Science.gov

Sample records for allied diseases association

  1. National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviewed are the history and organization, purpose and programs, and public services of the National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, an organization geared toward eradicating Tay-Sachs disease (a hereditary disorder affecting primarily Jewish infants which generally leads to deterioration and death by the child's fifth year). (SBH)

  2. The National Tay Sachs and Allied Diseases Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Paula

    1986-01-01

    The National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association is involved in education, research, and prevention of Tay-Sachs, an inherited metabolic disorder which destroys the central nervous system, and over 30 related disorders. The group features a parent peer group network and a support group for carrier couples. (CL)

  3. Heat pump associations, alliances, and allies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Associations, Alliances, and Allies, a seminar and workshop sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was held in Memphis, Tennessee, April 10--11, 1991. The focus of the meeting was relationships forged between electric utilities and trade allies that sell residential heat pumps. one hundred and seven representatives of electric utilities, dealer/contractors, manufacturers, and consultants attended. Electric utility trade ally programs run the gamut from coop advertising to heat pump association to elaborate technician training programs. All utility participants recognize the important programs, since it is the trade ally who sells, installs, and services heat pumps, while it is the electric utility who gets blamed if the heat pumps fail to operate properly or are inefficient. Heat pumps are efficient and effective, but their efficiency and effectiveness depends critically upon the quality of installation and maintenance. A utility can thus help to ensure satisfied customers and can also help to achieve its own load shape objectives by working closely with its trade allies, the dealers, contractors, manufacturers, and distributors. Attendees spent the morning sessions of the two day meeting in plenary sessions, hearing about utility and dealer heat pump programs and issues. Afternoon roundtable discussions provided structured forums to discuss: Advertising; Heat pump association startup and operation; Rebates and incentives; Technician training school and centers; Installation inspection and dealer qualification; and Heat pump association training. These proceedings report on the papers presented in the morning plenary sessions and summarize the main points discussed in the afternoon workshops.

  4. Ally

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ally ; CASRN 74223 - 64 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  5. ALLY: An operator's associate for satellite ground control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, J. B.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Jones, P. M.; Rubin, K. S.

    1991-01-01

    The key characteristics of an intelligent advisory system is explored. A central feature is that human-machine cooperation should be based on a metaphor of human-to-human cooperation. ALLY, a computer-based operator's associate which is based on a preliminary theory of human-to-human cooperation, is discussed. ALLY assists the operator in carrying out the supervisory control functions for a simulated NASA ground control system. Experimental evaluation of ALLY indicates that operators using ALLY performed at least as well as they did when using a human associate and in some cases even better.

  6. Role of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme in Enhanced Primary Care: allied health or allied outlier?

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme (CDSS) and the Allied Health Profession (AHP) program as they related to the greater Enhanced Primary Care Scheme introduced by the Australian Government to manage patients with chronic and complex diseases. A retrospective analysis of data pertaining to Medicare items related to dentistry and the allied health professions were extracted from the Medicare Benefits Schedule database online, and formed the basis of this study. The highest proportion of services was provided in the state of New South Wales. There appears to be synergy in the utilisation of services with jurisdictions either overutilising or underutilising services. Costs to the Enhanced Primary Care Scheme under the CDSS model (fee for service) were up to 40 times more expensive compared with the AHP model (fee per visit). Costs and treatment associated with the CDSS experienced an increase of 13350% during the period 2007-08, coincident with an increase in subsidization. Reconstructive dentistry accounted for the majority of the increase. Gender disparities in dentistry were less distinct when compared with AHPs and were postulated to be due to males presenting with conditions that were more progressive requiring more invasive treatment. A comparative analysis indicates significant differences in costs, nature of treatment and the manner of remuneration between dentistry and the AHPs. A fee for service schedule as evidenced by the CDSS is dependent on the degree of financial incentive as indicated by patterns in utilisation over time. The amount of treatment considered necessary may be influenced by the level of subsidy with treatment that may not reflect disease management. The AHP model, which is based around a fee for visit schedule, is not without its deficiencies but has not experienced significant rises in cost compared with the CDSS.

  7. Role of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme in Enhanced Primary Care: allied health or allied outlier?

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme (CDSS) and the Allied Health Profession (AHP) program as they related to the greater Enhanced Primary Care Scheme introduced by the Australian Government to manage patients with chronic and complex diseases. A retrospective analysis of data pertaining to Medicare items related to dentistry and the allied health professions were extracted from the Medicare Benefits Schedule database online, and formed the basis of this study. The highest proportion of services was provided in the state of New South Wales. There appears to be synergy in the utilisation of services with jurisdictions either overutilising or underutilising services. Costs to the Enhanced Primary Care Scheme under the CDSS model (fee for service) were up to 40 times more expensive compared with the AHP model (fee per visit). Costs and treatment associated with the CDSS experienced an increase of 13350% during the period 2007-08, coincident with an increase in subsidization. Reconstructive dentistry accounted for the majority of the increase. Gender disparities in dentistry were less distinct when compared with AHPs and were postulated to be due to males presenting with conditions that were more progressive requiring more invasive treatment. A comparative analysis indicates significant differences in costs, nature of treatment and the manner of remuneration between dentistry and the AHPs. A fee for service schedule as evidenced by the CDSS is dependent on the degree of financial incentive as indicated by patterns in utilisation over time. The amount of treatment considered necessary may be influenced by the level of subsidy with treatment that may not reflect disease management. The AHP model, which is based around a fee for visit schedule, is not without its deficiencies but has not experienced significant rises in cost compared with the CDSS. PMID:22951045

  8. [Endosymbionts of arthropods and nematodes: allies to fight infectious diseases?].

    PubMed

    Vavre, Fabrice; Mavingui, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Arthropods and nematodes are important protagonists in human health because either they act as vectors of pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, viruses or fungus), or are themselves parasites. Fighting infectious diseases is based essentially on vaccination (prevention) or chemotherapeutic (curative) approaches in human, but one can envisage as an alternative to reduce the number of vectors or limit their ability to spread pathogens. Such strategies controlling dissemination will undoubtedly benefit from the knowledge accumulated by recent works on powerful mechanisms developed by symbiotic insect bacteria such as Wolbachia to popagate in arthropods and nematods. This review summarizes these recent data, and indicate how these mechanisms can be manipulated to reduce the dissemination of insect vectors propagating human diseases.

  9. Effect of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Foster, Michele; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Haynes, Michele; O'Flaherty, Martin; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Allied health services benefit the management of many chronic diseases. The effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services has not yet been established despite health insurance frequently being identified as a factor promoting utilisation of medical and hospital services among people with chronic disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease. Medline (Ovid Medline 1948 to Present with Daily Update), EMBASE (1980 to 1 April 2011), CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 12 April 2011 inclusive. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, quantitative observational studies and included people with one or more chronic diseases using allied health services and health insurance. A full-text review was performed independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were conducted. One hundred and fifty-eight citations were retrieved and seven articles were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled odds ratio (95% CI) of having insurance (versus no insurance) on the utilisation of allied health services among people with chronic disease was 1.33 (1.16-1.52; P<0.001). There was a significant effect of insurance on the utilisation of non-physiotherapy services, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 4.80 (1.46-15.79; P=0.01) but having insurance compared with insurance of a lesser coverage was not significantly associated with an increase in physiotherapy utilisation, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 1.53 (0.81-2.91; P=0.19). The presence of co-morbidity or functional limitation and higher levels of education increased utilisation whereas gender, race, marital status and income had a limited and variable effect, according to the study population. The review was limited by the considerable

  10. Effect of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Foster, Michele; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Haynes, Michele; O'Flaherty, Martin; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Allied health services benefit the management of many chronic diseases. The effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services has not yet been established despite health insurance frequently being identified as a factor promoting utilisation of medical and hospital services among people with chronic disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease. Medline (Ovid Medline 1948 to Present with Daily Update), EMBASE (1980 to 1 April 2011), CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 12 April 2011 inclusive. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, quantitative observational studies and included people with one or more chronic diseases using allied health services and health insurance. A full-text review was performed independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were conducted. One hundred and fifty-eight citations were retrieved and seven articles were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled odds ratio (95% CI) of having insurance (versus no insurance) on the utilisation of allied health services among people with chronic disease was 1.33 (1.16-1.52; P<0.001). There was a significant effect of insurance on the utilisation of non-physiotherapy services, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 4.80 (1.46-15.79; P=0.01) but having insurance compared with insurance of a lesser coverage was not significantly associated with an increase in physiotherapy utilisation, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 1.53 (0.81-2.91; P=0.19). The presence of co-morbidity or functional limitation and higher levels of education increased utilisation whereas gender, race, marital status and income had a limited and variable effect, according to the study population. The review was limited by the considerable

  11. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E.; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughput screening and medicinal chemistry research programs to identify lead compounds for small molecule drugs and novel drug targets. Furthermore, product development partnerships are emerging between academic institutions, non-profit entities, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to create diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines for diseases of the poor. With not for profit mission statements, open access publishing standards, open source platforms for data sharing and collaboration, and a shift in focus to more translational research, universities and other public research institutions are well-placed to accelerate development of medical technologies, particularly for neglected tropical diseases. PMID:22232453

  12. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny; Barnason, Susan A; Byrne, Molly; Doherty, Sally; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Fridlund, Bengt; Kautz, Donald D; Mårtensson, Jan; Mosack, Victoria; Moser, Debra K

    2013-11-01

    After a cardiovascular event, patients and their families often cope with numerous changes in their lives, including dealing with consequences of the disease or its treatment on their daily lives and functioning. Coping poorly with both physical and psychological challenges may lead to impaired quality of life. Sexuality is one aspect of quality of life that is important for many patients and partners that may be adversely affected by a cardiac event. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as '… a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences ….'(1(p4)) The safety and timing of return to sexual activity after a cardiac event have been well addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement, and decreased sexual activity among cardiac patients is frequently reported.(2) Rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are twice as high as those in the general population, with similar rates of sexual dysfunction in females with CVD.(3) ED and vaginal dryness may also be presenting signs of heart disease and may appear 1-3 years before the onset of angina pectoris. Estimates reflect that only a small percentage of those with sexual dysfunction seek medical care;(4) therefore, routine assessment of sexual problems and sexual counselling may be of benefit as part of effective management by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. PMID:23900695

  13. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P < 0.05). Regression analysis of patients with DED revealed the PSQI and HADS scores were significantly correlated with the severity of DED (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED. PMID:26927330

  14. Potato psyllids and their bacterial allies: Two fronts in the war against zebra chip disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid is a major pest of potato in the western United States that transmits the pathogen that causes zebra chip disease. Potato psyllids, like all psyllids, have close associations with bacterial endosymbionts living within them. These endosymbionts may be obligate or facultative, and the...

  15. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  16. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  17. Inflammasome in platelets: allying coagulation and inflammation in infectious and sterile diseases?

    PubMed

    Hottz, Eugenio D; Monteiro, Ana Paula T; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are crucial effector cells in hemostasis. In addition, platelets are increasingly recognized as major inflammatory cells with key roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Activated platelets have key thromboinflammatory activities linking coagulation to inflammatory response in a variety of coagulation disorders and vasculopathies. Recently identified inflammatory activities of platelets include the synthesis of IL-1β from spliced pre-RNA, as well as the presence and assembly of inflammasome which intermediate IL-1β secretion. Here we review the mechanisms by which platelets activate translation machinery and inflammasome assembly to synthesize and release IL-1β. The contributions of these processes to protective and pathogenic responses during infectious and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

  18. Use of metabolomics for the chemotaxonomy of legume-associated Ascochyta and allied genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemotaxonomy and the comparative analysis of metabolic features of fungi have the potential to provide valuable information relating to ecology and evolution, but have not been fully explored in fungal biology. Here, we investigated the chemical diversity of legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma sp...

  19. Being an Ally: Honoring the Contributions of Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Helen A.; Flores, Michelle P.; Dodson, Milo L.

    2012-01-01

    We underscore the importance of this compilation in our response to the major contribution on the histories of the five major ethnic minority psychological associations (EMPAs). The description of the formation, mission, goals, and activities of the EMPAs will serve as a useful tool to educate counseling psychologists and other professionals about…

  20. Kennedy's Disease Association

    MedlinePlus

    Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use GTranslate multilingual website and translation delivery network Select Language English Afrikaans Albanian Arabic ...

  1. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support and Information View ...

