima, K.

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3°C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log10 CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products. PMID:17330154

  18. Induction of direct somatic embryogenesis in garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Sata, S J; Bagatharia, S B; Thaker, V S

    2000-01-01

    An efficient novel method of direct somatic embryogenesis from basal tissue of garlic clove was developed. The influence of plant growth regulators, basal medium and explant type on somatic embryo induction was examined. The best plant growth regulator combination was, 2,4-D and kinetin at 1.0 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L respectively, inducing direct somatic embryogenesis in 60% of explants. White's medium was used as basal medium and somatic embryos developed on explants after six weeks. The technique has potential applicability for problems associated with plant regeneration and virus elimination in garlic. PMID:11549942

  19. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g(-1), respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g(-1). Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating

  20. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  1. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). PMID:26551789

  2. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54487) and determined on December 5, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 78694, December 19, 2011). The Commission... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  3. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. PMID:24592995

  4. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184.1317 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  5. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  6. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  7. Screening the National Plant Germplasm System's Garlic Collection for Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) collects, maintains, and distributes garlic (Allium sativum) accessions as part of the National Plant Germplasm System. In the regeneration process, accessions are grown under field conditions at the WRPIS farm in Pullman, Washington....

  8. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic. PMID:24579375

  9. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

  10. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  11. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  12. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  13. The invasive plant, Brassica nigra, degrades local mycorrhizas across a wide geographical landscape

    PubMed Central

    Pakpour, Sepideh; Klironomos, John

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of mycorrhizal fungi that form symbioses with local native plants is a strategy used by some invasive exotic plants for competing within their resident communities. Example invasive plants include Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and Brassica nigra (black mustard), both non-mycorrhizal plants in the Family Brassicaceae. Although there is clear evidence for mycorrhizal degradation, it is not known if such an effect is widespread across the naturalized range. In this study, we tested the ability of black mustard to degrade the local mycorrhizal symbiosis and supress the growth of native flora from across a variety of locations where black mustard has invaded. We found that the effects on mycorrhizal fungi and on the growth of native plants were consistently negative at the various sites. The present results indicate that degradation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis by black mustard is of general significance, and may be highly problematic considering the large range that it has occupied in open fields across North America. PMID:26473052

  14. The invasive plant, Brassica nigra, degrades local mycorrhizas across a wide geographical landscape.

    PubMed

    Pakpour, Sepideh; Klironomos, John

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of mycorrhizal fungi that form symbioses with local native plants is a strategy used by some invasive exotic plants for competing within their resident communities. Example invasive plants include Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and Brassica nigra (black mustard), both non-mycorrhizal plants in the Family Brassicaceae. Although there is clear evidence for mycorrhizal degradation, it is not known if such an effect is widespread across the naturalized range. In this study, we tested the ability of black mustard to degrade the local mycorrhizal symbiosis and supress the growth of native flora from across a variety of locations where black mustard has invaded. We found that the effects on mycorrhizal fungi and on the growth of native plants were consistently negative at the various sites. The present results indicate that degradation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis by black mustard is of general significance, and may be highly problematic considering the large range that it has occupied in open fields across North America. PMID:26473052

  15. Pathogenic fungi in garlic seed cloves from the United States and China, and efficacy of fungicides against pathogens in garlic germplasm in Washington State.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially distributed garlic (Allium sativum) seed cloves from six states of the United States and mainland China were surveyed for the presence of fungi recorded as pathogenic to garlic in the literature. Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, Botrytis porri, Embellisia allii, Fusarium oxysporum f. s...

  16. Biomonitoring the intake of garlic via urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Hageman, G J; Rauma, A L; Versluis-de Haan, G; van Herwijnen, M H; de Groot, J; Törrönen, R; Mykkänen, H

    2001-08-01

    Allium vegetables (onions, leeks, chives) and in particular garlic have been claimed to have health-promoting potential. This study was conducted to get insight into the perspectives for monitoring the intake of garlic by a biomarker approach. Chemically, the biomarker results from exposure to gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, which is first hydrolysed by gamma-glutamine-transpeptidase resulting in the formation of S-allyl-l-cysteine. The latter compound is subsequently N-acetylated by N-acetyltransferase into S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) and excreted into urine. The mercapturic acid was measured in urine using gaschromatography with mass spectrometry. Thus the intake of garlic was determined to check the compliance of garlic intake in a placebo-controlled intervention study. Results indicate that S-allyl-mercapturic acid could be detected in 15 out of 16 urine samples of garlic supplement takers, indicating good compliance. In addition, the intake of garlic was also monitored in a cross-section study of vegans versus controls in Finland, in which no differences in garlic consumption nor in ALMA output were recorded between vegans and controls. These data indicate good possibilities for further studies in the field of biomarkers to investigate the putative chemopreventive effects of garlic and garlic-containing products. PMID:11520428

  17. Effects of crude garlic extract on mouse chromosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Das, T; Choudhury, A R; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1996-01-01

    Three concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) of fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) were administered daily by gavage to Swiss albino mice for different durations up to 60 days. These concentrations had been observed to protect significantly against effects of known clastogens. The endpoints scored were frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and damaged cells induced in bone marrow preparations. These parameters were found to be directly dose dependent and after an initial enhancement at 7 days, were reduced following prolonged exposure for 30 and 60 days to the low level observed at 24 hr. Therefore, administration of a low concentration of garlic extract daily is suggested for at least 30 days to obtain the maximum benefit of the extract in protecting against the clastogenic effects of known genotoxicants. PMID:8603796

  18. Garlic supplementation prevents oxidative DNA damage in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Veena; Jain, Sanjay

    2005-07-01

    Oxygen-free radicals and other oxygen/nitrogen species are constantly generated in the human body. Most are intercepted by antioxidant defences and perform useful metabolic roles, whereas others escape to damage biomolecules like DNA, lipids and proteins. Garlic has been shown to contain antioxidant phytochemicals that prevent oxidative damage. These include unique water-soluble organosulphur compounds, lipid-soluble organosulphur compounds and flavonoids. Therefore, in the present study, we have tried to explore the antioxidant effect of garlic supplementation on oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide generation and on the total antioxidant status (TAS) in patients of essential hypertension (EH). Twenty patients of EH as diagnosed by JNC VI criteria (Group I) and 20 age and sex-matched normotensive controls (Group II) were enrolled in the study. Both groups were given garlic pearls (GP) in a dose of 250 mg per day for 2 months. Baseline samples were taken at the start of the study, i.e. 0 day, and thereafter 2 months follow-up. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), lipids, lipid peroxidation (MDA), NO and antioxidant vitamins A, E and C were determined. A moderate decline in blood pressure (BP) and a significant reduction in 8-OHdG, NO levels and lipid peroxidation were observed in Group I subjects with GP supplementation. Further, a significant increase in vitamin levels and TAS was also observed in this group as compared to the control subjects. These findings point out the beneficial effects of garlic supplementation in reducing blood pressure and counteracting oxidative stress, and thereby, offering cardioprotection in essential hypertensives. PMID:16335787

  19. Garlic allicin as a potential agent for controlling oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Gilad; Jamil, Areen; Naor, Ronit; Tal, Golan; Ludmer, Zvi; Steinberg, Doron

    2011-11-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally throughout human history. Allicin is considered the most therapeutic constituent of garlic. This study tested the antimicrobial activity of garlic allicin on oral pathogens associated with dental caries and periodontitis. Allicin was found effective against all the tested bacteria. The broth dilution method revealed that planktonic growth of the cariogenic, gram-positive species Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, and Actinomyces oris was inhibited by an allicin concentration of 600 μg/mL or higher. Planktonic growth of the tested gram-negative periopathogenic species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum was inhibited by a minimum allicin concentration of 300 μg/mL. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic, gram-negative pathogen and the bacterium most associated with chronic periodontitis, demonstrated the lowest sensitivity to allicin (2,400 μg/mL). Gel zymography and the synthetic chromogenic substrate N(α)-benzoyl-L-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride demonstrated that allicin inhibits the proteases of P. gingivalis, including the arginine and lysine gingipains known as major virulence factors of this organism. A gingipain-inactivated mutant demonstrated high sensitivity to allicin (<300 μg/mL), revealing that gingipains confer resistance to allicin. Live/dead staining followed by analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that allicin was bactericidal to S. mutans grown in mature biofilms. However, this bactericidal effect was reduced as biofilm depth increased. In conclusion, these results support the traditional medicinal use of garlic and suggest the use of allicin for alleviating dental diseases. PMID:21548800

  20. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  1. Performance of crossbred calves with dietary supplementation of garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Mehla, R K; Sirohi, S K; Tomar, S K

    2011-08-01

    Twelve crossbred calves (Holstein cross) in their pre-ruminant stage were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance and they were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups in equal number. Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake [dry matter (DM); total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)], feed conversion efficiency (DM, TDN and CP), fecal score and fecal coliform count. Diets were same for both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW/day/calf. BW measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, fecal scores monitored daily and fecal coliform count done weekly. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in mean BW gain and feed intake and a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in severity of scours as measured by fecal score in the treatment group compared to the control group. The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance. PMID:21039933

  2. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M.; Morella, Jacob D.; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications. PMID:24683414

  3. In vitro assessment of the digestibility of forage based sheep diet, supplemented with raw garlic, garlic oil and monensin

    PubMed Central

    Anassori, Ehsan; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farahmand-Azar, Safa; Besharati, Maghsoud; Tahmoozi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL-1, raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL-1 and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL-1 of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisyII and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for DaisyII OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM® Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), DaisyII and gas production techniques overestimated (P < 0.05) OMD. The addition of EO and MON reduced (P < 0.05) the organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) digestion, and gas production volume. The potential of gas production and rate of gas production for EO and MON were the lowest; however, these variables were higher for GAR supplemented groups. It was concluded that raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation. PMID:25653739

  4. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 54430 (September 1, 2011). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR... reasonably foreseeable time.\\3\\ \\3\\ See Fresh Garlic From China; Determination, 77 FR 26579 (May 4,...

  5. Antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) prepared by different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju

    2009-12-01

    This study describes the antioxidant activities and antigenotoxic effects of garlic extracts prepared by different processing methods. Aged-garlic extract (AGE) showed a significantly higher total phenolic content (562.6 +/- 1.92 mg/100 g garlic acid equivalents) than those of raw garlic extract (RGE) or heated garlic extract (HGE). The SC(50) for DPPH RSA in HGE was significantly the highest at 2.1 mg/ml. The SC(50) for SOD-like activity in garlic extracts was, in decreasing order, RGE (7.3 mg/ml) > AGE (8.5 mg/ml) > HGE (9.2 mg /ml). The ED(50) of AGE was the highest (19.3 microg/ml) regarding H2O2 induced DNA damage and its inhibition rate was 70.8%. The ED(50) of RGE for 4-hydroxynonenal (a lipid peroxidation product) induced DNA damage was 38.6 microg/ml, followed by AGE > HGE. Although the heat treatment of garlic tended to decrease the TPC and SOD-like activity and increased DPPH RSA, garlic, in general, has significant antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative DNA damage regardless of processing method. PMID:19711184

  6. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  7. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  8. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994..., 62 FR 27296, 27319-27320 (May 19, 1997). In this instance, Jinyan's sale of subject merchandise was... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

  9. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The raw form of garlic and some of its preparations are widely recognized as antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Herein, we examined the in-vitro antiaggregatory activity (IVAA) of human blood platelets induced by extracts of garlic samples that were ...

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  11. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  12. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic has been used as a folk medicine for a long history. Numerous studies demonstrated that garlic extracts and its sulfur-containing compounds inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation induced by various receptor agonist including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These effects suggest that garl...

  13. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  14. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  15. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  16. Effects of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Akmal, M; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Al-Waili, Hamza; Ali, Amjed; Al-Sahlani, Karem

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice and its bacteriocidal activity against common human pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice was tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus hemolyticus B, S. hemolyticus A, Klebsiella sp., Shigella dysenteriae, and Candida albicans using the disc method. The dilution method was performed by addition of garlic juice to broth media to obtain 1-100% concentrations as vol/vol or wt/vol. Garlic juice was used after 24 hours of storage at 4 degrees C, heating to 100 degrees C for 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes, heating to 80 degrees C for 60 minutes, and 4 hours of exposure to ultraviolet light. Re-culture of specimens taken from garlic-induced negative media was performed in fresh broth free of garlic juice. Results showed that all the isolates were sensitive to fresh garlic juice; the most sensitive was C. albicans, and the least sensitive was S. hemolyticus A. Heating to 100 degrees C for 30 and 60 minutes completely abolished the antimicrobial activity, while heating for 5 and 10 minutes, storage for 24 hours, and 4 hours of ultraviolet exposure decreased it. Garlic juice was bactericidal at concentrations of 5% and more. Thus garlic juice has marked antimicrobial activity that makes it a potential agent to be tested in clinical trials. The antimicrobial activity was compromised by storage and heating; therefore it is advisable to use fresh garlic and avoid boiling it for more than 5 minutes during cooking. PMID:17472490

  17. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect. PMID:26220304

  18. Ephemeral disturbances have long-lasting impacts on forest invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

    2014-07-01

    Ephemeral disturbances are common in many systems. Often, these brief events are assumed to be a nuisance with little long-term ecological impact. We quantified the impact of the ephemeral forest disturbance caused by gypsy moth canopy defoliation on exotic plant invasion in eight hardwood forests in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, USA. Six years following the gypsy moth disturbance, we were able to predict 59% of the increase in Alliaria petiolata abundance and 42% of the increase in Microstegium vimineum abundance with models incorporating an interaction between disturbance severity and propagule pressure. In addition, we found that the disturbance timing had substantial impacts on the invasion dynamics of Alliaria petiolata. Our results suggest that ephemeral disturbances can have important and long-lasting impacts on plant communities, and highlight the need to account for variations in disturbance characteristics and the role of propagule pressure in determining the disturbance-invasion relationship. PMID:25163111

  19. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. PMID:26666973

  20. GARLIC: GAmma Reconstruction at a LInear Collider experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, D.; Brient, J.-C.; Reinhard, M.

    2012-06-01

    The precise measurement of hadronic jet energy is crucial to maximise the physics reach of a future Linear Collider. An important ingredient required to achieve this is the efficient identification of photons within hadronic showers. One configuration of the ILD detector concept employs a highly granular silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeter to identify and measure photons, and the GARLIC algorithm described in this paper has been developed to identify photons in such a calorimeter. We describe the algorithm and characterise its performance using events fully simulated in a model of the ILD detector.

  1. Effects of garlic supplementation on energy status of pre-partum Mahabadi goats

    PubMed Central

    Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Anassori, Ehsan; Zakeri, Zahra; Tahmouzi, Mortaza

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of garlic on some blood metabolites in pre-partum dairy goats, the ration was supplemented with raw garlic at the doses of 0, 30, 50 and 70 g kg-1 of Dry matter (DM) in eight pregnant Mahabadi breed goats (59 ± 1 kg initial live weight) in a replicated Latin square design during the last two months of pregnancy. Each experimental period lasted 14 days with the first 12 days used for diet adaptation and two days of data collection with a 3-days wash-out period between treatments. The results revealed a beneficial increasing effect of garlic (at the level of 70 g kg-1 of DM) on serum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). No effects of garlic supplementation on blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), total triglycerides, total protein, and albumin concentration were observed, except for serum cholesterol concentration, which was reduced (p < 0.05) with 70 g kg-1 of DM of garlic supplementation. Dry matter intake was the same between the different treatment groups and throughout the trial period. Concerning the blood indicators of negative energy balance, no significant effects were found for NEFA and BHB in pre-partum goats however, serum glucose was improved significantly, which showed that garlic supplementation may improve the efficiency of feed utilization. In conclusion, garlic, as feed additives in ruminant nutrition, holds promise for improving feed efficiency and controlling the negative energy balance. PMID:25568720

  2. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells. PMID:27176674

  3. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract. PMID:18299719

  4. Hydroponic cultivation offers a practical means of producing selenium-enriched garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Yoshida, Jiro; Sasaoka, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    Garlic enriched by selenium (Se) could be an excellent source of dietary Se for cancer chemoprevention. The production of high-Se garlic requires Se-fertilized soil, but such soil may pollute the environment. Hydroponics is a closed system that allows good control over Se fertilization without environmental consequences. We examined the effect of hydroponic cultivation on Se uptake and assimilation in garlic seedlings. Garlic bulbs were grown in the nutrient solution without Se for first 2 wk, and with potassium selenate for an additional week. Sulfate in an ordinary hydroponic solution inhibited the absorption and assimilation of selenate, but when a sulfate-free nutrient was used for Se addition, the garlic seedlings accumulated >1 mg Se, dry weight. Through HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS (HPLC-ICP-MS) analysis, Se-methlyselenocysteine (MeSeCys), gamma-glutamyl-Se-methlyselenocysteine (gamma-GluMeSeCys), selenomethionine, and nonmetabolized selenate were identified in water extracts of the garlic seedlings. The results demonstrate that hydroponic enrichment of Se in garlic seedlings could be a practical means of producing organic Se compounds for nutritional supplements. PMID:16484583

  5. HS-GC/MS volatile profile of different varieties of garlic and their behavior under heating.

    PubMed

    Molina-Calle, María; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; de Castro, María D Luque

    2016-05-01

    Garlic is one of the most used seasonings in the world whose beneficial health effects, mainly ascribed to organosulfur compounds, are shared with the rest of the Allium family. The fact that many of these compounds are volatile makes the evaluation of the volatile profile of garlic interesting. For this purpose, three garlic varieties-White, Purple, and Chinese-cultivated in the South of Spain were analyzed by a method based on a headspace (HS) device coupled to a gas chromatograph and mass detector (HS-GC/MS). The main temperatures in the HS were optimized to achieve the highest concentration of volatiles. A total number of 45 volatiles were tentatively identified (among them 17 were identified for the first time in garlic); then, all were classified, also for the first time, and their relative concentration in three garlic varieties was used to evaluate differences among them and to study their profiles according to the heating time. Chinese garlic was found to be the richest variety in sulfur volatiles, while the three varieties presented a similar trend under preset heating times allowing differentiation between varieties and heating time using principal component analysis. Graphical Abstract HS-GC/MS analysis of the volatile profile of garlic. PMID:27002613

  6. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  7. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  8. [Effect of sulfur nutrition for sulfoxide accumulation in garlic bulbs].

    PubMed

    Kosian, A M

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the sulphur nutrition conduction upon sulphoxides accumulation in the garlic bulbs was studied. It was found that application of sulphur as ammonium sulphate in quantity up to 75-100 kg S/ha induced proportional increase of sulphoxides in bulbs from 3.03 up to 4.57 mg/g. Subsequent increasing of the sulphur doses applied did not induce any trustworthy changes. When potassium sulphate was used for feeding similar results were obtained. The potassium and nitrogen increase equivalent to the amounts of them applied together with sulphur did not induce any trustworthy changes too. Also it was registered the garlic variety sulphur nutrition specificity, that was closely connected with degree of the floral spear development. So, in the bulbs of non-spear-forming variety (Ukrainian white) the maximal increasing of the sulphoxide content was 78.6% against control whereas for Boguslavsky 10, the variety with most advanced floral spear (with height up to 125 cm), the increasing of sulphoxides was only 43.6%. PMID:9848149

  9. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  10. Onion and garlic dehydration in the San Emidio Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Ingredients dedicated their new onion and garlic processing plant on May 25th. {open_quotes}Grunion{close_quotes} as the new community of 72 employees has been labeled, is located just south of Empire and Gerlach and about 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada. The plant, run by Integrated Ingredients (based in Alameda, CA), is a division of Burns Philp Food, Inc., which owns brands such as Spice Islands, Durkee-French and Fleischmann`s. This plant gives the company the ability to produce its own products for industrial and consumer markets instead of purchasing them. The plant was located in the San Emidio Desert at the edge of the vast Black Rock Desert and the Great Basin to take advantage of the high temperature geothermal resource (approximately 270{degrees}F). The resource is also used by the OESI/AMOR II 3.6 MW binary plant about a mile south of the dehydration plant and a gold heap leaching operation just to the north of the plant (Wind Mt. mine operated by AMAX). In addition to the geothermal energy, the high desert is an ideal location for onion and garlic processing because the cold winters kill damaging microbes. Dry winters and summers also help.

  11. Characterization of phenolic constituents inhibiting the formation of sulfur-containing volatiles produced during garlic processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Mei-Yun; Hu, Xing-Peng; Ou, Shi-Yi; Yan, Ri-An; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Song; Fu, Liang

    2015-01-28

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.), which is a widely distributed plant, is globally used as both spice and food. This study identified five novel phenolic compounds, namely, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)diosmetin, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, 6-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, and Alliumones A and B, along with nine known compounds 6-14 from the ethanol extract of garlic. The structures of these five novel phenolic compounds were established via extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. The effects of the phenolic compounds isolated from garlic on the enzymatical or nonenzymatical formation of sulfur-containing compounds produced during garlic processing were examined. Compound 12 significantly reduced the thermal decomposition of alliin, whereas compound 4 exhibited the highest percentage of alliinase inhibition activity (36.6%). PMID:25579175

  12. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil. PMID:26710622

  13. Development and evaluation of garlic incorporated ready-to-eat extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Haritha, D; Vijayalakshmi, V; Gulla, S

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate ready to eat extruded snacks incorporated with garlic powder at various levels (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %). The organoleptic evaluation was conducted for the developed products and the well accepted products were selected for further studies like physical properties and shelf life (stored at room temperature for 2 months). The organoleptic evaluation of the developed snacks revealed that 15 % and 20 % garlic incorporated snacks were not acceptable due to strong garlic flavor, therefore T1 (control), T2 (5 % garlic) and T3 ( 10 % garlic) were selected for further studies. The physical properties showed significant changes with incorporation of garlic powder at 0 %-10 % level. There was an increase in mass flow rate, tap density and bulk density but decrease in the water holding capacity, oil absorption capacity and expansion ratio. The water soluble index and moisture retention of the products showed the same values for all the three selected treatments. The products were packed by ordinary, nitrogen and vacuum packing and stored for 2 months. It was found that there was an increase in moisture content and microbial load, however the increase was within limits. The increase in the moisture content was low in nitrogen packed products where as the microbial load decreased with increase in the percentage of garlic incorporation. The nitrogen and vacuum packed products showed less microbial load than the ordinary packed products. Garlic powder can be incorporated at 5 and 10 % levels in ready-to-eat extruded snacks with well acceptability and can be stored for a period of 2 months with nitrogen packing as an effective packaging. PMID:26396341

  14. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27191676

  15. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4℃. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p<0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls. PMID:26761498

  16. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  17. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  18. Purification, characterization and biological activities of a garlic oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sadaji; Okamoto, Kouji; Inanaga, Junji; Karasaki, Yuji

    2008-06-01

    A novel oligosaccharide was purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs via hot water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the oligosaccharide was determined to be 1800. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study showed that ten fructose molecules were connected by beta1-2 linkage to a terminal glucose. The oligosaccharide had cytotoxic activities against human malignant lymphoma cells (U937) and colon adenocarcinoma cells (WiDr) in vitro. Furthermore, this oligosaccharide significantly suppressed the growth of murine colon adenocarcinoma cells (colon 26) in vivo. The oligosaccharide also stimulated interferon-gamma production by human peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro, indicating that it may activate the immunological pathways and suppress the growth of tumors in vivo. PMID:18655544

  19. Antimutagenic effects of garlic extract on chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since ancient times, as a spice and also for its medicinal properties. In present set of investigations antimutagenic effect of garlic extract (GE) has been evaluated using 'in vivo chromosomal aberration assay' in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP), a well-known mutagen, was given at a single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. Pretreatment with 1, 2.5 and 5% of freshly prepared GE was given through oral intubation for 5 days prior to CP administration. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24 and 48 h and their bone marrow tissue was analyzed for chromosomal damage. The animals of the positive control group (CP alone) shows a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations both at 24 and 48 h sampling time. GE, alone did not significantly induced aberrations at either sampling time, confirming its non-mutagenicity. However in the GE pre-treated and CP post-treated groups, a dose dependent decrease in cytogenetic damage was recorded. A significant suppression in the chromosomal aberrations was recorded following pretreatment with 2.5 and 5% GE administration. The anticytotoxic effects of GE were also evident, as observed by significant increase in mitotic index, when compared to positive control group. Reduction in CP induced clastogenicity by GE was evident at 24 h and to a much greater extent at 48 h of cell cycle. Thus results of the present investigations revealed that GE has chemopreventive potential against CP induced chromosomal mutations in Swiss albino mice. PMID:11790451

  20. Mercury modulates selenium activity via altering its accumulation and speciation in garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiating; Hu, Yi; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Dong, Yuanxing; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    Combined pollution of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been known in Wanshan district (Guizhou Province, China). A better understanding of how Se and Hg interact in plants and the phytotoxicity thereof will provide clues about how to avoid or mitigate adverse effects of Se/Hg on local agriculture. In this study, the biological activity of Se has been investigated in garlic with or without Hg exposure. Se alone can promote garlic growth at low levels (<0.1 mg L(-1)), whereas it inhibits garlic growth at high levels (>1 mg L(-1)). The promotive effect of Se in garlic can be enhanced by low Hg exposure (<0.1 mg L(-1)). When both Se and Hg are at high levels, there is a general antagonistic effect between these two elements in terms of phytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data suggest that Se is mainly concentrated in garlic roots, compared to the leaves and the bulbs. Se uptake by garlic in low Se medium (<0.1 mg L(-1)) can be significantly enhanced as Hg exposure levels increase (P < 0.05), while it can be inhibited by Hg when Se exposure levels exceed 1 mg L(-1). The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) mapping further shows that Se is mainly concentrated in the stele of the roots, bulbs and the veins of the leaves, and Se accumulation in garlic can be reduced by Hg. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study indicates that Se is mainly formed in C-Se-C form in garlic. Hg can decrease the content of inorganic Se mainly in SeO3(2-) form in garlic while increasing the content of organic Se mainly in C-Se-C form (MeSeCys and its derivatives). Hg-mediated changes in Se species along with reduced Se accumulation in garlic may account for the protective effect of Hg against Se phytotoxicity. PMID:23765168

  1. A single meal containing raw, crushed garlic influences expression of immunity- and cancer-related genes in whole blood of humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preclinical and epidemiological studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. To probe mechanisms of garlic action in humans, we conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing...

  2. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Elephant Garlic and Its Effect against U2OS Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zehao; Ren, Jianwu

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial function and pharmacological effect of elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) on U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. Materials and Methods: Seven kinds of bacteria were reconstituted, inoculated and tested in this research to evaluate elephant garlic antibacterial activity. By the means of FACS analysis, cell proliferation assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy and Transwell migration assays, the effect of elephant garlic against U2OS human osteosarcoma cells was unveiled. Rerults: The antimicrobial activity of elephant garlic was stronger than ampicillin when used against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus actinomycetes, and gray actinomycetes. Even at a very low concentration (12.5%), elephant garlic still had an antibacterial effect on common bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. The G0/G1 ratio of elephant garlic treated group cells increased while S phase decreased. Elephant garlic extract inhibited the growth of human osteosarcoma cells, U2OS, through preventing the transition from G1 phase to S phase. It reduced osteosarcoma cell, U2OS, invasion ability and significantly increased the proportion of apoptosis. It significantly affected the cytoskeleton generation. Conclusion: Elephant garlic exhibits antibacterial property and has an inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) proliferation and cell activity, suggesting the mechanism of its anticancer effects on U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. PMID:24379966

  4. Addition of garlic or onion before irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatiles and sensory characteristics of cooked ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Sul; Lee, Eun Joo; Moon, Sun Hee; Paik, Hyun Dong; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-06-01

    Addition of 0.5% onion was effective in reducing lipid oxidation in irradiated cooked ground beef after 7 day storage. Addition of garlic or onion greatly increased the amounts of sulfur volatiles from cooked ground beef. Irradiation and storage both changed the amounts and compositions of sulfur compounds in both garlic- and onion-added cooked ground beef significantly. Although, addition of garlic and onion produced large amounts of sulfur compounds, the intensity of irradiation odor and irradiation flavor in irradiated cooked ground beef was similar to that of the nonirradiated control. Addition of garlic (0.1%) or onion (0.5%) to ground beef produced a garlic/onion aroma and flavor after cooking, and the intensity was stronger with 0.1% garlic than 0.5% onion treatment. Considering the sensory results and the amounts of sulfur compounds produced in cooked ground beef with added garlic or onion, 0.5% of onion or less than 0.1% of garlic is recommended to mask or change irradiation off-odor and off-flavor. PMID:21277693

  5. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  6. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Pursuant to the requirements set forth in 19 CFR 351... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's...

  7. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and Preliminary Rescission, in Part, 75 FR 69415... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jinxiang Chengda...

  8. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Review, 75 FR 24578 (May 5, 2010). Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(2)(B)(iv) of the Tariff Act of... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Qingdao...

  9. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ..., and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). On February 12, 2010, the... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1,...

  10. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31,...

  11. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Qingshui and Merry each certified... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of...

  12. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 38986 (July 7, 2010). Extension of Time Limit for... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...: Jacqueline Arrowsmith (Yantai Jinyan Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co.,...

  13. 76 FR 54487 - Fresh Garlic From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... fresh garlic from China (59 FR 59209). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... garlic from China (66 FR 14544). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the...

  14. 77 FR 36255 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 69 FR 33626 (June 16,2004) (``Garlic AR8 Final Results''), and... respondents' water consumption used in the production of fresh garlic; and (6) continued to value Jinan Yipin...-evaluated both respondent's water consumption and determined to value the irrigation pumping costs...

  15. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. PMID:25366263

  16. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats. PMID:26690030

  17. Soil Properties, Nutrient Dynamics, and Soil Enzyme Activities Associated with Garlic Stalk Decomposition under Various Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5∶100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5∶100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks. PMID:23226411

  18. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  19. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  20. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on tissue lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Senapati, S K; Dey, S; Dwivedi, S K; Swarup, D

    2001-08-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract to reduce tissue lead (Pb) concentration was evaluated experimentally in rats. Thirty female rats were divided into five groups, keeping group A as a healthy control. Rats of groups B, C, D and E received lead acetate orally at the rate of 5 mg per kg body weight daily for 6 weeks. The garlic extract was tried in three doses, viz. 100 (low), 200 (medium) and 400 mg (high) per kg body weight orally and given simultaneously with lead salt to the rats of group C, D and E, respectively. Mean blood lead concentrations in lead-exposed rats ranged between 0.13+/-0.02 and 0.96+/-0.06 microg/ml, whereas in garlic-treated rats, the range was between 0.16+/-0.01 and 0.80+/-0.05; 0.13+/-0.01 and 0.71+/-0.06 and 0.14+/-0.01 and 0.60+/-0.05 microg per ml in low, medium and high dose groups, respectively. The mean lead concentration in liver, kidneys, brain and bone of lead exposed rats was 2.943+/-0.206, 4.780+/-0.609, 1.019+/-0.100 and 44.075+/-2.60 microg per ml, respectively. Concomitant use of garlic extract at the three different doses was found to reduce lead concentration considerably indicating the potential therapeutic activity of garlic against lead. PMID:11448543

  1. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  2. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  3. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. PMID:22137346

  4. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Eric R; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn; Olson, Kenneth R

    2016-06-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. PMID:27101293

  5. Garlic attenuates histological and histochemical alterations in livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Riad, N H; Taha, H

    2016-08-01

    Interest in screening for new anti-schistosomal agents is growing because of increased concerns about resistance to and safety of praziquantel. We investigated the anti-schistosomal action of prophylactic and therapeutic doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical alterations caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Livers of infected mice were characterized by granulomas, periportal inflammation and fibrosis, hepatocyte vacuolation, fatty degeneration and necrosis, and hypertrophy and pigmentation of Kupffer cells. Significant depletion of carbohydrates and increased lipid vacuoles also were observed. All garlic regimens caused suppression of granuloma formation and amelioration of histological and histochemical changes; the continuous treatment protocol produced the best results. Garlic appears to be a safe and economical anti-schistosomal adjuvant for attenuating the pathogenicity of schistosomiasis. PMID:27045197

  6. Cancer chemoprevention by garlic and its organosulfur compounds-panacea or promise?

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2008-04-01

    Of late medicinal plants and functional foods rich in bioactive phytochemicals have received growing attention as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies as well as laboratory data supports the anticancer properties of garlic widely used as a medicinal herb and spice. Garlic and its organosulfur compounds (OSCs) appear to exert their anticarcinogenic effects through multiple mechanisms that include modulation of carcinogen metabolism, inhibition of DNA adduct formation, upregulation of antioxidant defences and DNA repair systems, and suppression of cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression and/or inducing apoptosis. Since multiple signaling pathways are dysfunctional in cancer and new oncogenic mutations accumulate with carcinogenic progression, dietary agents such as garlic with its rich array of bioactive OSCs that modulate cancer cascades offer promise as potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:18393790

  7. Electrochemical bromination of organosulfur containing species for the determination of the strength of garlic (A. sativum).