  2. Use of metabolomics for the chemotaxonomy of legume-associated Ascochyta and allied genera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonyong; Peever, Tobin L; Park, Jeong-Jin; Park, Chung-Min; Gang, David R; Xian, Ming; Davidson, Jenny A; Infantino, Alessandro; Kaiser, Walter J; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy and the comparative analysis of metabolic features of fungi have the potential to provide valuable information relating to ecology and evolution, but have not been fully explored in fungal biology. Here, we investigated the chemical diversity of legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma species and the possible use of a metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for their classification. The metabolic features of 45 strains including 11 known species isolated from various legumes were extracted, and the datasets were analyzed using chemometrics methods such as principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses. We found a high degree of intra-species consistency in metabolic profiles, but inter-species diversity was high. Molecular phylogenies of the legume-associated Ascochyta/Phoma species were estimated using sequence data from three protein-coding genes and the five major chemical groups that were detected in the hierarchical clustering analysis were mapped to the phylogeny. Clusters based on similarity of metabolic features were largely congruent with the species phylogeny. These results indicated that evolutionarily distinct fungal lineages have diversified their metabolic capacities as they have evolved independently. This whole metabolomics approach may be an effective tool for chemotaxonomy of fungal taxa lacking information on their metabolic content. PMID:26847260

  3. Use of metabolomics for the chemotaxonomy of legume-associated Ascochyta and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonyong; Peever, Tobin L.; Park, Jeong-Jin; Park, Chung-Min; Gang, David R.; Xian, Ming; Davidson, Jenny A.; Infantino, Alessandro; Kaiser, Walter J.; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy and the comparative analysis of metabolic features of fungi have the potential to provide valuable information relating to ecology and evolution, but have not been fully explored in fungal biology. Here, we investigated the chemical diversity of legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma species and the possible use of a metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for their classification. The metabolic features of 45 strains including 11 known species isolated from various legumes were extracted, and the datasets were analyzed using chemometrics methods such as principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses. We found a high degree of intra-species consistency in metabolic profiles, but inter-species diversity was high. Molecular phylogenies of the legume-associated Ascochyta/Phoma species were estimated using sequence data from three protein-coding genes and the five major chemical groups that were detected in the hierarchical clustering analysis were mapped to the phylogeny. Clusters based on similarity of metabolic features were largely congruent with the species phylogeny. These results indicated that evolutionarily distinct fungal lineages have diversified their metabolic capacities as they have evolved independently. This whole metabolomics approach may be an effective tool for chemotaxonomy of fungal taxa lacking information on their metabolic content. PMID:26847260

  4. Measuring the impact of allied health research

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Jan; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Milanese, Steve; Hillier, Susan; King, Ellena; Johnston, Kylie; Wall, Kylie; Thorpe, Olivia; Young, Alexandra; Kumar, Saravana

    2011-01-01

    Background Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) rankings are given to academic journals in which Australian academics publish. This provides a metric on which Australian institutions and disciplines are ranked for international competitiveness. This paper explores the issues surrounding the ERA rankings of allied health journals in Australia. Methods We conducted a broad search to establish a representative list of general allied health and discipline-specific journals for common allied health disciplines. We identified the ERA rankings and impact factors for each journal and tested the congruence between these metrics within the disciplines. Results Few allied health journals have high ERA rankings (A*/A), and there is variability in the impact factors assigned to journals within the same ERA rank. There is a small group of allied health researchers worldwide, and this group is even smaller when divided by discipline. Current publication metrics may not adequately assess the impact of research, which is largely aimed at clinicians to improve clinical practice. Moreover, many journals are produced by underfunded professional associations, and readership is often constrained by small numbers of clinicians in specific allied health disciplines who are association members. Conclusion Allied health must have a stronger united voice in the next round of ERA rankings. The clinical impact of allied health journals also needs to be better understood and promoted as a research metric. PMID:21811386

  5. Diseases associated with photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G M

    2001-11-15

    Photosensitive disorders may be classified as those entirely caused by solar exposure and the photoaggravated disorders. Those in the former category include polymorphic light eruption, juvenile spring eruption, actinic prurigo, hydroa vacciniforme, solar urticaria, also chronic actinic dermatitis. Genodermatoses whose expression mainly depends on UV or light exposure include the DNA repair deficient disorders, some disorders of cornification, the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and porphyria. Examples of photoaggravated diseases include lupus erythematosus, erythema multiforme, atopic eczema, psoriasis, viral exanthemata, pemphigus, dermatitis herpetiformis and rosacea. Drugs and chemicals may interact with UV to induce photosensitivity. In many of these diseases the action spectrum is known or may be determined by phototesting. Recognition of the reaction patterns associated with the photodermatoses greatly assists clinical classification of the photodermatoses. PMID:11744394

  6. Exercise physiologists emerge as allied healthcare professionals in the era of non-communicable disease pandemics: a report from Australia, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Birinder S; Robergs, Robert A; Askew, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Exercise can be prescribed to prevent, manage, and treat many leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and underlying risk factors. However, surprisingly, Australia is one of only a few countries where allied healthcare professionals with specialized university education and training in exercise prescription and delivery provide services within a government-run healthcare system (Medicare). This article presents data on Medicare-funded services provided by accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs) from the inclusion of the profession in the allied healthcare model (January, 2006) to the end of 2012. We conceptualize these data in relation to current NCD trends, and outline recommendations that can potentially help curtail the current chronic disease burden through the further integration of exercise professionals into the healthcare system in Australia, and internationally. From 2006 to 2012, the number of AEPs in Australia has increased 563 %. This rise in AEPs has been paralleled by increased delivery of services for eligible patients with a chronic medical condition (+614 %), type 2 diabetes mellitus (+211 to 230 %), and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent (+343 %). These trends, which were developed through the "early years" of the profession, are encouraging and suggest that AEPs have taken up a vital position within the healthcare system. However, the total number of services provided by AEPs currently remains very low in relation to the prevalence of overweight-obesity and type 2 diabetes in Australia. Furthermore, services for Aboriginal Australians are very low considering the extreme burden of chronic diseases in these vulnerable populations. We provide some recommendations that may help the exercise physiology profession play a greater role in tackling the NCD burden and shift the healthcare model in a direction that is more proactive and focused on disease prevention and health, including the early identification and treatment of major

  7. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Patrícia; Cimões, Renata; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia). Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations. PMID:19838549

  8. Faculty Perspectives of Health Promotion in Allied Health Curricula: Results of a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane B.; Milligan, Anjenette D.; Hernandez, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 223 of 524 allied health education program directors indicated that 93.5% believe health promotion/disease prevention is an appropriate topic; 66% said it was represented in their curriculum; the level of representation in the curriculum is significantly associated with accreditation requirements; and the most frequently used…

  9. The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Fulbrook, Paul; Latour, Jos; Albarran, John; de Graaf, Wouter; Lynch, Fiona; Devictor, Denis; Norekvål, Tone

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, and the European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement on The Presence of Family Members During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. PMID:17919981

  10. Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabelli, V. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs & Allied Diseases Association, Inc. Resource list from the ... Brady R, Barranger J, Collins AJ, Germain DP, Goldman M, Grabowski G, Packman S, Wilcox WR. Fabry disease, ...

  12. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. Other helpful information is available at www.GLUTEN.net. Advances in celiac disease are fast-paced. ... should not be used to diagnose or treat gluten-related disorders or other medical conditions. For questions ...

  13. Allies in the struggle.

    PubMed

    Draughn, Tricia; Elkins, Becki; Roy, Rakhi

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Providing a community that is committed to standards, diversity, and enhancement of the academic environment is often difficult. Offering an Allies or Safe Zone program is among of the first steps an institution can take to achieve a community that embraces diversity and creates a learning environment that is accepting of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered individuals. While there are many opportunities in institutional group settings to address these issues, they often go either unnoticed or untapped. How can being an ally impact the greater institutional environment? This paper will discuss the campus environment for LGBT students, examine existing Allies and Safe Zone programs, and offer a framework to assist program coordinators and participants in establishing comprehensive programs to change the campus climate and develop institutional environments that are gay affirmative.

  14. Allied Health Leadership in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Invitational Conference Proceedings (Williamsburg, Virginia, April 17-19, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kra, Eleanor, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Opening Remarks" (McTernan); "Conference Goals and Plans" (Douglas); "Challenge to Leadership" (Pearson); "Implications of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention for the Practice of Respiratory Care" (Axton); "Health Promotion Strategies in Dietetic Practice" (Gaughan); "Practice Implications of Health…

  15. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Lapcević, Mirjana

    2005-10-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is a multifactorial, genetic disease. It is the sequelae of the impaired immunoregulation, tolerance and poor recognition of one's own proteins, oligopolysaccharides and polypeptides, due to development of somatic lymphocyte mutations. It is manifested by different clinical and morphological entities, inter-related by etiopathogenetic association, i.e., all of them are caused by disorder of immune system regulation. Chronic autoimmune thyroidism (Thyreoiditis lymphocytaria Hashimoto, HT), as well as immunogenic hyperthyroidism (Morbus Graves Basedow, MGB) are frequently associated with autoimmune diseases of other organs, such as: chronic insufficiency of salivary glands (Sy Sjögren), autoimmune hemolytic anemia, megalocytic pernicious anemia, thrombocytopenia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Diabetes mellitus (more often type 2, but also type 1), Morbus Addison, Coeliakia, and other autoimmune diseases such as systemic diseases of connecting tissue (Lupus erythematosus-SLE, Sclerodermia, Vasculitis superficialis). The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been at increase in all age groups of our population. The prevalence of organ-specific and organ-nonspecific antibodies increases with the age. Antigenicity of thyroid epithelial cell may be triggered by different chemical and biological agents (repeated viral infections), repeated stress, and in individuals with genetic propensity. Unrecognized ATD progressively leads to hypothyroidism with hyperlipidemia, blood vessel changes, osteoporosis, deformities, invalidity which substantially reduces the quality of life of patient and requires medical attention and expensive treatment on what account it is medically and socio-economically significant. Multiple diagnostic procedures contribute to faster recognition of this condition. The goal of the primary health care physician (given that preclinical phase of ATD and other associated diseases have different duration) and other specialists is to

  16. A Seat at the Table that I Set: Beyond Social Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Toby

    2009-01-01

    An ally, as defined by dictionary.com, is "a person, group, or nation that is associated with others for some common cause or purpose." Therefore, allies are people whose orientation is "outside" of the oppressed group. An ally is often a person who recognizes her privileges and works in alliance with members of oppressed groups to stand against…

  17. Educators' Guide to Ally Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010

    2010-01-01

    An ally is an individual who speaks out and stands up for a person or group that is targeted and/or discriminated against. An ally works to end oppression by supporting and advocating for people who are stigmatized, or treated unfairly because of who they are. In this context, Allies are referred to as people who do not identify as LGBT (lesbian,…

  18. Radiation-associated valvular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.G.; Mayfield, W.R.; Normann, S.; Alexander, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The prevalence of radiation-associated cardiac disease is increasing due to prolonged survival following mediastinal irradiation. Side effects of radiation include pericarditis, accelerated coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis and valvular injury. We evaluated the cases of three young patients with evidence of significant valvular disease following mediastinal irradiation. One patient underwent the first reported successful aortic and mitral valve replacement for radiation-associated valvular disease (RAVD) as well as concurrent coronary artery revascularization. A review of the literature revealed 35 reported cases of RAVD, with only one successful case of valve replacement that was limited to the aortic valve. Asymptomatic RAVD is diagnosed 11.5 years after mediastinal irradiation compared with 16.5 years for symptomatic patients, emphasizing that long-term follow-up is important for patients receiving mediastinal irradiation. This study defines a continuum of valvular disease following radiation that begins with mild asymptomatic valvular thickening and progresses to severe valvular fibrosis with hemodynamic compromise requiring surgical intervention. 32 refs.

  19. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of Al-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanakumar, R.; Ramakrishna, K. S.; Kanna, B. Avinash

    2013-06-01

    Al-Li alloys are being used in aircraft structures due to its low density and inherent mechanical properties. Fatigue Crack Growth (FCG) resistance is usually high compared to conventional Al-alloys attributed to increased modulus and crack closure. Extensive investigations concern about the FCG resistance and crack closure in Al-Li alloys. The present work reviews the FCG resistance in Al-Li alloys and the mechanisms associated with it. The alloy 8090 is taken for the consideration and sometimes compared with 2024.

  20. 22 CFR 123.27 - Special licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories, attachments and... export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories... associated technical data for commercial communications satellites, and who are so registered with...

  1. 22 CFR 123.27 - Special licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories, attachments and... export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories... associated technical data for commercial communications satellites, and who are so registered with...

  2. 22 CFR 123.27 - Special licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories, attachments and... export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories... associated technical data for commercial communications satellites, and who are so registered with...

  3. 22 CFR 123.27 - Special licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories, attachments and... export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories... associated technical data for commercial communications satellites, and who are so registered with...

  4. 22 CFR 123.27 - Special licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts, accessories, attachments and... licensing regime for export to U.S. allies of commercial communications satellite components, systems, parts... and certain associated technical data for commercial communications satellites, and who are...

  5. Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Mauricio A; Reyes, Edison P; García, Isaac E; Pinto, Bernardo; Martínez, Agustín D; González, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) and gap junction channels (GJCs) formed by protein subunits called connexins (Cxs) are major pathways for intercellular communication. While HCs connect the intracellular compartment with the extracellular milieu, GJCs allow the interchange of molecules between cytoplasm of two contacting cells. Under physiological conditions, HCs are mostly closed, but they can open under certain stimuli allowing the release of autocrine and paracrine molecules. Moreover, some pathological conditions, like ischemia or other inflammation conditions, significantly increase HCs activity. In addition, some mutations in Cx genes associated with human diseases, such as deafness or cataracts, lead to the formation of more active HCs or "leaky HCs." In this article we will revise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the appearance of leaky HCs, and the consequences of their expression in different cellular systems and animal models, in seeking a common pattern or pathological mechanism of disease.

  6. Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.; Reyes, Edison P.; García, Isaac E.; Pinto, Bernardo; Martínez, Agustín D.; González, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) and gap junction channels (GJCs) formed by protein subunits called connexins (Cxs) are major pathways for intercellular communication. While HCs connect the intracellular compartment with the extracellular milieu, GJCs allow the interchange of molecules between cytoplasm of two contacting cells. Under physiological conditions, HCs are mostly closed, but they can open under certain stimuli allowing the release of autocrine and paracrine molecules. Moreover, some pathological conditions, like ischemia or other inflammation conditions, significantly increase HCs activity. In addition, some mutations in Cx genes associated with human diseases, such as deafness or cataracts, lead to the formation of more active HCs or “leaky HCs.” In this article we will revise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the appearance of leaky HCs, and the consequences of their expression in different cellular systems and animal models, in seeking a common pattern or pathological mechanism of disease. PMID:26283912

  7. Selected list of books and journals in allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1984-01-01

    This list of 450 books and 67 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs and personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Due to the necessity of limiting the scope of coverage because of the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused mainly on the twenty-six educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, in addition to programs in allied dental health and medical secretarial skills. Books are categorized by broad subject followed by an author/editor index; journals are listed alphabetically by title. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual (1984) journal subscriptions would require a total expenditure of approximately $15,000. PMID:6388696

  8. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... With #25FOR25 Campaign During National Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA officially kicks of National Autoimmune Disease Awareness ... Click here to read more. Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA and the NCAPG held two important events ...

  9. Turning gadflies into allies.

    PubMed

    Yaziji, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Multinational companies are the driving force behind globalization, but they are also the source of many of its most painful consequences, including currency crises, cross-border pollution, and overfishing. These problems remain unsolved because they are beyond the scope of individual governments; transnational organizations have also proved unequal to the task. Nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations have leaped into the breach. To force policy changes, they have seized on all forms of modern persuasion to influence public sentiment toward global traders, manufacturers, and investors. By partnering with NGOs instead of opposing them, companies can avoid costly conflict and can use NGOs' assets to gain competitive advantage. So far, however, most companies have proved ill equipped to deal with NGOs. Large companies know how to compete on the basis of product attributes and price. But NGO attacks focus on production methods and their spillover effects, which are often noneconomic. Similarly, NGOs are able to convert companies' standard competitive strengths--such as size and wide market awareness of their brands--into liabilities. That's because the wealthier and better known a company is, the juicier the target it makes. Emboldened by their successes, NGOs continue to take on new causes. By partnering with NGOs instead of reflexively opposing them, companies could draw on NGOs' key strengths--legitimacy, awareness of social forces, distinct networks, and specialized technical expertise--which most companies could use more of. And with NGOs as allies and guides, companies should also be able to accelerate innovation, foresee shifts in demand, shape legislation affecting them, and, in effect, set technical and regulatory standards for their industries.

  10. Selected list of books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. health care system of the twenty-first century will be information driven; allied health literature will be a dynamic part of that information. This list of 415 books and 76 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either a health care or academic setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, focus has been directed primarily to the twenty-eight educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA) of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, nutrition, and speech pathology/audiology programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (177 books and 32 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1994 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $25,300. PMID:7920334

  11. Clinical research in allied health.

    PubMed

    Selker, L G

    1994-01-01

    Allied health professionals in nutrition and medical dietetics, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology and audiology play both unique and key cross-cutting roles in the furtherance of clinical research. Clinical research in nutrition and medical dietetics uniquely focuses on food nutrient intake and the metabolic utilization of nutrients. Clinical research in occupational therapy has a special focus on the relationship of impairment to disability, the adaptation to disability and the maximization of function. Physical therapy clinical research uniquely targets movement dysfunction and its evaluation and treatment within the context of quality and effective care. Clinical research in speech-language pathology and audiology is singular in its focus on deafness and hearing disorders, voice, speech, language and related disorders, and intersections among these and other neurological and physical conditions. Thus, all of these disciplines are making unique contributions to clinical research. Clinical research in these allied health professions is much more than the above specific foci. Inasmuch as these disciplines are rooted in practice, their contributions to research are inherently clinical. Many, if not most, of these contributions represent further validations of clinical practice or its underlying knowledge base. This means that, at a macro level, clinical research in allied health is very much "applied" research. Within allied health clinical research, this emphasis is redoubled at the "person," or individual level, where considerable attention is given to concepts of function and effectiveness. Clinical research in allied health has played a key cross-cutting role through its emphasis on collaboration. Possibly due to their professional maturation within multidisciplinary academic units, allied health professionals have demonstrated a level of comfort with multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary collaborations unique within many

  12. [Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions of the studies presented at Digestive Disease Week this year (2015) related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, developing countries continue to have substantial infection rates. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly higher in most countries and continues to rise. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely prevent its development; the presence of precancerous lesions--intestinal atrophy and metaplasia--is associated with a higher risk of developing this neoplasm, despite H. pylori eradication. The use of molecular diagnostic methods (polymerase chain reaction) in faecal samples could allow non-invasive evaluation of the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decrease. The effectiveness of sequential therapy in recent studies is lower than initially described and consequently this treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. In penicillin-allergic patients, quadruple therapy with bismuth is the treatment of choice in our environment. After the failure of standard triple therapy, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and, moreover, is simpler and better tolerated than quadruple therapy with bismuth. Quadruple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, levofloxacin and amoxicillin is an effective (≥ 90% eradication), simple and safe second-line therapy if triple or quadruple therapy without bismuth (sequential or concomitant) fails to eradicate the infection. The new-generation quinolones, such as moxifloxacin or sitafloxacin, could be useful in second- or third-line rescue eradication therapy. Even after the failure of 3 eradication treatments, a

  13. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste. PMID:27620094

  14. Emerging Innovation: Allied Health Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Janell B.

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a closer look at emerging fields in the allied health arena. The relatively new field of Health Information Technology is one of the exciting prospects, surging with growth opportunities. These individuals are medical language experts who interpret, process, store and retrieve health information for research and data collection.…

  15. Heterosexual Allies: A Descriptive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…

  16. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  17. Literature of Allied Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Sally

    This course text provides an outline of the literature of the allied health fields for librarians and others whose functions include providing operational and/or educational library support to allied health professionals and paraprofessionals. After consideration of what the allied health fields involve, including information on education,…

  18. Connecting Allied Health Students to Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, W. Kent; Mishoe, Shelley C.; Taft, Arthur A.; Campbell, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Statewide studies indicate a continuing shortfall of personnel in several allied health disciplines in rural Georgia. National trends indicate lagging enrollment in allied health education programs, suggesting that the workforce shortages will worsen. Purpose: This article describes the efforts of the School of Allied Health Sciences at…

  19. The Allied Health Professions: Opportunities for Minority Students. Career Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Maria

    The term "allied health" refers to a cluster of health professions encompassing as many as 200 occupational titles (exclusive of physicians and nurses) involved with the delivery of health or related services pertaining to the identification, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of diseases and disorders; dietary and nutritional services; and…

  20. FGF23 associated bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Liao, Eryuan

    2013-03-01

    Recently, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has sparked widespread interest because of its potential role in regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. In this review, we summarized the FGF superfamily, the mechanism of FGF23 on phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, and the FGF23 related bone disease.

  1. Collaborative Research in Allied Health. Proceedings of Collaborative Research in Allied Health Symposium (Columbus, Ohio, September 20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, M. Rosita, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers are included: "Consortia and Collaborative Research: Getting Started" (Hansen); "Coordination of the Health Care System in the State of Michigan" (Burian, Boyden, Herbert); "Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Allied Health" (Doiron, Douglas); "Interprofessional Collaboration in the Analysis of Public Policy" (Dunn);…

  2. Selected list of books and journals in allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1990-01-01

    This list of 453 books and 74 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the twenty-six educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, and nutrition programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (179 books and 29 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1990 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $21,650. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $9,250. PMID:2393755

  3. Selected list of books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1992-01-01

    This list of 396 books and 77 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Due to the necessity of limiting the scope of coverage because of the large number and wide range of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the twenty-eight programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, nutrition, and speech pathology/audiology. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals is followed by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (194 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1992 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $22,800. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $10,850. PMID:1525616

  4. Infectious diseases associated with caves.

    PubMed

    Igreja, Ricardo Pereira

    2011-06-01

    In recent times, caving has become increasingly popular, with almost 2 million people visiting national park caves each year in the United States. Although the 2 million tourist visits are extremely low risk, smaller numbers of sport cavers are at risk for some high risk conditions, and expedition cavers are at risk for some obscure infections. Infectious diseases like histoplasmosis, rabies, leptospirosis, and tick-borne relapsing fever may be transmitted by the underground fauna. To reduce the risk of illness or injury while caving, knowledge of potential risks before engaging in this activity is important. Caving preparation needs to be carefully planned and executed, including vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and advice regarding safe conduct and behaviors. PMID:21664559

  5. Autoimmune diseases associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Arti

    2008-01-01

    Associations of autoimmune diseases with neurofibromatosis type 1 have been rarely described. In the present report, we describe two patients of neurofibromatosis type 1 having an association with vitiligo in one, and alopecia areata and autoimmune thyroiditis in another. The associations of neurofibromatosis type 1 with vitiligo, alopecia areata, and autoimmune thyroiditis have not been reported earlier. Whether these associations reflect a causal relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1 or are coincidental needs to be settled.

  6. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune-Associated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lauret, Eugenia; Rodrigo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage. PMID:23984314

  7. [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder. Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis. Hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve cause these symptoms, which are relieved by administration of Na channel blockers and immunotherapy.The target channel proteins are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). The suppression of voltage-gated outward K(+) current by antibodies induces hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Electrophysiological findings show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiological, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve."VGKC antibodies" are also detected in Morvan syndrome (severe insomnia with neuromyotonia and various autonomic disorders) and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC antibodies" are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1, CASPR-2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC antibodies" are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan syndrome.

  8. [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder. Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis. Hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve cause these symptoms, which are relieved by administration of Na channel blockers and immunotherapy.The target channel proteins are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). The suppression of voltage-gated outward K(+) current by antibodies induces hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Electrophysiological findings show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiological, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve."VGKC antibodies" are also detected in Morvan syndrome (severe insomnia with neuromyotonia and various autonomic disorders) and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC antibodies" are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1, CASPR-2) that complex with VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC antibodies" are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan syndrome. PMID:24291881

  9. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  10. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  11. Review of Clostridium difficile-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    McFarland, L V; Stamm, W E

    1986-06-01

    Clostridium difficile has recently become recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen. This review summarizes what is known about the isolation of the organism, the spectrum of clinical disease, virulence factors, treatments, and methods of prevention. Risk factors for C. difficile disease are also discussed. The most important risk factor is the use of certain antibiotics (ampicillin, cephalosporins, and clindamycin). C. difficile is associated with 96% to 100% of cases of pseudomembraneous colitis, 60% to 75% of antibiotic-associated cases of colitis, and 11% to 33% of antibiotic-associated cases of diarrhea. Other risk factors include gastrointestinal manipulations, advanced age, female sex, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer chemotherapy, and renal disorders. Hospital outbreaks of C. difficile disease are examined. Data from nosocomial outbreaks support transmission of C. difficile by contaminated fomites and hand carriage by hospital personnel.

  12. Word Association in Early Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Salmon, David P.; Paxton, Jessica L.

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease (AD) degrades semantic representations predicts that AD qualitatively alters spontaneous thoughts. In two experiments contrasting free associations to words with strong (e.g., "bride-groom") versus weak (e.g., "body-leg") associates participants with AD produced less common responses (e.g., "bride-pretty")…

  13. Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ambreen; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Niaz, Rai Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments. In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral. Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript. However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene. PMID:26417290

  14. Criteria for environmentally associated autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Frederick W; Pollard, K Michael; Parks, Christine G; Germolec, Dori R; Leung, Patrick S C; Selmi, Carlo; Humble, Michael C; Rose, Noel R

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for the environment in the development of autoimmune diseases, as reviewed in the accompanying three papers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop. An important unresolved issue, however, is the development of criteria for identifying autoimmune disease phenotypes for which the environment plays a causative role, herein referred to as environmentally associated autoimmune diseases. There are several different areas in which such criteria need to be developed, including: 1) identifying the necessary and sufficient data to define environmental risk factors for autoimmune diseases meeting current classification criteria; 2) establishing the existence of and criteria for new environmentally associated autoimmune disorders that do not meet current disease classification criteria; and 3) identifying in clinical practice specific environmental agents that induce autoimmune disease in individual patients. Here we discuss approaches that could be useful for developing criteria in these three areas, as well as factors that should be considered in evaluating the evidence for criteria that can distinguish individuals with such disorders from individuals without such disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Current studies suggest that multiple lines of complementary evidence will be important and that in many cases there will be clinical, serologic, genetic, epigenetic, and/or other laboratory features that could be incorporated as criteria for environmentally associated autoimmune diseases to improve diagnosis and treatment and possibly allow for preventative strategies in the future.

  15. HLA and Disease Associations in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Stephen; Choi, Hee-Back

    2011-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans has been known to reside on chromosome 6 and encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins and many other proteins related to immune system function. The HLA is highly polymorphic and the most genetically variable coding loci in humans. In addition to a critical role in transplantation medicine, HLA and disease associations have been widely studied across the populations world-wide and are found to be important in prediction of disease susceptibility, resistance and of evolutionary maintenance of genetic diversity. Because recently developed molecular based HLA typing has several advantages like improved specimen stability and increased resolution of HLA types, the association between HLA alleles and a given disease could be more accurately quantified. Here, in this review, we have collected HLA association data on some autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, cancers, drug responsiveness and other diseases with unknown etiology in Koreans and attempt to summarize some remarkable HLA alleles related with specific diseases. PMID:22346771

  16. [Celiac disease associated with cutaneous sarcoidosic granuloma].