    PubMed

    Hall, Elise M; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2016-05-15

    The extraction by ethyl acetate and subsequent electrochemical detection of organosulfur containing molecules from garlic is demonstrated. The electrochemical results first evidence the high sensitivity of the process towards the model compound propyl disulfide. Through the in situ formation of bromine at a platinum electrode the propyl disulfide can be readily detected at concentrations as low as 12.5 μM. Second, the work focuses on the detection of organosulfur from fresh garlic samples. Extraction of the organosulfur 'flavour' molecules is achieved with ethyl acetate. Addition of this extract to the electrochemical cell results in an analytically useful signal allowing the voltammetric peak height to be successfully correlated with the garlic strength, as measured using an organoleptic tasting panel. PMID:26776039

  8. The insecticidal activity of recombinant garlic lectins towards aphids.

    PubMed

    Fitches, Elaine; Wiles, Duncan; Douglas, Angela E; Hinchliffe, Gareth; Audsley, Neil; Gatehouse, John A

    2008-10-01

    The heterodimeric and homodimeric garlic lectins ASAI and ASAII were produced as recombinant proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The proteins were purified as functional dimeric lectins, but underwent post-translational proteolysis. Recombinant ASAII was a single homogenous polypeptide which had undergone C-terminal processing similar to that occurring in planta. The recombinant ASAI was glycosylated and subject to variable and heterogenous proteolysis. Both lectins showed insecticidal effects when fed to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in artificial diet, ASAII being more toxic than ASAI at the same concentration. Acute toxicity (mortality at < or =48 h exposure; similar timescale to starvation) was only apparent at the highest lectin concentrations tested (2.0 mg ml(-)1), but dose-dependent chronic toxicity (mortality at >3d exposure) was observed over the concentration range 0.125-2.0 mg ml(-1). The recombinant lectins caused mortality in both symbiotic and antibiotic-treated aphids, showing that toxicity is not dependent on the presence of the bacterial symbiont (Buchnera aphidicola), or on interaction with symbiont proteins, such as the previously identified lectin "receptor" symbionin. A pull-down assay coupled with peptide mass fingerprinting identified two abundant membrane-associated aphid gut proteins, alanyl aminopeptidase N and sucrase, as "receptors" for lectin binding. PMID:18707000

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

  10. Role of Garlic Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Tabinda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Rapidly growing prevalence of cardiovascular disease is a major threat for the developed as well as developing world warranting urgent need of intervention. Complementary and alternative medicines are gaining popularity among general population because of their safety profile and easy administration. Garlic, in particular, is considered to be one of the best disease-preventive foods because of its potent and widespread effects. This study was done to find out the role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention. Methodology. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for the literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Results. Various clinical trials and meta-analyses conducted have shown positive impact of garlic in cardiovascular-disease prevention especially its effects on lipid levels; however, some contradictory results are also reported. Similarly, its effects on hypertension control, and platelet are also mild with limited data availability. The possible reason for these inconsistent results is the difference in preparations with diverse composition, variations in sulphur content present in different garlic preparations used, and methodological variations in subject recruitment, duration of study, dietary control and so forth. Conclusion. Garlic can be used as an adjuvant with lipid-lowering drugs for control of lipids, however, its role as a main therapeutic agent cannot be recommended and it is suggested that more meta-analyses using standardized preparations with a close watch on methodological shortfalls should be conducted to prove its role. PMID:23690831

  11. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  12. Tomato and garlic can modulate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Ghosh, S; Das, S

    2003-06-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Compounds like diallyl sulfides, diallyl disulfides and quercetin, which are active components of garlic, have known anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic activities. Similarly, active components in tomato, such as kaempferol and chlorogenic acid, have antimutagenic activities and lycopene is the most active oxygen quencher with potential chemopreventive activities. In view of this, an endeavour was made to evaluate the anticarcinogenic effect, if any, of tomato and garlic consumption individually and in combination on azoxymethane-induced colonic precancerous lesion, the aberrant crypt foci in animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats (4-5 weeks old) were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg b.w.) and orally administered with 2% (w/v) of tomato, garlic and a combination of both. After 12 weeks of first azoxymethane injection, colons were assessed for aberrant crypt foci and compared with the carcinogen control group. Lipid peroxidation level and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were assessed in liver as well as in colon. Furthermore, in situ cell proliferation and apoptosis were estimated using the Brdu incorporation method and TUNEL method respectively. It was observed that aberrant crypt foci were reduced in all treated groups (by 32.11% in garlic, by 76.14% in tomato and by 55.96% in the combination group). Among treated groups, GST activity was found to be induced in both liver and colon, whereas considerable reduction in lipid peroxidation level was observed in liver as well as in colon with respect to the carcinogen control group. Significant reduction in Brdu labelling index and increase in apoptotic index in colon was noted in the treated groups. These results suggest that tomato and garlic suspensions have a protective effect on colon carcinogenesis, which is mediated by modulation of different biological pathways during carcinogenesis. PMID:12771557

  13. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  14. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  16. Complete nucleotide sequences of attenuated and severe isolates of Leek yellow stripe virus from garlic in northern Japan: identification of three distinct virus types in garlic and leek world-wide.

    PubMed

    Takaki, F; Sano, T; Yamashita, K; Fujita, T; Ueda, K; Kato, T

    2005-06-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of three isolates (two severe and one attenuated) of the potyvirus Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the main causal agent of the garlic mosaic disease that is prevalent in Aomori prefecture, northern Japan. They contained 10,296-10,297 nucleotides and encoded a deduced polyprotein of 3,215 amino acids. Sequence variation among the three isolates was 1.5% at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Surprisingly, the sequences of all three isolates were quite different from that of recently described garlic isolate of LYSV from China. Sequence similarities among the 5'-UTR and P1 regions were only 56-57% and 52-53%, respectively, raising the possibility that these isolates may actually be distinct virus species. Phylogenetic analyses using 5'-UTR, P1 protein and coat protein revealed that all LYSV isolates described to date can be divided into three groups; i.e., those from leek, those from garlic in northern Japan, and those from garlic in southern Japan, China, and other parts of the world. The garlic isolates from northern Japan were more closely related to LYSV isolates from leek than to garlic isolates from southern Japan and China, suggesting a different origin for the garlic cultivars now cultivated in northern Japan. PMID:15703850

  17. Effect of garlic, onion, and their combination on the quality and sensory characteristics of irradiated raw ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Sul; Lee, Eun Joo; Moon, Sun Hee; Paik, Hyun Dong; Nam, Kichang; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-10-01

    Irradiated raw ground beef had lower a*- and b*-values than nonirradiated ones regardless of garlic or onion treatment at 0 d. Irradiation increased TBARS values of control ground beef, but addition of 0.5% onion or 0.1% garlic+0.5% onion reduced oxidative changes during storage. Addition of garlic or onion greatly increased the amounts of sulfur compounds, but the increase was greater with garlic. With irradiation, the profiles and amounts of S-volatiles in raw ground beef changed significantly. However, the intensity of irradiation aroma in irradiated raw ground beef with garlic or onion was similar to that of the nonirradiated control. This indicated that some of the sulfur compounds unique to garlic or onion interacted with common sulfur compounds detected in irradiated meat and masked or changed the odor characteristics of irradiated raw ground beef. It was concluded that >0.5% onion or <0.01% garlic would be needed to mask or prevent irradiation aroma in irradiated raw ground beef. PMID:21600702

  18. Determination of added sulfites in dried garlic with a modified version of the optimized Monier-Williams method.

    PubMed

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefevre, Stephane; Achouri, Djamila

    2007-01-01

    The optimized Monier-Williams method is slightly modified so that it could be applied for determining sulfite content in dried garlic. Dried garlic sample is directly acidified in a reactor at a pH below 3. At this pH level, the alliinase enzyme activity is irreversibly blocked, and the sulfur-containing amino acids such as alliin (the most abundant) present in dried garlic cannot be transformed into corresponding thiosulfinates such as allicin, which is absent in dried garlic. This prevents allicin from reacting with added sulfites and being probably converted to S-allyl thiosulfate, which is not volatile and has no taste. It is found that at a pH below 2.4 and at boiling water temperature, allicin produces sulfur dioxide in adequate quantity to explain the false-positive results when utilizing the optimized Monier-Williams method with allicin suppression for unsulfited dried garlic samples. Finally, when garlic samples are stabilized in a phosphoric acid buffer at a final pH around 2.4, no sulfite is produced during the Monier-Williams distillation, which is further proof there are no naturally occurring sulfites in unsulfited dried garlic under these mild conditions. PMID:17760347

  19. The effect of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract on infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free embryonic egg

    PubMed Central

    Mohajer Shojai, Tabassom; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Barin, Abbas; Sadri, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV. Materials and Methods: The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10-3 titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract. Results: Based on our results, in the second group, IBV vaccine strain (4/91) at all titration and M41 in 10-2 and 10-3 titration and in the third group both variants of virus the embryonic Index (EI) was significantly increased. Conclusion: The garlic extract had inhibitory effects on IBV in the chickens embryo. PMID:27516987

  20. Garlic inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression in human liver and intestinal cell lines and in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Marie C; Wang, Er-Jia; Lee, Catherine; Chin, K T; Liu, Depei; Chiu, Jen-Fu; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

    2002-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that fresh garlic has lipid-lowering activity. Because the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) plays a pivotal role in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, we evaluated the effect of garlic on the expression of the MTP gene in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in rats. Fresh garlic extract (FGE) reduced MTP mRNA levels in both the human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal carcinoma Caco-2 cells in dose-dependent fashion; significant reductions were detected with 3 g/L FGE. Maximal 72 and 59% reductions, respectively, were observed with 6 g/L FGE. To evaluate the in vivo effect of garlic on MTP gene expression, rats were given a single oral dose of fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), with hepatic and intestinal MTP mRNA measured 3 h after dosing. Rats fed FGH had significantly (46% of the control) lower intestinal MTP mRNA levels compared with the control rats, whereas hepatic MTP mRNA levels were not affected. These results suggest a new mechanism for the hypolipidemic effect of fresh garlic. Long-term dietary supplementation of fresh garlic may exert a lipid-lowering effect partly through reducing intestinal MTP gene expression, thus suppressing the assembly and secretion of chylomicrons from intestine to the blood circulation. PMID:12042427

  1. Tomato and garlic by gavage modulate 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, V; Velmurugan, B; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2004-07-01

    Chemoprotection by dietary agents is a promising strategy for cancer prevention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined effect of tomato and garlic against 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genetic damage and oxidative stress in 12-14-week-old male Swiss albino mice. The animals were randomized into experimental and control groups and divided into eight groups of five animals each. Group 1 animals were injected intraperitoneally with 35 mg/kg body weight DMBA suspended in peanut oil as a single dose. Groups 2-4 animals received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic for 5 days by gavage, respectively, followed by DMBA 1.5 h after the final feeding. The doses of tomato and garlic correspond to the average human daily consumption. Animals in groups 5, 6 and 7 received tomato alone, garlic alone and tomato + garlic combination, respectively, for 5 days. Group 8 animals received the same volume of water and served as control. The incidence of bone marrow micronuclei and the extent of lipid peroxidation and the concentrations of antioxidants glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in the liver, 48 h after DMBA exposure. Increased frequency of micronuclei and enhanced lipid peroxidation accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses were observed in DMBA-treated animals. Although pretreatment with tomato or garlic significantly reduced the frequency of DMBA-induced bone marrow micronuclei, the combination of tomato and garlic exhibited more profound effect in inhibiting DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress. We suggest that a broad spectrum of antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects can be achieved through an effective combination of functional foods such as tomato and garlic. PMID:15264010

  2. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  3. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR GARLIC AND ONION: GOALS OF A FUNDED USDA-IFAFS GRANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enormous genomic resources are being developed for model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, it is not clear how broadly these genomic resources can be applied to the genetic improvement of more distantly related plants. Asparagus, garlic, and onion are the most economically important no...

  5. A Classroom Demonstration of Garlic Extract and Conventional Antibiotics' Antimicrobial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekunsanmi, Toye J.

    2005-01-01

    The Kirby-Bauer method is regularly used to test bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and is often employed in the classroom for teaching this concept. In this exercise, additional materials and instructions were given to students for the preparation of garlic extract and loading on blank BBL paper discs. They were further instructed to test…

  6. Evaluation of the National Plant Germplasm System's Garlic Collection for Seven Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The garlic (Allium sativum L.and A. longicuspis Regel.) germplasm maintained by the USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) was screened for viruses. Over 200 accessions were rated for the incidence of symptomatic plants in July 2005 and June 2006. Symptoms indicative of viru...

  7. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a compound including secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulfinatate oxide (PTSO), on in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound of P...

  8. Diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) using SSR, EST and AFLP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm from the center of origin/diversity is important for the breeding and fingerprinting crop plants. In this study we utilized both dominant and co-dominant markers for the characterization of garlic samples from diverse geographic origins to assess the relative utility of these markers to id...

  9. Molecular markers: are they really useful to detect genetic variability in local garlic collections?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important activity in economic and social terms in Argentina. The traditional techniques of improvement have allowed us to obtain monoclones with proven superiority, compared with to the populations of origin. Currently these materials have been re...

  10. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... interested party group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 54487, September 1, 2011) of the subject... rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review AGENCY: United...

  11. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  12. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... given in the Federal Register (74 FR 40567, 8-12-2009) and the application has been processed pursuant... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated... following conditions: 1. All foreign-origin dehydrated garlic admitted to the subzone in foreign status...

  13. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77 FR 73980 (December 12, 2012) (Preliminary Results), and... limit for these final results by 60 days to June 10, 2013.\\3\\ \\2\\ Id., 77 FR at 73981. \\3\\ See...: Final Results of New Shipper Review, 75 FR 61130 (October 4, 2010) (08/09 Garlic NSR). Because the...

  14. In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Snow Mountain Garlic.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an important medicinal herb of culinary value by imparting its flavors and odors to the food. Allicin, a notable flavonoid in garlic, is a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound. Due to poor bioavailability, garlic is of limited use for oral human consumption. Being sexually sterile, propagation of garlic is done by individual cloves from a bulb which increases the chances of transfer of viral diseases. In this chapter, an efficient and improved regeneration protocol for explant establishment and shoot multiplication under in vitro conditions is described. A high rate of shoot multiplication is obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l KN, and 2.0 mg/l GA3. Addition of 1.0 mg/l NAA to MS medium resulted in rooting at the shoot bases. A detailed method for encapsulation of explant in sodium alginate beads and their cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration is also described. PMID:27108328

  15. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  16. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) fertility: transcriptome and proteome analyses provide insight into flower and pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh-Mayer, Einat; Ben-Michael, Tomer; Rotem, Neta; Rabinowitch, Haim D.; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Perlikowski, Dawid; Sherman, Amir; Kamenetsky, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Commercial cultivars of garlic, a popular condiment, are sterile, making genetic studies and breeding of this plant challenging. However, recent fertility restoration has enabled advanced physiological and genetic research and hybridization in this important crop. Morphophysiological studies, combined with transcriptome and proteome analyses and quantitative PCR validation, enabled the identification of genes and specific processes involved in gametogenesis in fertile and male-sterile garlic genotypes. Both genotypes exhibit normal meiosis at early stages of anther development, but in the male-sterile plants, tapetal hypertrophy after microspore release leads to pollen degeneration. Transcriptome analysis and global gene-expression profiling showed that >16,000 genes are differentially expressed in the fertile vs. male-sterile developing flowers. Proteome analysis and quantitative comparison of 2D-gel protein maps revealed 36 significantly different protein spots, 9 of which were present only in the male-sterile genotype. Bioinformatic and quantitative PCR validation of 10 candidate genes exhibited significant expression differences between male-sterile and fertile flowers. A comparison of morphophysiological and molecular traits of fertile and male-sterile garlic flowers suggests that respiratory restrictions and/or non-regulated programmed cell death of the tapetum can lead to energy deficiency and consequent pollen abortion. Potential molecular markers for male fertility and sterility in garlic are proposed. PMID:25972879

  17. Development and validation of new SSR markers from expressed regions in the garlic genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers is available for the genome of garlic (Allium sativum L.) although SSR markers have become one of the most preferred marker systems because they are typically co-dominant, reproducible, cross species transferable and highly polymorphic. In this ...

  18. Hepatoprotective potentials of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Obioha, Udoka E; Suru, Stephen M; Ola-Mudathir, Kikelomo F; Faremi, Toyin Y

    2009-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rats is reported. Control group received double-distilled water alone. Cd group was challenged with 3CdSO(4).8H(2)O (as Cd; 1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) alone, while extract-treated groups were pretreated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g bw per day per oral) for a week and thereafter co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) for 3 weeks. Cd caused a marked (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione S-transferase, whereas glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were decreased in the liver. We also observed a decrease in hepatic activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase and a concomitant increase in the plasma activities of ALT and AST. Onion and garlic extracts significantly attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract proffered a dose-dependent hepatoprotection. Our study showed that Cd-induced oxidative damage in rat liver is amenable to attenuation by high dose of onion and moderate dose of garlic extracts possibly via reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defense system that is insufficient to prevent and protect Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:19082532

  19. Modification of clastogenicity of three known clastogens by garlic extract in mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Das, T; Roychoudhury, A; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1993-01-01

    The anticlastogenic activity of crude extract of garlic (Allium sativum L.) was studied in bone marrow cells of mice. Male laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice were given one of three concentrations of the freshly prepared extract (100 mg, 50 mg, and 25 mg/kg body weight) as a dietary supplement by gavage for 6 consecutive days. On the seventh day the mice were administered a single acute dose of two known clastogens, mitomycin C(1.5 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (25 mg/kg) or sodium arsenite (2.5 mg/kg), simultaneously with garlic extract. After 24 hr, chromosome preparations were made from the bone marrow cells. The endpoint studied were chromosomal aberrations and damaged cells. Garlic extract alone induced a low level of chromosomal damage. The clastogenicity of all three mutagens were reduced significantly in the animals which had been given garlic extract as dietary supplement. The extent of reduction was different for the three clastogens and may be attributed to the interaction with the different components of the extract. PMID:8491218

  20. Reduction of chrysotile asbestos-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Yadava, Santosh; Papp, Thilo; Schiffmann, Dietmar; Rahman, Qamar

    2004-11-28

    Asbestos fibers are well known environmental carcinogen, however, the underlying mechanisms of their action have still not clearly been identified. Asbestos is capable of depleting glutathione and generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators of damage in biological system. Asbestos-induced mutagenecity, may be mediated by the generation. It is known that a number of scavengers and antioxidants attenuate asbestos-induced ROS release. Furthermore, it is known that garlic, contains numerous sulfur compounds and glutathione precursors which act as antioxidants and also demonstrate anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether garlic extract has any influence on asbestos-mediated genotoxicity. As an assay system, we applied the micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchanges, and chromosomal aberrations with human peripheral blood lymphocytes, which has already been used to analyze the genotoxicity of asbestos fibers. Our results indicate that garlic extract, when administered to the lymphocytes cell culture simultaneously with chrysotile reduced the rates of micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchanges, and chromosomal aberrations significantly. We conclude that garlic extract may be an efficient, physiologically tolerable quencher of asbestos-mediated genotoxicity. PMID:15454308

  1. [Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic].

    PubMed

    Montalti, M; Lucadei, P; Fioriti, M; Luchetti, E; Sanchez, M A; Filippousi, M; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2007-01-01

    We want to evaluate the incidence of allergic problems in a population of catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course. We enrolled in the study 601 students of a professional catering school: 412 in the first year and 189 in the fifth years. We used two questionnaires to investigate respiratory problems and dermatological ones. All the subjects were also patch tested with 10 aptens. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. We can observe a rising in positive reaction between the two group of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic. In particular we found an higher incidence of positive patch reaction in female population. On the contrary the rising in positive reaction to Garlic is higher in male. About two third of the subjects positive to garlic present a sensitization to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. The higher incidence of allergic pathology between students during fifth year of school and students at first year is probably due to scholastic practical activity. PMID:18410000

  2. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34-7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  3. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, F M; Yousef, M I; El-Naga, N I Abou

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120 mg/kg BW) to induce diabetes. A dose of 1 ml of either onion or garlic juices/100 g body weight (equivalent to 0.4 g/100 g BW) was orally administered daily to alloxan-diabetic rats for four weeks. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared to the control group. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline and acid phosphatases (AlP, AcP) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma and testes of alloxan-diabetic rats, while these activities were decreased in liver compared with the control group. Brain LDH was significantly (p<0.05) increased. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of glutathione S-transferase in plasma, liver, testes, brain, and kidney were increased in alloxan-diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of either garlic or onion juices could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels. The present results showed that garlic and onion juices exerted antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes. PMID:15582196

  4. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kojuri, Javad; Vosoughi, Amir R; Akrami, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Background hyperlipidemia as a major risk factor of atherosclerosis is treated with different drugs. Concerning length of therapy and vast majority of side effects, herbal medication may be suitable substitute for these drugs. Methods In this single-blind, placebo controlled study, lipid profiles of 150 hyperlipidemic patients in cardiology outpatient department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were checked at same conditions. They were divided into three equal groups randomly (each composing of 50 patients). They were given enteric-coated garlic powder tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic, 1 mg allicin) twice daily, anethum tablet (650 mg) twice daily, and placebo tablet. All patients were put on NCEP type Π diet and Six weeks later, lipid profiles were checked. Results In garlic group: total cholesterol (decreased by 26.82 mg/dl, 12.1% reduction, and P-value: .000), and LDL-cholesterol (decreased by 22.18 mg/dl, 17.3% reduction, and P-value: .000) dropped. HDL-cholesterol (increased by 10.02 mg/dl, 15.7% increase, and P-value: .000) increased. Although triglyceride dropped by 13.72 mg/dl (6.3%) but this was not significant statistically (P-value: .222). In anethum group: surprisingly, triglyceride increased by 14.74 mg/dl (6.0%). Anethum could reduce total cholesterol by 0.4 % and LDL-cholesterol by 6.3% but these were not significant statistically (P-value: .828, and .210, respectively). Conclusion Anethum has no significant effect on lipid profile, but garlic tablet has significant favorable effect on cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Garlic may play an important role in therapy of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:17328819

  5. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P; Fakler, Peter; Sullivan, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological treatment options for hypertension have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease at a population level. Animal studies have suggested that garlic reduces blood pressure, but primary studies in humans and non-systematic reviews have reported mixed results. With interest in complementary medicine for hypertension increasing, it is timely to update a systematic review and meta-analysis from 1994 of studies investigating the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. Methods We searched the Medline and Embase databases for studies published between 1955 and October 2007. Randomised controlled trials with true placebo groups, using garlic-only preparations, and reporting mean systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and standard deviations were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted subgroup meta-analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive), for the first time. Meta-regression analysis was performed to test the associations between blood pressure outcomes and duration of treatment, dosage, and blood pressure at start of treatment. Results Eleven of 25 studies included in the systematic review were suitable for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of all studies showed a mean decrease of 4.6 ± 2.8 mm Hg for SBP in the garlic group compared to placebo (n = 10; p = 0.001), while the mean decrease in the hypertensive subgroup was 8.4 ± 2.8 mm Hg for SBP (n = 4; p < 0.001), and 7.3 ± 1.5 mm Hg for DBP (n = 3; p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed a significant association between blood pressure at the start of the intervention and the level of blood pressure reduction (SBP: R = 0.057; p = 0.03; DBP: R = -0.315; p = 0.02). Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that garlic preparations are superior to placebo in reducing blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. PMID:18554422

  6. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices. PMID:25679258

  7. In vitro assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic (allium sativum) extracts on pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K

    2015-04-01

    The study was aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of crude and aqueous extract of garlic (Allium stivum) against standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and antibiotic Imipenem were also determined with the help of broth dilution method. Inhibitory effect of crude garlic extract (CGE) was determined by inoculation of bacteria in CGE incorporated nutrient agar (NA) media and for AGE antibacterial effect was determined by disc diffusion method. All experiments except disc diffusion procedure were reconfirmed by subculture in pure NA media. In case of CGE the growth inhibition of test organism was observed in 30% CGE incorporated NA media. On the other hand sensitivity of AGE also determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 7 mm, 12 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. The MICs of AGE and Imipenem were 600 μg/ml and 1μg/ml. The MIC of imipenen was far less in comparison with the MIC of AGE. From the findings it is clearly determined that both the extracts have definite antibacterial effect upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. Only then the Garlic extracts fulfilled the criteria for its therapeutic use. Still then external application advised for burn and superficial skin infections and may be used in food poisoning, and respiratory tract infection along with conventional antibiotics which are used in those conditions. PMID:26007246

  8. 77 FR 65171 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994), remains dispositive. Methodology The Department has... covered by the order includes all grades of garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves....

  9. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...'') Review, 76 FR 54430 (September 1, 2011). The Department received a notice of intent to participate from... garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves, whether or not peeled, fresh, chilled,...

  10. Treatment with garlic restores membrane thiol content and ameliorates lead induced early death of erythrocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Avik; Sengupta, Dipanwita; Mandal, Samir; Sen, Gargi; Dutta Chowdhury, Kaustav; Chandra Sadhukhan, Gobinda

    2015-04-01

    Sequelae of chronic lead (Pb(2+) ) toxicity includes anemia that is partially due to early death of erythrocytes characterized by excess accumulation of ROS and downregulation of antioxidant system causing oxidative stress and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In this study, pathophysiological based therapeutic application of garlic was evaluated against erythrocyte death. Results suggest that garlic administration prevents oxidative stress, restored the antioxidant balance in erythrocytes of Pb(2+) exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that activity of both scramblase and aminophospholipid translocase could be changed by modifying the critical sulfhydryl groups in presence of dithiothreitol during Pb(2+) exposure. Data also indicated that garlic treatment in Pb(2+) exposed mice exhibited sharp decline in PS exposure and increase in erythrocyte membrane thiol group followed by increase in aminophospholipid translocase activity and decline in scramblase activity. Findings indicated that garlic has the ability to restore the lifespan of erythrocytes during Pb(2+) exposure. PMID:23997012

  11. Invader disruption of belowground plant mutualisms reduces carbon acquisition and alters allocation patterns in a native forest herb.