    PubMed

    Loche, F; Bazex, J

    1997-01-01

    Coeliac disease can be associated with numerous internal, skin and mucosa involvements: their physiopathology is often obscure. We report the case of a 14-year old female patient who suffered from a coeliac disease diagnosed in 1988 with considerable improvement with a gluten-free diet. Her two daughters also presented coeliac disease and her sister suffered from nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Four years later, she presented non pruriginous small nodules over both lower extremities. Skin biopsy revealed a non-caseating granuloma into the derm: we only could evocate sarcoidosis affecting the skin. The dermatological lesions improved during the following weeks with a gluten free diet and relapsed each time this diet was stopped. Many clinical associations with coeliac disease have been described with numerous visceral and skin-mucosa involvements. Eight cases of coeliac disease associated with sarcoidosis affecting the lung have been reported: in five cases, coeliac disease preceded sarcoidosis and in one case sarcoidosis relapsed each time gluten was reintroduced like in our case. This two diseases seem to share immunological and genetic disturbances.

  17. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  18. Dieulafoy's disease associated with early gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Leone, O; Zanelli, M; Santini, D; Minni, F; Marrano, D

    1995-01-01

    In the past different terms have been used to define the vascular malformations of Dieulafoy's disease--for example, calibre persistent artery of the stomach, cirsoid aneurysm and gastric atherosclerosis. A case of Dieulafoy's disease is described in a 41 year old man, who presented with symptoms of anaemia and melaena, with particular attention paid to the morphological characterisation of the vascular histological lesions. Intimal hyperplasia with a non-concentric proliferation of myointimal cells, areas of muscular degeneration, aspects of vascular neoformation of the arterial wall, and other findings are reported. An association between an early diffuse adenocarcinoma and parietal anomalies of Dieulafoy's disease is illustrated. Images PMID:7730491

  19. Selected list of books and journals in allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1988-01-01

    This list of 435 books and 76 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs and/or health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility pf covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the twenty-six educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, nutrition, and medical secretarial programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (176 books and 29 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1988 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $19,000. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $7,900. PMID:3066428

  20. Gerontologic Education for Allied Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazi, Kevan H.; Green, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Gives an overview of the aging population, allied health professions, and gerontology. Describes the modularization process used at the University of Texas--breaking a three-credit course into interdependent one-credit courses as a way to expose allied health students to a wide variety of gerontology topics through elective courses. (Contains 19…

  1. How Allies Collaborate; The NATO Training Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandevanter, E., Jr.

    A survey was made of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) coordination of training programs for allied military forces and its implications about collaboration among allies in peacetime. Three types of training were analyzed: (1) higher training, or the coordination of large military formations; (2) unit training of smaller teams; (3)…

  2. Graves Disease Is Associated With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Park, Eun-Ju; Seo, Yong-Soo; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Seon-Young; Park, Won I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of thyroid diseases between women with and without endometriosis. We established the endometriosis group according to diagnosis codes, surgery codes, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist codes using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service—National Inpatients Sample (HIRA-NIS) from 2009 to 2011. Four controls were randomly matched to each endometriosis case. Thyroid disease cases were selected using the thyroid disease diagnosis code (E0X). Among the 1,843,451 women sampled, 5615 had endometriosis; 22,460 controls were matched to the endometriosis cases. After adjustment for age and sampling year, Graves disease was associated with endometriosis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.30–4.88; P < 0.01), while hypothyroidism was not (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.90–1.52; P = 0.25). Autoimmune hypothyroidism was also not associated with endometriosis (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.88–2.94; P = 0.12). This study revealed an association between Graves disease and endometriosis. PMID:26962803

  3. Treating KSHV-Associated Multicentric Castleman Disease

    Cancer.gov

    In this study, patients with KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease will receive IV tocilizumab every other week for up to 12 weeks. Patients who do not benefit may go on to receive high-dose AZT and valganciclovir as well.

  4. Pleasure as an ally of healthy eating? Contrasting visceral and Epicurean eating pleasure and their association with portion size preferences and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Cornil, Yann; Chandon, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Research on overeating and self-regulation has associated eating pleasure with short-term visceral impulses triggered by hunger, external cues, or internal emotional urges. Drawing on research on the social and cultural dimensions of eating, we contrast this approach with what we call "Epicurean" eating pleasure, which is the enduring pleasure derived from the aesthetic appreciation of the sensory and symbolic value of the food. To contrast both approaches, we develop and test a scale measuring Epicurean eating pleasure tendencies and show that they are distinct from the tendency to experience visceral pleasure (measured using the external eating and emotional eating scales). We find that Epicurean eating pleasure is more prevalent among women than men but is independent of age, income and education. Unlike visceral eating pleasure tendencies, Epicurean eating tendencies are associated with a preference for smaller food portions and higher wellbeing, and not associated with higher BMI. Overall, we argue that the moralizing approach equating the pleasure of eating with 'low-level' visceral urges should give way to a more holistic approach which recognizes the positive role of Epicurean eating pleasure in healthy eating and wellbeing.

  5. HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, Ehsan; Cohen, Scott D; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Kimmel, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    The introduction in the late 20(th) century of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to treat patients infected with HIV has changed the natural history of the disease from an acute illness that rapidly culminates in death, to a chronic condition that can be managed with medications. Over the past decade the epidemiology of kidney disease in US patients infected with HIV has changed, perhaps because of the increased availability and use of cART. Patients with HIV infection exhibit unique immunologic characteristics, including immunodeficiency and dysregulation of immunoglobulin synthetic responses and T-cell function, which can result in glomerular immune complex deposition and subsequent kidney injury. This Review examines the differential diagnoses of HIV-associated immune complex kidney diseases (HIVICD), and discusses the clinical manifestations and mechanisms underlying their development. We address the issues associated with treatment, clinical outcomes, and research needs to enhance our ability to diagnose and optimally treat patients with HIVICD.

  6. [Endogenous retroviruses are associated with autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Jensen, Sara B; Hansen, Bettina; Laska, Magdalena J

    2016-06-13

    Retroviruses can be transmitted in two fundamentally different ways: 1) They can be horizontally transmitted as infectious virus, or 2) they can integrate in the germ line and be transmitted to offspring and the offsprings' offspring as DNA. The latter is called endogenous viruses. The mode of transmission is called vertical. Viral variants of importance for development of disease must be more frequent among diseased persons than among healthy individuals. Multiple sclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are all associated with sets of endogenouos retroviruses but not the same sets. If a virus grows and this contributes to disease, one should be able to alleviate disease with antiretroviral drugs. We call for clinical trials to elucidate this issue. PMID:27292833

  7. Statin myalgia is not associated with reduced muscle strength, mass or protein turnover in older male volunteers, but is allied with a slowing of time to peak power output, insulin resistance and differential muscle mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Joanne E; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Murton, Andrew; Selby, Anna; Smith, Kenneth; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Rennie, Michael J; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2015-03-01

    Statins are associated with muscle myalgia and myopathy, which probably reduce habitual physical activity. This is particularly relevant to older people who are less active, sarcopaenic and at increased risk of statin myalgia. We hypothesised that statin myalgia would be allied to impaired strength and work capacity in older people, and determined whether differences aligned with divergences in lean mass, protein turnover, insulin sensitivity and the molecular regulation of these processes. Knee extensor strength and work output during 30 maximal isokinetic contractions were assessed in healthy male volunteers, nine with no statin use (control 70.4 ± 0.7 years) and nine with statin myalgia (71.5 ± 0.9 years). Whole body and leg glucose disposal, muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and leg protein breakdown (LPB) were measured during fasting (≈5 mU l(-1) insulin) and fed (≈40 mU l(-1) insulin + hyperaminoacidaemia) euglyceamic clamps. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after each clamp. Lean mass, MPS, LPB and strength were not different but work output during the initial three isokinetic contractions was 19% lower (P < 0.05) in statin myalgic subjects due to a delay in time to reach peak power output. Statin myalgic subjects had reduced whole body (P = 0.05) and leg (P < 0.01) glucose disposal, greater abdominal adiposity (P < 0.05) and differential expression of 33 muscle mRNAs (5% false discovery rate (FDR)), six of which, linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, increased at 1% FDR. Statin myalgia was associated with impaired muscle function, increased abdominal adiposity, whole body and leg insulin resistance, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

  8. Analyzing disease risks associated with translocations.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Anthony W; Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca J

    2012-06-01

    Translocations of species are expected to be used increasingly to counter the undesirable effects of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, including loss of species. Methods to assess the risk of disease associated with translocations have been compiled in a comprehensive manual of disease-risk analysis for movement of domestic animals. We used this manual to devise a qualitative method for assessing the probability of the occurrence of disease in wild animals associated with translocations. We adapted the method such that we considered a parasite (any agent of infectious or noninfectious disease) a hazard if it or the host had crossed an ecological or geographical barrier and was novel to the host. We included in our analyses hazards present throughout the translocation pathway derived from the interactions between host immunity and the parasite, the effect of parasites on populations, the effect of noninfectious disease agents, and the effect of stressors on host-parasite interactions. We used the reintroduction of Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) to England to demonstrate our method. Of the 24 hazards identified, 1 was classified as high risk (coccidia) and 5 were medium risk (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, Mycobacterium avium, Aspergillus fumigatus, tracheal worms [Syngamus sp. and Cyathostoma sp.], and Tetrameres spp.). Seventeen other hazards were considered low or very low risk. In the absence of better information on the number, identity, distribution, and pathogenicity of parasites of wild animals, there is uncertainty in the risk of disease to translocated animals and recipient populations. Surveys of parasites in source and destination populations and detailed health monitoring after release will improve the information available for future analyses of disease risk. We believe our method can be adapted to assess the risks of disease in other translocated populations. PMID:22533691

  9. Vasculitis associated with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Gasparini, G; Papini, M; Burlando, M; Drago, F; Parodi, A

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis in connective tissue disease (CTD) is quite rare, it is reported in approximately 10% of patients with CTD; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) shows the highest association rate. Vessels of any size may be involved, but mainly small vessels vasculitis is reported. At present the classification of these vasculitis is unsatisfactory. According to the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference, vasculitides secondary to CTD are a well identified entity and are classified under the category of "vasculitis associated with systemic disease". However only lupus vasculitis and rheumatoid vasculitis are explicitly listed, while the remaining are generically included under the heading "others". Petechiae, purpura, gangrene and ulcers are the most frequent cutaneous manifestations that should investigated in order to rule out potentially dangerous systemic involvement, especially if cryoglobulinemic or necrotizing vasculitis are suspected. This review will focus on the cutaneous involvement in CTD associated vasculitis. PMID:25732106

  10. Association-rule-based tuberculosis disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asha, T.; Natarajan, S.; Murthy, K. N. B.

    2010-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually spreads through the air and attacks low immune bodies such as patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This work focuses on finding close association rules, a promising technique in Data Mining, within TB data. The proposed method first normalizes of raw data from medical records which includes categorical, nominal and continuous attributes and then determines Association Rules from the normalized data with different support and confidence. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with TB obtained from a state hospital. The rules determined describes close association between one symptom to another; as an example, likelihood that an occurrence of sputum is closely associated with blood cough and HIV.

  11. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  12. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients.

  13. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  14. Kidney disease associated with plasma cell dyscrasias

    PubMed Central

    Goes, Nelson B.; Spitzer, Thomas R.; Raje, Noopur S.; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias are frequently encountered malignancies often associated with kidney disease through the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig). Paraproteins can cause a remarkably diverse set of pathologic patterns in the kidney and recent progress has been made in explaining the molecular mechanisms of paraprotein-mediated kidney injury. Other recent advances in the field include the introduction of an assay for free light chains and the use of novel antiplasma cell agents that can reverse renal failure in some cases. The role of stem cell transplantation, plasma exchange, and kidney transplantation in the management of patients with paraprotein-related kidney disease continues to evolve. PMID:20462963

  15. Association of Alzheimer's disease and Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Tiffany L

    2008-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the association of infection by Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging population has increased interest in finding the cause of AD, but studies have yielded contradictory results that are likely due to varying diagnostic tools and different uses of diagnostic tests. Knowledge of AD's characteristics, risk factors, and hypothesized etiologies has expanded since Alois Alzheimer's initial description of AD. Epidemiologic and projection studies provide incidence estimates of AD through a two-stage method: (1) primary diagnosis of dementia by cognitive testing such as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and (2) clinical diagnosis of AD through criteria such as National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA). Cross-sectional studies yield prevalence estimates of infection by C. pneumoniae by detecting immunoglobulins through laboratory tests such as microimmunofluorescence (MIF). Studies examining the association of C. pneumoniae and AD are limited, but brain autopsy provides information about presence, proximity to areas associated with AD, and bacterial load. Standardization of diagnostic techniques would allow for better comparability of studies, but uncertainty about the best method of diagnosis of infection by C. pneumoniae and AD may call for revised or novel diagnostic tools.