    PubMed

    Hale, Alison N; Lapointe, Line; Kalisz, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants impose novel selection pressures on naïve mutualistic interactions between native plants and their partners. As most plants critically rely on root fungal symbionts (RFSs) for soil resources, invaders that disrupt plant-RFS mutualisms can significantly depress native plant fitness. Here, we investigate the consequences of RFS mutualism disruption on native plant fitness in a glasshouse experiment with a forest invader that produces known anti-fungal allelochemicals. Over 5 months, we regularly applied either green leaves of the allelopathic invader Alliaria petiolata, a nonsystemic fungicide to simulate A. petiolata's effects, or green leaves of nonallelopathic Hesperis matronalis (control) to pots containing the native Maianthemum racemosum and its RFSs. We repeatedly measured M. racemosum physiology and harvested plants periodically to assess carbon allocation. Alliaria petiolata and fungicide treatment effects were indistinguishable: we observed inhibition of the RFS soil hyphal network and significant reductions in M. racemosum physiology (photosynthesis, transpiration and conductance) and allocation (carbon storage, root biomass and asexual reproduction) in both treatments relative to the control. Our findings suggest a general mechanistic hypothesis for local extinction of native species in ecosystems challenged by allelopathic invaders: RFS mutualism disruption drives carbon stress, subsequent declines in native plant vigor, and, if chronic, declines in RFS-dependent species abundance. PMID:26506529

  12. Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Harnly, James M

    2005-11-16

    Two garlic subspecies (n = 11), Allium sativum L. var. opioscorodon (hardneck) and Allium sativum L. var. sativum (softneck), were evaluated for their free amino acid composition. The free amino acid content of garlic samples analyzed ranged from 1121.7 to 3106.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight (mean = 2130.7 +/- 681.5 mg/100 g). Hardneck garlic had greater methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids contents compared to softneck garlic. The major free amino acid present in all but one subspecies was glutamine (cv. Mother of Pearl had aspartic acid as the major free amino acid). Cv. Music Pink garlic (a rocambole hardneck variety) contained the most methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids. The solid-phase extraction, alkylchloroformate derivatization, GC-FID, and GC-MS methods used in this study were simple and rapid, allowing 18 free amino acids in garlic to be separated within 10 min. PMID:16277408

  13. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  14. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  15. Evaluating the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw and steamed garlic as well as five organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Su, Min-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25365295

  16. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  17. Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lemar, Katey M.; Passa, Ourania; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; Müller, Carsten T.; Plummer, Sue; O’Rourke, Brian; Lloyd, David

    2009-01-01

    Both the growth and respiration of Candida albicans are sensitive to extracts of Allium sativum and investigations into the anticandidal activities are now focussing on the purified constituents to determine the targets of inhibition. Of particular interest is allyl alcohol (AA), a metabolic product that accumulates after trituration of garlic cloves. Putative targets for AA were investigated by monitoring changes in intracellular responses after exposure of C. albicans cells to AA or a commercially available garlic extract. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy and other techniques were used. Changes typical of oxidative stress – NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species – were observed microscopically and by flow cytometry. Known targets for AA are alcohol dehydrogenases Adh1 and 2 (in the cytosol) and Adh3 (mitochondrial), although the significant decrease in NAD(P)H after addition of AA is indicative of another mechanism of action. PMID:16207909

  18. Intakes of Garlic and Dried Fruits Are Associated with Lower Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Delivery12

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Eggesbø, Merete; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have found associations between microbial infections during pregnancy and preterm delivery (PTD). We investigated the influence of food with antimicrobial and prebiotic components on the risk of spontaneous PTD. A literature search identified microbes associated with spontaneous PTD. Subsequently, 2 main food types (alliums and dried fruits) were identified to contain antimicrobial components that affect the microbes associated with spontaneous PTD; they also contained dietary fibers recognized as prebiotics. We investigated intake in 18,888 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa), of whom 950 (5%) underwent spontaneous PTD (<37 gestational weeks). Alliums (garlic, onion, leek, and spring onion) [OR: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.94), P = 0.005] and dried fruits (raisins, apricots, prunes, figs, and dates) [OR: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.94); P = 0.005] were associated with a decreased risk of spontaneous PTD. Intake of alliums was related to a more pronounced risk reduction in early spontaneous PTD (gestational weeks 28–31) [OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.80)]. The strongest association in this group was with garlic [OR: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25–0.89)], followed by cooked onions. Intake of dried fruits showed an association with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) [OR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.95)]; the strongest association in this group was with raisins [OR: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92)]. The strongest association with PPROM in the allium group was with garlic [OR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)]. In conclusion, intake of food with antimicrobial and prebiotic compounds may be of importance to reduce the risk of spontaneous PTD. In particular, garlic was associated with overall lower risk of spontaneous PTD. Dried fruits, especially raisins, were associated with reduced risk of PPROM. PMID:23700347

  19. Garlic decreases liver and kidney receptor for advanced glycation end products expression in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Mansour, Mohamed H; Thomson, Martha; Ali, Muslim

    2016-06-01

    The up-regulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated as a major mediator in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy and hepatic fibrogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of garlic (Allium sativum L.) to modulate the level of expression of RAGE in renal and hepatic tissues of diabetic rats. Three groups of rats were studied after 8 weeks following diabetes induction: normal, streptozotocin-induced diabetic (control diabetic), and garlic-treated diabetic rats. A polyclonal antibody of proven specificity to RAGE indicated in immunohistochemical assays that RAGE labeling was significantly increased in renal and hepatic tissues of control diabetic rats compared to the normal group. The increased RAGE labeling involved mesangial cells in glomeruli exhibiting signs of mesangial expansion, mesangial nodule formation and glomerulosclerosis. In the liver, a significant up-regulation of RAGE was observed in hepatocytes and bile ducts and vessels in portal tracts. In 2-dimensional Western blots, RAGE expression in both tissues was dominated by heterogeneous charge variants, represented by 46-50kDa isoforms with more basic pIs compared to their counterparts in normal rats. Compared to control diabetic rats, RAGE labeling in the garlic-treated diabetic group was significantly reduced throughout renal and hepatic regions and was marked by the expression of 43-50kDa acidic charge variants comparable to those observed in normal rats. The capacity of garlic to modulate diabetes-induced up-regulation of selective RAGE polymorphic variants may be implicated in attenuating the detrimental consequences of excessive RAGE signaling manifested by diabetes-associated disorders. PMID:26968224

  20. Effect of garlic and allium-derived products on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Millet, Coralie O M; Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin; Williams, David; Evans, Gareth; Saunders, Robert A; Cable, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    Spironucleus is a genus of small, flagellated parasites, many of which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and are a significant problem in aquaculture. Following the ban on the use of metronidazole in food fish due to toxicity problems, no satisfactory chemotherapies for the treatment of spironucleosis are currently available. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and automated optical density monitoring of growth, we investigated in vitro the effect of Allium sativum (garlic), a herbal remedy known for its antimicrobial properties, on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens, a parasite of tropical fish and putative agent of hole-in-the-head disease. The allium-derived thiosulfinate compounds allicin and ajoene, as well as an ajoene-free mixture of thiosulfinates and vinyl-dithiins were also tested. Whole, freeze-dried garlic and allium-derived compounds had an inhibitory effect on gas metabolism, exponential growth rate and final growth yield of S. vortens in Keister's modified, TY-I-S33 culture medium. Of all the allium-derived compounds tested, the ajoene-free mixture of dithiins and thiosulfinates was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 107 μg ml(-1) and an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC(50%)) of 58 μg ml(-1). It was followed by ajoene (MIC = 83 μg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 56 μg ml(-1)) and raw garlic (MIC >20 mg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 7.9 mg ml(-1)); allicin being significantly less potent with an MIC and IC(50%) above 160 μg ml(-1). All these concentrations are much higher than those reported to be required for the inhibition of most bacteria, protozoa and fungi previously investigated, indicating an unusual level of tolerance for allium-derived products in S. vortens. However, chemically synthesized derivatives of garlic constituents might prove a useful avenue for future research. PMID:21056027

  1. Preventive Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Serum Biochemical Factors and Histopathology of Pancreas and Liver in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Masjedi, Fatemeh; Gol, Ali; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2013-01-01

    Antidiabetic action of garlic is established in animal studies. Since all of the pervious studies have focused on the therapeutic role of garlic, this study investigated the preventive effect of garlic juice on biochemical factors and histological features in Streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. Forty male rats were divided into five groups (n = 8): 1-Normal group (N), 2-Normal+Garlic group (N+G) received garlic juice (1 mL/100g BW) for 6 weeks, 3-Diabetic group (D) was injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, IP), 4-Diabetic+Garlic-before group (D+Gb) received garlic juice for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another 3 weeks, 5-Diabetic+Garlic-after group (D+Ga), three days after STZ injection, they received garlic juice for 3 weeks. Serum biochemical factors were measured by the enzymatic methods and H&E stained sections of pancreas and liver were prepared for light microscopy. In diabetic rats, elevated levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, the increment of the activities of ALT and AST, increased food and water consumption were observed. The abnormal increases were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in D+Gb groups compared to D group. In D group, scattered degeneration of the hepatocytes with lymphocytic infiltration in the portal areas, decrease of pancreatic islets numbers and diameter, atrophy of pancreatic islets were observed. These abnormal histological signs were dramatically ameliorated in D+Gb group compared to D group. In D+Ga group compared to D+Gb group slighter effects of garlic juice on histopathological and biochemical changes were seen. These results indicate that garlic juice may help in the prevention of the complications of diabetes. PMID:24250639

  2. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Garlic Administration on Lead-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Offspring's Eye Retina

    PubMed Central

    Khordad, Elnaz; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lead toxicity induces retinal cell apoptosis. Vitamin C and garlic may decrease lead-induced apoptosis. This study was undertaken to investigate vitamin C and garlic protective effects on lead-induced apoptosis in eye retina. Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats (n = 72) were divided randomly into 9 groups: (L) treated rats with lead acetate in drinking water and (L+AA) with leaded water and vitamin C intraperitoneally;(L+G), the rats received leaded-water and garlic juice via gavage; (L+AA+G) treated rats with leaded water, ascorbic acid, and garlic juice, (AA) with ascorbic acid, and (G) with garlic juice; (AA+G) treated rats with vitamin C and garlic juice and (Sh) with tap water plus normal hydrogen chloride (HCl) and glucose; normal (N). After 21-day lactation, blood lead level (BLL) in rats was measured, and then their offspring and the rat offspring's eyes were removed and processed for using TUNEL method. TUNEL positive cells in the eye retina were counted and all groups were compared. Results: BLL increased in L group compared to the control groups and decreased significantly in L + G, L + AA, and L+ AA + G groups compared to L group (P<0.05). TUNELL positive cell number in eye retina significantly increased in L group compared to control groups (P<0.05) and decreased in L+ G, L+ AA, and L+AA + G groups compared to L group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Garlic juice and ascorbic acid administration during pregnancy and lactation may protect lead-induced apoptosis in rat offspring's eye retina. PMID:23999717

  3. Effect of volatile metabolites of dill, radish and garlic on growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Ushakova, S. A.; Rygalov, V. Ye; Gitelson, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    In a model experiment plants were grown in sealed chambers on expanded clay aggregate under the luminance of 150 W/m 2 PAR and the temperature of 24°C. Seven bacterial strains under investigation, replicated on nutrient medium surface in Petri dishes, were grown in the atmosphere of cultivated plants. Microbial response was evaluated by the difference between colony size in experiment and in control. In control, bacteria grew in the atmosphere of clean air. To study the effect of volatile metabolites of various plant on microbial growth, the experimental data were compared with the background values defined for each individual experiment. Expanded clay aggregate, luminance, temperature and sealed chamber (without plants) for the background were the same. Volatile metabolites from 28-days old radish plants have been reliably established to have no effect on the growth of microbes under investigation. Metabolites of 30-days old dill and 50-days old garlic have been established to have reliable bacteriostatic effect on the growth of three bacterial strains. Dill and garlic have been found to have different range of effects of volatile substances on bacterial growth. Volatile metabolites of dill and garlic differed in their effect on the sensitivity spectrum of bacteria. An attempt has been made to describe the obtained data mathematically.

  4. Effects of garlic consumption on physiological variables and performance during exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Morris, David M; Beloni, Reid K; Wheeler, Hannah E

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to hypoxia results in vasoconstriction of the pulmonary vasculature (HPV) leading to pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and reductions in blood oxygen saturation and exercise performance. Alleviation of HPV and HPH via vasodilators has been shown to improve blood oxygen saturation and exercise performance in hypoxia. Garlic has been shown to reduce HPV and HPH in rats and has been suggested to have ergogenic effects in hypoxic exercise. We compared the effects of 7 days of supplementation with garlic and placebo on peripheral blood pressures, blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, oxygen consumption, and time to exhaustion during a progressive exercise test to exhaustion in humans under hypoxia (PIO2 ∼ 88 Torr). No significant differences were observed between treatments regarding oxygen consumption, exercise or resting peripheral blood pressures, blood oxygen saturation, heart rates, or exercise time to exhaustion. These results do not support garlic consumption as a method for improving peripheral blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, blood oxygen saturation, exercising heart rate, heart rate response, or exercise performance in hypoxia. PMID:23713527

  5. Phytoremediation potentiality of garlic roots for 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Xing; Ren, He-Jun; Wang, Ying; Pan, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Lan-Ying

    2015-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is considered as an important pollutant because of its high toxicity and wide distribution in wastewaters. Innocuous remediation technologies have been studied for the removal of this pollutant. This study investigated the feasibility of using garlic roots as a plant system for the removal of 2,4-DCP. The optimal conditions for its removal were established based on orthogonal experiments (OA25 matrix). Significant factors that affect removal efficiency, arranged from high to low importance, include pH, reaction time, 2,4-DCP concentration, and H2O2 concentration. In addition, garlic roots could be re-used for as much as three consecutive cycles. The decrease in pH and the increase of Cl(-) ion content in the post-removal solutions indicated that 2,4-DCP dehalogenation occurred during transformation. Changes in the deposition pattern of lignin in roots exposed to 2,4-DCP suggested that several of the products deposited were lignin-type polymers. The acute toxicity test revealed that the post-removal solutions were less toxic than the parent solutions. Therefore, garlic roots have considerable potential to effectively and safely remove 2,4-DCP from wastewater. PMID:25511823

  6. Chemiluminescence measurements on irradiated garlic powder by the single photon counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvaiz, P.

    1995-02-01

    The feasibility of identifying irradiated garlic powder measuring chemiluminescence by liquid scintillation spectrometry was studied. Samples packed in 100 μm thick polyethylene bags were irradiated in a 60Co semi-industrial facility, with doses of 10 and 30 kGy. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 20 ± 4°C and 70 ± 10% RH in darkness for 2 years. Assays were performed to establish the best sample concentration and pH of the buffer solution in which garlic powder was to be suspended for its measurement. The water content of garlic samples was also analyzed throughout storage time, as it related to the stability of the species causing luminescence. Chemiluminescence values diminished in every sample over storage time following an exponential pattern. Irradiated samples showed values significantly higher than those of the control samples, according to the radiation dose, throughout the storage period. This does not necessarily imply that the identification of the irradiated samples would be certain, since values of control samples coming from different origins have been found to fluctuate within a rather wide range. Nonetheless, in principle, the method looks promising for the measurement of chemiluminescence in irradiated samples

  7. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 μgmL−1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 μgmL−1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 μgmL−1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin. PMID:24948941

  8. Genome organization and variation in the 3'-partial sequence of garlic latent virus in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiong; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Jianping; Yang, Chongliang

    2002-08-01

    Ten different isolates of a carlavirus were detected by degenerate PCR from 12 garlic samples collected from 6 provinces in China, and the complete genome sequence of the Zhejiang isolate ZJ1 and 3'-terminal sequences of 9 other isolates were determined. The RNA genome of isolate ZJ1 consisted of 8363nts excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, and the genome organization was similar to other carlaviruses with 6 open reading frames encoding a replicase, TGB1, TGB2, TGB3, CP and NABP respectively. Sequence comparisons showed that all 10 isolates were Garlic latent virus (GarLV). The variations in the TGB2, TGB3 and NABP were more significant than those in the CP. High homology was also detected between those isolates and Shallot latent virus (ShLV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GarLV isolates from garlic can be divided into 4 main groups and Chinese isolates belonged to each group. This is the first reported molecular analysis of members of the genus Carlavirus in China. PMID:18759032

  9. Analysis of lifespan-promoting effect of garlic extract by an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Wu, Yuan-Heng; Zhong, Linda; Tseng, Mu-Yun; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) consumption in treating human diseases have been reported worldwide over a long period of human history. The strong antioxidant effect of garlic extract (GE) has also recently been claimed to prevent cancer, thrombus formation, cardiovascular disease and some age-related maladies. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, aqueous GE was herein shown to increase the expression of longevity-related FOXO transcription factor daf-16 and extend lifespan by 20%. By employing microarray and proteomics analysis on C. elegans treated with aqueous GE, we have systematically mapped 229 genes and 46 proteins with differential expression profiles, which included many metabolic enzymes and yolky egg vitellogenins. To investigate the garlic components functionally involved in longevity, an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach was employed to identify metabolites and protein components associated with treatment of aqueous GE. Among potential lifespan-promoting substances, mannose-binding lectin and N-acetylcysteine were found to increase daf-16 expression. Our study points to the fact that the lifespan-promoting effect of aqueous GE may entail the DAF-16-mediated signaling pathway. The result also highlights the utility of metabolo-proteomics for unraveling the complexity and intricacy involved in the metabolism of natural products in vivo. PMID:25940980

  10. Glutathione-garlic sulfur conjugates: slow hydrogen sulfide releasing agents for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Ashif Iqbal; Papajani, Vilma Toska; Paci, Maurizio; Melino, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS) or without (GaWS) glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S), also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST) enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25608858

  11. Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg−1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg−1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg−1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg−1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  12. Soil chemical property changes in eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems under continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg(-1), significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg(-1) in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg(-1) in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg(-1) in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  14. Indian food ingredients and cancer prevention - an experimental evaluation of anticarcinogenic effects of garlic in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Archana; Ghosh, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Das, Sukta

    2004-01-01

    The major food items of Indian cuisine include rice, wheat, diary products, and abundant fruits and vegetables. Beside these, there are several kinds of herbs and spices as important ingredients, containing many phytochemicals with medicinal properties, adding taste to Indian cuisine. An impressive body of data exists in support of the concept that Indian food ingredients can be used in preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and mortality of different types of cancers because of their antioxidative, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Vital ingredients used in Indian cooking include turmeric, cloves, ginger, aniseed, mustard, saffron, cardamom and garlic Garlic is an indispensable ingredient of Indian food and this report concerns the chemopreventive efficacy of garlic in an azoxymethane induced rodent colon carcinogenesis model. The effect of garlic was evaluated in terms of aberrant crypt foci, putative preneoplastic lesions in the colon. In addition, cell proliferation and levels of apoptosis were determined and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein was analyzed. Following treatment, significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, as well as suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 activity were observed, associated with significant reduction in the incidence of aberrant crypt foci. The study points to combined protective effects of garlic components on colon carcinogenesis. PMID:15244513

  15. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of garlic as a mosquito repellant: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rajan, T V; Hein, M; Porte, P; Wikel, S

    2005-03-01

    The hypothesis that the ingestion of garlic provides protection against bloodsucking pests such as mosquitoes was investigated using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were asked to consume either garlic (one visit) or a placebo (the other visit). They were then exposed to laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae). The numbers of mosquitoes that did not feed on the subjects, the number of mosquito bites, the weights of the mosquitoes after feeding and the amounts of blood ingested were determined. The data did not provide evidence of significant systemic mosquito repellence. A limitation of the study is that more prolonged ingestion of garlic may be needed to accomplish repellence. PMID:15752181

  16. Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors. A review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G

    1989-01-01

    1. Claims for beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, fibrinolytic activity, and platelet aggregation are attributed both to fresh garlic and onions (or their extracts) and to commercially available preparations. 2. Regarding fresh garlic, the claims have been confirmed, but so far only at very high dosages. 3. For onions and commercially available supplements contradictory results have been reported. 4. All published trials showed severe methodological shortcomings. Some trials were not randomized and/or not blinded whilst this was possible, and in only one of every three studies more than 25 patients participated in each treatment group. In no trial was prognostic comparability of the treatment and the control groups ascertained. At the moment there is inadequate scientific justification for garlic supplementation. PMID:2686739

  17. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of compositional changes for organosulfur compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Park, So-Lim; Lee, Sanghee; Lee, So-Young; Ko, Sungho; Yoo, Miyoung

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of 11 organosulfur compounds and analysis of their compositional changes in garlic during fermentation using 3 different microbe strains. The calibration curves of all 11 analytes exhibited good linearity (R⩾0.995), and the mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were greater than 81.63% with relative standard deviations of less than 12.79%. Investigation of the compositional changes revealed that the γ-glutamyl peptides content in fermented blanched garlic reduced, whereas the content of the compounds in biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteines from γ-glutamyl peptides increased significantly. Our results also indicated that starter cultures can be used selectively in the production of fermented garlic to increase the amounts of the desired organosulfur compounds. PMID:27283666

  18. The Global Trade in Fresh Produce and the Vagility of Plant Viruses: A Case Study in Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

  19. Preparation methods for monodispersed garlic oil microspheres in water using the microemulsion technique and their potential as antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua Ming; Li, Hou Bin; Wang, Da Wei; Liu, Dun

    2013-08-01

    Garlic oil is considered as a natural broad-spectrum antibiotic because of its well-known antimicrobial activity. However, the characteristics of easy volatility and poor aqueous solubility limit the application of garlic oil in industry. The purpose of the present work is to develop and evaluate an oil-free microemulsion by loading garlic oil in microemulsion system. Microemulsions were prepared with ethoxylated hydrogenated castor (Cremophor RH40) as surfactant, n-butanol (or ethanol) as cosurfactant, oleic acid-containing garlic oil as oil phase, and ultrapure water as water phase. The effects of the ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant and different oil concentration on the area of oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion region in pseudoternary phase diagrams were investigated. The particle size and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency of the formed microemulsions with different formulations were also investigated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. The experimental results show that a stable microemulsion region can be obtained when the mass ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant is, respectively, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Especially, when the mixture surfactants of RH40/n-butanol 2/1 (w/w) is used in the microemulsion formulation, the area of O/W microemulsion region is 0.089 with the particle size 13.29 to 13.85 nm and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency 99.5%. The prepared microemulsion solution exhibits remarkable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. PMID:23957416

  20. The global trade in fresh produce and the vagility of plant viruses: a case study in garlic.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G K

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

  1. An exploration of the antioxidant effects of garlic saponins in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Sook; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Cheol Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm the protective effects of garlic saponins against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. Relative cell viability was determined by 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and oxidative stress was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blot analysis and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown were used in order to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results revealed that garlic saponins prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS. We also observed that garlic saponins prevented H2O2-induced comet tail formation and decreased the phosphorylation levels of γH2AX expression, suggesting that they can prevent H2O2-induced DNA damage. In addition, garlic saponins increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol into the nucleus. However, the protective effects of garlic saponins on H2O2-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition were significantly reduced by zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor. In addition, the potential of garlic saponins to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against H2O2‑mediated growth inhibition was adversely affected by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA. Garlic saponins activated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, whereas a specific ERK inhibitor was able to inhibit HO-1 upregulation, as well as Nrf2 induction and phosphorylation. Taken together, the findings of our study suggest that garlic saponins activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by enabling

  2. A chemical burn from a garlic poultice applied to the face to treat toothache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sisson, D; Balmer, C

    2014-02-01

    This case report is of a significant chemical burn to the face resulting from the use of an external garlic poultice for toothache. The patient used internet search engines to seek a toothache remedy and did not identify any reports of this complication. This report aims to inform all dentists of the risks of raw garlic application to the skin and also to ensure that in the future any patient using the internet for a toothache remedy will be made aware of the potential risk and how to avoid it. PMID:25198327

  3. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  4. Efficacy of allicin from garlic against Ascaridia galli infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Velkers, F C; Dieho, K; Pecher, F W M; Vernooij, J C M; van Eck, J H H; Landman, W J M

    2011-02-01

    The use of garlic as a treatment against helminth infections is increasing in organic layer farms in several European countries. Its efficacy against these parasites, however, has not been demonstrated thus far. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a commercially available garlic product consisting of a high concentration of allicin (i.e., the main active component of garlic) against experimentally induced Ascaridia galli infection in chickens. In total, 450 Lohmann LSL-Classic cockerels were used. Group 1, the uninfected, untreated group, consisted of 50 chickens. Groups 2 to 5, each consisting of approximately 100 chickens, were inoculated with 300 embryonated A. galli eggs/chicken at 6 wk of age. Group 2 was not treated, whereas groups 3 through 5 were given daily individual oral treatments from 13 wk of age onward. Group 3 received the recommended dose of allicin for 2 wk, whereas group 4 received a 10-fold dose of allicin. Group 5 was given 10 mg of flubendazole/kg of BW for 1 wk. Necropsy of 20 birds of all groups was performed weekly between 13 and 16 wk of age to determine adult worm loads. Group 1 remained free of A. galli. The experimental infection in the other groups resulted in a mean adult worm load of approximately 16 worms/bird. No significant differences were observed in worm counts of the allicin-treated groups (groups 3 and 4) compared with the infected, untreated group (group 2) at any week (P > 0.05). In contrast, no worms were found in chickens after flubendazole treatment (group 5). It was concluded that allicin does not represent an alternative to flubendazole for the treatment of A. galli infections in chickens. PMID:21248333

  5. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  6. Characterization of structure and activity of garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)).

    PubMed

    El Ichi, Sarra; Miodek, Anna; Sauriat-Dorizon, Hélène; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Céline; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2011-01-01

    Structural characterization and study of the activity of new POX(1B) protein from garlic which has a high peroxidase activity and can be used as a biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds were performed and compared with the findings for other heme peroxidases. The structure-function relationship was investigated by analysis of the spectroscopic properties and correlated to the structure determined by a new generation of high-performance hybrid mass spectrometers. The reactivity of the enzyme was analyzed by studies of the redox activity toward various ligands and the reactivity with various substrates. We demonstrated that, in the case of garlic peroxidase, the heme group is pentacoordinated, and has an histidine as a proximal ligand. POX(1B) exhibited a high affinity for hydrogen peroxide as well as various reducing cosubstrates. In addition, high enzyme specificity was demonstrated. The k(cat) and K(M) values were 411 and 400 mM(-1) s(-1) for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), respectively. Furthermore, the reduction of nitro compounds in the presence of POX(1B) was demonstrated by iron(II) nitrosoalkane complex assay. In addition, POX(1B) showed a great potential for application for drug metabolism since its ability to react with 1-nitrohexane in the presence of sodium dithionite was demonstrated by the appearance of a characteristic Soret band at 411 nm. The high catalytic efficiency obtained in the case of the new garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)) is suitable for the monitoring of different analytes and biocatalysis. PMID:21042820

  7. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    PubMed

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (P<0.05) and increased plasma fibrinolytic activity by 22.4% (P<0.05). One more study was performed in high-risk patients to evaluate the changes of prognostic cardiovascular risk that was calculated using algorithms derived from Framingham and Muenster Studies. Twelve-months treatment lowered 10-years prognostic risk of CHD by 13.2% in men (P=0.005), and by 7.1% in women (P=0.040). Ten-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden coronary death was lowered by 26.1% in men (P=0.025). The Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction Study (AMAR) was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with garlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26561055

  8. Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Onuma, Misato; Mizuno, Shinya; Sugino, Yuka; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Imai, Shinsuke; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides are cysteine-derived secondary metabolites highly accumulated in the genus Allium. Despite pharmaceutical importance, the enzymes that contribute to the biosynthesis of S-alk-(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a flavin-containing monooxygenase, AsFMO1, in garlic (Allium sativum), which is responsible for the S-oxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). Recombinant AsFMO1 protein catalyzed the stereoselective S-oxygenation of S-allyl-l-cysteine to nearly exclusively yield (RC SS )-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide, which has identical stereochemistry to the major natural form of alliin in garlic. The S-oxygenation reaction catalyzed by AsFMO1 was dependent on the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), consistent with other known flavin-containing monooxygenases. AsFMO1 preferred S-allyl-l-cysteine to γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine as the S-oxygenation substrate, suggesting that in garlic, the S-oxygenation of alliin biosynthetic intermediates primarily occurs after deglutamylation. The transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins indicated that AsFMO1 is localized in the cytosol. AsFMO1 mRNA was accumulated in storage leaves of pre-emergent nearly sprouting bulbs, and in various tissues of sprouted bulbs with green foliage leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that AsFMO1 functions as an S-allyl-l-cysteine S-oxygenase, and contributes to the production of alliin both through the conversion of stored γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine to alliin in storage leaves during sprouting and through the de novo biosynthesis of alliin in green foliage leaves. PMID:26345717

  9. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations. PMID:27381763

  10. Green Synthesis of Bifunctional Fluorescent Carbon Dots from Garlic for Cellular Imaging and Free Radical Scavenging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaojing; Lan, Minhuan; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Xue, Hongtao; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Meng, Xiangmin; Lee, Chun-Sing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2015-08-12

    Nitrogen and sulfur codoped carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from garlic by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared CDs possess good water dispersibility, strong blue fluorescence emission with a fluorescent quantum yield of 17.5%, and excellent photo and pH stabilities. It is also demonstrated that the fluorescence of CDs are resistant to the interference of metal ions, biomolecules, and high ionic strength environments. Combining with low cytotoxicity properties, CDs could be used as an excellent fluorescent probe for cellular multicolor imaging. Moreover, the CDs were also demonstrated to exhibit favorable radical scavenging activity. PMID:26193082

  11. Evaluation of lamprey larvicides in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1969-01-01

    Bayluscide (5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) and TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) were evaluated as selective larvicides for control of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake in Marquette County, Michigan. Population estimates and movement of ammocetes were determined from the recapture of marked ammocetes released before chemical treatment. In 1966 the estimated population of 3136 ammocetes off the stream mouth in Saux Head Lake was reduced 89% by treatment with granular Bayluscide; this percentage was supported by a population estimate of 120 ammocetes in 1967, an indicated reduction of 96% from 1966. Post-marking movement of ammocetes was greater upstream than downstream.

  12. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  13. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C-14 h and 25°C/18°C-14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb formation under 20

  14. Effects of dietary garlic scape meal on the growth and meat characteristics of geese.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Jea, Y S; Chen, W S; Lee, T T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese whose diets included garlic scape meal (GSM), a by-product of garlic production. Scape is the leaf-less flower stem of garlic. Garlic scape (GS) extracts contained 84.7 ± 3.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 81.4 ± 8.2 μg/g DW, 0.78 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 31.67 ± 2.25 μg/g DW of allicin, alliin, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, respectively. In total, 120 White Roman geese aged 5 weeks were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed on a grower diet ad libitum during the growth period. Employing a completely random design, 5 males and 5 females were placed in each pen. Each treatment was applied to three pens (in total 30 birds) and the treatments comprised the following: 1) control (maize-soybean meal), 2) 5% of maize replaced with 5% of GSM (5% GSM), 3) 10% of maize replaced with 10% of GSM (10% GSM) and 4) 15% of maize replaced with 15% of GSM (15% GSM). Each group of 30 birds was treated for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the 15% GSM group was characterised by a lower feed conversion ratio than the control group; however, these groups did not differ significantly in their body weights (BWs). In addition, the 10% GSM group did not differ in both the feed conversion ratio and consumption. The flavour intensity score of meats in the 10% GSM group was significantly lower than those of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups. The general acceptability scores of meats in the 5% GSM and control groups were higher than those of meat in the 10% GSM group. The study concluded that 5% dietary GSM in the feed did not adversely affect the growth performance, meat characteristics or sensory evaluation of grower geese. Hence, the environment can be protected by including agricultural waste in goose diets. PMID:26445200

  15. New antifungal and cytotoxic steroidal saponins from the bulbs of an elephant garlic mutant.

    PubMed

    Sata, N; Matsunaga, S; Fusetani, N; Nishikawa, H; Takamura, S; Saito, T

    1998-10-01

    Saponins in bulbs of a mutant of elephant garlic were investigated, and three new steroidal saponins named yayoisaponins A-C were obtained together with the known dioscin and aginoside. Their structures, including the relative stereochemistry, were elucidated by spectral data interpretation, while the absolute stereochemistry of the sugar moieties was assigned on the basis of a chiral gas chromatographic analysis of the acid hydrolysates. Yayoisaponins A-C and aginoside exhibited not only in vitro cytotoxicity against P388 cells at 2.1 micrograms/ml, but also antifungal activity against Mortierella ramanniana at 10 micrograms/disk. PMID:9836426

  16. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C–14 h and 25°C/18°C–14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb

  17. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments. PMID:24404997

  18. Physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic and onion powder in fresh pork belly and loin during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Yoo, S S; Shim, J H; Chin, K B

    2008-10-01

    Pork loin and belly cuts were pumped to 110% of their original weight with solutions containing 5% of various ingredients (sodium ascorbate, garlic, and onion powder), and evaluated the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during refrigerated storage at 8 degrees C. The addition of garlic and onion powder tended to increase redness (a) and yellowness (b) in both the belly lean and loin with the exception of a few cases. Free fatty acid values in both pork belly and loin cuts were reduced with the addition of these ingredients, as compared to the control. Significant differences in peroxide values were observed in sodium ascorbate and garlic-injected belly, and in sodium ascorbate and onion-injected loin, as compared to the control. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values in the pork belly with garlic or onion powder were significantly lower than in the belly without these ingredients or with sodium ascorbate (P < 0.05). Total plate counts were lower in both the belly and loin containing garlic and onion powder, as compared to the control. In both the belly and loin cuts, the content of oxidative products (volatile compounds) was reduced with the addition of garlic and onion powder, particularly the aldehydes (hexanal). Overall, garlic and onion in enhanced meats showed an antioxidant activity as effective as that of sodium ascorbate and also an antimicrobial effect to inhibit the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19019099

  19. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    PubMed

    Ghehdarijani, Mahbubeh Salmanian; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasol; Roohi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Condition factor was not significantly affected by garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P < 0.05). In salinity stress experiment, no differences were observed for survival rate among the experimental diets. No mortality was recorded during the feeding trial. These results indicated that dietary garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry. PMID:26700174

  20. Effects of Adaptation of In vitro Rumen Culture to Garlic Oil, Nitrate, and Saponin and Their Combinations on Methanogenesis, Fermentation, and Abundances and Diversity of Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of garlic oil (0.25 g/L), nitrate (5 mM), and quillaja saponin (0.6 g/L), alone and in binary or ternary combinations, on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and abundances of select microbial populations using in vitro rumen cultures. Potential adaptation to these compounds was also examined by repeated transfers of the cultures on alternate days until day 18. All treatments except saponin alone significantly decreased methanogenesis. Ternary combinations of garlic oil, nitrate, and saponin additively/synergistically suppressed methane production by 65% at day 2 and by 40% at day 18. Feed digestion was not adversely affected by any of the treatments at day 2, but was decreased by the combinations (binary and ternary) of garlic oil with the other inhibitors at days 10 and 18. Saponin, alone or in combinations, and garlic oil alone lowered ammonia concentration at day 2, while nitrate increased ammonia concentration at days 10 and 18. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was decreased by garlic oil alone or garlic oil-saponin combination. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate were affected to different extents by the different treatments. The abundances of methanogens were similar among treatments at day 2; however, garlic oil and its combination with saponin and/or nitrate at day 10 and all treatments except saponin at day 18 significantly decreased the abundances of methanogens. All the inhibitors, either alone or in combinations, did not adversely affect the abundances of total bacteria or Ruminococcus flavefaciens. However, at day 18 the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were lowered in the presence of garlic oil and saponin, respectively. The results suggest that garlic oil-nitrate-saponin combination (at the doses used in this study) can effectively decreases methanogenesis in the rumen, but its efficacy may decrease while inhibition to feed digestion can increase over time. PMID:26733975

  1. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. PMID:21570063

  2. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews; 2010-2011, 77 FR 65171 (October 25, 2012) (Preliminary Rescission... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268. Notification to Importers This notice serves as a... constituent cloves. Fresh garlic that is ] subject to the order is currently classified under the...