  16. Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Duarte, Daniella Bezerra; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by organisms from the genus Schistosoma. The disease is endemic in tropical areas, where there are currently millions of people living in areas with transmission risk. Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease is not frequently described in literature. The disease has a chronic evolution, with variable severity. Glomerulonephritis is described in 10-12% in autopsy studies. Proteinuria is reported in 20% of patients with S. mansoni infection. Schistosomal glomerulopathy generally occur in young patients, male, with hepato-splenomegaly. The glomerular lesion in schistosomiasis has an immunological nature. Antigens from the parasite seem to be related to glomerulopathy and have been found in the sera of humans and animals infected by the S. mansoni. Vesical involvement is common in the infection by S. haematobium, a parasitic disease prevalent in African countries. In the S. haematobium infection, hematuria and dysuria can be observed due to inflammation and ulceration in the bladder mucosa, generaly occuring 3 to 4 months after primary infection. Specific antiparasitic treatment is indicated to all patients infected by Schistosoma. There are 2 drugs available for treatment, praziquantel and oxamniquine. We revise the general aspects of the disease and describe the features of renal involvement in schistosomiasis.

  17. [Crohn's disease associated with focal pulmonare lesion].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Martín; Barriga, José; Piñeiro, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    40 year-old male recently diagnosed with Crohn's disease. A routine chest X ray showed a round, well defined opacity in right lung field. A chest CT scan confirmed the finding and also described bronchiectasis. Patient had no respiratory symptoms. He was prescribed with oral sulfasalazine and corticosteroids with rapid improvement of intestinal symptoms as well as resolution of the pulmonary opacity. We describe the clinical presentation of a male newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease who was found to have an asymptomatic pulmonary lesion on imaging studies. Pulmonary complications have been previously described in inflamatory bowel disease being more common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease; these can involve the lung parenchyma, the tracheobronchial tree, and the pleura. The true prevalence and etiology of these lesions is currently unknown and are not necessarily associated with bowel disease activity. Abnormal pulmonary functions test have been reported during inflammatory bowel disease exacerbations, and although pulmonary findings can present with a variety of symptoms, subclinical presentations have also been described. Pulmonary manifestations are usually steoid-responsive, as was the case in our patients.

  18. Association of spirochetal infection with Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Burugu, Divya; Poruri, Akhila; Burke, Jennie; Mayne, Peter J; Sapi, Eva; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is an emerging multisystem illness characterized by skin lesions with unusual filaments embedded in or projecting from epithelial tissue. Filament formation results from abnormal keratin and collagen expression by epithelial-based keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Recent research comparing MD to bovine digital dermatitis, an animal infectious disease with similar skin features, provided clues that spirochetal infection could play an important role in the human disease as it does in the animal illness. Based on histological staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopic imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we report the detection of Borrelia spirochetes in dermatological tissue of  four randomly-selected MD patients. The association of MD with spirochetal infection provides evidence that this infection may be a significant factor in the illness and refutes claims that MD lesions are self-inflicted and that people suffering from this disorder are delusional. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia spirochetes found in MD patients is warranted. PMID:24715950

  19. Association of spirochetal infection with Morgellons disease

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is an emerging multisystem illness characterized by skin lesions with unusual filaments embedded in or projecting from epithelial tissue. Filament formation results from abnormal keratin and collagen expression by epithelial-based keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Recent research comparing MD to bovine digital dermatitis, an animal infectious disease with similar skin features, provided clues that spirochetal infection could play an important role in the human disease as it does in the animal illness. Based on histological staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopic imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we report the detection of Borrelia spirochetes in dermatological tissue of  four randomly-selected MD patients. The association of MD with spirochetal infection provides evidence that this infection may be a significant factor in the illness and refutes claims that MD lesions are self-inflicted and that people suffering from this disorder are delusional. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia spirochetes found in MD patients is warranted. PMID:24715950

  20. Association of spirochetal infection with Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Burugu, Divya; Poruri, Akhila; Burke, Jennie; Mayne, Peter J; Sapi, Eva; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is an emerging multisystem illness characterized by skin lesions with unusual filaments embedded in or projecting from epithelial tissue. Filament formation results from abnormal keratin and collagen expression by epithelial-based keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Recent research comparing MD to bovine digital dermatitis, an animal infectious disease with similar skin features, provided clues that spirochetal infection could play an important role in the human disease as it does in the animal illness. Based on histological staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopic imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we report the detection of Borrelia spirochetes in dermatological tissue of  four randomly-selected MD patients. The association of MD with spirochetal infection provides evidence that this infection may be a significant factor in the illness and refutes claims that MD lesions are self-inflicted and that people suffering from this disorder are delusional. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia spirochetes found in MD patients is warranted.

  1. Association between Periodontitis and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abbayya, Keshava; Puthanakar, Nagraj Y; Naduwinmani, Sanjay; Chidambar, Y S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease which significantly increases with age. Its onset can be either early or late. AD is characterized by the salient inflammatory features, microglial activation, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which contribute to the inflammatory status of the central nervous system (CNS). Whereas, periodontitis is a common oral infection associated with the gram negative anaerobic bacteria. Periodontitis can be marked as a “low-grade systemic disease” by release of proinflammatory cytokines into systemic circulation and elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP). Inflammation is known to play a pivotal role in both the disease process serving as a connecting link between periodontitis and AD. The present review throws a light on possible enigmatic link between AD and periodontitis. This review is designed by collecting data from PubMed database using key words like “Alzheimer's disease”, “inflammation”, “periodontitis”, and “proinflammatory cytokines”. PMID:26199919

  2. [Acquired cystic renal disease. Association with hypernephroma].

    PubMed

    Comesaña, E; Pesqueira, D; Tardáguila, F; De la Fuente, A; Antón, I; Vidal, L; Zungri, E

    1992-02-01

    Emergence of multiple bilateral renal cysts observed in patients undergoing periodic haemodialysis is 40%. The pathology, known as Acquired Cystic Renal Disease (A.C.R.D.) presents a high association to renal cancer. Two cases of A.C.R.D. and their association with hypernephroma, one resulting in secondary retroperitoneal haemorrhage and the other in intracystic haemorrhage, are presented. Forms and diagnosis are analyzed, insisting upon the need of monitoring the patients in haemodialysis from the point of view of tumour emergence.

  3. Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autonomic neuropathy, progressive polyradiculopathy due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, myopathy and other rarer disorders. PMID:19771594

  4. Genetic Syndromes associated with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that genetic alterations or variations contribute considerably to the development of congenital heart disease. Many kinds of genetic tests are commercially available, and more are currently under development. Congenital heart disease is frequently accompanied by genetic syndromes showing both cardiac and extra-cardiac anomalies. Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of birth defects, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy and childhood. This review introduces common genetic syndromes showing various types of congenital heart disease, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Noonan syndrome. Although surgical techniques and perioperative care have improved substantially, patients with genetic syndromes may be at an increased risk of death or major complications associated with surgery. Therefore, risk management based on an accurate genetic diagnosis is necessary in order to effectively plan the surgical and medical management and follow-up for these patients. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches and care for the combined extra-cardiac anomalies may help to reduce mortality and morbidity accompanied with congenital heart disease. PMID:26413101

  5. Problematic Conceptualizations: Allies in Teacher Education for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2010-01-01

    This review of the literature on the concept ally and ally identity development was inspired by a qualitative study exploring the identities and social justice values of prospective teachers of color. Although the participants in the original study never used the term "ally," their narratives inspired me to characterize them as allies in the…

  6. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang

    2015-08-27

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  7. A profile of minority allied health faculty.

    PubMed

    Walker, P W

    1989-01-01

    A survey of minority allied health faculty is being conducted by the Equal Representation in Allied Health Committee of the American Society of Allied Health Professions. Initiated in the spring of 1988, survey data collection is ongoing. The questionnaire was designed to gather demographic information as well as information regarding interests in professional and development/leadership workshops. This paper reports results from 106 valid returns. The majority of respondents were black females employed at four-year universities/colleges at the rank of assistant professor. An analysis of data using the chi-square statistic revealed a statistically significant but weak correlational relationship between sex and highest degree completed; academic rank and highest degree completed; academic rank and experience in allied health education; and tenure status and experience in allied health education. Cross tabulations between other variables were inconclusive. The data would suggest that the percentage of minority faculty with tenure appeared to exceed expectations when compared with results of previous studies of allied health faculty. Suggestions by respondents for professional development workshops included a variety of topics: management/administration skills, clinical skills, minority recruitment/retention, curriculum development/instructional design, and career advancement/leadership. Additional activities are needed to expand the existing data base and to promote networking among minority faculty. PMID:2737940

  8. RET mutations in MEN 2 associated diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstra, R.M.W.; Stelwagen, T.; Stulp, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) comprises three clinically distinct dominantly inherited cancer syndromes namely MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Germline (point) mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been reported to occur in all these syndromes. In MEN 2A and FMTC patients the mutations occurred within codons specifying cysteine residues in the transition of the RET extracellular and transmembrane domains, while in MEN 2B patients we could detect a single RET mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain in all patients. Also in patients suffering from Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR), mutations in the RET gene have been found. These mutations are spread all over the gene. Several families have been described in which MEN 2 and HSCR are associated. MEN 2A is also found associated with cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA). It might be that specific RET mutations correlate with these disease associations. We therefore scanned DNA from patients from a family with MEN 2A and HSCR, MEN 2A and CLA and CLA only for RET mutations. Results obtained thus far do not support the existence of specific correlations.

  9. Sexual problems in arthritis and allied conditions.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, A

    1981-01-01

    There is need for a greater readiness among the medical and paramedical professions to recognize the widespread occurrence of sexual problems in patients with arthritis and allied conditions. Sexual image, sexual drive, sexual competence, sexual expression, and sexual opportunity may all be adversely affected by the onset of arthritis, the type and degree of effect depending on the nature, severity, and duration of the disease and on the social and marital state of the patient. Single patients may have difficulty in forming stable sexual relationships and married patients in creating a mutually satisfying pattern of sexual expression. The physical and psychological state of patient and partner and the medication of both need careful consideration to determine contributory causes to the individual problem-complex of each patient. Based on the experience of 12 years' sexual counselling at a disabled living unit and an orthopaedic hospital, and of 4 years at a weekly clinic for disable people with sexual problems, the causes and means of amelioration of these problems are discussed. PMID:7287311

  10. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    SciTech Connect

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

    1986-03-07

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

  11. Xanthogranulomatous cystitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Doreen E.; Carr, Lesley K.; Sugar, Linda; Hladunewich, Michelle; Deane, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a benign condition characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells, chronic inflammatory cells and lipid-laden macrophages, known as xanthoma cells. Only 22 cases of xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XGC) have been reported in the Japanese and English literature. In this report, we describe the twenty-third case of XGC and the third case associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A 50-year-old woman with quiescent Crohn’s disease was incidentally found to have a bladder mass on ultrasound. The lesion was resected through a transurethral approach. Pathology demonstrated XGC. At 3 months post-resection, there was no evidence of recurrence adjacent to the previous resection scar. PMID:20694091

  12. Coeliac disease--associated disorders and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Collin, P; Reunala, T; Pukkala, E; Laippala, P; Keyriläinen, O; Pasternack, A

    1994-01-01

    The associated diseases in 335 coeliac patients diagnosed 1980-90 were compared with age and sex matched control patients with various gastrointestinal symptoms. Endocrine disorders were found in 11.9% of coeliac and 4.3% of control patients (p = 0.0003). Coeliac patients had insulin dependent diabetes mellitus significantly (p = 0.0094) more often (5.4%) than control patients (1.5%). connective tissue diseases were found in 7.2% of coeliac and in 2.7% of control patients (p = 0.011). Sjögren's syndrome occurred in 3.3% of coeliac patients and in 0.3% of controls (p = 0.0059). Autoimmune thyroid diseases were found in 5.4% and asthma in 3.6% of coeliac patients, but also in 2.7% and 3.6%, respectively, among control patients. The incidences of malignant diseases and the survival rate in coeliac patients were compared with those in the Finnish population. Ten coeliac patients developed a cancer during the follow up (mean 5.3 years, range 1-12) but none had a lymphoma. The risk of malignant diseases in coeliac patients did not differ from that in the Finnish population in general. Eleven coeliac patients died during the follow up. The five year survival rates of coeliac patients did not differ from those in the general population. At least 83% of the coeliac patients adhered strictly to the gluten free diet, which may explain the favourable outcome. PMID:7959226

  13. Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Zengyuan; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Che, Tao; Chen, Erxue; Yan, Guangjian; Hu, Zeyong; Zhang, Lixin; Chu, Rongzhong; Su, Peixi; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Shaomin; Wang, Jindi; Niu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Jin, Rui; Wang, Weizhen; Ran, Youhua; Xin, Xiaozhou; Ren, Huazhong

    2009-11-01

    The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) is a simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment aiming to improve the observability, understanding, and predictability of hydrological and related ecological processes at a catchment scale. WATER consists of the cold region, forest, and arid region hydrological experiments as well as a hydrometeorology experiment and took place in the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The field campaigns have been completed, with an intensive observation period lasting from 7 March to 12 April, from 15 May to 22 July, and from 23 August to 5 September 2008: in total, 120 days. Twenty-five airborne missions were flown. Airborne sensors including microwave radiometers at L, K, and Ka bands, imaging spectrometer, thermal imager, CCD, and lidar were used. Various satellite data were collected. Ground measurements were carried out at four scales, that is, key experimental area, foci experimental area, experiment site, and elementary sampling plot, using ground-based remote sensing instruments, densified network of automatic meteorological stations, flux towers, and hydrological stations. On the basis of these measurements, the remote sensing retrieval models and algorithms of water cycle variables are to be developed or improved, and a catchment-scale land/hydrological data assimilation system is being developed. This paper reviews the background, scientific objectives, experiment design, filed campaign implementation, and current status of WATER. The analysis of the data will continue over the next 2 years, and limited revisits to the field are anticipated.