  3. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ..., 74 FR 50952 (October 2, 2009) (Final Results) and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum. DATES... determine the surrogate value (SV) for the single-clove raw garlic input.\\8\\ On December 9, 2011, the... origin and thereafter used a simple average methodology to determine the SV for the single-clove...

  4. Efficacy of garlic extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash in reduction of oral salivary microorganisms, an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ajay Rao, H. T.; Bhat, Sham S.; Hegde, Sundeep; Jhamb, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess and compare the antimicrobial effect of garlic extract and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash solution against oral salivary microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Thirty six salivary samples were obtained in dry plastic vials. Collected saliva samples were centrifuged. Each vial was mixed completely on a shaker after which 1 ml of saliva was added to 9 ml of ethanol by a sterile pipette and mixed. A volume of 1 ml of garlic hydro-alcoholic extract and 1 ml of mouthwash was added to 1 ml each case specimen and was transferred to culture medium of Trypticase Soy Agar. Agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h to allow for microbial growth. Microbial colonies were counted by independent interpreter to evaluate the result. Statistical Analysis: Data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered statistically significant. Result: Result of the study shows that mean colony count of salivary microbial population was (1984 ± 400) 1127 in saline group (negative control), (50 ± 4) 27 in (0.12%) CHX group (positive control), (700 ± 200) 469 in garlic extract (5%) group (case control). Conclusion: Mouthwash containing garlic extract can be used as an alternative to CHX mouthwash. PMID:25861142

  5. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  6. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  7. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ..., 74 FR 68229, 68230-68231 (December 23, 2009). On December 22, 2010, the Department published the... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 80458 (December 22, 2010) (Preliminary Results). The period of... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

  8. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 73 FR 79055 (December 24, 2008). On December 8, 2009..., the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 64677 (December 8, 2009) (Preliminary Results). The... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

  9. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  10. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  11. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... CIED, we believe that the application of one or more designated phytosanitary measures other...

  12. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15279-15280, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  13. Attenuation of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by tomato and garlic combination.

    PubMed

    Kumaraguruparan, R; Chandra Mohan, K V P; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2005-03-25

    The protective effect of pretreatment with tomato and garlic against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress was investigated in male Swiss mice. In vivo bone marrow micronucleus test was performed to assess the antigenotoxic effect of tomato and garlic. Oxidative stress was monitored by estimating the extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the glutathione redox cycle antioxidants. Increased frequency of bone marrow micronuclei with enhanced lipid peroxidation was associated with compromised antioxidant defenses in MNNG treated animals. Although pretreatment with tomato and garlic significantly reduced the frequencies of MNNG-induced bone marrow micronuclei, the combination of tomato and garlic exerted a greater protective effect. This was associated with modulation of lipid peroxidation as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). These findings suggest that a diet containing even low levels of different naturally occurring compounds is effective in exerting antigenotoxic effects by modulating oxidative stress. PMID:15733939

  14. Antibacterial Effects of Allspice, Garlic, and Oregano Essential Oils in Tomato Films Determined by Overlay and Vapor-Phase Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5-3.0% (w/w) concentrations w...

  15. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  16. 75 FR 69415 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...The Department of Commerce (Department) is conducting new shipper reviews (NSRs) of Jinxiang Chengda Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (Chengda), Jinxiang Yuanxin Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (Yuanxin), and Zhengzhou Huachao Industrial Co., Ltd. (Huachao) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1, 2008 through October......

  17. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Owoloye, Tosin R; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Results Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues' malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. Conclusions These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents. PMID:23730560

  18. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others. PMID:27393431

  19. Synthesis and visible light photoactivity of anatase Ag, and garlic loaded TiO2 nanocrystalline catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light activated Ag and S doped TiO2 nanocatalyst was prepared by using AgNO3 and garlic (Allium sativum) as Ag+ and sulfur sources, respectively. The catalyst resisted the change from anatase to rutile phase even at calcination at 700 oC. The photocatalytic e...

  20. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  1. 78 FR 77653 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 77017 (December 31, 2012... description, available in Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR... consumption, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.212(c)(2). \\3\\ See Initiation Notice, 77 FR at 77020-77022....

  2. 76 FR 65172 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results, Rescission of, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). \\4\\ See Antidumping or... FR 67079 (November 1, 2010). On November 30, 2010, the Fresh Garlic Producers Association (FGPA) and..., 75 FR 81565, 81568-81569 (December 28, 2010) (Initiation Notice). On March 28, 2011,...

  3. 76 FR 76375 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994...: Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 67079 (November 1, 2010). \\3\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR...

  4. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide < diallyl disulfide < diallyl trisulfide). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that organosulfur compounds are responsible for the substantial antimicrobial activity of garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  5. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Lembo, Carina; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant), F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables. PMID:21876795

  6. Preconcentration and determination of tellurium in garlic samples by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Marcos M; Cerutti, Soledad; Salonia, José A; Gásquez, José A; Martinez, Luis D

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of traces of total tellurium (Te) in garlic (Allium sativa) is described that combines hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with preconcentration of the analyte by coprecipitation. The samples, each spiked with lanthanum nitrate (20 mg/L), are introduced into an Amberlite XAD-4 resin and mixed with ammonium buffer (pH 9.1). Te is preconcentrated by coprecipitation with the generated lanthanum hydroxide precipitate. The precipitate is quantitatively collected in the resin, eluted with hydrochloric acid, and then transferred into the atomizer device. Considering a sample consumption of 25 mL, an enrichment factor of 10 was obtained. The detection limit (3sigma) was 0.03 microg/L, and the precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.5% (n = 10) at the 10 microg/L level. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for Te was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of Te in garlic samples. PMID:16152948

  7. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

  8. Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Diana M; Movahed, Pouya; Hinman, Andrew; Axelsson, Helena E; Sterner, Olov; Högestätt, Edward D; Julius, David; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Zygmunt, Peter M

    2005-08-23

    Garlic belongs to the Allium family of plants that produce organosulfur compounds, such as allicin and diallyl disulfide (DADS), which account for their pungency and spicy aroma. Many health benefits have been ascribed to Allium extracts, including hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Intriguingly, allicin and DADS share structural similarities with allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in wasabi and other mustard plants that induces pain and inflammation by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway. Here we show that allicin and DADS excite an allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive subpopulation of sensory neurons and induce vasodilation by activating capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerve endings. Moreover, allicin and DADS activate the cloned TRPA1 channel when expressed in heterologous systems. These and other results suggest that garlic excites sensory neurons primarily through activation of TRPA1. Thus different plant genera, including Allium and Brassica, have developed evolutionary convergent strategies that target TRPA1 channels on sensory nerve endings to achieve chemical deterrence. PMID:16103371

  9. Isolation, purification and identification of antioxidants in an aqueous aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yukun; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    An aqueous aged garlic extract (AGE) was prepared by soaking sliced garlic in water for 20days at room temperature (23-25 °C). In order to locate the antioxidant ingredients of the aqueous AGE, an activity-guided fractionation approach using ABTS assay, DPPH assay and FRAP assay were conducted to guide the fractionation by means of extraction, column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Some phenols and organosulfur compounds were identified as antioxidants in AGE by GC-MS. Furthermore, UV, IR, ESI-MS, NMR and specific rotation experiments led to the identification of l-phenylalanine, l-tryptophan, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as the major antioxidants in the AGE. The EC50 values of these purified tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives were 0.625-1.334 μmol/mL and 1.063-2.072 μmol/mL in ABTS assay and DPPH assay, respectively. It is the first time for us to identify (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as an in vitro antioxidant in AGE. PMID:25976995

  10. The Antioxidant Mechanisms Underlying the Aged Garlic Extract- and S-Allylcysteine-Induced Protection

    PubMed Central

    Colín-González, Ana L.; Santana, Ricardo A.; Silva-Islas, Carlos A.; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E.; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D.

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo—in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress—and in vitro conditions—using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor—a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels. PMID:22685624

  11. Protective effects of aged garlic extract against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Wang, B H; Zuzel, K A; Rahman, K; Billington, D

    1998-04-01

    Precision-cut liver slices from phenobarbital-treated rats were incubated for up to 8 h with the industrial solvent and hepatotoxin bromobenzene at a final concentration of 1 mM. Phenobarbital pretreatment potentiates bromobenzene hepatotoxicity by inducing those P450 isoforms responsible for the formation of the active hepatotoxin, namely bromobenzene-3,4-oxide. A reduction in cell viability was indicated by a decrease in the K+, ATP and glutathione content of the slices and the increased release of the intracellular enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase, into the medium. Furthermore, levels of lipid peroxidation as judged by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were increased approximately 5-fold. Aged garlic extract (AGE) at concentrations of 1-5% (v/v) reduced the toxicity of bromobenzene in a concentration-dependent manner as judged by all of the parameters of viability studied, with the exception of lipid peroxidation which was reduced to control levels even at the lowest concentration of garlic extract used. AGE was found to cause partial inhibition of cytochrome P450 when assayed as both 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase activities, but even the highest concentration used inhibited both activities by less than 50%. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects of AGE are due primarily to the reduced glutathione-sparing properties of its constituents, most probably its organosulphur compounds. PMID:9674969

  12. The genotoxicity study of garlic and pasipy herbal drops by peripheral blood micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, H; Larki, A; Latifi, S M

    2007-09-01

    The in vivo rodent micronucleus test is widely used as a genotoxic assay to detect the clastogenic activity of chemicals. In this research the genotoxic effects of herbal drops of garlic and pasipy were evaluated using the micronucleus test. Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) was determined by a dose-response test. For each medicine three treatment groups were considered with doses of MTD, 1/2 MTD and 1/4 MTD according to the CSGMT protocol (1995 Japan). Drugs were administered orally to mice (test groups). Mitomicin C was used as a known genotoxic agent in positive control group. The peripheral blood samples before treatment (zero time samples) were considered as negative control. The appearance of a micronucleus is used as an index for genotoxic potential. The results obtained indicated that the herbal drops showed genotoxicity effect and it was dose-dependent compared to the negative control group. This genotoxicity was significant (p < 0.05) but the genotoxic effects of garlic and pasipy were "not significant" compared to the historical negative control group (p > 0.05). Therefore our results if compared to the negative control group is significant and it is worthy of consideration. PMID:17853777

  13. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield. PMID

  14. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield. PMID

  15. In vivo antimicrobial potentials of garlic against Clostridium perfringens and its promotant effects on performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jimoh, A A; Ibitoye, E B; Dabai, Y U; Garba, S

    2013-12-15

    This study was conducted to investigate in vivo antimicrobial potential of garlic against Clostridium perferinges and resultant promotant effects on performance of the broiler chickens. Garlic powder was used as an alternative to GPAs (Growth Promotant Antibiotics) to prevent subclinical Necrotic Enteritis (NE) due to C. perferinges. 120 day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed to six treatment groups of 20 chicks each (2 replicates(-10) chicks). Six isonutrient diets supplemented with garlic at graded levels of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g kg(-1) were fed to the birds for seven weeks. Data were collected weekly on performance parameters including feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Also, on the 21 35 and 49th days of the study, two birds per group were randomly selected, slaughtered and dissected. 1 g of caecal contents per each bird were sampled into labelled sterile sample bottles. The samples were subjected to culturing, bacterial identification and colony counting. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that garlic significantly (p > 0.05) depressed feed intake (3310 g feed/bird at 1.0 g kg(-1) supplementation) but improved FCR. The supplement has no significant effect on weight gain but C. perfringens colony counts in the treated groups, were numerically reduced (lowest count, 0.93 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) at 1.0 g kg(-1) supplementation), as compared to the control. It is therefore concluded that diets could be supplemented with garlic at dose range of 1.0 to 1.5 g kg(-1) to prevent subclinical NE and achieve improved performance in birds. PMID:24517015

  16. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amrita Das; Das, Swastika N.; Dhundasi, Salim A.; Das, Kusal K.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garlic administration with nickel sulfate showed improvement in serum LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C and TG level. But in case of potassium dichromate, garlic administration did not show satisfactory improvement in lipid profile except VLDL-C and TG level. The results indicate that garlic (Allium sativum) has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal (nickel and chromium VI) induced alteration of lipid profile. PMID:19139532

  17. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  18. A novel reductive amination method with isotopic formaldehydes for the preparation of internal standard and standards for determining organosulfur compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Cheng; Liu, Meng-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Reng; Huang, Mei-Fang; Liang, Shih-Shin

    2016-04-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is a long-cultivated plant that is widely utilized in cooking and has been employed as a medicine for over 4000 years. In this study, we fabricated standards and internal standards (ISs) for absolute quantification via reductive amination with isotopic formaldehydes. Garlic has four abundant organosulfur compounds (OSCs): S-allylcysteine, S-allylcysteinine sulfoxide, S-methylcysteine, and S-ethylcysteine are abundant in garlic. OSCs with primary amine groups were reacted with isotopic formaldehydes to synthesize ISs and standards. Cooked and uncooked garlic samples were compared, and we utilized tandem mass spectrometry equipped with a selective reaction monitoring technique to absolutely quantify the four organosulfur compounds. PMID:26617005

  19. Stimulation of IFN-γ production by garlic lectin in mouse spleen cells: involvement of IL-12 via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Toyohira, Yumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Karasaki, Yuji

    2011-02-15

    Several lectins, present in beans and edible plant products, have immuno-potentiating and anti-tumor activities. We here report the effects of garlic lectin purified from garlic bulbs on the production of cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the mouse. Garlic lectin induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in a bell-shaped time (24-60 h)- and concentration (0.25-2.0 mg/ml)-dependent manner. The maximal enhancement was observed at 36 h with 0.5 mg/ml of garlic lectin. The stimulatory effect of garlic lectin on IFN-γ production was completely inhibited by both actinomycin D and cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively, and was associated with an increase in IFN-γ mRNA level. Garlic lectin also induced IL-12 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages in a concentration (0.25-1.0 mg/ml)- and bell-shaped time (3-24 h)-dependent manner. The lectin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in macrophages. Furthermore, specific pharmacological inhibitors of ERK kinase (U0126) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) also suppressed the production of IL-12 induced by garlic lectin. The present findings suggest that garlic lectin induces IL-12 production via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in mouse macrophages, which, in turn, stimulates IFN-γ production through an increase in IFN-γ mRNA in the spleen cells. PMID:20724126

  20. A review of studies of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure before and after 1994: does the amount of allicin released from garlic powder tablets play a role?

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify studies measuring garlic powder tablets effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to investigate if studies published prior to January 1994 would perform better than those published later. Methods Using MEDLINE (January 1966 through December 2004) studies involving human subjects that examined the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure were obtained. Studies that were conducted using garlic in the form of garlic powder tablets were included in the data extraction. Correlation coefficients were calculated for total serum cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure with respect to date of publication. Trials published prior to January 1994 were placed into an “earlier” group and compared to the “latter” group of studies published from January 1994 onward. Results Eighteen trials were identified whereupon the inverse associations between total serum cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures with respect to time of publication were correlated (−0.614, −0.627, and −0.587 respectively, p < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure with respect to total serum cholesterol (0.388 and 0.431 respectively). The following differences between the earlier and later groups were observed for total serum cholesterol (31.4 ± 19.0 vs. 3.5 ± 5.8 mg/dl, p = .004); systolic blood pressure (11.0 ± 9.2 vs. 2.0 ± 4.4 mmHg, p = .133) and diastolic blood pressure (5.8 ± 3.4 vs. 0.9 ± 2.4 mmHg, p = .018). Conclusions Publications published prior to January 1994 performed better than those published after January 1994, suggesting that allicin may be responsible for the antihypertensive effects of garlic powder tablets. However, a lack of correlation between changes in total serum cholesterol and blood pressure suggests that other organo-sulfur compounds may also play a role in the antihyper-tensive mechanisms of garlic. PMID:19674660

  1. Fresh Garlic Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Antibiotics on Resistant Strains in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoliang; Ma, Xudong; Deng, Lisha; Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Yuejiao; Gao, Zhongyang; Jia, Jing; Xu, Jiru; Sun, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infections caused by strains with multi-drug resistance are difficult to treat with standard antibiotics. Garlic is a powerful remedy to protect against infections of many bacteria, fungi and viruses. However, little is known about the potentials of fresh garlic extract (FGE) to improve the sensitivity of multi-drug resistant strains to antibiotics. Objectives: In this study, we used the disk diffusion method to investigate the antimicrobial activities of FGE and the combination of antibiotics with FGE, on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, to evaluate the interactions between antibiotics and FGE. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates were isolated from clinical specimens obtained from the inpatients at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center. The isolates consisted of MRSA, (n = 30), C. albicans (n = 30) and P. aeruginosa (n = 30). Quality control for CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) disk diffusion was performed using S. aureus ATCC®25923, C. albicans ATCC®90028 and P. aeruginosa ATCC®27853. The 93 microorganisms were divided into four groups in a factorial design: control (deionized water), FGE, antibiotics without FGE, and antibiotics with FGE. Next, antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter of inhibition zones according to performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS). Results: Fresh garlic extract displayed evident inhibition properties against C. albicans and MRSA, yet weak inhibition properties against P. aeruginosa. Additionally, FGE showed the potential to improve the effect of antibiotics on antibiotic resistant pathogens. The synergism of fluconazole and itraconazole with FGE on C. albicans yielded larger sized inhibition zones compared with fluconazole and itraconazole without FGE (P < 0.01). The

  2. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  3. Effective production of S-allyl-L-cysteine through a homogeneous reaction with activated endogenous γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in garlic (Allium Sativum).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobian; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Qimei; Wang, Jining

    2015-03-01

    S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) is a bioactive compound in garlic (Allium sativum). A novel process including soaking and homogeneous reaction was applied for the effective production of SAC with endogenous γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP, EC 2.3.2.2) in garlic. The effects of temperature and CaCl2 concentration on γ-GTP activity in soaking, and the relationship of SAC production with γ-GTP activity in homogeneous reaction were investigated, using fresh garlic as raw material. The experimental results showed that the γ-GTP in fresh garlic was activated by soaking. The yield rate and the final content of SAC increased linearly with increasing initial γ-GTP activity in the homogeneous reaction at 37 °C. The final SAC content reached 606.3 μg/g (i.e. 32 times higher than that in fresh garlic) after soaking for 72 h in a 10-mM CaCl2 solution at 10 °C, and the homogeneous reaction for 8 h at 37 °C. SAC was produced effectively through the homogeneous reaction with activated endogenous γ-GTP in garlic. PMID:25745247

  4. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  5. Optimization of Inulinase Production from Garlic by Streptomyces sp. in Solid State Fermentation Using Statistical Designs

    PubMed Central

    Dilipkumar, M.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening 18 nutrient components for the production of inulinase using Garlic as substrate by Streptomyces sp. in solid-state fermentation (SSF). From the experiments, 4 nutrients, namely, NH4NO3, MnSO4·7H2O, Soya bean cake, and K2HPO4 were found to be most significant nutrient components. Hence, these 4 components are selected. The selected components were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are NH4NO3—6.63 mg/gds, MnSO4·7H2O—26.16 mg/gds, Soya bean cake—60.6 mg/gds, and K2HPO4—5.24 mg/gds. Under these conditions, the production of inulinase was found to be 76 U/gds. PMID:21541216

  6. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26036599

  7. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. PMID:26166823

  8. Aqueous garlic extract alleviates liver fibrosis and renal dysfunction in bile-duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona F; Zakaria, Sara; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Garlic was found to lower the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the serum of rats in a diabetic model. We examined the effect of an aqueous garlic extract (AGE) on the ACE activity, cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis, and associated renal dysfunction in comparison with the effect of the standard drug enalapril. Both AGE and enalapril were administered orally for six weeks starting from the third day after bile duct ligation (BDL). BDL significantly increased the serum activities of liver enzymes, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, an indicator of liver cell death, serum total bilirubin (TB) level, liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content. BDL was associated with elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels indicating renal dysfunction. BDL also caused an increase in the transcript levels of the genes coding for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a collagenase, in liver tissues. A significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed in BDL rats, while serum ACE activity was increased. Both AGE and enalapril counteracted all these deleterious changes, with the exception that only AGE reduced the MPO activity. These findings suggest that AGE possesses hepato- and renoprotective properties, similar to enalapril, probably by modulating the levels of proteins such as TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and MMP-13, and involving a reduction of ACE and of oxidative stress. PMID:24873034

  9. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-01

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension. PMID:22547193

  10. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of the Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic Concentrates and Diallyl Constituents on Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jabal, Jamie M.F.; Aston, D. Eric; Konkel, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 μl/ml) and diallyl sulfide (5, 10 and 20 μM) on Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cultivated in tryptic soy broth at 4, 22 and 35°C for up to 7 days were investigated. L. monocytogenes was more resistant to garlic extract and diallyl compounds treatment than E. coli O157:H7. Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that diallyl constituents contributed more to the antimicrobial effect than phenolic compounds. This effect was verified by Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping on single bacteria. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed cell membrane damage consistent with spectroscopic observation. The degree of bacterial cell injury could be quantified using chemometric methods. PMID:21553849

  11. Inhibition of clastogenic effects of arsenic through continued oral administration of garlic extract in mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, A R; Das, T; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1997-08-14

    Crude aqueous extract of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. single clove variety) was administered by gavage to mice of both sexes daily for up to 30 and 60 days, in doses corresponding to 6 g for a 60 kg human body. Sodium arsenite (at 1/50 of LD50 dose) was injected subcutaneously to mice on every 7th day of the experiment. Chromosome preparations made from bone marrow following flame drying Giemsa schedule were screened for chromosomal aberrations. The clastogenic affects of prolonged exposure to sodium arsenite --a strong clastogen-- was reduced by a highly significant amount when crude garlic extract, in the dose used, was given daily to the mice by intubation for the same period. PMID:9294023

  12. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on garlic (Allium sativum L.): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Shaymurat, Talgar; Gu, Jianxiu; Xu, Changshan; Yang, Zhikun; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Yuxue; Liu, Yichun

    2012-05-01

    The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the root growth, root apical meristem mitosis and mitotic aberrations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. ZnO NPs caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of root length. When treated with 50 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24 h, the root growth of garlic was completely blocked. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was estimated to be 15 mg/L. The mitosis index was also decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ZnO NPs also induced several kinds of mitotic aberrations, mainly consisted of chromosome stickiness, bridges, breakages and laggings. The total percentage of abnormal cells increased with the increase of ZnO NPs concentration and the prolongation of treatment time. The investigation provided new information for the possible genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on plants. PMID:21495879

  13. Garlic organosulfur compounds upregulate the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase in rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Chen, Haw-Wen; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2005-11-01

    The chemopreventive property of garlic is related in part to its induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. In the present study, we investigated the modulatory effect of 3 garlic organosulfur compounds, i.e., diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), which differ in their number of sulfur atoms, on the gene expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP). Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured with 50-200 micromol/L of DAS, DADS, or DATS for 24 h. DADS and DATS increased GST activity toward ethacrynic acid by 40 and 66%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, both garlic allyl sulfides dose dependently induced GSTP mRNA and protein expression. DATS increased the protein level more than DADS (P < 0.05). In contrast, DAS did not affect the activity or the protein or mRNA levels of this phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme. In Clone 9 liver cells, the pTA-luciferase reporter assay showed that luciferase activity in DADS- and DATS-treated cells was 2.8- and 3.9-fold higher than that in control cells, respectively (P < 0.05). Again, luciferase activity was not affected by treatment with DAS. Deletion of -2.7 to -2.6 kb in the GSTP promoter region, which contains the GSTP enhancer (GPE) I element, abolished the upregulation of GSTP transcription by DADS and DATS. Deletion of GPE II, however, did not affect the induction of reporter activity. In conclusion, the effectiveness of 3 garlic allyl sulfides on GSTP expression was related to the number of sulfur atoms in the molecules, and GPE I was responsible for this upregulation. PMID:16251611

  14. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Veena; Jain, Sanjay

    2004-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including hypertension. Therefore, certain compounds with antioxidative capacity are believed to be protective against such diseases. Some components of garlic are known to possess antioxidative properties. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of short-term garlic supplementation in essential hypertensive patients (EH) on indices of oxidative stress. Twenty patients of EH as diagnosed by JNC VI criteria (Group I) and 20 age and sex-matched normotensive controls were enrolled for the study. Both groups were given garlic pearls (GP) in a dose of 250 mg per day for 2 months. Baseline samples were obtained at start of the study, i.e. 0 day, and thereafter, 2 months (follow-up). Lipids and lipoprotein subfractions, plasma-oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), plasma and urinary concentration of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) as a biomarker of oxidative stress in vivo, and the total antioxidant status (TOS) of these individuals were determined. We observed a moderate hypercholesterolemia and a significantly raised blood pressure in hypertensive patients as compared to the controls. The indices of oxidative stress, i.e. plasma ox-LDL and plasma and urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2alpha were significantly increased in EH group. Further, hypertensive patients had a significantly low TOS as compared to the control group. With in 2 months of GP supplementation, there was a significant decline in both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) and a significant reduction in ox-LDL and 8-iso-PGF2alpha levels in Group I patients. Further, a moderate increase in the TOS was also observed in this group as compared to their control counterparts. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of garlic may be beneficial in reducing blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive individuals. PMID:15646031

  15. Beneficial influence of dietary curcumin, capsaicin and garlic on erythrocyte integrity in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kempaiah, Rayavara K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2006-07-01

    In rats rendered hyperlipidemic by maintaining them on a high-fat diet (30%) for 8 weeks, inclusion of spice principles [curcumin (0.2%) or capsaicin (0.015%)] or garlic (2.0%) in the diet produced significant hypotriglyceridemic effect. Plasma cholesterol remained unaffected in high-fat treatment. Hepatic triglyceride content was significantly higher in high-fat fed rats, and this increase was effectively countered by inclusion of the hypolipidemic spice agents -- curcumin, capsaicin or garlic in the diet. The lipid profile of erythrocyte membranes of hyperlipidemic rats was similar to basal controls. An examination of the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in various groups indicated that the red blood cells of hyperlipidemic rats display a slight resistance to osmotic lysis. Inclusion of spice principles [curcumin (0.2%) or capsaicin (0.015%)] or garlic (2.0%) in the diet, which produced the hypotriglyceridemic effect, appeared to beneficially correct this altered osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. Activities of ouabain-sensitive Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as well as acetylcholinesterase of erythrocyte membranes in high-fat fed rats remained unaltered. Activity of Ca(2+),Mg(2+)-ATPase in erythrocyte membrane was significantly decreased in high-fat fed animals, whereas dietary spice principles and garlic countered this reduction in enzyme activity. In the absence of any change in the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio in the erythrocyte membrane, a decreased activity of membrane-bound Ca(2+),Mg(2+)-ATPase could have probably contributed to the accumulation of intracellular calcium leading to the diminished deformability of the erythrocytes in high-fat fed rats. PMID:16263255

  16. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  17. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    PubMed Central

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  18. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  19. Evaluation of the antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) on Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Sepahvand, Peyman; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Azadpour, Mozhgan

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects and drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of garlic extracts against promastigote forms of Leishmania tropica and murine macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT) assay. The results revealed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic were effective in inhibiting promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 (50 % inhibitory concentrations) values 12.3 and 19.2 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic showed low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50 % of cells) values 291.4 and 348.2 µg/ml, respectively. Findings of present study were the first step in the search for new antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in volunteer human subjects. PMID:27413315

  20. N alpha-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine, an antioxidant compound identified in aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Ryu, K; Ide, N; Matsuura, H; Itakura, Y

    2001-03-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to have antioxidant activity. The organosulfur compounds, S-allyl-L-cysteine and S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine, are responsible, at least in part, for the antioxidant activity of AGE. To identify major active components, we fractionated AGE, using hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity as an antioxidative index. Strong activity in the amino acid fraction was found and the major active compound was identified as N alpha-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (Fru-Arg). Antioxidant activity of Fru-Arg was comparable to that of ascorbic acid, scavenging hydrogen peroxide completely at 50 micromol/L and 37% at 10 micromol/L. Quantitative analysis using the established HPLC system revealed that AGE contained 2.1-2.4 mmol/L of Fru-Arg, but none was detected in either raw or heated garlic juice. Furthermore, it was shown that a minimum of 4 mo aging incubation was required for Fru-Arg to be generated. These findings indicate that the aging process is critical for the production of the antioxidant compound, Fru-Arg. These results may explain some of the variation in benefits among different commercially available garlic preparations. PMID:11238799

  1. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  2. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and adenosine deaminase– lowering effects of garlic in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahat; Chhatwal, Simran; Arora, Sahiba; Sharma, Sita; Singh, Jaswinder; Singh, Narinder; Bhandari, Vikram; Khurana, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, with long term macrovascular and microvascular complications. The treatment is lifestyle management, exercise, weight control, and antihyperglycemic drugs such as sulfonylureas, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, and meglitinide. Recently, a direct association between high levels of C-reactive protein and serum adenosine deaminase levels in patients with uncontrolled diabetes with long-term complications has been seen. This study was conducted to assess the antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and improving glycemic control of garlic in type 2 diabetes patients with obesity. Materials and methods This was an open-label, prospective, comparative study, conducted on 60 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 each, of either sex. Group 1 was given metformin tablets, 500 mg twice a day (BD)/three times a day (TDS), after meals, and group 2 was given metformin tablets, 500 mg BD/TDS, after meals, along with garlic (Allium sativum) capsules, 250 mg BD. Patients were routinely investigated for fasting and postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum adenosine deaminase levels and lipid profile (serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) at the start of the study. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks, with monitoring of fasting and postprandial blood glucose at 2 week intervals, and monitoring of the other parameters at the end of study. Data obtained at the end of the study was statistically analyzed using Student’s t test. Results It was observed that both metformin alone and metformin with garlic reduced fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose significantly, with a greater percentage reduction with metformin plus garlic; however, change in HbA1c levels was not

  3. The Influence of α-Lipoic Acid and Garlic Administration on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rabbits Exposed to Oxidized Nutrition Oils

    PubMed Central

    Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Rokicki, Wojciech; Dąbrowska, Natalia; Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Owczarek, Aleksander; Błaszczyk, Urszula; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Stawiarska-Pięta, Barbara; Birkner, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that addition of substances with antioxidant activity could decrease the concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory process, thus inhibiting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development. We investigated the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA) and garlic administration on the development of adverse changes in rabbit liver and serum under oxidative stress conditions induced with HFD from oxidized oils. We determined 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates, total oxidant status (TOS), lipid peroxides (LOO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in blood serum, and TNFα and IL-1α genes expression in liver. The results indicate that the intake of dietary ALA and garlic was significantly associated with decreases of 8OHdG and MDA levels in rabbits' liver tissue as well as TOS and LOO levels in rabbits' serum. Similarly, TNFα and IL-1α gene expressions were suppressed due to ALA and garlic supplementation. The histopathological analysis confirmed that HFD results in liver disorder leading to steatosis. This adverse effect of HFD was ameliorated by the supplementation of ALA and garlic. The obtained results indicate a beneficial effect of ALA and garlic administration by reducing the oxidative stress intensity and the levels of some proinflammatory cytokines in rabbits fed HFD. PMID:26634212