  14. [Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, J M

    2008-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is an important problem in patients who require longterm parenteral nutrition as well as in preterm infants. Prevalence varies according to different series. Clinical presentation is different in adults and infants. Although since its first descriptions several hypothesis have been elucidated, the aetiology is not quite clear. It is possible that different factors could be involved. PNALD risk factors can be classified in three groups: 1) those derived from the lack of enteral nutrition stimulus; 2) parenteral nutrition components acting as toxic or the lack of specific nutrients and 3) those due to the underlying disease. If PNALD appears in short-term PN and it presents only as a mild elevation of liver enzymes, there is no need to treat. On the contrary, when direct bilirubin is > 2 mg/dL and lasts longer, there is a need to consider different causes and to minimize risk factors. We review the different approaches to manage PNALD, including optimizing enteral nutrition, modify parenteral solutions, use of specific nutrients -taurine, choline, etc.- or the use of drugs (mainly ursodeoxicolic acid). If liver disease progresses to cirrhosis a liver transplant must be considered.

  15. Managing antiretroviral-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Douglas

    2003-09-01

    The use of all potent drugs is associated with toxicities and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are no exception. Antiretroviral therapy-associated hepatic toxicity is of increasing concern in the management of patients with HIV/AIDS. Liver toxicity has been reported in some HIV-infected patients being treated with drugs from all of these classes of ARV drugs: protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Although the majority of cases involve asymptomatic elevations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]), severe, and, in a minority of cases, life threatening, liver disease has been reported in patients treated with ARV drugs. The exact causes of elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT are complex and, in many cases, obscure. The combination of viral hepatic disease, drugs that act adversely directly on the liver and drugs that act on other systems of the body which in turn, adversely affect the liver, can result in hepatic toxicity. Such toxicity may be inappropriately attributed solely to the direct effect of a drug. Knowledge of the possible causes of liver toxicity, and ways to avoid it, should reduce the risk of developing hepatotoxicity. The physician's task is to prevent the development of liver toxicity, e.g., by choosing appropriate therapeutic regimens and by careful management of the patient. This involves frequent monitoring of the patient, both clinically and by utilizing liver function tests on a regular basis. If signs and symptoms of liver disease do develop, prompt and expert management is essential. This review discusses the influence of a number of factors on hepatic toxicity including viral hepatitis, insulin resistance and the specific ARV drugs used in the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS.

  16. Kentucky Allied Health Project Final Report: A State System for Allied Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    The accomplishments of the Kentucky Allied Health Project, which implemented a model articulated system of allied health education, are described. The system included plans to promote transition from one education level to another and articulation in educational planning and resource utilization. The project has greatly increased…

  17. A Reaction to: What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    "What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…

  18. Biomedical Information Extraction: Mining Disease Associated Genes from Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Disease associated gene discovery is a critical step to realize the future of personalized medicine. However empirical and clinical validation of disease associated genes are time consuming and expensive. In silico discovery of disease associated genes from literature is therefore becoming the first essential step for biomarker discovery to…

  19. Statin myalgia is not associated with reduced muscle strength, mass or protein turnover in older male volunteers, but is allied with a slowing of time to peak power output, insulin resistance and differential muscle mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Mallinson, Joanne E.; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Murton, Andrew; Selby, Anna; Smith, Kenneth; Constantin‐Teodosiu, Dumitru; Rennie, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Statins cause muscle‐specific side effects, most commonly muscle aches/weakness (myalgia), particularly in older people. Furthermore, evidence has linked statin use to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown.This is the first study to measure muscle protein turnover rates and insulin sensitivity in statin myalgic volunteers and age‐matched, non‐statin users under controlled fasting and fed conditions using gold standard methods.We demonstrate in older people that chronic statin myalgia is not associated with deficits in muscle strength and lean mass or the dysregulation of muscle protein turnover compared to non‐statin users. Furthermore, there were no between‐group differences in blood or muscle inflammatory markers.Statin users did, however, show blunting of muscle power output at the onset of dynamic exercise, increased abdominal adiposity, whole body and leg insulin resistance, and clear differential expression of muscle genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, which warrant further investigation. Abstract Statins are associated with muscle myalgia and myopathy, which probably reduce habitual physical activity. This is particularly relevant to older people who are less active, sarcopaenic and at increased risk of statin myalgia. We hypothesised that statin myalgia would be allied to impaired strength and work capacity in older people, and determined whether differences aligned with divergences in lean mass, protein turnover, insulin sensitivity and the molecular regulation of these processes. Knee extensor strength and work output during 30 maximal isokinetic contractions were assessed in healthy male volunteers, nine with no statin use (control 70.4 ± 0.7 years) and nine with statin myalgia (71.5 ± 0.9 years). Whole body and leg glucose disposal, muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and leg protein breakdown (LPB) were measured during fasting (≈5 mU l−1 insulin

  20. Vinyl chloride-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berk, P D; Martin, J F; Young, R S; Creech, J; Selikoff, I J; Falk, H; Watanabe, P; Popper, H; Thomas, L

    1976-06-01

    Although polyvinyl chloride has been produced from vinyl chlride monomer for more than 40 years, recognition of toxicity among vinyl chloride polymerization workers is more recent. In the mid 1960s, workers involved in cleaning polymerization tanks were found to have acro-osteolysis. In 1974, the same population of workers was found to be at risk for an unusual type of hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcoma of the liver. We describe two cases of vinyl chloride-associated liver injury, one of hepatic fibrosis and one of angiosarcoma. Histologic features of these lesions are similar to the hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcomas resulting from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenicals. Preliminary studies suggest that the toxicity of vinyl chloride may result from formation, during high-dose exposure, of active metabolites by mixed function oxidases of the liver. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence not only of liver disease, but also of cancers of the brain, lung, and possibly other organs.

  1. Travel associated legionnaires' disease in Europe: 2003.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, K; Joseph, C

    2004-10-01

    Six hundred and thirty two cases of travel-associated legionnaires' disease with onset in 2003 were reported to the EWGLINET surveillance scheme by 24 countries. Eighty nine clusters were detected, 35 (39%) of which would not have been detected without the EWGLINET scheme. One hundred and seven accommodation sites were investigated and 22 sites were published on the EWGLI website. The proportion of cases diagnosed primarily by the urinary antigen test was 81.2%, and 48 positive cultures were obtained. Thirty eight deaths were reported to the EWGLINET scheme, giving a crude fatality rate of 6%. Countries are encouraged to inform the coordinating centre of cases that fall ill after travelling within their own country of residence ('internal travel'), and are also encouraged to obtain patient isolates for culture where at all possible.

  2. Travel associated legionnaires' disease in Europe: 2002.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, K; Joseph, C

    2004-02-01

    Twenty countries reported 676 cases of travel associated legionnaires' disease to the EWGLINET surveillance scheme, and 94 clusters were detected. 80.5% of all cases were diagnosed by the urinary antigen test. On average there were 20.5 days between onset and report of cases, compared with 51.5 days in 1993. Between the introduction of the EWGLI investigation guidelines (on 1st July 2002) and the end of 2002, 37 six-week investigation reports were accepted as satisfactory and on time by the coordinating centre. 274 sites were investigated in total in 2002. The travel patterns of the main reporters in EWGLINET influenced the months of peak activity, and helped to determine which countries bore the greatest investigation burden.

  3. Pathology of drug-associated gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Price, Ashley B

    2003-11-01

    A large number of drugs have gastrointestinal side-effects of which diarrhoea or constipation, nausea and vomiting are amongst the commonest. In relatively few are there diagnostic pathological changes and this review draws attention to the most common. Incriminating a drug as a cause of specific pathological changes requires the drug to be associated with the changes, for the latter to resolve when the drug is withdrawn and for them to re-appear when a patient is rechallenged with the drug. Individual histological features such as apoptosis, tissue infiltration by eosinophils and increased intra-epithelial lymphocytes within the gut mucosa can be clues to an iatrogenic aetiology but these are by no means specific. Amongst the few pathognomonic patterns of drug reactions is pseudomembranous colitis and diaphragm disease. These, along with others such as reactive gastritis and the collagenous and lymphocytic forms of microscopic colitis, in which drugs have also been implicated, are described here. PMID:14651719

  4. Batten Disease Support and Research Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Batten disease at ClinicalTrials.gov. Stacey Hiltman writes about one mom's journey to the BDSRA Annual Family Conference in her ... Science What Is Batten Disease? Symptoms of Batten Disease ...

  5. Tick-Associated Diseases: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alice; Chaney, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are eleven tick-associated diseases prevalent in the United States. Most commonly diagnosed are Lyme disease, anaplasmosis (ehrlichiosis) and babeisois, with Lyme disease being the most common vector-borne disease in the country. In southeastern states, studies have shown the…

  6. Cr laser research at AlliedSignal

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Applied Physics Laboratory of AlliedSignal, Inc. has been developing Cr lasers and applications for a number of years. This operation has resulted in new laser designs and in improved engineering and packaging which are critical to acceptable performance in the field. Although most of the work has been part of military programs, AlliedSignal, with partners, has recently been offering its lasers to commercial programs as a supplier to the OEM market. This paper will present several laser systems which have recently been developed at AlliedSignal. These systems will include those based on alexandrite and Cr:LiSAF. The examples chosen will show the versatility of these laser materials.

  7. Association Between Tuberculosis and Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Hao; Chou, Chung-Hsing; Liu, Feng-Cheng; Lin, Te-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have investigated the association between tuberculosis (TB) and Parkinson disease (PD). This nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study investigated the risk of PD in patients with TB. We selected patients newly diagnosed with TB (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: 011) from 2000 to 2009 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database as the TB cohort. The comparison cohort (the non-TB cohort) was frequency matched to the TB cohort at a ratio of 4:1 by sex, age, and the index date. We analyzed the risks of PD by using Cox proportional hazard regression models. A total of 121,951 patients with TB and 487,800 non-TB controls were enrolled in this study. The TB cohort had a 1.38-fold risk of PD compared with the non-TB cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities (aHR, 95% CI: 1.30–1.46). The adjusted risk of PD in the TB and non-TB cohorts increased in subgroups regardless of age, sex, and comorbidities. Combined effect of TB and comorbidities on the risk of PD were significant in patients with TB who had diabetes (aHR: 2.26, 95% CI: 2.02–2.52), hypertension (aHR: 2.23, 95% CI: 2.04–2.44), head injury (aHR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.95–2.77), chronic kidney disease (aHR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.49–2.72), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aHR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.66–2.05), depression (aHR: 4.66, 95% CI: 3.59–6.05), dementia (aHR: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.99–4.59), and stroke (aHR: 2.56, 95% CI: 2.28–2.87). The risk of PD was higher in a follow-up within 1 year (aHR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.58–2.00) and decreased with the follow-up period in the TB cohort. Patients with TB have an independently 1.38-fold risk of PD. The risk of PD decreased with the follow-up period in the TB cohort. Physicians should be aware of the risk of PD in patients with TB when treating such patients. PMID:26937925

  8. Progressive Nodular Histiocytosis Associated with Eale's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Abhilasha; Thomas, Abraham G; Kwatra, Kanwardeep Singh; Jain, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Progressive nodular histiocytosis (PNH) is a rare normolipemic macrophage disorder and belongs to a subgroup of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCHs) which is characterized by a progressive course with no sign of spontaneous resolution but without systemic involvement. We report a 30-year-old gentleman who presented with skin lesions all over the body associated with gradual bilateral painless loss of vision. On examination, approximately 30 to 40, skin-colored, firm, non-tender papules and nodules were noted over the body especially on the face and trunk. A skin biopsy revealed a cellular tumor in the dermis composed of oval to spindle-shaped cells, positive for CD68 but negative for S-100, CD34, CD21, CD35 and HMB45, supporting a diagnosis of spindle cell histiocytic tumor. Ophthalmic examination revealed a generalized arteriolar attenuation in both eyes. He received Tab Imatinib 400 mg OD for 5 months followed by Tab Pazopanib 800 mg OD for 4 months and both the drugs were stopped due to lack of any response in the skin lesions. We report this case due to its rarity, characteristic clinical presentation, and its association with Eale's disease. Primary treatment remains surgical excision of bothersome lesions and optimal systemic treatment is still unknown. PMID:26288410

  9. Allied health students' attitudes toward euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Laken, D E; Dowd, S B

    1998-01-01

    Euthanasia, whether active or passive, remains a controversial issue in health care, and allied health professionals are likely to encounter situations of potential active or passive euthanasia during their careers. This survey of allied health students sought to determine their attitudes toward euthanasia and whether their self-reported euthanasia ideology corresponded with their behavioral endorsement of euthanasia actions. Disciplines and educational levels were also compared to determine differences between the program groups and their pro- or anti-euthanasia beliefs. Differing attitudes about euthanasia were found from group to group, and a significant correlation was found between the euthanasia ideology scores and the euthanasia behavioral scores.