  4. Dentinal tubule disinfection with 2% chlorhexidine, garlic extract, and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Eswar, Kandaswamy; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of garlic extract with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 in disinfection of dentinal tubules contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion test was done to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic extract against E. faecalis. Forty human extracted mandibular premolar teeth were selected for this study, access cavity was prepared and cleaning and shaping was done. Middle third of the root was cut using a rotary diamond disc. The teeth specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into four groups---Group 1: 2% CHX, Group 2: Garlic extract, Group 3: Ca(OH)2, and Group 4: Saline (negative control). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth specimens and incubated for 5 days. The dentinal chips were collected at 400 μm depth using a Gates-Glidden drill, following which DNA isolation was done. The specimens were analyzed using real-time PCR. The results were then statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) multiple comparison of means. Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of 2% CHX was found to be 32.4, garlic extract to be 27.5, and Ca(OH)2 to be 25.6. Conclusion: A total of 2% CHX showed the maximum efficacy against E. faecalis, followed by garlic extract and Ca(OH)2. PMID:23833449

  5. Development of an Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System and Production of Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Plants in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst non-transgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits. PMID:23832764

  6. The C-S Lyases of Higher Plants : Direct Comparison of the Physical Properties of Homogeneous Alliin Lyase of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Nock, L P; Mazelis, M

    1987-12-01

    Garlic and onion alliin lyases, although from closely related species, have many differences. The two enzymes differ in their K(m) values, pH optima, and isoelectric points. There is a major difference in their molecular weight and subunit structure. The garlic holoenzyme has a molecular weight of 85,000 and consists of two subunits of molecular weight 42,000. The onion enzyme has a holoenzyme molecular weight of 200,000 composed of four subunits of molecular weight 50,000. The onion enzyme is much more difficult to dissociate into its subunits which suggests differences in subunit interaction between the two enzymes. The dimeric stucture of the garlic and the tetrameric structure of the onion enzyme is consistent with a coenzyme content (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate) equivalent to one mole per subunit. The two enzymes vary vastly in their spectra, the onion enzyme having a lower pyridoxal-5'-phosphate absorbance at 430 nanomoles and an inability to react with l-cysteine. Both enzymes are glycoproteins and bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose columns. The onion alliin lyase binds more tightly than the garlic enzyme. The amino acid content of both enzymes is similar as is the carbohydrate content. However, upon hydrolysis the onion lyase does yield more mannose units than the garlic enzyme which is consistent with the former's stronger affinity for concanavalin A. PMID:16665807

  7. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits. PMID:23832764

  8. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489

  9. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur species in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and shallot (Allium ascalonicum) by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-(octopole reaction system)-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Iwashita, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2005-11-01

    The simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and a weakly odorous Allium plant, shallot (Allium ascalonicum), was performed by means of a hyphenated technique, a HPLC coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS). The aqueous extracts of them contained the common seleno compound that was identified as gamma-glutamylmethylselenocysteine by an electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Normal garlic contains alliin as the major sulfur-containing compound, which is the biological precursor of the garlic odorant, allicin. Alliin, however, was not detected in the extracts of the selenized odorless garlic. At least, four unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were detected in odorless garlic and shallot. Moreover, these Allium plants showed chemopreventive effects against human leukemia cells. PMID:16233877

  10. Garlic γ-glutamyl transpeptidases that catalyze deglutamylation of biosynthetic intermediate of alliin

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Yabe, Ayami; Sugino, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Sai-ngam, Niti; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides are pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites produced by plants that belong to the genus Allium. Biosynthesis of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides is initiated by S-alk(en)ylation of glutathione, which is followed by the removal of glycyl and γ-glutamyl groups and S-oxygenation. However, most of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants have not been identified. In this study, we identified three genes, AsGGT1, AsGGT2, and AsGGT3, from garlic (Allium sativum) that encode γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (GGTs) catalyzing the removal of the γ-glutamyl moiety from a putative biosynthetic intermediate of S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). The recombinant proteins of AsGGT1, AsGGT2, and AsGGT3 exhibited considerable deglutamylation activity toward a putative alliin biosynthetic intermediate, γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, whereas these proteins showed very low deglutamylation activity toward another possible alliin biosynthetic intermediate, γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. The deglutamylation activities of AsGGT1, AsGGT2, and AsGGT3 toward γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine were elevated in the presence of the dipeptide glycylglycine as a γ-glutamyl acceptor substrate, although these proteins can act as hydrolases in the absence of a proper acceptor substrate, except water. The apparent Km values of AsGGT1, AsGGT2, and AsGGT3 for γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine were 86 μM, 1.1 mM, and 9.4 mM, respectively. Subcellular distribution of GFP-fusion proteins transiently expressed in onion cells suggested that AsGGT2 localizes in the vacuole, whereas AsGGT1 and AsGGT3 possess no apparent transit peptide for localization to intracellular organelles. The different kinetic properties and subcellular localizations of AsGGT1, AsGGT2, and AsGGT3 suggest that these three GGTs may contribute differently to the biosynthesis of alliin in garlic. PMID:25620969

  11. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    PubMed

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

  12. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of a low-molecular-weight fructooligosaccharide from Chinese Cangshan garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Du, Weina; Bi, Hua

    2012-09-19

    A novel low-molecular-weight fructooligosaccharide (LMWF) from garlic ( Allium sativum ) was isolated and identified. The structure and physicochemical properties of the LMWF were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, size-exclusion chromatography, atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic rheometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the LMWF was a neo-ketose with a molecular weight of 1770 Da. The LMWF had a (2,1)-linked β-D-Fruf backbone with (2,6)-linked β-D-Fruf side chains, and it was mainly composed of fructose. The branch degree was 18.1%, and the intrinsic viscosity was 3.06 mL/g. The spherical particles of the LMWF were observed by AFM, and their size was relatively uniform. With an increase in the water content, the peak temperature (T(p)), onset temperature (T(o)), and endset temperature (T(c)) increased, while the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH(gel)) decreased. The LMWF was more stable at a water content of 10%. PMID:22931231

  14. The inhibitory effects of γ-glutamylcysteine derivatives from fresh garlic on glycation radical formation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fei; Bai, Bing; Ma, Shufeng; Ji, Shujuan; Liu, Ling

    2016-03-01

    The effects of three reactive peptides, γ-glutamylmethylcysteine (γ-GMC), γ-glutamylpropylcysteine (γ-GPC), and γ-glutamylbutylcysteine (γ-GBC) on the suppression of reactive radicals during the heating of l-lysine in the presence or absence of glucose was studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. γ-GMC and γ-GPC were extracted from fresh garlic, and γ-GBC was a synthetic peptide. The results showed that γ-GMC and γ-GPC effectively suppress formation of l-lysine radicals, but that γ-GBC exhibits low radical inhibition. The origin of the short peptides, and the length of their side chain, influenced their surface hydrophobicity and subsequent radical inhibition. In addition, the oxidation of l-lysine was inhibited by the peptides in a similar manner to their inhibition of the Maillard reaction (MR), and their radical inhibition was consistent with similar activity towards N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). PMID:26471590

  15. Fresh Garlic Extract Induces Growth Arrest and Morphological Differentiation of MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.; Reddy, Thipparthi R.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is often associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer, particularly breast cancer. Considering that 1 in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in the course of her lifetime, dietary manipulation could have a major impact on the incidence of breast cancer. We report here that fresh extracts of garlic (not boiled) arrested the growth and altered the morphology of MCF7 breast cancer cells. Deregulated levels of E-cadherin, cytokeratin8/18, and β-catenin correlated with the altered phenotype. We propose that early down-regulation of cyclin D1, reduced phosphorylation of ERK1, and increased phosphorylation of eIF2-α triggered the phenotypical changes. Reduced expression of hsp27 and sam68 and elevated levels of Rb and p21 further contributed to the sustained growth reduction. These findings provide a better understanding of the cellular responses to dietary supplements and provide potential options to treat breast cancer. PMID:23050048

  16. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  17. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic.

    PubMed

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  18. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  19. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment. PMID:27363055

  20. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  1. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  2. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects and methods A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Results Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Conclusion Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation

  3. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P < 0.05) for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  4. Aged garlic extract inhibits 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumor development by suppressing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jikihara, Hiroshi; Qi, Guangying; Nozoe, Koichiro; Hirokawa, Mayumi; Sato, Hiromi; Sugihara, Yuka; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    Garlic and its constituents are reported to have a preventive effect against colorectal cancer in animal models. Aged garlic extract (AGE), which is produced by natural extraction from fresh garlic for more than 10 months in aqueous ethanol, also has reputed chemopreventive effects on colon carcinogenesis, but has never been studied for its effects on colon cancer development. We investigated the antitumor effects of AGE in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis, and the mechanism of AGE in human colon cancer cell proliferation. F344 rats randomly divided into three groups were administered DMH (20 mg/kg weight) subcutaneously once a week for 8 weeks in a basal diet. After the last injection, one group of rats was then moved onto a basal diet containing 3% wt/wt AGE, and rats were sacrificed at 8 or 31 weeks. The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), histological type of tumor and proliferative activity of the tumor lesions were analyzed by macroscopic, pathological and immunohistochemical methods. DLD-1 human colon cancer cells were utilized to investigate the effect of AGE on anti-cell proliferation. AGE decreased the number of ACF but had no effect on gross tumor pathology. AGE showed a lower number of adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that AGE suppressed the proliferative activity in adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions, but showed no effect on normal colon mucosa. Moreover, we demonstrated that AGE delayed cell cycle progression by downregulating cyclin B1 and cdk1 expression via inactivation of NF-κB in the human colorectal cancer cells but did not induce apoptosis. These findings suggest that AGE has an antitumor effect through suppression of cell proliferation. PMID:25573280

  5. A randomized trial of the effects of garlic oil upon coronary heart disease risk factors in trained male runners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Lowe, D; Giles, P; Fell, S; Board, A R; Baughan, J A; Connock, M J; Maslin, D J

    2001-01-01

    Most trials of bulb garlic and garlic powder tablets indicate reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in elevated-risk subjects. Most persons taking garlic supplements lack overt risk of CHD. However, no trials have tested steam-distilled garlic oil (GO) capsules with healthy subjects. The objectives of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were to determine whether GO capsules reduce CHD risk in trained male runners. Twenty-seven volunteers (mean age, 28.8 years) completed the study. Each took 12.3 mg/day GO (or placebo) capsules for 16 weeks. Main outcome measures were 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between GO and placebo groups for differences in changes of blood pressure (BP), plasma lipids, total antioxidant status (TAS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) composition and blood clotting factors. Principal results as mean differences (95% CI) between GO and placebo are: pulse, 2.9 beats/min (-0.8 to 6.7), P = 0.12; systolic BP, -4.5 mmHg (-10.8 to 1.9), P = 0.16; plasma total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/l (-0.34 to 0.37), P = 0.95; plasma triglycerides, -0.20 mmol/l (-0.43 to 0.03), P = 0.09; plasma TAS, 45 micromol Trolox equivalent/l (-35 to 124), P = 0.26; LDL density, 0.0019 g/ml (-0.0005 to 0.0043), P = 0.12; LDL triglycerides/protein, -0.078 mg/mg (-0.149 to -0.007), P = 0.03; LDL cholesterol/protein, -0.24 mg/mg (-0.69 to 0.22), P = 0.3; LDL TAS/triglycerides, 29 nmol/mg (11, 68), P = 0.15; prothrombin time, 0.99 s (-0.36 to 2.35), P = 0.14; partial thromboplastin time, 3.0 s (-1.0 to 7.1), P = 0.13. Results were null statistically. Trends with GO were mostly towards lower CHD risk, and a larger study (approximately 150 subjects) is required to test their validity. PMID:11229829

  6. Heinz body hemolytic anemia with eccentrocytosis from ingestion of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Osamu; Kasai, Ei; Katsura, Taro; Takahashi, Shinichi; Shiota, Takuji; Tajima, Motoshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    A 4-year-old, intact male miniature schnauzer was presented with anorexia. The dog had ingested some Chinese steamed dumplings 2 days before, which contained Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and garlic (Allium sativum). Hematological examinations revealed severe Heinz body hemolytic anemia with eccentrocytosis and an increased concentration of methemoglobin, which was thought to result from oxidative damage to erythrocytes by constituents in these Allium plants. In this case, eccentrocytosis was a hallmark finding and could be detected easily, suggesting that this hematological abnormality is useful in diagnosing Allium plant-induced hemolysis. PMID:15634869

  7. In vivo antiprotozoan effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on experimentally infected mice with Blastocystis spp.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Kamal, Amany M; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Abdelgelil, Noha H

    2015-09-01

    Controversy surrounding the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in humans and lack of well-established diagnostic criteria led to debates concerning the treatment for that organism. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against the recommended drugs. Thus, using natural medicine has many positive aspects to address these points. In an earlier study, we addressed in vitro effect of garlic and ginger on Blastocystis spp. isolates as an alternative treatment. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate in vivo activities of these two herbs on mice infected with Blastocystis spp. Antiprotozoan activities were determined by monitoring Blastocystis shedding in stools and histopathological changes of the intestine of infected mice. Additionally, assessment of the antioxidant effect (via measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production) of these herbs on the treated groups of mice was done. Also, their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed. In this work, treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and nitazoxanide (NTZ) reduced the shedding of cysts significantly compared to the infected untreated group, P value ≤0.001, 0.0001, and 0.0003, respectively. As well, histopathological examination revealed that Blastocystis was frequently observed within the lumen, at the tip of the epithelium, and/ or infiltrated in an enterocyte in the infected group without treatment compared to that of the infected treated ones. Furthermore, mice infected with Blastocystis exhibited increased levels of NO (440.09 ± 3.7 vs. 276.66 ± 0.8, P ≤ 0.001) and MDA production (106.19 ± 0.43 vs. 63.06 ± 0.45, P ≤ 0.0004) compared to that of the uninfected controls. Treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and NTZ reduced NO levels to 54.41 ± 1.2, 47.70 ± 1.2, and 37.43 ± 0.98 and MDA levels to 22.38 ± 0.17, 63.34 ± 3.89, and 66.76 ± 9.1, respectively. We conclude that using ginger and garlic for treatment of blastocystosis is beneficial

  8. When foods become remedies in ancient Greece: The curious case of garlic and other substances

    PubMed Central

    Totelin, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The debate on the food-drug continuum could benefit from a historical dimension. This study aims at showing this through one case: the food-drug continuum in Greece in the fifth- and fourth-century BCE. I suggest that at the time the boundary between food and drug – and that between dietetics and pharmacology – was rather blurred. Materials and methods I study definitions of ‘food’ and ‘medicine’ in texts from the fifth- and fourth-century BCE: the Hippocratic texts, the botanical treatises of Theophrastus and the pseudo-Aristotelian Problems. To illustrate these abstract definitions, I focus on two substances: garlic and silphium. Results and discussion The Hippocratics were writing in a context of increased professionalization and masculinization of medicine, a context in which dietetics became the most prestigious branch of medicine, praised above pharmacology and surgery. While medicine was becoming more specialised, professionalised and masculine, it avoided becoming too conspicuously so. The Hippocratic authors sometimes noted that medical discoveries are serendipitous and can be made by anyone, whether medically trained or not. By doing so, they allowed themselves to integrate common knowledge and practice into their writings. Conclusion In the context of the professionalization of ancient medicine, the Hippocratic authors started to address the difference between food and medicine. They saw, however, some advantage in acknowledging the continuum between food and medicine. Scholars should avoid drawing too strict a boundary between ancient dietetics and pharmacology and should instead adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to the therapeutics of the Hippocratic texts. PMID:25173971

  9. The garlic compound ajoene targets protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Cotton, Jonathan; Tuveri, Rossana; Ngarande, Ellen; Dzobo, Kevin; Schäfer, Georgia; Siyo, Vuyolwethu; Lang, Dirk; Kusza, Daniel A; Davies, Bronwen; Katz, Arieh A; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Ajoene is a natural allylsulfur compound found in crushed garlic that arrests growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To gain mechanistic insights into the cytotoxicity of ajoene in cancer cells, two fluorescently labelled ajoene analogs with dansyl- (DP) and fluorescein- (FOX) tags were synthesized. The tagged ajoenes were found to retain their activity at inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast-cancer and WHCO1 human esophageal-cancer cells. Both tagged ajoenes localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and confirmed by generating an MDA-MB-231 cell line expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the ER. DP appears to S-thiolate multiple protein targets in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions only; and a competition assay demonstrated that DP and Z-ajoene in fact share the same target. Ajoene S-thiolation interfered with protein folding and led to an accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consistent with this mechanism, increased levels of GRP78 and total ubiquitinated proteins were observed; and an ER-folded protein, type-1 collagen, was tracked to the proteasome following ajoene treatment. The intracellular protein aggregates were observed by CLSM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is the first time that ajoene has been shown to target protein folding in the ER of cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26207910

  10. Antiatherogenic and antiperoxidative effects of garlic and soy proteins in alcohol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasree, C R; Rajmohan, T; Augusti, K T

    2009-03-01

    Rats fed with alcohol (18%) at 3.76 g/day for 45 days showed significant reduction in body weight, glutathione (GSH) content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma, levels of HDL cholesterol in serum, hepatic bile acid production and fecal excretion of neutral sterols also showed significant reduction. Simultaneous feeding of garlic protein (GP) or soy protein (SP) (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 45 days) to alcohol fed groups increased each of above parameters significantly towards normal values. Increase in GSH content and catalase activity in liver, was significantly higher for SP treated group than for GP treated group. However, increase in plasma LCAT was significantly higher for GP treated group than for SP treated group. Alcohol fed rats showed significant increase in liver weight, serum and tissue cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids (PL) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels and activity of HMGCoA reductase in liver and intestine. Lipid peroxidation, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver and incorporation of labeled acetate into liver cholesterol also showed significant increase. GP and SP treated rats showed decrease in these values towards normal. GP feeding showed a better effect than SP in lowering serum and heart total cholesterol, and in maintaining GPx at near normal level, while SP feeding showed a better effect in lowering serum FFA level and maintaining GR activity at near normal level. In suppressing incorporation of labeled acetate into serum cholesterol, GP feeding showed a better effect than SP. Antiatherogenic and antiperoxidative effects of these proteins may be due to lower lysine/arginine ratio. PMID:19405381

  11. Thiol-disulfide organization in alliin lyase (alliinase) from garlic (Allium sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Lev; Shin, Irina; Shimon, Linda J W; Miron, Talia; Wilchek, Meir; Mirelman, David; Frolow, Felix; Rabinkov, Aharon

    2009-01-01

    Alliinase, an enzyme found in garlic, catalyzes the synthesis of the well-known chemically and therapeutically active compound allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate). The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein that belongs to the fold-type I family of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes. There are 10 cysteine residues per alliinase monomer, eight of which form four disulfide bridges and two are free thiols. Cys368 and Cys376 form a S—S bridge located near the C-terminal and plays an important role in maintaining both the rigidity of the catalytic domain and the substrate-cofactor relative orientation. We demonstrated here that the chemical modification of allinase with the colored —SH reagent N-(4-dimethylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl) maleimide yielded chromophore-bearing peptides and showed that the Cys220 and Cys350 thiol groups are accesible in solution. Moreover, electron paramagnetic resonance kinetic measurements using disulfide containing a stable nitroxyl biradical showed that the accessibilities of the two —SH groups in Cys220 and Cys350 differ. Neither enzyme activity nor protein structure (measured by circular dichroism) were affected by the chemical modification of the free thiols, indicating that alliinase activity does not require free —SH groups. This allowed the oriented conjugation of alliinase, via the —SH groups, with low- or high-molecular-weight molecules as we showed here. Modification of the alliinase thiols with biotin and their subsequent binding to immobilized streptavidin enabled the efficient enzymatic production of allicin. PMID:19177363

  12. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sankhadip; Laha, Bibek; Banerjee, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well. PMID:24991105

  13. Effects of garlic oil and two of its major organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, on intestinal damage in rats injected with endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Y.-H.; Jen, L.-N.; Su, H.-Y.; Lii, C.-K.; Sheen, L.-Y.; Liu, C.-T. . E-mail: ctl@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-05-15

    Garlic and its active components are known to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Wistar rats received by gavage 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight garlic oil (GO), 0.5 mmol/kg body weight diallyl disulfide or diallyl trisulfide, or the vehicle (corn oil; 2 ml/kg body weight) every other day for 2 weeks before being injected with endotoxin (i.p., 5 mg/kg body weight). Control rats were administered with corn oil and were injected with sterile saline. Samples for the measurement of proinflammatory cytokines were collected 3 h after injection, and all other samples were collected 18 h after injection. The low dose of GO suppressed endotoxin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, ulceration, and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The high dose of GO significantly lowered the peripheral level of nitrate/nitrite and endotoxin-induced iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05) but worsened intestinal mucosal damage accompanied by elevated peripheral proinflammatory cytokines. Diallyl trisulfide but not diallyl disulfide showed similar toxic effect as that of high-dose GO. These results suggest the preventive effect and possible toxicity of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation and intestinal damage.

  14. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients. PMID:25838894

  15. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients: model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical and reached at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. MBICs for standardized garlic extracts were significantly lower, with 1.56 and 0.78 μg/mL allicin for garlic water and ethanol extract, respectively. Biofilm density was impaired significantly at a concentration of 0.78 μg/mL allicin. Viability staining followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed, however, a 100% bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria at a concentration of 3.13 μg/mL allicin. qRT-PCR analysis provided no convincing evidence for specific effects of allicin on biofilm-associated genes. Extracts of fresh garlic are more potent inhibitors of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms than pure allicin, but allicin exerts a unique bactericidal effect on biofilm-embedded bacteria. The current experimental protocol has proven to be a valid approach to characterize the antimicrobial activity of traditional food ingredients. PMID:25838894

  16. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  17. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively. PMID:16786497

  18. Modulatory potential of smokeless tobacco on the garlic, mace or black mustard-altered hepatic detoxication system enzymes, sulfhydryl content and lipid peroxidation in murine system.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Singh, S P

    1997-09-16

    The present study evaluates the potential of smokeless tobacco to modify the chemopreventive efficacy of minor dietary constituents, including garlic, mace or black mustard, via modulating the competing pathways of hepatic detoxication system and antioxidant defense mechanism in murine system. Garlic (100 mg/kg b.w. per day) by gavage and mace (1% w/w) or black mustard (1% w/w) in diet induced a significant increase in the levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH), cytochrome b5 (Cyt.b5) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt.P-450) in murine liver. The hepatic levels of GST and -SH were significantly depressed whereas microsomal Cyt.b5, Cyt.P-450 and MDA levels were elevated in groups treated with smokeless tobacco (50 or 100 mg/kg b.w. per day). The data revealed the inhibitory potential of smokeless tobacco on garlic-induced hepatic GST/GSH system besides the significant augmentation by smokeless tobacco on garlic or mace or black mustard-induced microsomal cytochromes. The possible implications of modulation in competing bioactivation and detoxication pathways in the process of chemical carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:9310267

  19. In Vitro Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Aqueous Garlic Extract and Imipenem against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Akhter, S M; Khatun, S; Islam, M M; Roy, P

    2016-07-01

    An interventional study was performed to determine and compare the MICs of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Imipenem against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 & Eschericha coli ATCC 25922. The study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2015. The MIC of AGE and antibiotic Imipenem were determined with the help of broth dilution method. The MIC of AGE was determined as 400μg/ml and 700μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli respectively and the MIC of Imipenem was 1μg/ml against Staphylococus aureus and 1.5μg/ml against Escherichia coli. The MICs of Imipenem was much lower in comparison to MICs of AGE for the test organisms. The subculture study showed the same results with that of the primary isolates. From the study it was clearly observed that AGE have anti bacterial effect but is not potent like antibiotic Imipenem. In this regard active ingredient present in garlic needs to be separated & purified for further study. PMID:27612894

  20. Studies on in vitro interaction of ampicillin and fresh garlic extract against Staphylococcus aureus by checkerboard method

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, R.; Trivedi, Niyati A.; Bhatt, Jagat D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Staphylococcus aureus has largely developed resistance to the multiple antimicrobial agents. Garlic (Allium sativum) is claimed to retard development of resistance and produce synergy with conventional antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of combination of ampicillin with fresh garlic extract (FGE) against S. aureus by using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of FGE was studied by well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The effect of combination of ampicillin with FGE was studied by using checkerboard method against the clinical isolates of S. aureus. The organisms were exposed to individual antimicrobial as well the different combinations of the two agents and minimum inhibitory concentration was measured. Results: Synergistic interaction was observed by the combination of FGE with ampicillin for all the strains of S. aureus. Mean minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of ampicillin per se was 24 μg/ml. Addition of 30-60 mg/ml of FGE reduced MIC of ampicillin to <2 μg/ml. Conclusion: This in vitro study indicates synergism between FGE and ampicillin against S. aureus. Evaluation of these combinations in vivo may be warranted. PMID:25284945

  1. Modulation of Histone Deacetylase Activity by Dietary Isothiocyanates and Allyl Sulfides: Studies with Sulforaphane and Garlic Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Hui; Delage, Barbara; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reactivate epigenetically-silenced genes in cancer cells, triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary constituents can act as HDAC inhibitors, such as the isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables and the allyl compounds present in garlic. Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that is metabolized via the mercapturic acid pathway and inhibits HDAC activity in human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. In mouse preclinical models, SFN inhibited HDAC activity and induced histone hyperacetylation coincident with tumor suppression. Inhibition of HDAC activity also was observed in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from people who consumed a single serving of broccoli sprouts. Garlic organosulfur compounds can be metabolized to allyl mercaptan (AM), a competitive HDAC inhibitor that induced rapid and sustained histone hyperacetylation in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity by AM was associated with increased histone acetylation and Sp3 transcription factor binding to the promoter region of the P21WAF1 gene, resulting in elevated p21 protein expression and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, the results from these studies, and others reviewed herein, provide new insights into the relationships between reversible histone modifications, diet, and cancer chemoprevention. PMID:19197985

  2. Cold tolerance in CCl4-treated rats and its modification by administration of garlic oil and glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, B.; Ahujarai, P. L.

    1984-06-01

    Male Wistar rats weighing 150 200 g maintained under standard laboratory conditions and given Hindustan Lever Pellets and water ad libitum were exposed to -20°C for determination of the rate of fall of rectal temperature and survival time. The rate of fall of body temperature was significantly increased and the survival time was reduced, when animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg BW of CCl4 24 h but not 2 h earlier. Pre-treatment of the animals with 0.006 ml of garlic oil in a 2% solution of arachis oil for 3 days gave a significant protection to the animals against the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. Administration of glucose orally 300 mg in 2 ml of saline eliminated the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. The animals displayed a hypoglycemia 24 h, but not 2 h after injection of CCl4. CCl4-induced hypoglycemia was reduced by pre-treatment with garlic oil. The results indicate that the CCl4-induced reduction in cold tolerance is secondary to hypoglycemia and not due to the direct effect of CCl4 on the thermoregulatory mechanism in the CNS. The critical level of blood glucose below which the cold tolerance is reduced was found to be 76 mg/100 ml of blood.

  3. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS. PMID:27043510

  4. Antibacterial effects of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils in tomato films determined by overlay and vapor-phase methods.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Mandrell, R; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film-forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor-phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: oregano oil > allspice oil > garlic oil. Listeria monocytogenes was less resistant to EO vapors, while E. coli O157:H7 was more resistant to EOs as determined by both overlay and vapor-phase diffusion tests. The presence of plant EO antimicrobials reduced the viscosity of TPFFS at the higher shear rates, but did not affect water vapor permeability of films. EOs increased elongation and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that the 3 plant-derived EOs can be used to prepare tomato-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films. PMID:19895486

  5. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  6. Traceability of Italian garlic (Allium sativum L.) by means of HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritota, Mena; Casciani, Lorena; Han, Bei-Zhong; Cozzolino, Sara; Leita, Liviana; Sequi, Paolo; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2012-11-15

    (1)H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS-NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse garlic (Allium sativum L.) belonging to red and white varieties and collected in different Italian regions, in order to address the traceability issue. 1D and 2D NMR spectra, performed directly on untreated small pieces of garlic, so without any sample manipulation, allowed the assignment of several compounds: organic acids, sugars, fatty acids, amino acids and the nutritionally important fructo-oligosaccharides and allyl-organosulphur compounds. Application of Partial Least Squares projections to latent structures-Discrimination Analysis provided an excellent model for the discrimination of both the variety and, most important, the place origin, allowing the identification of the metabolites contributing to such classifications. The presence of organosulphurs, allicin and some allyl-organosulphurs found by HRMAS-NMR, was confirmed also by SPME-GC-MS; 11 molecules were identified, containing from one up to three sulphur atoms and with and without allyl moieties. PMID:22868146

  7. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Abbas; Argani, Hassan; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Mahdavi, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr) by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased from 2.4 to1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009) by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03), triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008), MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03) by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed) had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed) reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic. PMID:15943877

  8. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p < 0.05) decreased by High-GAR. However, calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p < 0.05), average daily gain was similar between Low-GAR and monensin supplemented calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p < 0.05). As a result, feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Administrating garlic powder decreased the blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-esterified fatty acids (p < 0.05) without affecting the blood triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein and beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations. In conclusion, the calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. PMID:26608665

  9. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    NAKASONE, YASUSHI; SATO, NORIMASA; AZUMA, TAKAYUKI; HASUMI, KEIJI

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The trial was conducted in subjects aged between 30 and 60 years whose rate of salivary sIgA release was moderately low. Subjects consumed 2.49 g of placebo or black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food (active food) daily for 8 weeks. The data obtained with 54 eligible subjects (n=28 and 26 for placebo and active, respectively) were analyzed for efficacy. The rates of salivary sIgA release in the active food group (35.9±84.6 and 47.9±123.4 µg/min at weeks 4 and 8 of intake; changes from pretrial value) were higher compared to the respective rates in the placebo food group (−12.3±72.1 and −3.2±85.9 µg/min, P=0.028 and 0.082, respectively). These findings indicate that intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food enhanced the intraoral immune response. There was no adverse event associated with the intake of active food. PMID:27347407

  10. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, fluoride with essential oils, alum, green tea, and garlic with lime mouth rinses on cariogenic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ann; Thakur, Sneha; Mhambrey, Sanjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of natural mouth rinse formulations are being proposed as an alternative to the widely used chemical mouth rinses. Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.2%), sodium fluoride (0.05%), fluoride with essential oils (0.05%), alum (0.02 M), green tea, and garlic with lime mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The three microbes were isolated from the saliva samples collected from children with severe early childhood caries. The zone of minimum inhibition was assessed using agar diffusion method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Against S. mutans and lactobacilli, chlorhexidine mouth rinse was found to be the most effective as compared to sodium fluoride (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), green tea (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and garlic with lime (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) mouth rinses, respectively. But against C. albicans, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be the most effective as compared to chlorhexidine (P < 0.001), sodium fluoride (P < 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001), and green tea (P < 0.001) mouth rinses. Against S. mutans and lactobacilli, after chlorhexidine mouth rinse, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be significantly more effective than sodium fluoride (P = 0.053, P = 0.001), fluoride with essential oils (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), alum (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and green tea (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) mouth rinses. Conclusion: As a natural mouth rinse, garlic with lime mouth rinse was found to be the most promising. However, further studies are needed in this field. PMID:26312230

  11. Effect of garlic powder consumption on body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Davood; Paknahad, Zamzam; Askari, Gholamreza; Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease that is becoming a public health problem in recent decades. Obesity and overweight play a key role in NAFLD pathogenesis. Thus, weight loss (especially body fat mass) is one component of therapeutic strategies in NAFLD. Results from experimental studies have shown that garlic (Allium sativum L.) can reduce body weight and body fat mass. However, the effect of garlic on body fat mass and weight in the human population, which is addressed in this study, is still obscure. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 110 subjects with NAFLD were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received two garlic tablets (containing 400 mg of garlic powder) daily while the control group received placebo tablets. Dietary intake and physical activity of participants were obtained by a validated questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results: In the intervention group, significant reductions were observed in body weight and body fat mass (P < 0.05). We also observed a significant reduction in body weight in the control group, but there were no significant changes in total body water and lean body mass in both groups (P > 0.05). In the intervention group, the percentage change in body weight was significantly greater than the control group (−2.6 vs. −0.7, P = 0.02). No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion: Our trial suggests that garlic supplemfrom experimental studies have shown thatentation can reduce body weight and fat mass among subjects with NAFLD. PMID:26955623

  12. The anti-fatty liver effects of garlic oil on acute ethanol-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Guo, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Cui-Li; Zhao, Sheng; Dou, Dan-Dan; Gao, Xu-Cong; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2008-11-25

    The protective effects of single dose of garlic oil (GO) on acute ethanol-induced fatty liver were investigated. Mice were treated with ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) to induce acute fatty liver. The liver index, the serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and the histological changes were examined to evaluate the protective effects. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were determined for the antioxidant capacity assay. Acute ethanol exposure resulted in the enlargement of the liver index and the increase of the serum and hepatic TG levels (P<0.01), which were dramatically attenuated by GO pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). GO treatment (simultaneously with ethanol exposure) exhibited similar effects to those of pretreatment, while no obviously protective effects were displayed when it was used at 2h after ethanol intake. Histological changes were paralleled to these indices. Beside this, GO dramatically prolonged the drunken time and shortened the waking time, and these effects were superior to those of silymarin and tea polyphenol. In addition, GO dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of MDA levels, restored the GSH levels and enhanced the SOD, GR and GST activities. Compared with the ethanol group, the MDA levels decreased by 14.2% (P<0.05), 29.9% and 32.8% (P<0.01) in GO groups 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The GST activity increased by 9.97%, 19.94% (P<0.05) and 42.12% (P<0.01) of the ethanol group in GO groups 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, while the GR activity increased by 28.57% (P<0.05), 37.97% (P<0.01), 50.45% (P<0.01) of the ethanol group in GO groups 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. These data indicated that single dose of GO possessed ability to prevent acute ethanol-induced fatty liver, but may lose its capacity when used after ethanol exposure. The protective effects

  13. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  14. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:23583806

  15. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Smita; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of an oil extract of garlic on the in vivo intestinal transference of calcium, and also to verify its role in maintaining the bone mineral content and bone tensile strength in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The results suggest that, in this experimental model, oil extract of garlic promotes intestinal transference of calcium by modulating the activities of both intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca(2+) activated ATPase. Also the observed low bone mineral content and low bone tensile strength in these rats were significantly restored by garlic oil supplementation. Further, garlic oil supplementation was able to revive partially the bilateral ovariectomy-induced decrease in the serum estrogen titer. The serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was found unaltered in these rats. The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery in serum estrogen titer in bilaterally ovariectomized rat was found to be persistently associated with enhanced calcium transference and better preservation of bone mineral content. The results of this study propose that the phytoestrogenic efficacy of an oil extract of garlic prevents ovarian hormone deficiency induced bone mineral loss possibly by promoting intestinal transference of calcium through the partial revival of the serum estrogen titer. PMID:16619371

  16. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P < 0.005) with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased

  17. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different. PMID:27548984

  18. Synthesis of Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-doped Carbon Dots from Garlic for Selective Detection of Fe3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yue; Wang, Yu; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yiding; Yu, William W.

    2016-02-01

    Garlic was used as a green source to synthesize carbon dots (CDs) with a systematic study of the optical and structure properties. Ethylenediamine was added into the synthesis to improve the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of the CDs. Detailed structural and composition studies demonstrated that the content of N and the formation of C-N and C=N were critical to improve the PL QY. The as-synthesized CDs exhibited excellent stability in a wide pH range and high NaCl concentrations, rendering them applicable in complicated and harsh conditions. Quenching the fluorescence of the CDs in the presence of Fe3+ ion made these CDs a luminescent probe for selective detection of Fe3+ ion.

  19. Synthesis of Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-doped Carbon Dots from Garlic for Selective Detection of Fe(3.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yue; Wang, Yu; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yiding; Yu, William W

    2016-12-01

    Garlic was used as a green source to synthesize carbon dots (CDs) with a systematic study of the optical and structure properties. Ethylenediamine was added into the synthesis to improve the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of the CDs. Detailed structural and composition studies demonstrated that the content of N and the formation of C-N and C=N were critical to improve the PL QY. The as-synthesized CDs exhibited excellent stability in a wide pH range and high NaCl concentrations, rendering them applicable in complicated and harsh conditions. Quenching the fluorescence of the CDs in the presence of Fe(3+) ion made these CDs a luminescent probe for selective detection of Fe(3+) ion. PMID:26924814

  20. Antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of aged garlic extract and its constituent, s-allyl cysteine, in rats.

    PubMed

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

    2015-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats. At the end of treatment of AGE and SAC, separated serum and freshly prepared liver tissue homogenate were analyzed for biochemical enzymes and biomarkers to evaluate and compare potencies of investigational agents. Both AGE and SAC significantly declined elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione in serum and inclined superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total sulfhydryl values in liver tissue with reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The protective effects were superior with AGE compared with SAC indicating potential implication of other active constituents apart from SAC in AGE for combating hyperlipidemic stress. PMID:25918544

  1. Induction of total insensitivity to capsaicin and hypersensitivity to garlic extract in human by decreased expression of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong Jean; Lee, Jaehee; Kim, Myung Ah; Back, Seung Keun; Hong, Seung Kil; Na, Heung Sik

    2007-01-10

    TRPV1 is a cation channel which is activated by temperature (> or =42 degrees C) and capsaicin. In the present study, we found a person with total insensitivity to capsaicin and attempted to unravel its causes. The expression levels of TRPV1 protein and mRNA in the cells of the person's buccal mucosa were less than half of those in a normal subject. Sequential analysis of mRNA and genomic DNA revealed several point mutations mostly in the second intron of the person's TRPV1. Interestingly, the subject showed hypersensitivity to garlic extract, but TRPA1 (allicin receptor) level was normal. These results suggest that the decreased expression of TRPV1 may be related to a functional knock out in capsaicin sensation and hypersensitivity to allicin in humans. PMID:17110039

  2. Characterization of the biological activity of gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine: a novel, naturally occurring anticancer agent from garlic.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Lisk, D; Block, E; Ip, C

    2001-04-01

    Gamma-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine (GGMSC) has recently been identified as the major Se compound in natural garlic and selenized garlic. Our working hypothesis is that GGMSC serves primarily as a carrier of Se-methylselenocysteine (MSC), which has been demonstrated in past research to be a potent cancer chemopreventive agent in animal carcinogenesis bioassays. The present study was designed to examine the in vivo responses to GGMSC or MSC using a variety of biochemical and biological end points, including (a) urinary Se excretion as a function of bolus dose; (b) tissue Se accumulation profile; (c) anticancer efficacy; and (d) gene expression changes as determined by cDNA array analysis. Our results showed that like MSC, GGMSC was well absorbed p.o., with urinary excretion as the major route for eliminating excess Se. When fed chronically, the profile of Se accumulation in various tissues was very comparable after treatment with either GGMSC or MSC. In rats that had been challenged with a carcinogen, supplementation with either GGMSC or MSC resulted in a lower prevalence of premalignant lesions in the mammary gland, and fewer mammary carcinomas when these early lesions were allowed to progress. More importantly, we found that a short term GGMSC/MSC treatment schedule of 4 weeks immediately after carcinogen dosing was sufficient to provide significant cancer protection, even in the absence of a sustained exposure past the initial 4-week period. With the use of the Clontech Atlas Rat cDNA Array, we further discovered that the gene expression changes induced in mammary epithelial cells of rats that were given either GGMSC or MSC showed a high degree of concordance. On the basis of the collective biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology data, we conclude that GGMSC is an effective anticancer agent with a mechanism of action very similar to that of MSC. PMID:11306469

  3. Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Fibrosis in a Rat Hypertension Model

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuki; Noda, Akiko; Miyata, Seiko; Minoshima, Makoto; Sugiura, Mari; Kojima, Jun; Otake, Masafumi; Furukawa, Mayuko; Cheng, Xian Wu; Nagata, Kohzo; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2013-01-01

    Daily consumption of garlic is known to lower the risk of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. In this study, we examined whether aged garlic extract (AGE) prevents hypertension and the progression of compensated left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. DS rats were randomly divided into three groups: those fed an 8% NaCl diet until 18 weeks of age (8% NaCl group), those additionally treated with AGE (8% NaCl + AGE group), and control rats maintained on a diet containing 0.3% NaCl until 18 weeks of age (0.3% NaCl group). AGE was administered orally by gastric gavage once a day until 18 weeks of age. LV mass was significantly higher in the 8% NaCl + AGE group than in the 0.3% NaCl group at 18 weeks of age, but significantly lower in the 8% NaCl + AGE group than in the 8% NaCl group. No significant differences were observed in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between the 8% NaCl and 8% NaCl + AGE groups at 12 and 18 weeks of age. LV end-diastolic pressure and pressure half-time at 12 and 18 weeks of age were significantly lower in the 8% NaCl + AGE group compared with the 8% NaCl group. AGE significantly reduced LV interstitial fibrosis at 12 and 18 weeks of age. Chronic AGE intake attenuated LV diastolic dysfunction and fibrosis without significantly decreasing SBP in hypertensive DS rats. PMID:24172194

  4. Spices Mixture Containing Garlic, Ginger and Nutmeg Has Protective Effects on the Kidneys and Liver of Cadmium Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Ugwu, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential protective effect of spice mixture containing garlic, ginger and nutmeg on the liver and kidney of cadmium exposed rats. Methods: Male albino rats (n=30) weighing 120 – 180 g, grouped into five (1-5) of 6 rats/group were studied. Group 1 (NC) rats were administered distilled water (1 ml) orally for 4 weeks and served as the negative control while group 2 (PC) rats were administered low dose (LD) cadmium (25 mg/kg body weight) orally for 4 weeks and served as positive control. Group 3 (TBE) rats were treated with spice mixture (SM); 300 mg/kg body weight orally for 2 weeks and then administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks. While group 4 (CET) rats were concurrently administered LD cadmium and SM for 4 weeks, group 5 (TAE) rats were administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks and then treated with SM for 2 weeks. The whole experiment lasted for 42 day after which the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for determination of biochemical parameters using standard procedures and techniques. Results: Exposure to Cd produced greater increases in the liver function parameters. However treatment with SM significantly (p<0.05) reduced ALT in animals treated after exposure, AST and bilirubin in those treated before exposure and significant (p<0.05) increased serum albumin in animals treated before exposure to Cd. The altered renal function parameters and total serum cholesterol were restored to near normal values following treatment with SM. Conclusion: It may be concluded that concurrent intake of garlic, ginger and nutmeg at culinary dose in the diet has both therapeutic and prophylactic effect at mitigating Cd toxicity and reaffirms the safely of spices combinations as being currently practiced. PMID:27478792

  5. Effects of aged garlic extract on left ventricular diastolic function and fibrosis in a rat hypertension model.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuki; Noda, Akiko; Miyata, Seiko; Minoshima, Makoto; Sugiura, Mari; Kojima, Jun; Otake, Masafumi; Furukawa, Mayuko; Cheng, Xian Wu; Nagata, Kohzo; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2013-01-01

    Daily consumption of garlic is known to lower the risk of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. In this study, we examined whether aged garlic extract (AGE) prevents hypertension and the progression of compensated left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. DS rats were randomly divided into three groups: those fed an 8% NaCl diet until 18 weeks of age (8% NaCl group), those additionally treated with AGE (8% NaCl + AGE group), and control rats maintained on a diet containing 0.3% NaCl until 18 weeks of age (0.3% NaCl group). AGE was administered orally by gastric gavage once a day until 18 weeks of age. LV mass was significantly higher in the 8% NaCl + AGE group than in the 0.3% NaCl group at 18 weeks of age, but significantly lower in the 8% NaCl + AGE group than in the 8% NaCl group. No significant differences were observed in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between the 8% NaCl and 8% NaCl + AGE groups at 12 and 18 weeks of age. LV end-diastolic pressure and pressure half-time at 12 and 18 weeks of age were significantly lower in the 8% NaCl + AGE group compared with the 8% NaCl group. AGE significantly reduced LV interstitial fibrosis at 12 and 18 weeks of age. Chronic AGE intake attenuated LV diastolic dysfunction and fibrosis without significantly decreasing SBP in hypertensive DS rats. PMID:24172194

  6. Aged Garlic Extract Attenuates Neuronal Injury in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Cemil, Berker; Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Gokce, Aysun; Aksoy, Nurkan; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Erdogan, Bulent; Kosem, Bahadir

    2016-06-01

    Garlic has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is claimed to promote human health through antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with neuroprotective effects. We evaluated the possible beneficial effect of AGE neurologically, pathologically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically in a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham (no I/R), I/R, and AGE (I/R+AGE); each group consisted of eight animals. Animals were evaluated neurologically with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested for pathological and ultrastructural examinations. Oxidative products (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), inflammatory cytokines (tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1), and caspase-3 activity were analyzed. The AGE group had significantly higher BBB scores than the I/R group. Pathologically, AGE group revealed reduced degree of ischemia and spinal cord edema. Ultrastructural results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the AGE group. Oxidative product levels of the I/R group were significantly higher than both the other groups, and antioxidant enzyme levels of AGE group were significantly higher than the I/R group. There was also significant difference between the sham and AGE groups in terms of total antioxidant enzyme levels. Furthermore, AGE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity than the I/R group. This study demonstrates the considerable neuroprotective effect of AGE on the neurological, pathological, ultrastructural, and biochemical status of rats with I/R-induced spinal cord injury. PMID:27183321

  7. The redox-active drug metronidazole and thiol-depleting garlic compounds act synergistically in the protist parasite Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Williams, C F; Vacca, A R; Dunham, L; Lloyd, D; Coogan, M P; Evans, G; Graz, M; Cable, J

    2016-01-01

    Spironucleus vortens is a protozoan parasite associated with significant mortalities in the freshwater angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. Control of this parasite is especially problematic due to restrictions on the use of the drug of choice, metronidazole (MTZ), on fish farms. Use of garlic (Allium sativum) is undergoing a renaissance following experimental validations of its antimicrobial efficiency. Ajoene ((E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide), is a stable transformation product of allicin, the primary biologically active component of garlic. In the current study, an ajoene oil crude extract had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 40μg/ml against S. vortens. GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy revealed this ajoene extract contained a mixture of the (E) and (Z)-ajoene isomers along with diallyl disulphide (DADS) and diallyl trisulphide (DATS). The only component of the ajoene crude oil found to substantially inhibit S. vortens growth by optical density monitoring (Bioscreen C Reader) was (Z)-ajoene (MIC 16μg/ml). Ajoene oil acted in synergy with MTZ in vitro, reducing the individual MIC of this drug (4μg/ml) by 16-fold, and that of ajoene oil by 200-fold with a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of 0.263. This synergistic interaction was confirmed in vivo. S. vortens-infected Pterophyllum scalare angelfish dosed orally with 0.5% (v/w) MTZ combined with 0.05% (v/w) ajoene displayed a significant reduction in faecal trophozoite count, whilst those fed on 0.5% MTZ flakes (half the recommended oral dose) alone did not. This study demonstrates for the first time the synergistic interaction between the synthetic drug MTZ and natural ajoene oil both in vitro and in vivo. Future work should evaluate the potential synergy of ajoene and MTZ against MTZ-resistant bacteria and protists. PMID:26968264

  8. Effects of aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on hepatic and blood oxidant-antioxidant status during experimental gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, S; Velmurugan, B; Bhuvaneswari, V; Nagini, S

    2004-01-01

    The modifying effects of aqueous extracts of garlic and neem leaf during the pre-initiation and post-initiation phases of gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were investigated in male Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of phase II biotransformation enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase that use reduced glutathione (GSH) as substrate were used to biomonitor the chemopreventive potential of these extracts. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver and blood of tumor-bearing animals was accompanied by significant decreases in the activities of GSH-dependent antioxidants in the pre-initiation as well as in the post-initiation phases. Our results suggest that the modulatory effects of garlic and neem leaf on hepatic and blood oxidant-antioxidant status may play a key role in preventing cancer development at extrahepatic sites. PMID:15383228

  9. Thiol oxidation and protein cross-link formation during chill storage of pork patties added essential oil of oregano, rosemary, or garlic.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Gema; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens L; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    The effect of two levels (0.05% and 0.4%) of essential oil of rosemary, oregano, or garlic on protein oxidation in pork patties was studied during storage under modified atmosphere (MAP: 70% O2: 20% CO2: 10% N2) or under aerobic conditions (AE) at 4°C. The oxidative stability of the meat proteins was evaluated as loss of thiols for up to 9 days of storage, and as formation of myosin cross-links analyzed by SDS-PAGE after 12 days of storage. Protein thiols were lost during storage to yield myosin disulfide cross-links. Essential oils of rosemary and oregano were found to retard the loss of thiols otherwise resulting in myosin cross-links. Garlic essential oil, on the contrary, was found to promote protein oxidation, as seen by an extreme loss in thiol groups, and elevated myosin cross-link formation compared to control. PMID:23743026

  10. Use of tissue culture techniques for producing virus-free plant in garlic and their identification through real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Baktemur, Gökhan; Kurul, Mehmet; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed for comparison of meristem culture technique with shoot tip culture technique for obtaining virus-free plant, comparison of micropropagation success of two different nutrient media, and determination of effectiveness of real-time PCR assay for the detection of viruses. Two different garlic species (Allium sativum and Allium tuncelianum) and two different nutrient media were used in this experiment. Results showed that Medium 2 was more successful compared to Medium 1 for both A. tuncelianum and A. sativum (Kastamonu garlic clone). In vitro plants obtained via meristem and shoot tip cultures were tested for determination of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) through real-time PCR assay. In garlic plants propagated via meristem culture, we could not detect any virus. OYDV and LYSV viruses were detected in plants obtained via shoot tip culture. OYDV virus was observed in amount of 80% and 73% of tested plants for A. tuncelianum and A. sativum, respectively. LYSV virus was found in amount of 67% of tested plants of A. tuncelianum and in amount of 87% of tested plants of A. sativum in this study. PMID:23935432

  11. Protective roles of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, Kikelomo F; Suru, Stephen M; Fafunso, Michael A; Obioha, Udoka E; Faremi, Toyin Y

    2008-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to exert gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. The present study was performed to assess the possible protective roles of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) extracts on Cd-induced testicular damage and spermiotoxicity. The control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd (1.5mg/100g BW/day) orally; extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5ml and 1.0ml/100g BW/day) orally for one week and then simultaneously challenged with Cd (1.5mg/100g BW/day) for additional three weeks. Testicular tissue oxidant/antioxidant status and sperm characteristics were determined. Cd caused a marked (p<0.001) rise in testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were decreased. Cd intoxication significantly (p<0.001) decreased epididymal sperm concentration and sperm progress motility, increased percent total sperm abnormalities and live/dead count. Both extracts successfully attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract offers a dose-dependent protection. Our study demonstrated that aqueous extracts of onion and garlic could proffer a measure of protection against Cd-induced testicular oxidative damage and spermiotoxicity by possibly reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in rats. PMID:18824205

  12. Lycopene synergistically inhibits LDL oxidation in combination with vitamin E, glabridin, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, or garlic.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, B; Volkova, N; Rosenblat, M; Aviram, M

    2000-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is atherogenic, and that atherosclerosis can be attenuated by natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the effect of tomato lycopene alone, or in combination with other natural antioxidants, on LDL oxidation. LDL (100 microg of protein/ml) was incubated with increasing concentrations of lycopene or of tomato oleoresin (lipid extract of tomatoes containing 6% lycopene, 0.1% beta-carotene, 1% vitamin E, and polyphenols), after which it was oxidized by the addition of 5 micromol/liter of CuSO4. Tomato oleoresin exhibited superior capacity to inhibit LDL oxidation in comparison to pure lycopene, by up to five-fold [97% vs. 22% inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and 93% vs. 27% inhibition of lipid peroxides formation, respectively]. Because tomato oleoresin also contains, in addition to lycopene, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolics, a possible cooperative interaction between lycopene and such natural antioxidants was studied. A combination of lycopene (5 micromol/liter) with vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) in the concentration range of 1-10 micromol/liter resulted in an inhibition of copper ion-induced LDL oxidation that was significantly greater than the expected additive individual inhibitions. The synergistic antioxidative effect of lycopene with vitamin E was not shared by gamma-to-cotrienol. The polyphenols glabridin (derived from licorice), rosmarinic acid or carnosic acid (derived from rosemary), as well as garlic (which contains a mixture of natural antioxidants) inhibited LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. When lycopene (5 micromol/liter) was added to LDL in combination with glabridin, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, or garlic, synergistic antioxidative effects were obtained against LDL oxidation induced either by copper ions or by the radical generator AAPH. Similar interactive

  13. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  14. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  15. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 490 genes (280 up, 210 down), and feeding garlic botanical altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 64 genes (33 up, 31 down), while feeding turmeric oleoresin altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 327 genes (232 up, 95 down). Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) < 0.05] the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE < 0.05) the cell cycle pathway. Feeding each of the 3 plant extracts enhanced (EASE < 0.05) the expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions

  16. QSAR study for the soybean 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of organosulfur compounds derived from the essential oil of garlic.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Alejandra B; Marchevsky, Eduardo; Luco, Juan M

    2007-04-18

    In this study, multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least-squares (PLS) techniques were used for modeling the soybean 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of a varied group of mono-, di-, and trisulfides derived from the essential oil of garlic. The structures of the compounds under study were characterized by means of calculated physicochemical parameters and several nonempirical descriptors, such as topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical indices. The results obtained indicate that the inhibitory activity is strongly dependent on the ability of the compounds to participate in dispersive interactions with the enzyme, as expressed by the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) and the average distance/distance degree descriptor (ADDD) index. On the other hand, the high contribution of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit term (LUMO) in the PLS models derived for the di- and trisulfides suggests that the solute's electron-acceptor capacity plays a fundamental role in the inhibitory activity exhibited for these compounds. Finally, the geometric features as expressed by the shape parameters included in the models indicate a low but not negligible positive contribution of molecular linearity in the enzyme-inhibitor binding. In summary, the developed quantitative structure-activity relationship approach successfully accounts for the potencies of organosulfur compounds acting on soybean 15-lipoxygenase and thereby offers both a guide for the synthesis of new compounds and a hypothesis for the molecular basis of their activity. PMID:17367159

  17. Developmental changes in growth, yield and volatile oil of some chinese garlic lines in comparison with the local cultivar "Balady".

    PubMed

    Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M

    2013-10-15

    Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines. PMID:24506013

  18. The effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study has been performed in 51 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients to estimate the effects of time-released garlic powder tablets Allicor on the values of 10-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal) and sudden death, with the respect of secondary CHD prevention. It has been demonstrated that 12-month treatment with Allicor results in the significant decrease of cardiovascular risk by 1.5-fold in men (p < 0.05), and by 1.3-fold in women. The above results were equitable also in terms of relative risks. The main effect that played a role in cardiovascular risk reduction was the decrease in LDL cholesterol by 32.9 mg/dl in men (p < 0.05), and by 27.3 mg/dl in women. Thus, the most significant effects were observed in men, while in women the decrease of cardiovascular risk appeared as a trend that might be due presumably to the insufficient sample size. Since Allicor is the remedy of natural origin, it is safe with the respect to adverse effects and allows even perpetual administration that may be crucial for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic diseases in CHD patients. PMID:20958974

  19. Natural biosorbents (garlic stem and horse chesnut shell) for removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Parlayıcı, Şerife; Pehlivan, Erol

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI) by the garlic stem (GS)-Allium sativum L. and horse chesnut shell (HCS)-Aesculus hippocastanum plant residues in a batch type reactor was studied in detail for the purpose of wastewater treatment. The influence of initial Cr(VI) concentration, time, and pH was investigated to optimize Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions and equilibrium isotherms and kinetic data. This influence was evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS for Cr(VI) was determined with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data was fitted to the Langmuir. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS was found to be 103.09 and 142.85 mg/g of adsorbent from a solution containing 3000 ppm of Cr(VI), respectively. The GS's capacity was considerably lower than that of the HCS in its natural form. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. The HCS was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26581609

  20. Biological Activities of xylooligosaccharides generated from garlic straw xylan by purified xylanase from Bacillus mojavensis UEB-FK.

    PubMed

    Kallel, Fatma; Driss, Dorra; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz; Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2015-01-01

    A newly isolated Bacterium strain named UEB-FK was selected from Tunisian Sahara, exhibiting the highest clear zone on agar plates containing oat spelt xylan by staining with Congo red. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus mojavensis. This strain produced extracellular xylanase. Xylanase from the strain was purified to homogeneity and had an apparent molecular weight of 14 kDa. The K m and V max values of the purified xylanase on oat spelt xylan were 3.85 mg/mL and 250.02 U/mg, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme were found to be 4.0 and 50 °C, respectively, and the enzyme exhibited significant heat stability. In addition, the enzyme was found to be stable in a wide range of pH (3-9). The main hydrolysis products yielded from garlic straw-extracted xylan were xylobiose and xylotriose. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of xylan oligosaccharide (XOS) were investigated. As regards to the in vitro antioxidant activities, the XOS showed a important DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.45 mg/mL) and a high β-carotene bleaching (IC50 = 2.2 mg/mL). Furthermore, XOS had a high antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25351626

  1. Antiobesity Effect of Garlic Extract Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum BL2 in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seop; Lim, Won-Chul; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is viewed as a serious public health problem. This study aimed to investigate the antiobesity effects of fermented garlic extract by lactic acid bacteria (LAFGE) on obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. The HFD-induced obese mice were orally administrated with 250 or 500 mg/kg LAFGE for 8 weeks. Feeding HFD-fed mice with 250 or 500 mg/kg LAFGE reduced body weight by 14% and 18%, respectively, compared to HFD. HFD-fed mice with 500 mg/kg LAFGE administration had lower epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric adipose tissue mass by 36%, 44%, and 63%, respectively, compared to HFD. The concentration of plasma triacylglyceride and total cholesterol was significantly lower in the HFD-fed mice with LAFGE administration. Moreover, LAFGE supplementation suppressed adipogenesis by downregulation in mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and lipogenic proteins, including SREBP-1c, FAS, and SCD-1. Based on these findings, LAFGE may ameliorate diet-induced obesity by inhibiting adipose tissue hypertrophy by suppressing adipogenesis. PMID:27627701

  2. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. PMID:24910383

  3. Aged black garlic extract inhibits HT29 colon cancer cell growth via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Menghua; Yang, Guiqing; Liu, Hanchen; Liu, Xiaoxu; Lin, Sixiang; Sun, Dongning; Wang, Yishan

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aged black garlic extract (ABGE) may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABGE on the proliferation and apoptosis of HT29 colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ABGE inhibited HT29 cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We further investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal transduction pathway and the molecular mechanisms underlying the ABGE-induced inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation. We observed that ABGE may regulate the function of the PI3K/Akt pathway through upregulating PTEN and downregulating Akt and p-Akt expression, as well as suppressing its downstream target, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway is crucial for the development of colon cancer. ABGE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that ABGE may be effective in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer in humans. PMID:24649105

  4. Luminescent and transparent nanopaper based on rare-earth up-converting nanoparticle grafted nanofibrillated cellulose derived from garlic skin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingpeng; Wei, Zuwu; Feng, Xin; Miao, Miao; Sun, Lining; Cao, Shaomei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui

    2014-09-10

    Highly flexible, transparent, and luminescent nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) nanopaper with heterogeneous network, functionalized by rare-earth up-converting luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), was rapidly synthesized by using a moderate pressure extrusion paper-making process. NFC was successfully prepared from garlic skin using an efficient extraction approach combined with high frequency ultrasonication and high pressure homogenization after removing the noncellulosic components. An efficient epoxidation treatment was carried out to enhance the activity of the UCNPs (NaYF4:Yb,Er) with oleic acid ligand capped on the surface. The UCNPs after epoxidation then reacted with NFC in aqueous medium to form UCNP-grafted NFC nanocomposite (NFC-UCNP) suspensions at ambient temperature. Through the paper-making process, the assembled fluorescent NFC-UCNP hybrid nanopaper exhibits excellent properties, including high transparency, strong up-conversion luminescence, and good flexibility. The obtained hybrid nanopaper was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), up-conversion luminescence (UCL) spectrum, and ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The experimental results demonstrate that the UCNPs have been successfully grafted to the NFC matrix with heterogeneous network. And the superiorly optical transparent and luminescent properties of the nanopaper mainly depend on the ratio of UCNPs to NFC. Of importance here is that, NFC and UCNPs afford the nanopaper a prospective candidate for multimodal anti-counterfeiting, sensors, and ion probes applications. PMID:25116651

  5. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Saeki, Tomoko; Otani, Toru; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Nishino, Hoyoku; Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2006-03-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has manifold biological activities including immunomodulative and antioxidative effects. It is used as a major component of nonprescription tonics and cold-prevention medicines or dietary supplements. Advanced-cancer patients decline in immune functions and quality of life (QOL). The study's subjects were patients with inoperable colorectal, liver, or pancreatic cancer. In a randomized double-blind trial, AGE was administered to one group and a placebo was administered to another for 6 mo. The primary endpoint was a QOL questionnaire based on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT). The subendpoints were changes in the natural-killer (NK) cell activity the salivary cortisol level from before and after administering AGE. Out of 55 patients invited to participate in the trial, 50 (91%) consented to enroll. They consisted of 42 patients with liver cancer (84%), 7 patients with pancreatic cancer (14%), and 1 patient with colon cancer (2%). Drug compliance was relatively good in both the AGE and placebo groups. Although no difference was observed in QOL, both the number of NK cells and the NK cell activity increased significantly in the AGE group. No adverse effect was observed in either group. The study showed that administering AGE to patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system improved NK cell activity, but caused no improvement in QOL. PMID:16484572

  6. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats. PMID:25422084

  7. Long-term garlic or micronutrient supplementation, but not anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, increases serum folate or glutathione without affecting serum vitamin B-12 or homocysteine in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Lian; Moslehi, Roxana; Ma, Junling; Pan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Weidong; Brown, Linda Morris; Hu, Yuangreng; Pee, David; Gail, Mitchell H; You, Weicheng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 7.3-y supplementation with garlic and micronutrients and of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment with amoxicillin (1 g twice daily) and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) on serum folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations were assessed in a rural Chinese population. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial was conducted to compare the ability of 3 treatments to retard the development of precancerous gastric lesions in 3411 subjects. The treatments were: 1) anti-H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole; 2) 7.3-y supplementation with aged garlic and steam-distilled garlic oil; and 3) 7.3-y supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. All 3 treatments were given in a 2(3) factorial design to subjects seropositive for H. pylori infection; only the garlic supplement and vitamin and selenium supplement were given in a 2(2) factorial design to the other subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly selected from each of the 12 treatment strata. Sera were analyzed after 7.3 y to measure effects on folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and smoking indicated an increase of 10.2% (95%CI: 2.9-18.1%) in serum folate after garlic supplementation and an increase of 13.4% (95%CI: 5.3-22.2%) in serum glutathione after vitamin and selenium supplementation. The vitamin and selenium supplement did not affect other analytes and the amoxicillin and omeprazole therapy did not affect any of the variables tested. In this rural Chinese population, 7.3 y of garlic supplementation increased the serum folate concentration and the vitamin and selenium supplement increased that of glutathione, but neither affected serum concentrations of vitamin B-12 or homocysteine. PMID:19056661