  10. Homonymous Hemianopsia Associated with Probable Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Akiko; Kimura, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that has cerebral atrophy in the parietal, occipital, or occipitotemporal cortices and is characterized by visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairments. The most cases are pathologically compatible with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe a case of PCA in which a combination of imaging methods, in conjunction with symptoms and neurological and neuropsychological examinations, led to its being diagnosed and to AD being identified as its probable cause. Treatment with donepezil for 6 months mildly improved alexia symptoms, but other symptoms remained unchanged. A 59-year-old Japanese woman with progressive alexia, visual deficit, and mild memory loss was referred to our neurologic clinic for the evaluation of right homonymous hemianopsia. Our neurological examination showed alexia, constructional apraxia, mild disorientation, short-term memory loss, and right homonymous hemianopsia. These findings resulted in a score of 23 (of 30) points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Occipital atrophy was identified, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing left-side dominance. The MRI data were quantified with voxel-based morphometry, and PCA was diagnosed on the basis of these findings. Single photon emission computed tomography with (123)I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine showed hypoperfusion in the corresponding voxel-based morphometry occipital lobes. Additionally, the finding of hypoperfusion in the posterior associate cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus was consistent with AD. Therefore, the PCA was considered to be a result of AD. We considered Lewy body dementia as a differential diagnosis because of the presence of hypoperfusion in the occipital lobes. However, the patient did not meet the criteria for Lewy body dementia during the course of the disease. We therefore consider including PCA in the differential diagnoses to be important for patients with visual deficit, cognitive

  11. Large-Scale Discovery of Disease-Disease and Disease-Gene Associations

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Jelena; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven phenotype analyses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) data have recently drawn benefits across many areas of clinical practice, uncovering new links in the medical sciences that can potentially affect the well-being of millions of patients. In this paper, EHR data is used to discover novel relationships between diseases by studying their comorbidities (co-occurrences in patients). A novel embedding model is designed to extract knowledge from disease comorbidities by learning from a large-scale EHR database comprising more than 35 million inpatient cases spanning nearly a decade, revealing significant improvements on disease phenotyping over current computational approaches. In addition, the use of the proposed methodology is extended to discover novel disease-gene associations by including valuable domain knowledge from genome-wide association studies. To evaluate our approach, its effectiveness is compared against a held-out set where, again, it revealed very compelling results. For selected diseases, we further identify candidate gene lists for which disease-gene associations were not studied previously. Thus, our approach provides biomedical researchers with new tools to filter genes of interest, thus, reducing costly lab studies. PMID:27578529

  12. Large-Scale Discovery of Disease-Disease and Disease-Gene Associations.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Jelena; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Kulathinal, Rob J; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven phenotype analyses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) data have recently drawn benefits across many areas of clinical practice, uncovering new links in the medical sciences that can potentially affect the well-being of millions of patients. In this paper, EHR data is used to discover novel relationships between diseases by studying their comorbidities (co-occurrences in patients). A novel embedding model is designed to extract knowledge from disease comorbidities by learning from a large-scale EHR database comprising more than 35 million inpatient cases spanning nearly a decade, revealing significant improvements on disease phenotyping over current computational approaches. In addition, the use of the proposed methodology is extended to discover novel disease-gene associations by including valuable domain knowledge from genome-wide association studies. To evaluate our approach, its effectiveness is compared against a held-out set where, again, it revealed very compelling results. For selected diseases, we further identify candidate gene lists for which disease-gene associations were not studied previously. Thus, our approach provides biomedical researchers with new tools to filter genes of interest, thus, reducing costly lab studies. PMID:27578529

  13. Large-Scale Discovery of Disease-Disease and Disease-Gene Associations.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Djordje; Stojanovic, Jelena; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Kulathinal, Rob J; Obradovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven phenotype analyses on Electronic Health Record (EHR) data have recently drawn benefits across many areas of clinical practice, uncovering new links in the medical sciences that can potentially affect the well-being of millions of patients. In this paper, EHR data is used to discover novel relationships between diseases by studying their comorbidities (co-occurrences in patients). A novel embedding model is designed to extract knowledge from disease comorbidities by learning from a large-scale EHR database comprising more than 35 million inpatient cases spanning nearly a decade, revealing significant improvements on disease phenotyping over current computational approaches. In addition, the use of the proposed methodology is extended to discover novel disease-gene associations by including valuable domain knowledge from genome-wide association studies. To evaluate our approach, its effectiveness is compared against a held-out set where, again, it revealed very compelling results. For selected diseases, we further identify candidate gene lists for which disease-gene associations were not studied previously. Thus, our approach provides biomedical researchers with new tools to filter genes of interest, thus, reducing costly lab studies.

  14. Phenotypic Expansion of DGKE-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Westland, Rik; Bodria, Monica; Carrea, Alba; Lata, Sneh; Scolari, Francesco; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lifton, Richard P.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is usually characterized by uncontrolled complement activation. The recent discovery of loss-of-function mutations in DGKE in patients with aHUS and normal complement levels challenged this observation. DGKE, encoding diacylglycerol kinase-ε, has not been implicated in the complement cascade but hypothetically leads to a prothrombotic state. The discovery of this novel mechanism has potential implications for the treatment of infants with aHUS, who are increasingly treated with complement blocking agents. In this study, we used homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing to identify a novel truncating mutation in DGKE (p.K101X) in a consanguineous family with patients affected by thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by significant serum complement activation and consumption of the complement fraction C3. Aggressive plasma infusion therapy controlled systemic symptoms and prevented renal failure, suggesting that this treatment can significantly affect the natural history of this aggressive disease. Our study expands the clinical phenotypes associated with mutations in DGKE and challenges the benefits of complement blockade treatment in such patients. Mechanistic studies of DGKE and aHUS are, therefore, essential to the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with DGKE mutations. PMID:24511134

  15. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally means a country that is designated in accordance with § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  16. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign... of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321(k)) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  17. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign... of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321(k)) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  18. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  19. Horizons in Health (Allied Health Careers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emphasis Career Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The latest conditions affecting job demand, advancement, and compensation potential; educational requirements; and job descriptions are reported for allied health careers in the laboratory and hospital as physician assistants; therapists; nurses and nurses aids; dieticians and nutritionists; and dental assistants, hygienists, and laboratory…

  20. Turning Parents from Critics to Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarese, Margaret M.; Giannetti, Charlene C.

    1998-01-01

    Authors of "The Roller Coaster Years" (1997) advise how middle-level educators can turn wary, disinterested parents into allies. Teachers should welcome parents, advertise their own expertise, implement an early-warning system, portray children positively, convey shared values, reassure parents about children's safety, demonstrate insider…

  1. Predictors of Success for Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    A study of 424 allied health students (259 dental hygiene, 104 radiologic technology, and 61 respiratory therapy) found that the greater predictors of their academic success were the natural science subscore on the American College Test (ACT), high school grade point average, and class rank, age, and composite ACT score. (SK)

  2. ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT GRANTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    THE ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS PERSONNEL ACT OF 1966 AUTHORIZES THE SURGEON GENERAL TO MAKE GRANTS TO EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVING PROGRAMS WHICH QUALIFY STUDENTS (1) FOR THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE OR ITS EQUIVALENT OR THE MASTER'S DEGREE TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED FOR BASIC PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION, REGISTRATION, OR LICENSURE…

  3. Instructional Games in Allied Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Alice

    1980-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework and practical suggestions for incorporating games and simulation into allied health instruction. Discusses research findings that support the use of educational simulation/games as tools for higher cognitive learning and for the improvement of teaching effectiveness as measured by student achievement in the allied…

  4. Nursing and Allied Health Shortages: TBR Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Treva

    Staff members of the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission worked jointly to establish a task force to investigate and develop recommendations for addressing the workforce shortages in nursing and allied health in Tennessee. The investigation established that Tennessee already has a workforce shortage of…

  5. Allied, MGC link on cyanate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.

    1993-02-24

    In the latest of a line of joint ventures in its plastics business, Allied Signal has reached agreement with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) to jointly develop thermoset cyanate ester resins and blends. The deal will involve further development of Allied Signal's Primaset phenol-formaldehyde cyanate ester resins, a new entrant in the thermoset arena. Although the Primaset resins were discovered in the 1960s, this would be the first time they are available commercially. The deal will marry Primaset technology with MGC's Skylex bisphenol A cyanate ester resins, says Fred DiAntonis, director/advanced materials at Allied Signal. The two firms are looking at marketing blends of the two materials. The potential market for these resins, used commercially by the electronics industry in printed circuit boards and by the aerospace industry in composites, is significant, says Robert P. Viarengo, Allied Signal president/performance materials. By aligning ourselves with MGC, the world leader in cyanate ester resin, we anticipate moving forward aggressively. The main competitor is Ciba, which acquired bisphenol A cyanate ester resins with its purchase of Rhone-Poulenc's high temperature resins business. DiAntonis estimates the market for cyanate ester resins could be worth $150 million by the end of the decade, although development costs have been in the tens of millions of dollars range.

  6. Standardized Curricula for Allied Health and Related Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational and technical programs in Mississippi: allied health and related technology I (health cluster I) and allied health and related technology II (health cluster II). Introductory materials include the philosophy and aims of allied health and related technology in…

  7. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  8. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-07-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies.

  9. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID

  10. Association between Parkinson's Disease and Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Sıdıka

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common infection of the gastrointestinal system that is usually related to peptic ulcers. However, recent studies have revealed relationships between HP and many other diseases. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, HP can prevent the absorption of certain drugs. A high prevalence of HP has been found in patients with Parkinson's disease, and this bacterium causes motor fluctuations by affecting the absorption of levodopa, which is the main drug used to treat Parkinson's disease. Eradicating HP from patients with Parkinson's disease by applying antibiotic treatment will increase the absorption of levodopa and decrease their motor fluctuations. PMID:26932258

  11. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with atypical Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki-Nakashimada, M A; Ramírez-Vargas, N; De Rubens-Figueroa, J

    2008-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an infrequent inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections and abnormal granuloma formation. Patients with CGD have an exuberant inflammatory response and an increased risk of developing autoimmunity. We present the case of a 1-year-old boy with CGD who developed several of the characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki Disease. His illness responded to intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin, and corticosteroids.

  13. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community.

  14. Selected list of books and journals in the allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1986-01-01

    This list of 450 books and 69 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs and/or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused mainly on the twenty-three educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, and medical secretarial programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (157 books and 27 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1986 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $16,700. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $6,700. PMID:3535953

  15. Selected list of books and journals in the allied health sciences.

    PubMed

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1986-10-01

    This list of 450 books and 69 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs and/or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused mainly on the twenty-three educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, and medical secretarial programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (157 books and 27 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1986 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $16,700. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $6,700.

  16. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community. PMID:16375575

  17. ADEA/AAL Institute for Allied Health Educators: Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Grzesikowski, Tami; Tucker-Lively, Felicia; Weinstein, George; Haden, N Karl

    2015-05-01

    Revised accreditation standards for dental and dental hygiene education programs have increased emphasis on faculty development that can improve teaching and learning, foster curricular change including use of teaching and learning technologies, and enhance retention and satisfaction of faculty. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and Academy for Academic Leadership (AAL) established the Institute for Allied Health Educators (IAHE) in 2007 to address faculty development needs for allied dental and allied health educators. In 2009, it was transitioned to an online program, which resulted in increased enrollment and diversity of participants. After seven years, a comprehensive program evaluation was warranted. The authors developed an online questionnaire based on Kirkpatrick's four-level model of training evaluation; for this study, levels one (satisfaction), two (knowledge and skill acquisition), and three (behavior change) were examined. Of the 400 program participants invited to take part in the study, a 38% response rate was achieved, with the majority indicating full-time faculty status. Nearly all (95-97%) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed the program contributed to their teaching effectiveness, and 88-96% agreed or strongly agreed it enhanced their knowledge of educational concepts and strategies. In addition, 83% agreed or strongly agreed the program helped them develop new skills and confidence with technology, with 69% agreeing or strongly agreeing that it helped them incorporate technology into their own educational setting. Nearly 90% were highly positive or positive in their overall assessment of the program; 95% indicated they would recommend it to a colleague; and 80% agreed or strongly agreed they had discussed what they learned with faculty colleagues at their home institutions who had not attended the program. Positive findings from this evaluation provide evidence that the IAHE has been able to meet its goals. PMID:25941140

  18. ADEA/AAL Institute for Allied Health Educators: Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Grzesikowski, Tami; Tucker-Lively, Felicia; Weinstein, George; Haden, N Karl

    2015-05-01

    Revised accreditation standards for dental and dental hygiene education programs have increased emphasis on faculty development that can improve teaching and learning, foster curricular change including use of teaching and learning technologies, and enhance retention and satisfaction of faculty. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and Academy for Academic Leadership (AAL) established the Institute for Allied Health Educators (IAHE) in 2007 to address faculty development needs for allied dental and allied health educators. In 2009, it was transitioned to an online program, which resulted in increased enrollment and diversity of participants. After seven years, a comprehensive program evaluation was warranted. The authors developed an online questionnaire based on Kirkpatrick's four-level model of training evaluation; for this study, levels one (satisfaction), two (knowledge and skill acquisition), and three (behavior change) were examined. Of the 400 program participants invited to take part in the study, a 38% response rate was achieved, with the majority indicating full-time faculty status. Nearly all (95-97%) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed the program contributed to their teaching effectiveness, and 88-96% agreed or strongly agreed it enhanced their knowledge of educational concepts and strategies. In addition, 83% agreed or strongly agreed the program helped them develop new skills and confidence with technology, with 69% agreeing or strongly agreeing that it helped them incorporate technology into their own educational setting. Nearly 90% were highly positive or positive in their overall assessment of the program; 95% indicated they would recommend it to a colleague; and 80% agreed or strongly agreed they had discussed what they learned with faculty colleagues at their home institutions who had not attended the program. Positive findings from this evaluation provide evidence that the IAHE has been able to meet its goals.