  8. Detoxification and antioxidant effects of garlic and curcumin in Oreochromis niloticus injected with aflatoxin B1 with reference to gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    El-Barbary, Manal I

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of both garlic and curcumin through evaluating their therapeutic properties as antioxidants on liver and kidney functions, hepatic antioxidants and GPx gene expression against aflatoxicosis of O. niloticus. In total, 180 of tilapia were divided into ten groups; T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was injected with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AFB1 (6 mg/kg b.w.). Fish in T3-T6 were fed on a basal diet supplemented with both garlic (T3 and T4) and curcumin (T5 and T6) at the two concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg diet, respectively. Fish in T7-T10 groups were injected with AFB1 and fed on the garlic (T7 and T8) and curcumin (T9 and T10) dietaries. The results showed that AFB1 has significant potency for increasing the activity of plasma AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid values, and hepatic MDA as well as for reducing the concentrations of plasma TP, AL, GL and hepatic activity of TAC, while AFB1 led to up-regulated GPx gene expression when compared to the control (T1). These harmful effects of AFB1 were alleviated due to the garlic and curcumin dietaries in some studied parameters. Garlic reflected the highest induction of gene expression (T7); however, curcumin showed significant down-regulated (T9). These results concluded that the effects of garlic were better than curcumin at the two concentrations and the low concentration of them is more beneficial than the high concentration when it used against AFB1 in O. niloticus. PMID:26590820

  9. Interpopulation variation in allelopathic traits informs restoration of invaded landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Lankau, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species can show substantial genetic variation in ecologically important traits, across ranges as well within the introduced range. If these traits affect competition with native species, then management may benefit from considering the genetic landscape of the invader. Across their introduced range, Alliaria petiolata populations vary in their investment in allelopathic traits according to invasion history, which could lead to gradients of impact on native species. Red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings were transplanted into eight A. petiolata-invaded sites that varied in their invasion history and allelochemical concentrations. At each site, an invader removal treatment was crossed with experimental inoculations of native soil biota, to test whether the benefits of these restoration actions differed across invader populations. Q. rubra seedlings grew faster in invader populations with a longer invasion history and lower allelochemical concentrations. Invader removal and soil inoculation interacted to determine seedling growth, with the benefits of soil inoculation increasing in younger and more highly allelopathic invader populations. A greenhouse experiment using soils collected from experimentally inoculated field plots found similar patterns. These results suggest that the impact of this invader varies across landscapes and that knowledge of this variation could improve the efficacy and efficiency of restoration activities. PMID:25568047

  10. Diallyl Disulfide (DADS), a Constituent of Garlic, Inactivates NF-κB and Prevents Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer by Inhibiting GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Saud, Shakir M; Li, Weidong; Gray, Zane; Matter, Matthias S; Colburn, Nancy H; Young, Matthew R; Kim, Young S

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong belief that garlic has medicinal properties and may even reduce the risk of developing certain cancers including those of the gastrointestinal tract. The chemopreventive effects of garlic may be attributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the sulfur-containing constituents of garlic, which includes diallyl disulfide (DADS). Here, we demonstrate that DADS prevented colorectal tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-induced colorectal cancer. Supplementation with 85 ppm of DADS (60 mg daily human equivalent dose) in the diet of FVB/N mice treated with chemical carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and colonic irritant dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) resulted in the reduction in tumor incidence, tumor number, and tumor burden by 21.54%, 47.3%, and 66.4%, respectively. Further analysis revealed that mice fed the DADS-supplemented diet resolved the initial DSS-induced inflammation faster than those on the control diet, preventing prolonged inflammation and cellular transformation. Subsequent mechanistic studies in vitro suggest that DADS chemopreventive effects are mediated through NF-κB signaling. When SW480 colorectal cancer cells were treated with DADS, NF-κB nuclear localization and activity were diminished. Interestingly, NF-κB suppression was found to be dependent on DADS inhibition of GSK-3β, a positive regulator of NF-κB. Inhibition of GSK-3β and loss of nuclear NF-κB activity were also observed in vivo in AOM/DSS-treated mice fed a diet supplemented with 85 ppm DADS. Our results indicate that DADS can prevent tumorigenesis by suppressing inflammation, a process largely involving GSK-3β inhibition and consequential reduction in NF-κB nuclear localization. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 607-15. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27138790

  11. Protective effects of garlic aquous extract (Allium sativum), vitamin E, and N-acetylcysteine on reproductive quality of male rats exposed to lead

    PubMed Central

    Asadpour, Reza; Azari, Mehdi; Hejazi, Marzie; Tayefi, Hossein; Zaboli, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous garlic extracts, vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine on lead-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in antioxidant defense system and semen quality in the rat testes. Twenty-five male rats were divided into five groups. Animals within different treatment groups were maintained on their respective diets for 35 days as follows: group 1 rats served as control and received water and standard pellets as food ad libitum; group 2 received lead acetate by gavage (1000 ppm); group 3 was treated with A. sativum extract (400 mg kg-1, by gavage) plus lead acetate (1000 ppm); group 4 was treated orally with vitamin E (300 mg of alpha-tocopherol per kg of chow) plus lead acetate (1000 ppm); group 5 was treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (800 ppm)plus lead acetate (1000 ppm). The weights of testes, epididymis, epididymal sperm count, viable and motile sperms decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in lead-exposed rats. However treatment with vitamin E and aqueous garlic extract resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in sperm motility and viability. Exposure to lead acetate significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level with a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the testes of rats while co-administration of vitamin E and lead caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in MDA concentration compared with lead-exposed group. These results suggest that both vitamin E and in to a lesser extent aqueous garlic extract have a potent antioxidant protection in the testes of rat against the lead-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25568680

  12. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  13. Aged red garlic extract suppresses nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages through inhibition of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Park, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Yi-Yeong; Han, Sunkyu; Shin, Jung-Hye; Lee, Soo Jung; Kang, Min Jung; Sung, Nak-Ju; Kang, Dawon

    2015-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is involved in inflammatory response. The pathways that activate NF-κB can be modulated by phytochemicals derived from garlic. We recently demonstrated that aged red garlic extract (ARGE), a new formulation of garlic, decreases nitric oxide (NO) generation by upregulating of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in RAW 264.7 cells activated by LPS. However, the effects of ARGE on LPS-induced NF-κB activation are unknown. This study was performed to evaluate whether ARGE regulates LPS-induced NO production by modulation of NF-κB activation in macrophages. The inhibition of NF-κB by Bay 11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-κB, decreased LPS-induced NO production. ARGE treatment markedly reduced LPS-induced NO production and NF-κB nuclear translocation. ARGE downregulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and upregulated expression of HO-1, a cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory protein. However, Bay 11-7085 only reduced iNOS expression. The NO production and iNOS expressions upregulated by suppression of HO-1 were suppressed by treatment with ARGE and Bay 11-7085. These results show that ARGE reduces LPS-induced NO production in macrophages through inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation and HO-1 activation. Compared to Bay 11-7085, ARGE may enhance anti-inflammatory effects by controlling other anti-inflammatory signals as well as regulation of NF-κB. PMID:25584924

  14. Biology of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) of the 1960 year class, isolated in the Big Garlic River, Michigan, 1960-65

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; McLain, Alberton L.

    1971-01-01

    The capture of four recently metamorphosed sea lampreys (two males and two females), 152-172 mm long, in the fall of 1965, established the minimum age at transformation for larvae in the Big Garlic River at 5 years. Age and length (with the exception of a possible minimum length) were determined not to be critical factors in metamorphosis. The presence of larvae 65-176 mm long (mean, 107 mm) in the river in 1965 indicated that metamorphosis of lampreys in a single year class takes place over a period of years.

  15. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dorant, E; van den Brandt, P A; Goldbohm, R A

    1996-03-01

    The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and colon and rectum carcinoma among men and women was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Onions, leeks, and garlic belong to the Allium genus and contain large amounts of potentially chemopreventive compounds. The Netherlands Cohort Study was started in 1986 among 120 852 men and women, aged 55-69 years. Dietary intake was measured with a 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 3.3 years of follow-up, 150 and 143 incident male and female cases of colon carcinoma, and 93 and 57 cases of rectum carcinoma, respectively, with complete dietary data were available for analysis. Dietary data were available for 1525 men and 1598 women of a randomly selected subcohort, that was followed up to estimate person-time in the entire cohort. In men, the adjusted rate ratios (RRs) in multivariable analysis for colon and rectum carcinoma in the highest compared to the lowest onion consumption categories were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-1.65), and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.28-1.52), respectively. The RRs for proximal colon carcinoma were lower than for distal colon carcinoma. Leek consumption was not associated with colon and rectum carcinoma incidence in men. None of the RRs were significantly different from unity and no trends in the RRs were detected. A lower risk was found for rectum carcinoma in women consuming less than 0.25 onions per day (RR=0.36, 95% CI = 0.13-0.99), but the trend in the RRs was not statistically significant (P = 0.25). All other RRs for colon and rectum carcinoma associated with onion consumption were slightly higher than one. Leek consumption was not associated with colon and rectum carcinoma incidence. The use of garlic supplements was not associated with colon and rectum carcinoma in men and women combined. This study does not support an inverse association between the consumption of onions and leeks, or

  16. Modulatory effects of levamisole and garlic oil on the immune response of Wistar rats: Biochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Essam Hassan; Baiomy, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Levamisole (LEVA) and garlic are prevalent immunomodulators in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of LEVA and garlic oil (GO) alone or in combination on the immune response of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups: Control group, which was given ad libitum access to food and water; and groups 2‑4, which were orally administered LEVA [2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) every 2 days], GO, (5 ml/kg BW daily), or LEVA plus GO, respectively for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM levels were measured using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Serum cytokine levels, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total blood counts were measured automatically using a cell counter. Serum lysozyme enzymatic activity was determined by measuring the diameters of the zones of clearance relative to lysozyme. Immunohistochemical detection of CD4 and CD8 was carried out using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of IL‑4, IL‑5 and IL‑12 were measured in the leukocytes and thymus gland by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that LEVA increased serum levels of IFN‑γ, IL‑5 and TNF‑α cytokines, whereas co‑administration of LEVA and GO decreased the stimulatory action of LEVA alone. LEVA and GO alone increased the serum levels of IgG, IgM and total blood cell counts, and co‑administration of GO and LEVA inhibited the effects of LEVA. At the cellular level, in the spleen, LEVA increased immunoreactivity of CD4 and CD8, whereas co‑administration of GO with LEVA decreased this strong expression. At the molecular level, in leukocytes, LEVA upregulated the mRNA expression levels of IL‑2, IL‑4 and IL‑5, whereas GO alone downregulated mRNA expression. Co‑administration of

  17. Garlic Oil Suppressed Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinoma in Rats by Inhibiting PI3K-AKT-NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of garlic oil (GO) against nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinoma, 60 male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=15): control group, NDEA group, and two GO plus NDEA groups. The rats in GO plus NDEA groups were pretreated with GO (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Then, all rats except those in control group were gavaged with NDEA for 20 weeks, and the rats in GO plus NDEA groups were continuously administered with GO. The results showed that GO co-treatment significantly suppressed the NDEA-induced increases of alpha fetal protein (AFP) level in serum, nuclear atypia in H&E staining, sirius red-positive areas and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. The molecular mechanisms exploration revealed that the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-p85, PI3K-p110, total AKT, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-AKT (Thr308) in the liver of NDEA group rats were higher than those in control group rats. In addition, NDEA treatment induced IκB degradation and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and up-regulated the protein levels of downstream pro-inflammatory mediators. GO co-treatment significantly reversed all the above adverse effects induced by NDEA. These results suggested that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinoma might be associated with the suppression of PI3K- AKT-NF-κB pathway. PMID:25999787

  18. Protective role of garlic oil against oxidative damage induced by furan exposure from weaning through adulthood in adult rat testis.

    PubMed

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2016-06-01

    Furan is produced in a wide variety of heat-treated foods via thermal degradation. Furan contamination is found to be relatively high in processed baby foods, cereal products, fruits juices, and canned vegetables. Several studies have demonstrated that furan is a potent hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen in rodents. However, few studies have investigated the toxic effects of furan in the testis. In addition, the exact mechanism(s) by which furan exerts toxicity in the testis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of furan exposure from weaning through adulthood to induce oxidative stress in adult rat testis, as well as the potential of garlic oil (GO) to ameliorate the induced toxicity. Our results reveal that furan administration significantly reduced serum testosterone levels and increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); furthermore, furan administration decreased significantly the enzymatic activity of testicular antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and induced histopathological alterations in the testis. GO co-administration ameliorated the reduction in testosterone levels and dramatically attenuated the furan-induced oxidative and histopathological changes. In addition, Go significantly down-regulated the increased caspase-3 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression in the furan-treated testis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the furan-induced oxidative changes in the adult rat testis and the protective role of GO to ameliorate these changes through its antioxidant effects and its ability to inhibit CYP2E1 production. PMID:27130490

  19. Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Tseng, Hui-Chun; Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-06-25

    This study investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without GEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or DADS (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. GEO and DADS dose-dependently exerted antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects by reducing HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and serum biochemical parameters. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg GEO and 20 mg/kg DADS significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, accompanied by elevated antioxidant capacity via inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression during NAFLD development. The anti-NAFLD effects of GEO and DADS were mediated through down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. The dose of 20 mg/kg DADS was equally as effective in preventing NAFLD as 50 mg/kg GEO containing the same amount of DADS, which demonstrates that DADS may be the main bioactive component in GEO. PMID:24857364

  20. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids. PMID:27542503

  1. Effect of Garlic and Lemon Juice Mixture on Lipid Profile and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in People 30-60 Years Old with Moderate Hyperlipidaemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Negar; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan; Askari, Gholamreza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to effects of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30–60 years old with moderate hyperlipidemia. Methods: In a parallel-designed randomized controlled clinical trial, a total of 112 hyperlipidemic patients 30–60 years, were recruited from Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. People were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Control blood samples were taken and height, weight, and blood pressure were recorded. (1) Received 20 g of garlic daily, plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice, (2) received 20 g garlic daily, (3) received 1 tablespoon of lemon juice daily, and (4) did not receive garlic or lemon juice. A study technician was done the random allocations using a random numbers table. All participants presented 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records during 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (changes from baseline: 40.8 ± 6.1, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (29.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.001), and fibrinogen (111.4 ± 16.1, P < 0.001) in the Group 1, in comparison with other groups. A greater reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in Group 1 compared with the Groups 3 and 4 (37 ± 10, P = 0.01) (24 ± 1, P = 0.02); respectively. Furthermore, a great reduction in body mass index was observed in the mixed group compared with the lemon juice and control groups (1.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Administration of garlic plus lemon juice resulted in an improvement in lipid levels, fibrinogen and blood pressure of patients with hyperlipidemia. PMID:27563431

  2. Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

  3. Therapeutic administration of an ingredient of aged-garlic extracts, S-allyl cysteine resolves liver fibrosis established by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Kodai, Shintaro; Takemura, Shigekazu; Kubo, Shoji; Azuma, Hideki; Minamiyama, Yukiko

    2015-05-01

    S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts (AGEs). AGE has been reported to ameliorate the oxidative damage implicated in a variety of diseases. However, the effects of SAC have not been established in liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of therapeutic administration of SAC in liver cirrhosis by chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in rats. SAC or other cysteine compounds were administered from 4 weeks when liver fibrosis was confirmed to be in process. CCl4 administration elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma lipid peroxidation, liver hydroxyproline, and liver transforming growth factor (TGF)-β at 12 weeks. SAC prevented these changes induced by CCl4. Furthermore, SAC improved survival in a dose-dependent manner following consecutive CCl4 administration. The inhibitory mechanisms may be associated with a decrease in the profibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β as well as the antioxidative properties of SAC. PMID:26060347

  4. Effect of onion (Allium cepa Linn.) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on plasma triglyceride content in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonicum).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Girish; Surendranathan, K P; Umesh, K G; Gayathri Devi, D R; Belwadi, M R Sandhya

    2003-01-01

    Dietary onion and garlic caused an increase in the level of plasma triglyceride which could be due to insulin like activity of dietary alliums and other factors that promote lipogenesisi in growing stages. Changes in the plasma triglyceride level in the control group due to change in age and sex were also noted. The triglyceride level was more in female birds when compared to males of similar age group. The plasma trigelyceride level increased with age in both sex except for the level being similar in the 6 and 9-week old females and 3 and 6-week old male birds. The results suggest that the effects of alliums in growing and adult stages may be different which needs further study. PMID:15267143

  5. A garlic substance disrupts odorant-binding protein recognition of insect pheromones released from adults of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, M; Chang, M-M; Lei, C-L; Yang, F-L

    2016-10-01

    The angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is one of the most serious stored-grain pests worldwide. Control of this moth may be achieved by interfering with olfactory pathways to disrupt male-female communication with sex pheromones, using plant volatiles like garlic or its active substances. Here, three odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes [namely Si. cerealella general OBP 1 (ScerGOBP1), ScerGOBP2 and Si. cerealella pheromone-binding protein (ScerPBP)] were cloned from Si. cerealella antennae, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that these genes were predominantly expressed in adult antennae. ScerPBP expression was male-biased, but ScerGOBP1 and ScerGOBP2 were similar between sexes. The results of competitive binding assays indicated that a garlic substance, diallyl trisulphide (DATS), had similar or even higher binding affinity to ScerPBP than Si. cerealella sex pheromone, 7Z, 11E-hexadecadien-1-ol acetate (HDA). In olfactometer bioassays, DATS significantly reduced the response of adults to HDA when they were exposed to air filled with HDA and DATS. Surprisingly, ScerGOBP2, which is postulated to be involved in the detection of general odours, displayed higher affinity with HDA than did ScerPBP, indicating that ScerGOBP2 may also have a role in pheromone perception. These data suggest that DATS may interfere with recognition of female-produced sex pheromone, disrupting female and male mating behaviour and resulting in a new idea for controlling stored grain pests. PMID:27111111

  6. Garlic (Allium sativum) Fresh Juice Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Involvement of Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Jahanpour, Salar; Hazem, Kameliya; Aghbali, Amirala; Baradran, Behzad; Vahid Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There is no report on the apoptotic impact of Allium sativum L.(Garlic) on the oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB); hence, this study was designed to survey the apoptotic effects of garlic fresh juice (GFJ) on the KB cells. Materials and methods. MTTassay (MicrocultureTetrazolium Assay) was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of GFJ on KB cells. Furthermore, TUNEL(Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling)and DNA fragmentation tests were performed to determine if GFJ is able to induce apoptosis in KB cells. Also a standard kit was used to assess caspase-3 activity in KB cells. Also western blotting was employed to evaluate the effect of GFJ on Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. Results. Significant cytotoxic effects were observed for the minimum used concentration (1μg/mL) as calculated to be 77.97±2.3% for 24 h and 818±3.1% for 36h of incubation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, TUNEL and DNA fragmentation tests corroborated the apoptosis inducing activity of GFJ. Consistently, after treating KB cells with GFJ(1μg/mL), caspase-3 activity and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio were raised by 7.3±0.6 and (P <0.001) folds, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this study advanced that GFJ induces apoptosis in the KB cells through increasing caspase-3 activity and Bax:Bcl2 ratio which could be attributed to its organo-sulfurcomponents. PMID:26889365

  7. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Junnila, Amy; Revay, Edita E.; Müller, Gunter C.; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney A.; Xue, Rui-de; Allen, Sandra A.; Beier, John C.; Schlein, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5 mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8–10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60–70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10–14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2 ± 1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system. PMID:26403337

  8. Anti-Allergic Action of Aged Black Garlic Extract in RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC50, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA2, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  9. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.

    PubMed

    Junnila, Amy; Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-de; Allen, Sandra A; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef

    2015-12-01

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8-10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60-70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10-14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2±1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system. PMID:26403337

  10. Anti-allergic action of aged black garlic extract in RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄ at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA₂, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases. PMID:24456359

  11. Protective effects of garlic extract and vitamin C against in vivo cypermethrin-induced cytogenetic damage in rat bone-marrow.

    PubMed

    Assayed, M E; Khalaf, A A; Salem, H A

    2010-09-30

    The cytogenetic damage inflicted by the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin (CYP) on the bone-marrow of male white rats, as well as possible protective role of two natural elements: garlic extract (GRE, 500mg/kg) and vitamin C (VTC, 20mg/kg) against the mutagenic potential of the insecticide were assessed. CYP was orally intubated in a single treatment (1/2 LD(50)) or in repeated treatments (1/5 LD(50) daily, for 5 successive days), either alone, or concomitantly with repeated oral intubations (5 successive days) of each individual putative protector, or with their combination (GRE or/and VTC). One hundred and twenty male rats were divided over into five groups of each 24 animals. The groups received nothing, a single dose or repeated treatments with insecticide alone, or associated with putative natural elements, separately or in combinations. Animals were sacrificed at their scheduled times and their femoral bone-marrows were flushed out to be utilized in the micronucleus test and metaphase chromosomal aberration assay. The results show that CYP administration significantly induced clastogenic effects, as revealed by the significant increase in the mean frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and various structural chromosomal aberrations in bone-marrow metaphase cells of all groups of treated rats. On the other hand, this investigation clearly revealed the protective role of GRE and VTC, either each alone or in combination, against the mutagenic potential of cypermethrin: the garlic extract was often more efficient in its protective action against the insecticide toxicity than vitamin C. while the combination of both natural elements produced, in most cases, a more pronounced protective effect than when each was administered alone. PMID:20673810

  12. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K.; Jayasree, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats (n = 10) received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. PMID:27293465

  13. Garlic ((Allium sativum)) Fresh Juice Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Involvement of Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Jahanpour, Salar; Hazem, Kameliya; Aghbali, Amirala; Baradran, Behzad; Vahid Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There is no report on the apoptotic impact of Allium sativum L.(Garlic) on the oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB); hence, this study was designed to survey the apoptotic effects of garlic fresh juice (GFJ) on the KB cells. Materials and methods. MTTassay (MicrocultureTetrazolium Assay) was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of GFJ on KB cells. Furthermore, TUNEL(Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling)and DNA fragmentation tests were performed to determine if GFJ is able to induce apoptosis in KB cells. Also a standard kit was used to assess caspase-3 activity in KB cells. Also western blotting was employed to evaluate the effect of GFJ on Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. Results. Significant cytotoxic effects were observed for the minimum used concentration (1μg/mL) as calculated to be 77.97±2.3% for 24 h and 818±3.1% for 36h of incubation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, TUNEL and DNA fragmentation tests corroborated the apoptosis inducing activity of GFJ. Consistently, after treating KB cells with GFJ(1μg/mL), caspase-3 activity and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio were raised by 7.3±0.6 and (P <0.001) folds, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this study advanced that GFJ induces apoptosis in the KB cells through increasing caspase-3 activity and Bax:Bcl2 ratio which could be attributed to its organo-sulfurcomponents. PMID:26889365

  14. Radioprotective effect of alk(en)yl thiosulfates derived from allium vegetables against DNA damage caused by X-ray irradiation in cultured cells: antiradiation potential of onions and garlic.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sook; Endoh, Daiji; Ishida, Yushi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shuji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS) and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS) derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential. PMID:22919357

  15. The Antidiabetic Effect of Garlic Oil is Associated with Ameliorated Oxidative Stress but Not Ameliorated Level of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Hsu, Tien-Wei; Chen, Ke-Ming; Tan, Ya-Ping; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory condition has been broadly accepted being associated with the progression of diabetes. On the other hand, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn, bulb of Allium sativum) has been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action in several clinical conditions. Our previous study demonstrated that treatment with garlic oil improves oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance and improves the insulin-stimulated utilization of glucose to synthesize glycogen in skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic oil (GO) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes received GO (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil by gavage every other day for 3 weeks. Control rats received corn oil only. GO dose-dependently improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the insulin tolerance test, and oral glucose tolerance. GO significantly elevated total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and lowered the nitrate/nitrite content in skeletal muscle at 50 and 100 mg/kg and significantly elevated glutathione reductase activity and lowered lipid peroxidation at 100 mg/kg. By contrast, GO did not reverse diabetes-induced elevation of IL-1β and TNF-α in skeletal muscle at any tested dose. On the other hand, GO elevated the expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle along with glycogen content as observed with PAS staining. In conclusion, the antidiabetic effect of garlic oil is associated with ameliorated oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. PMID:24716126

  16. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  17. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment. PMID:24737450

  18. Biology of larval and metamorphosing sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, of the 1960 year class in the Big Garlic River, Michigan, Part II, 1966-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Smith, Bernard R.

    1978-01-01

    The 1960 year class of sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, isolated in a tributary of southern Lake Superior continued to yield information on the early life history of the sea lamprey. The larval population persisted and newly metamorphosed individuals were captured from 1966 until the study was terminated in 1972. The average lengths of larvae collected in October (when yearly growth is nearly complete) in successive years from 1966 to 1972 were 111, 113, 112, 114, 121, 128, and 129 mm. The average lengths of transforming lampreys during the same years were 150, 151, 145, 143, 144, 148, and 156 mm. A gradual downstream shift of the population took place. Catches in an inclined-plane trap at the lower end of the study area increased to a peak of 13,244 in the 1968-69 migration year (September 1-August 31), and then steadily decreased. As the number of lampreys decreased in the upper sections and increased in the lower ones, the changes in density were reflected in changes in growth rates. Although the mean length of ammocetes throughout the stream was 111 mm in 1966, it had increased by 1971 to 151 and 143 mm in the upstream sections (IV and V), but to only 115 mm in the densely populated area immediately above the trap. Of a total of 9,889 larvae marked in 1962-68 to study movement and distribution, 2,045 were recovered as larvae and 1,396 as newly transformed adults. Major downstream movements of larvae occurred during high water in April and May, and of transformed lampreys in mid-October through November. Each year about 40% (range, 30-68) of the annual production of transformed lampreys migrated from the Big Garlic River system in one 12-hour period, and 82% by the end of October. The Big Garlic River study proved conclusively that metamorphosis of a single year class occurs over a considerable number of years. Newly metamorphosed individuals were captured in almost steadily increasing numbers from 1965 (age V) to the termination of the study in 1972 (age XII

  19. Effects of garlic on cellular doubling time and DNA strand breaks caused by UV light and BPL, enhanced with catechol and TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Baturay, N.Z.; Gayle, F.; Liu, S.; Kreidinger, C.

    1995-11-01

    3T3 cell cultures were exposed to UV light and Beta-Propiolactone. Neoplastic cell transformation (TF) was demonstrated after concurrent addition of catechol, or repeated addition of TPA. Addition of garlic to all fluences/concentrations of the carcinogen/cocarcinogen/promoter groups reduced the number of transformed foci/dish by at least 40%. Since the cell cycle is prolonged following exposure to carcinogens, it is likely the cell requires a longer time to repair this damage. The doubling time (DT) was extended from 12 to 36 hrs. when cells were exposed to BPL and from 12 o 28 hrs. when cells were exposed to 3.0J/M2/sec. If an anticarcinogenic compound is also added, it is reasonable to assume that the cell cycle may be further elongated. The cell cycle, denoted by DT was lengthened from 12 to 47 hrs and from 12 to 86 hrs for BPL and UVC, respectively. The extensions occurred in a dope dependent manner. The concentrations of the cocarcinogen and promoter remained constant throughout the experiment. When strand breaks were determined at the same dose sequences, by alkaline elution, more repair was seen with garlic where the lowest and middle doses of BPL were used and almost no decrease in % DNA eluted was seen with UVC exposed cells. With catechol, there was a two-fold decrease in % DNA eluted at the lowest and middle fluences. When TPA was added, all three fluences of UVC showed more than a threefold decrease in % DNA eluted. BPS with both TPA and catechol, again showed a reduction in strand breaks only low and middle doses. Both a direct-acting alkylating agent, BPL, and a physical carcinogen, UVC, were homogeneously affected, in terms of doubling time, but not when strand break repair was examined. A separate mechanism may be responsible for repair, and the mechanism associated with combinations of physical carcinogen enhancing agents combined with some non-carcinogens may be more profoundly affected by some natural products.

  20. Effects of Ruminal Infusion of Garlic Oil on Fermentation Dynamics, Fatty Acid Profile and Abundance of Bacteria Involved in Biohydrogenation in Rumen of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhi; Mao, Shengyong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruminal infusion of garlic oil (GO) on fermentation dynamics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and abundance of bacteria involved in biohydrogenation in the rumen. Six wethers fitted with ruminal fistula were assigned to two groups for cross-over design with a 14-d interval. Each 30-d experimental period consisted of a 27-d adaptation and a 3-d sample collection. Goats were fed a basal diet without (control) or with GO ruminal infusion (0.8 g/d). Ruminal contents collected before (0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after morning feeding were used for fermentation analysis, and 0 h samples were further used for FA determination and DNA extraction. Garlic oil had no influence on dry matter intakes of concentrate and hay. During ruminal fermentation, GO had no effects on total VFA concentration and individual VFA molar proportions, whereas GO increased the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). Compared with control, GO group took a longer time for total VFA concentration and propionate molar proportion to reach their respective maxima after morning feeding. The ratio of acetate to propionate in control reduced sharply after morning feeding, whereas it remained relatively stable in GO group. Fatty acid analysis showed that GO reduced saturated FA proportion (p<0.05), while increasing the proportions of C18, t11–18:1 (TVA), c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), t10,c12-CLA, and polyunsaturated FA (p<0.05). The values of TVA/(c9,t11-CLA+TVA) and C18:0/(TVA+ C18:0) were reduced by GO (p<0.05). Real-time PCR showed that GO tended to reduce Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus abundance (p = 0.058), whereas GO had no effect on total abundance of the Butyrivibrio group bacteria. A low correlation was found between B. proteoclasticus abundance and C18:0/(TVA+C18:0) (p = 0.910). The changes of fermentation over time suggested a role of GO in delaying the fermentation process and maintaining a relatively

  1. Decreased glycation and structural protection properties of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine peptide isolated from fresh garlic scales (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Dehong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Lulu; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xuan; Wu, Zhaoxia; Bai, Bing; Ji, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    The antiglycative effect of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine (GSAC) peptide isolated from fresh garlic scales was investigated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. GSAC inhibited the increase of fluorescence intensity at about 440 nm in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced reacted free lysine side chains by 10.9%, 24.7% and 37.7%, as the GSAC concentrations increased from 0.1 to 2.5 mg mL(-1). Glycation-specific decline in BSA α-helix content (from 61.3% to 55.6%) and increase in β-sheet (from 2.1% to 5.4%) were prevented by GSAC (2.5 mg mL(-1)) in vitro, implying its stabilisation effect. GSAC treatment (2.5 mg mL(-1)) suppressed protein crosslinking to form polymers. Additionally, GSAC (10, 40, and 160 μg mL(-1)) showed radical-scavenging and metal-chelating capacities. In conclusion, GSAC has an antiglycative effect, which may involve its radical-scavenging and metal-chelating capacities. PMID:25631559

  2. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS: GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM. I-IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; EL-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidisis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells causing a major health problem for man and animals. Experimentally the immunologic mediated elimination of C. parvum requires CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma. But, the innate immune responses also have a significant protective role in both man and animals. the mucosal immune response to C. parvum in C57BL/6 neonatal and GKO mice shows a concomitant Thl and Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, with a crucial role for IFN-gamma in the resolution of the infection. NK cells and IFN-gamma have been shown to be important components in immunity in T and B cell-deficient mice, but IFN-gamma-dependent resistance is demonstrated in alymphocytic mice. Epithelial cells may play a vital role in immunity as once infected these cells have increased expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines and demonstrate anti-infection killing mechanisms. C. parvum immunological response was used to evaluate the efficacy of anti-cryptosporidisis agents of Garlic, Ginger, Mirazid and Metronidazole in experimentally infected mice. PMID:26939233

  3. The Protective Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Inflammations in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; AL-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin. PMID:24876878

  4. Inhibition of ICAM-1 expression by garlic component, allicin, in gamma-irradiated human vascular endothelial cells via downregulation of the JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Son, Eun-Wha; Mo, Sung-Ji; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2006-12-01

    Ionizing radiation used in cancer therapy frequently exerts damaging effects on normal tissues and induces a complex response including inflammation. Since the upregulation of adhesion molecules on endothelial cell surface has been known to be associated with inflammation and our previous data showed that irradiation enhanced adhesion molecules expression, interfering with the expression of adhesion molecules may be an important therapeutic target of inflammatory diseases. We examined the effect of allicin, a major component of garlic, on the induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by gamma-irradiation (gamma IR) and the mechanisms of its effect in gamma-irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pretreated for 20 h with allicin (0.01-1 micro g/ml) and then exposed to 8 Gy radiation. Allicin significantly inhibited gamma IR-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 and ICAM mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreatment with allicin resulted in the decrease of AP-1 activation and phosphorylation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) induced by gamma IR. These results suggest that allicin downregulates gamma IR-induced ICAM-1 expression via inhibition of both AP-1 activation and the JNK pathway and may be considered in therapeutic strategies for the management of patients treated with radiation therapy. PMID:17052669

  5. The unfolded protein response and programmed cell death are induced by expression of Garlic virus X p11 in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuwen; Yin, Mingyuan; Wang, Xiaodan; Chen, Binghua; Yang, Xue; Peng, Jiejun; Zheng, Hongying; Zhao, Jinping; Lin, Lin; Yu, Chulang; MacFarlane, Stuart; He, Jianqing; Liu, Yong; Chen, Jianping; Dai, Liangying; Yan, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Garlic virus X (GarVX) ORF3 encodes a p11 protein, which contributes to virus cell-to-cell movement and forms granules on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression of p11 either from a binary vector, PVX or TMV induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), as demonstrated by an increase in transcription of the ER luminal binding protein (BiP) and bZIP60 genes. UPR-related programmed cell death (PCD) was elicited by PVX : p11 or TMV : p11 in systemic infected leaves. Examination of p11 mutants with deletions of two transmembrane domains (TM) revealed that both were required for generating granules and for inducing necrosis. TRV-based VIGS was used to investigate the correlation between bZIP60 expression and p11-induced UPR-related PCD. Less necrosis was observed on local and systemic leaves of bZIP60 knockdown plants when infected with PVXp11, suggesting that bZIP60 plays an important role in the UPR-related PCD response to p11 in N. benthamiana. PMID:27011387

  6. The protective effect of aged garlic extract on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric inflammations in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; Al-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin. PMID:24876878

  7. aged black garlic exerts anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing no and proinflammatory cytokine production with less cytoxicity in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septicemia mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Yoo, Yung Choon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Suk Kyung; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Min, A Young; Sung, Nak Yun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antisepticemic activities of a water extract of aged black garlic (AGE), which is not pungent, were compared with those of raw garlic extract (RGE). The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed that AGE was not toxic up to 1000 μg/mL and was at least four times less cytotoxic than RGE. AGE significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of AGE on LPS-induced inflammation was confirmed by downregulation of inducible NO synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The anti-inflammatory activities of AGE were similar to those of RGE at nontoxic concentrations up to 250 μg/mL. Signal transduction pathway studies further indicated that both garlic extracts inhibited activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB induced by LPS stimulation. Treatment with both AGE and RGE in an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia significantly reduced the level of TNF-α and interleukin-6 in serum and completely protected against LPS-induced lethal shock in C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that AGE is a more promising nutraceutical or medicinal agent to prevent or cure inflammation-related diseases for safety aspects compared with RGE. PMID:25238199

  8. Oxidative insults to neurons and synapse are prevented by aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine treatment in the neuronal culture and APP-Tg mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Chauhan, Neelima B; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. In AD patients, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are common features observed in the CNS. Aβ deposition results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the hyperphosphorylation of tau that are associated with neuronal damage. Cholinesterase inhibitors and a partial NMDA receptor antagonist (memantine) have been identified as potential treatment options for AD. However, clinical studies have found that these drugs fail to prevent the disease progression. From ancient times, garlic (Allium sativum) has been used to treat several diseases. By 'aging' of garlic, some adverse reactions of garlic can be eliminated. Recent findings suggest that 'aged garlic extract' (AGE) may be a therapeutic agent for AD because of its antioxidant and Aβ lowering properties. To date, the molecular properties of AGE have been sparsely studied in vitro or in vivo. The present study tested specific biochemical and molecular effects of AGE in neuronal and AD rodent models. Furthermore, we identified S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as one of the most active chemicals responsible for the AGE-mediated effect(s). We observed significant neuroprotective and neurorescue properties of AGE and one of its ingredients, SAC, from ROS (H(2)O(2))-mediated insults to neuronal cells. Treatment of AGE and SAC were found to protect neuronal cells when they were independently co-treated with ROS. Furthermore, a novel neuropreservation effect of AGE was detected in that pre-treatment with AGE alone protected ∼ 80% neuronal cells from ROS-mediated damage. AGE was also found to preserve pre-synaptic protein synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) from ROS-mediated insult. For example, treatment with 2% AGE containing diet and SAC (20 mg/kg of diet) independently increased (∼70%) levels of SNAP25 and synaptophysin in Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice

  9. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Methods Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Results Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. Conclusions The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Effects of Aged Garlic Extract and Its FruArg Component on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Response in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mossine, Valeri V.; Nknolise, Dineo L.; Li, Jilong; Chen, Zhenzhou; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Brown, Paula N.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Hannink, Mark; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.; Gu, Zezong

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25420111

  11. Improvement of symptoms of aging in males by a preparation LEOPIN ROYAL containing aged garlic extract and other five of natural medicines - comparison with traditional herbal medicines (Kampo).

    PubMed

    Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Nomiya, Akira; Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Enomoto, Yutaka; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    "LEOPIN ROYAL®" (LER), a non-prescription health-promoting medication in Japan, is a preparation containing six natural medicines, namely, aged garlic extract, ginseng, oriental bezoar, velvet antler, cuscuta seed and epimedium herb. To determine the effect of LER on symptoms of aging in males, we conducted an open-labeled, randomized clinical trial using Kampo (mainly kamishoyosan) as a control. Forty-nine male patients (age, 62.7 (SD 11.8) years) with mild or more pronounced symptoms of aging were enrolled and randomly assigned to the LER (n = 24) or Kampo group (n = 25) for 6 months. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale and the International Index of Erectile Function with 5 questions (IIEF-5) were tested at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of administration of the medications. In the AMS scale, the somatic and psychological sub-scores and total score decreased depending on the time course in both groups. However, the decrease in the slope of the LER group was greater than that of the Kampo group. There was a significant difference between the groups and the group and month interaction (G × M), as revealed by a linear mixed model analysis (p < 0.05). The IIEF-5 score increased in the LER group (p = 0.02 with regard to G × M). In conclusion, the present results indicate that LER is possibly superior to mainly kamishoyosan on the rate of improvement of symptoms of aging, including erectile dysfunction, in males. PMID:24844765

  12. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V; Nknolise, Dineo L; Li, Jilong; Chen, Zhenzhou; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C Michael; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Brown, Paula N; Fritsche, Kevin L; Hannink, Mark; Lubahn, Dennis B; Sun, Grace Y; Gu, Zezong

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25420111

  13. Downregulation of importin-9 protects MCF-7 cells against apoptosis induced by the combination of garlic-derived alliin and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Grzanka, Dariusz; Gagat, Maciej; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies on the biological mechanism of breast cancer have identified a number of potential therapeutic molecular targets. In this context, one type of potential candidates appears to be agents that target the actin cytoskeleton of cancer cells or regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. The aim of the present study was to study the impact of altered actin transport between the cytoplasm and nucleus by the downregulation of importin-9 (IPO9) in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells exposed to an apoptosis-inducing combination of garlic-derived S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) and paclitaxel (PTX). The expression of IPO9 was downregulated by the transfection of non-aggressive breast cancer MCF-7 cells with siRNA against IPO9. The altered expression of IPO9 and cofilin-1 (CFL1) was examined using western blotting. Moreover, the effect of the downregulation of IPO9 on cell death induced by the combination of PTX and alliin was also investigated. The alterations of IPO9 and CFL1 levels were also related with F-actin organizational changes and F-actin fluorescence intensity in the nuclear/perinuclear area of the cells. The results presented here indicate that alliin and PTX act synergistically to promote and potentiate apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, using RNA interference technique, we showed that downregulation of IPO9 expression was correlated with a significant reduction in the apoptotic cell population as well as with a decrease in F-actin content in whole cells, and in the cortical and nuclear/perinuclear areas of the cells. Simultaneously, the downregulation of IPO9 was also accompanied by the increased post-translational expression of CFL1. Furthermore, the data obtained in the present study allow us to conclude that CFL1 itself does not translocate actin into the cell nucleus but this transport requires the functional expression of IPO9. PMID:26934847

  14. Diallyl trisulfide, a constituent of processed garlic, inactivates Akt to trigger mitochondrial translocation of BAD and caspase-mediated apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Singh, Shivendra V

    2006-03-01

    We have shown previously that apoptosis induction by diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a constituent of processed garlic, in PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells is associated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2. However, pharmacological inhibition of these kinases offers only partial protection against the cell death caused by DATS. Here, we demonstrate that DATS inactivates Akt to trigger apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Treatment of PC-3/DU145 cells with apoptosis inducing concentration of DATS (40 microM) resulted in a rapid decrease in Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation of Akt leading to inhibition of its kinase activity. The DATS-mediated inactivation of Akt was associated with downregulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 protein level and inhibition of its autophosphorylation. DATS treatment (40 microM) also caused a decrease in Ser(155) and Ser(136) phosphorylation of BAD (a proapoptotic protein), which is a downstream target of Akt. Phosphorylation sequesters BAD in the cytoplasm owing to increased binding with 14-3-3 proteins. The interaction between BAD and 14-3-3beta was reduced markedly upon a 4 h treatment with 40 microM DATS in both cell lines. Consistent with these results, DATS treatment (40 microM, 4 h) promoted mitochondrial translocation of BAD as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt conferred statistically significant protection against DATS-induced apoptosis. The DATS-induced apoptosis in both cell lines was significantly attenuated in the presence of pan caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk and caspase 9 specific inhibitor zLEHD-fmk. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that DATS-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is mediated, at least in part, by inactivation of Akt signaling axis. PMID:16169930

  15. Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector for the trace determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil Kumar; Padmaja, P; Pandey, S Y

    2014-06-01

    A fast and an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction technique using a lower density extraction solvent than water was developed for the trace-level determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector (GC-NPD). In this approach, ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of the ethyl acetate in aqueous samples to enhance the extraction efficiency of tebuconazole without requiring extra partitioning or cleaning, and the use of capillary GC-NPD was a more sensitive detection technique for organonitrogen pesticides. The experimental results indicate an excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1-50 μg/kg or μg/L. The limit of detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and limit of quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) were obtained in the range 0.2-3 and 1-10 μg/kg or μg/L. Good spiked recoveries were achieved from ranges 95.55-101.26%, 96.28-99.33% and 95.04-105.15% in garlic, Nanivaliyal soil and Par River water, respectively, at levels 5 and 20 μg/kg or μg/L, and the method precision (% RSD) was ≤5%. Our results demonstrate that the proposed technique is a viable alternative for the determination of tebuconazole in complex samples. PMID:24668756

  16. Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Rabie, Gamal H; Kenawey, Saied E M; Abd El-Aal, Marwa A

    2012-10-01

    By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit's fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations in A. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek's broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method. PMID:24031964

  17. Aged garlic extract enhances heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit expression via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kei; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Morihara, Naoaki

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway defends cells against oxidative stress and regulates the cellular redox balance. Activation of this pathway induces a variety of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in the protection of our bodies against oxidative damage. It has been reported that aged garlic extract (AGE), a garlic preparation that is rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, reduces oxidative stress and helps to ameliorate of cardiovascular, renal and hepatic diseases. We hypothesized that AGE enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2-ARE pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes expression were evaluated using western blotting analyses. We found that AGE promoted the accumulation of Nrf2 into the nucleus in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased the gene expression and polypeptide level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM). Moreover, the effect of AGE in elevating the gene expression of HO-1 and GCLM was found to be mediated via Nrf2 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that AGE induces the expression of HO-1 and GCLM, which are antioxidant enzymes, via activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. PMID:26507778

  18. The effects of a garlic oil chemical compound, propyl-propane thiosulfonate, on ruminal fermentation and fatty acid outflow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Siurana, A; Rodriquez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2015-08-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds in the European Union has stimulated research on potential alternatives. Recently, propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), a stable organosulfurate compound of garlic, was purified. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the potential effects of PTSO on rumen microbial fermentation and to define effective doses. Two experiments were conducted using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters in 2 replicated periods. Each experimental period consisted of 5 d for adaptation of the ruminal fluid and 3 d for sampling. Temperature (39°C), pH (6.4), and liquid (0.10 h(-1)) and solid (0.05 h(-1)) dilution rates were maintained constant. Samples were taken 2 h after feeding and from the 24-h effluent. Samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen fractions, and degradation of nutrients was calculated. In addition, 24-h effluents from experiment 2 were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) profile. Treatments in experiment 1 included a negative control without additive, a positive control with monensin (12mg/L), and PTSO at 30 and 300mg/L. The addition of 30mg/L did not affect any of the measurements tested. The addition of 300mg/L reduced microbial fermentation, as suggested by the decreased total VFA concentration, true degradation of organic matter and acid detergent fiber, and a tendency to decrease neutral detergent fiber degradation. Experiment 2 was conducted to test increasing doses of PTSO (0, 50, 100, and 150mg/L) on rumen microbial fermentation. At 2 h postfeeding, total VFA and molar proportion of propionate responded quadratically, with higher values in the intermediate doses. Molar proportions of butyrate increased and branched-chain VFA decreased linearly as the dose of PTSO increased. In the 24-h effluents, total VFA, acetate, and branched-chain VFA concentrations decreased linearly and those of propionate responded cubically with the highest value at 100mg

  19. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0

  20. Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Victoria A; Maerz, John C; Blossey, Bernd

    2009-08-01

    Identification of factors that drive changes in plant community structure and contribute to decline and endangerment of native plant species is essential to the development of appropriate management strategies. Introduced species are assumed to be driving causes of shifts in native plant communities, but unequivocal evidence supporting this view is frequently lacking. We measured native vegetation, non-native earthworm biomass, and leaf-litter volume in 15 forests in the presence and absence of 3 non-native plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii) to assess the general impact of non-native plant and earthworm invasions on native plant communities in northeastern United States. Non-native plant cover was positively correlated with total native plant cover and non-native earthworm biomass. Earthworm biomass was negatively associated with cover of native woody and most herbaceous plants and with litter volume. Graminoid cover was positively associated with non-native earthworm biomass and non-native plant cover. These earthworm-associated responses were detected at all sites despite differences in earthworm species and abundance, composition of the native plant community, identity of invasive plant species, and geographic region. These patterns suggest earthworm invasion, rather than non-native plant invasion, is the driving force behind changes in forest plant communities in northeastern North America, including declines in native plant species, and earthworm invasions appear to facilitate plant invasions in these forests. Thus, a focus on management of invasive plant species may be insufficient to protect northeastern forest understory species. PMID:19236448

  1. Investigating the Responses of Cronobacter sakazakii to Garlic-Drived Organosulfur Compounds: a Systematic Study of Pathogenic-Bacterium Injury by Use of High-Throughput Whole-Transcriptome Sequencing and Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shaolong; Eucker, Tyson P.; Holly, Mayumi K.; Konkel, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a study using high-throughput whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and vibrational spectroscopy to characterize and fingerprint pathogenic-bacterium injury under conditions of unfavorable stress. Two garlic-derived organosulfur compounds were found to be highly effective antimicrobial compounds against Cronobacter sakazakii, a leading pathogen associated with invasive infection of infants and causing meningitis, necrotizing entercolitis, and bacteremia. RNA-seq shows changes in gene expression patterns and transcriptomic response, while confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy characterizes macromolecular changes in the bacterial cell resulting from this chemical stress. RNA-seq analyses showed that the bacterial response to ajoene differed from the response to diallyl sulfide. Specifically, ajoene caused downregulation of motility-related genes, while diallyl sulfide treatment caused an increased expression of cell wall synthesis genes. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed that the two compounds appear to have the same phase I antimicrobial mechanism of binding to thiol-containing proteins/enzymes in bacterial cells generating a disulfide stretching band but different phase II antimicrobial mechanisms, showing alterations in the secondary structures of proteins in two different ways. Diallyl sulfide primarily altered the α-helix and β-sheet, as reflected in changes in amide I, while ajoene altered the structures containing phenylalanine and tyrosine. Bayesian probability analysis validated the ability of principal component analysis to differentiate treated and control C. sakazakii cells. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed cell injury, showing significant morphological variations in cells following treatments by these two compounds. Findings from this study aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the risk of C. sakazakii contamination in the food production environment and on food contact surfaces

  2. Synergistic fungicidal activity of Cu(2+) and allicin, an allyl sulfur compound from garlic, and its relation to the role of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 as a cell surface defense in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Akira; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tsutsui, Nobuo; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Taniguchi, Makoto; Tanaka, Toshio

    2005-11-15

    Cu(2+) showed a dose-dependent fungicidal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and its lethal effect was extremely enhanced in the presence of allicin, an allyl sulfur compound from garlic. The fungicidal activity of Cu(2+) was unaffected or rather attenuated by other sulfur-containing compounds such as N-acetyl-cysteine, l-cysteine or dithiothreitol. Ca(2+) could absolutely protect against the lethal effect of Cu(2+) itself, but showed no protection against the fungicidal activity of Cu(2+) newly generated in combination with allicin. Cu(2+) accelerated an endogenous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in S. cerevisiae cells at a lethal concentration, but such intracellular oxidative stress induction was not observed during cell death progression upon treatment with Cu(2+) and allicin. A surfactant, sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate (SLS), enhanced the solubilization of a few proteins including alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 (AHP1) in intact cells, accounting for the absence of this protein in the extract from allicin-treated cells. Allicin-treated cells were rendered extremely sensitive to the subsequent Cu(2+) treatment as in the case of SLS-treated cells. Allicin-treated cells and SLS-treated cells similarly showed an increased sensitivity to exogenously added tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), an organic peroxide that is detoxified by the action of AHP1. Our study suggests that allicin influences the mode of cell surface localization or the related function of AHP1 as a defense against phospholipid peroxidation by the external action of Cu(2+). PMID:16102883

  3. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  4. How 'some garlic' becomes 'a garlic' or 'some onion': Mass and count processing in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fieder, Nora; Nickels, Lyndsey; Biedermann, Britta; Best, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    This paper informs our understanding of the representation and processing of mass and count nouns through an investigation of the underlying causes of mass/count specific impairments in in two people with aphasia, DEH and GEC. The factors influencing the production of mass and count nouns and noun phrases was comprehensively assessed. The results showed that GEC's impairment affected mass noun naming, resulting in the production of semantic paraphasias and no responses. In contrast, DEH frequently substituted mass determiners with count determiners leading to ungrammatical noun phrases. In comparison to younger control group, a control group of older adults showed similar difficulties to DEH with mass noun phrases, although less severe, indicating effects of cognitive ageing on lexical and semantic processing. DEH and the elderly controls' results replicate and support previous findings regarding the lexical-syntactic representation of mass/count information. GEC's difficulties extend these findings by providing additional evidence for a semantic component in the representation of countability (e.g., a semantic feature/concept COUNTABLE for count nouns, UNCOUNTABLE for mass nouns) which contributes to mass and count noun selection. GEC's mass noun difficulties are suggested to result from weaker connection strength between noun lemmas and mass concepts compared to count concepts as a result of the overall lower frequency distribution of mass nouns. PMID:26135982

  5. Inhibition of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B using allicin from garlic.

    PubMed

    Arzanlou, Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS) and inactivation of SpeB results in the significantly decreased virulence of the bacterium. The protein is secreted as an inactive zymogen of 40 KDa (SpeBz) and undergoes proteolytic truncation to result in a 28 KDa mature active protease (SpeBm). In this study the effect of allicin on the proteolytic activity of SpeBm was evaluated using azocasein assay. Allicin neutralized the SpeBm proteolytic activity in a concentration dependent manner (IC50 = 15.71 ± 0.45 μg/ml). The loss of activity was completely reversed by subsequent treatment with a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT; 10 mM final concentration), suggesting that allicin likely inhibits the SpeBm by forming a disulfide linkage with an active thiol group in its active site. This mechanism of action was further confirmed with the fact that DTT did not reverse the SpeBm activity in the presence of E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, which works specially by forming a thioether linkage with free sulfhydryl groups in enzymes active site. The MIC of allicin against GAS was found to be 32 μg/ml. Exposure of GAS culture to allicin (25 μg/ml) inhibited maturation of SpeBz to the SpeBm. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that allicin inhibits the maturation of SpeBz and proteolytic activity of SpeBm and could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of GAS infections. PMID:26911644

  6. Constituents of Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing Wild in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kokkini, S; Papageorgiou, V P

    1988-02-01

    The essential oils from 9 populations of MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.) L., ssp. LONGIFOLIA and ssp. PETIOLATA (Boiss.) Kokkini, growing wild in Greece, were investigated by means of GLC and GLC-MS. Piperitone oxide has been found as the main component in the essential oils of both subspecies while carvone only in some individuals of ssp. PETIOLATA (chemotype 2). PMID:17265207

  7. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 36480 (June 19, 2012). DATES: Effective Date: December 12, 2012... the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994), remains dispositive. Preliminary... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR 65694 (October 24, 2011); see also ``Assessment...

  8. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter...

  9. Micromonospora tulbaghiae sp. nov., isolated from the leaves of wild garlic, Tulbaghia violacea.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Bronwyn M; Meyers, Paul R

    2010-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain TVU1(T), was isolated from leaves of the indigenous South African plant Tulbaghia violacea. Applying a polyphasic approach, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Micromonospora. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain TVU1(T) was most closely related to Micromonospora echinospora DSM 43816(T). However, phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences showed that strain TVU1(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Micromonospora aurantiaca and Micromonospora chalcea. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain TVU1(T) and the type strains of M. echinospora, M. aurantiaca and M. chalcea were 7.6+/-4.5, 45.9+/-2.0 and 60.9+/-4.5 %, respectively. Strain TVU1(T) could be distinguished from the type strains of all three of these species by several physiological characteristics, such as colony colour, NaCl tolerance, growth temperature range and sole carbon source utilization pattern. Strain TVU1(T) (=DSM 45142(T)=NRRL B-24576(T)) therefore represents a novel species for which the name Micromonospora tulbaghiae sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:19667372

  10. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  11. Allicin from garlic inhibits the biofilm formation and urease activity of Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Omid, Mahsa; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Amani, Mojtaba; Shokri Al-Hashem, Seyyedeh Khadijeh; Amir Mozafari, Nour; Peeri Doghaheh, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis. This study determined the inhibitory effects of allicin on urease, hemolysin and biofilm of P. mirabilis ATCC 12453 and its antimicrobial activity against 20 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. Allicin did not inhibit hemolysin, whereas it did inhibit relative urease activity in both pre-lysed (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 4.15 μg) and intact cells (IC50 = 21 μg) in a concentration-dependent manner. Allicin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (2-32 μg mL(-1)) showed no significant effects on the growth of the bacteria (P > 0.05), but it reduced biofilm development in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.001). A higher concentration of allicin was needed to inhibit the established biofilms. Using the microdilution technique, the MIC90 and MBC90 values of allicin against P. mirabilis isolates were determined to be 128 and 512 μg mL(-1), respectively. The results suggest that allicin could have clinical applications in controlling P. mirabilis infections. PMID:25837813

  12. Close, but no garlic: Perceptuomotor and event knowledge activation during language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that language comprehension is guided by knowledge about the organization of objects and events in long-term memory. We use event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine the extent to which perceptuomotor object knowledge and event knowledge are immediately activated during incremental language processing. Event-related but anomalous sentence continuations preceded by single-sentence event descriptions elicited reduced N400s, despite their poor fit within local sentence contexts. Anomalous words sharing particular sensory or motor attributes with contextually expected words also elicited reduced N400s, despite being inconsistent with global context (i.e., event information). We rule out plausibility as an explanation for both relatedness effects. We show that perceptuomotor-related facilitation is not due to lexical priming between words in the local context and the target or to associative or categorical relationships between expected and unexpected targets. Overall our results are consistent with the immediate and incremental activation of perceptual and motor object knowledge and generalized event knowledge during sentence processing. PMID:25897182

  13. Garlic-derived natural polysulfanes as hydrogen sulfide donors: Friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Yagdi, Esma; Cerella, Claudia; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2016-09-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies reported the anti-cancer potential of organosulfur compounds (OSCs) as they trigger biological effects leading to cell cycle arrest with accumulation of cells in G2/M, alteration of the microtubular network, modulation of Bcl-2 family protein expression patterns and changes of the redox status. Despite these well-described effects, no OSC derivative is yet undergoing clinical trials even though their chemistry is well understood as OSCs act as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors. H2S is a biological mediator, synthesized through cysteine degradation and modulates vasodilation, cytoprotection, inflammation and angiogenesis. It is well accepted that H2S plays a biphasic pharmacological role: the inhibition of endogenous synthesis of H2S and paradoxically also the use of H2S donors to increase H2S concentration, induce both anti-cancer effects leading therefore to controversial discussions. Altogether, the role of H2S in the anti-cancer action of OSCs remains poorly understood. In this review, we hypothesize that OSCs act through H2S signaling pathways in cancer cells, and that a clearer understanding of the mechanism of action of H2S in OSC-mediated anti-cancer activity is required for further application of these compounds in translational medicine. PMID:27430419

  14. 75 FR 22788 - Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... proposed registration review decisions for the pesticides listed in the table in Unit II.A. and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's periodic review of... table in Unit II.A., by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal:...

  15. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  16. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter...

  17. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter...

  18. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter...

  19. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter...

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    PubMed

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation. PMID:26563916

  1. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. Do not eat foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG). When you go out ...

  2. Time to Talk: High Blood Cholesterol? 5 Things You Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... The dietary supplements red yeast rice, flaxseed, and garlic, are among the many supplements that have been ... and in people with high initial cholesterol concentrations. Garlic. Some evidence indicates that taking garlic supplements can ...

  3. A revision of Bephrata and Isosomodes (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genera Bephrata Cameron and Isosomodes Ashmead are redefined and redescribed. We describe 22 species as new: B. atra, B. bouceki, B. camacho, B. chica, B. christeri, B. citri, B. clava, B. flava, B. leptogaster, B. lorraineae, B. nigracephala, B. noyesi, B. nublada, B. petiolata, B. stichogaster...

  4. 78 FR 67112 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Final Rescission, in Part, 72 FR 58809 (October 17... cloves, whether or not peeled, fresh, chilled, frozen, water or other neutral substance, but not...

  5. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Results of New Shipper Review, 75 FR 24578 (May 5, 2010) (Preliminary Results). We are continuing to find... Duty Administrative, 75 FR 34976, (June 21, 2010) (14th AR). Therefore, the Department will determine... or separated into constituent cloves, whether or not peeled, fresh, chilled, frozen,...

  6. 76 FR 52315 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews, 76 FR 24857 (May 3, 2011) (Preliminary Intent to Rescind.... See Preliminary Intent to Rescind, 76 FR at 24858. After analyzing Yantai Jinyan's case brief and... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565,...

  7. 75 FR 34976 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Review, 74 FR 64677 (December 8, 2009) (Preliminary Results). Following the Preliminary Results, we... FR 54029 (Oct. 21, 2009). The Department's rescission included the rescission of Shenzhen Xinboda..., 75 FR 19364 (April 14, 2010). On May 11, 2010, the Department extended the time limit for...

  8. 76 FR 37321 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission, in Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Intent to Rescind, in Part, the 15th Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 80458 (December 22... for separate rate status. See Preliminary Results, 75 FR at 80461. For the final results, we continue... at Less Than Fair Value: Sparklers From the People's Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991),...

  9. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ..., and Intent To Rescind, in Part, the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 76375 (December 7, 2011) (Preliminary Results). \\3\\ See Fresh... 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 77 FR 11486 (February 27, 2012). Statutory Time Limits In...

  10. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 73 FR 79055 (December 24, 2008... To Rescind, in Part, the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 64677 (December 8, 2009... Time Limits for Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 19364 (April...

  11. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). On July 15, 2011, the Department published a notice in... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 41795 (July 15, 2011). On October 20, 2011, the Department..., the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011) (First Partial Preliminary...

  12. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.01). Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p < 0.01) the mentioned parameters in deltamethrin-treated rats. For genotoxic evaluation, deltamethrin treatment showed a significant increase in frequencies of micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Micronucleus formation is an indicator of chromosomal damage which has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental pests. The present study showed that Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. PMID:26974685

  13. 75 FR 80458 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of, Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... (companies). Based on timely withdrawal of requests for review, the Department is now rescinding the review with respect to 54 companies which are listed in Attachment I. As such, this review covers the 30 companies listed in Attachment II. One producer/exporter selected as a mandatory respondent has...

  14. 75 FR 24578 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... China, 68 FR 47538 (August 11, 2003), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at Comment 1 (PVA... Review, 74 FR 31241 (June 30, 2009). On October 29, 2009, the Department placed a copy of the CBP data... of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the New Shipper Review, 74 FR...

  15. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... FR 24857 (May 3, 2011) (Preliminary Intent to Rescind). Statutory Time Limits Section 751(a)(2)(B)(iv... received additional information regarding the bona fides of the new shippers' sales. The Department needs... bona fides of the sales under review. Therefore, in accordance with section 751(a)(2)(B)(iv) of the...

  16. 75 FR 32362 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 343 (January 5, 2010). On... questionnaire responses in its examination of the bona fides of the companies' sales. Therefore, in...

  17. 77 FR 34346 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2009-2010 Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...: Partial Final Results and Partial Final Rescission of the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 77 FR 11486... FR 76375 (December 7, 2011) (Preliminary Results). On December 20, 2011, in response to Xinboda's and... Results of the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 77 FR 17409 (March 26, 2012). At the request of Xinboda,...

  18. 77 FR 11486 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Final Results and Partial Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Memory Semiconductors From Taiwan, 63 FR 8909, 8911 (February 23, 1998); see also Brake Rotors From the..., the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011) (First Partial Preliminary Results... China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR...

  19. 78 FR 44928 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 70 FR 34082 (June 13, 2005) (``Final Results''). \\3...'s Republic of China, 70 FR 56639 (September 28, 2005) (``Amended Final Results''). On June 29, 2009.... United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (``Diamond Sawblades''), the Department is notifying...

  20. 76 FR 13983 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 74 FR 29174 (June 19, 2009) (``Final Results''), and accompanying... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 72 FR 38057 (July 12, 2007). Chenhe and Greening timely challenged the... Results and Partial Rescission of the 14th Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 34976 (June...