  19. The Implicitome: A Resource for Rationalizing Gene-Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst, Eelke; Kaliyaperumal, Rajaram; Mina, Eleni; Tatum, Zuotian; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Schuemie, Martijn; Aten, Emmelien; Li, Tong Shu; Bruskiewich, Richard; Good, Benjamin M.; Su, Andrew I.; Kors, Jan A.; den Dunnen, Johan; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Roos, Marco; ‘t Hoen, Peter A.C.; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimental methods such as medical sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify increasingly large numbers of potential relations between genetic variants and diseases. Both biological complexity (millions of potential gene-disease associations) and the accelerating rate of data production necessitate computational approaches to prioritize and rationalize potential gene-disease relations. Here, we use concept profile technology to expose from the biomedical literature both explicitly stated gene-disease relations (the explicitome) and a much larger set of implied gene-disease associations (the implicitome). Implicit relations are largely unknown to, or are even unintended by the original authors, but they vastly extend the reach of existing biomedical knowledge for identification and interpretation of gene-disease associations. The implicitome can be used in conjunction with experimental data resources to rationalize both known and novel associations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the implicitome by rationalizing known and novel gene-disease associations, including those from GWAS. To facilitate the re-use of implicit gene-disease associations, we publish our data in compliance with FAIR Data Publishing recommendations [https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup] using nanopublications. An online tool (http://knowledge.bio) is available to explore established and potential gene-disease associations in the context of other biomedical relations. PMID:26919047

  20. The Implicitome: A Resource for Rationalizing Gene-Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Hettne, Kristina M; Thompson, Mark; van Haagen, Herman H H B M; van der Horst, Eelke; Kaliyaperumal, Rajaram; Mina, Eleni; Tatum, Zuotian; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Mulligen, Erik M; Schuemie, Martijn; Aten, Emmelien; Li, Tong Shu; Bruskiewich, Richard; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I; Kors, Jan A; den Dunnen, Johan; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Roos, Marco; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimental methods such as medical sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify increasingly large numbers of potential relations between genetic variants and diseases. Both biological complexity (millions of potential gene-disease associations) and the accelerating rate of data production necessitate computational approaches to prioritize and rationalize potential gene-disease relations. Here, we use concept profile technology to expose from the biomedical literature both explicitly stated gene-disease relations (the explicitome) and a much larger set of implied gene-disease associations (the implicitome). Implicit relations are largely unknown to, or are even unintended by the original authors, but they vastly extend the reach of existing biomedical knowledge for identification and interpretation of gene-disease associations. The implicitome can be used in conjunction with experimental data resources to rationalize both known and novel associations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the implicitome by rationalizing known and novel gene-disease associations, including those from GWAS. To facilitate the re-use of implicit gene-disease associations, we publish our data in compliance with FAIR Data Publishing recommendations [https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup] using nanopublications. An online tool (http://knowledge.bio) is available to explore established and potential gene-disease associations in the context of other biomedical relations. PMID:26919047

  1. LRP receptor family member associated bone disease.

    PubMed

    Lara-Castillo, N; Johnson, M L

    2015-06-01

    A dozen years ago the identification of causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene involved in two rare bone disorders propelled research in the bone field in totally new directions. Since then, there have been an explosion in the number of reports that highlight the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In this review we discuss some of the most recent reports (in the past 2 years) highlighting the involvement of the members of the LRP family (LRP5, LRP6, LRP4, and more recently LRP8) in the maintenance of bone and their implications in bone diseases. These reports include records of new single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes that suggest variants in these genes can contribute to subtle variation in bone traits to mutations that give rise to extreme bone phenotypes. All of these serve to further support and reinforce the importance of this tightly regulated pathway in bone. Furthermore, we discuss provocative reports suggesting novel approaches through inhibitors of this pathway to treat rarer diseases such as Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG), Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), and Sclerosteosis/Van Buchem disease. It is hoped that by understanding the role of each component of the pathway and their involvement in bone diseases that this knowledge will allow us to develop new, more effective therapeutic approaches for more common diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as these rarer bone diseases.

  2. Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals in allied health*†

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dorothy R.; Stickell, Henry N.

    2003-01-01

    This list of 434 books and 79 journals is intended as a selection guide for print literature to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number of and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and recognized by the American Medical Association and other accrediting bodies. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (169 books and 32 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (2002 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $36,744. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $14,465. PMID:12568155

  3. Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals in allied health*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dorothy R.; Stickell, Henry N.

    2000-01-01

    This list of 424 books and 77 journals is intended as a selection guide for print literature to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and recognized by the American Medical Association and other accrediting bodies. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (167 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (2000 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $31,970. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $12,515. PMID:10928707

  4. Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dorothy R; Stickell, Henry N

    2003-01-01

    This list of 434 books and 79 journals is intended as a selection guide for print literature to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number of and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and recognized by the American Medical Association and other accrediting bodies. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (169 books and 32 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (2002 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $36,744. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $14,465.

  5. Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed

    Hill, D R; Stickell, H N

    2000-07-01

    This list of 424 books and 77 journals is intended as a selection guide for print literature to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and recognized by the American Medical Association and other accrediting bodies. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (167 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (2000 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $31,970. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $12,515. PMID:10928707

  6. Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dorothy R; Stickell, Henry N

    2003-01-01

    This list of 434 books and 79 journals is intended as a selection guide for print literature to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number of and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and recognized by the American Medical Association and other accrediting bodies. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (169 books and 32 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (2002 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $36,744. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $14,465. PMID:12568155

  7. Allis Prize Lecture: Gaseous Electronics Physics Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garscadden, Alan

    2002-10-01

    I was fortunate to enjoy the advice of K. G. Emeleus during my graduate studies and for many years afterwards. He introduced me to the papers of Will Allis and later I was privileged to correspond with Professor Allis. At this time I had moved from the Queens university environment to work at a large Air Force base. There I have worked with a lot of smart people, including several who also come to the GEC each year to be refreshed and calibrated. A personal overview is presented on a few of the many roles that atomic, molecular and optical physics, including gaseous electronics, play in programs of the Air Force Research Laboratory and subsequently on AF systems and operations. While there have been misses, overall there have been many successes with impacts that provide more effective systems, as recent experiences have demonstrated. Some example studies, involving primarily electron collision physics, successful and unsuccessful in being chosen for application, are discussed.

  8. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms. PMID:27657370

  9. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms.

  10. Acute myopericarditis associated with cat scratch disease in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Barson, William J; Honegger, J Robert; Texter, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is generally characterized by a self-limited chronic regional lymphadenopathy, but numerous other clinical manifestations involving a variety of organ systems have been reported. Cardiac involvement is unusual and when reported, it has been associated with culture-negative endocarditis in adults. We present the case of an adolescent male with typical cat scratch disease and associated myopericarditis.

  11. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  12. LRP Receptor Family Member Associated Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castillo, N; Johnson, ML

    2015-01-01

    A dozen years ago the identification of causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene involved in two rare bone disorders propelled research in the bone field in totally new directions. Since then, there have been an explosion in the number of reports that highlight the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In this review we discuss some of the most recent reports (in the past 2 years) highlighting the involvement of the members of the LRP family (LRP5, LRP6, LRP4, and more recently LRP8) in the maintenance of bone and their implications in bone diseases. These reports include records of new single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes that suggest variants in these genes can contribute to subtle variation in bone traits to mutations that give rise to extreme bone phenotypes. All of these serve to further support and reinforce the importance of this tightly regulated pathway in bone. Furthermore, we discuss provocative reports suggesting novel approaches through inhibitors of this pathway to treat rarer diseases such as Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG), Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), and Sclerosteosis/Van Buchem disease. It is hoped that by understanding the role of each component of the pathway and their involvement in bone diseases that this knowledge will allow us to develop new, more effective therapeutic approaches for more common diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as these rarer bone diseases. PMID:26048454

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Changing Associations to Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Click, Benjamin; Whitcomb, David C

    2016-01-01

    Managing the health of individual patients suffering from complex disorders is a challenge and is costly. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a prototypic complex disorder of the small and large intestines. Susceptibility is complex, severity is variable, and response to treatment is unpredictable. Di Narzo et al. (Clin Transl Gastroenterol 7: e177; doi:10.1038/ctg.2016.34) bring diverse teams of physicians and scientists together to break down the mechanisms of IBD by linking pathogenic genetic variants with altered gene expression in specific cell types causing IBD. Framing new findings in the context of other complex diseases provides a roadmap for predictive medicine. PMID:27607898

  14. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader's expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/. PMID:21498548

  15. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader's expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/.

  16. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader’s expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/. PMID:21498548

  17. Demographic Analysis of the Students in the Allied Health Division: 1976-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton Community Coll., CA.

    A demographic profile is presented of the 710 students who were enrolled in Compton Community College's Allied Health Division during the five-year period from 1976 through 1980. After reviewing the limitations of the study, the report looks at annual and total enrollments in six program areas: associate degree nursing, vocational nursing,…

  18. A National Study of Student Selection Practices in the Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Marie C.; Crowley, Judeth A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the outcomes of a 1978 national survey of candidate selection practices in 4 baccalaureate level and 7 associate degree level allied health disciplines. Found that few programs conducted evaluation of their admissions activities and that physical therapy and dental hygiene programs were the most structured in student selection. (JOW)

  19. Policy and System Change and Community Coalitions: Outcomes from Allies against Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; Lachance, Laurie; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cindy; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Friedman Milanovich, Amy; Nicholas, Elisa; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley C.; Wilkin, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed policy and system changes and health outcomes produced by the Allies Against Asthma program, a 5-year collaborative effort by 7 community coalitions to address childhood asthma. We also explored associations between community engagement and outcomes. Methods: We interviewed a sample of 1,477 parents of children with asthma…

  20. Occupational Analysis: Hospital Radiologic Technologist. The UCLA Allied Health Professions Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Glenn D.; And Others

    In an effort to meet the growing demand for skilled radiologic technologists and other supportive personnel educated through the associate degree level, a national survey was conducted as part of the UCLA Allied Health Professions Project to determine the tasks performed by personnel in the field and lay the groundwork for development of…

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Joshua J; Brown, Kevin K

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the US population. Patients can have extra-articular manifestations of their disease and the lungs are commonly involved. RA can affect any compartment of the respiratory system and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung is abnormal in over half of these patients. Interstitial lung disease is a dreaded complication of RA. It is more prevalent in smokers, males, and those with high antibody titers. The pathogenesis is unknown but data suggest an environmental insult in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Smoking may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease through citrullination of protein in the lung leading to the development of autoimmunity. Patients usually present in middle age with cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing most commonly shows reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and HRCT reveals a combination of reticulation and ground glass abnormalities. The most common pattern on HRCT and histopathology is usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia seen less frequently. There are no large-scale well-controlled treatment trials. In severe or progressive cases, treatment usually consists of corticosteroids with or without a cytotoxic agent for 6 months or longer. RA interstitial lung disease is progressive; over half of patients show radiographic progression within 2 years. Patients with a UIP pattern on biopsy have a survival similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Z W; Duong, T A; Barnes, I; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2014-09-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  3. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  4. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Z W; Duong, T A; Barnes, I; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2014-09-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name.

  5. Neurocognitive Allied Phenotypes for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S. Kristian; Harris, Margret S. H.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Pavuluri, Mani; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are genetically complex and represent the end product of multiple biological and social factors. Links between genes and disorder-related abnormalities can be effectively captured via assessment of phenotypes that are both associated with genetic effects and potentially contributory to behavioral abnormalities. Identifying intermediate or allied phenotypes as a strategy for clarifying genetic contributions to disorders has been successful in other areas of medicine and is a promising strategy for identifying susceptibility genes in complex psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, rather than being wholly distinct disorders, share genetic risk at several loci. Further, there is growing evidence of similarity in the pattern of cognitive and neurobiological deficits in these groups, which may be the result of the effects of these common genetic factors. This review was undertaken to identify patterns of performance on neurocognitive and affective tasks across probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as unaffected family members, which warrant further investigation as potential intermediate trait markers. Available evidence indicates that measures of attention regulation, working memory, episodic memory, and emotion processing offer potential for identifying shared and illness-specific allied neurocognitive phenotypes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, very few studies have evaluated neurocognitive dimensions in bipolar probands or their unaffected relatives, and much work in this area is needed. PMID:18448479

  6. Allying health care and housing.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  7. Malassezia species and their associated skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazutoshi; Saito, Mami; Sugita, Takashi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2015-03-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic fungi that occur on all skin surfaces of humans and animals as commensal and pathogenic organisms. In the 2000s, several new species were added to the Malassezia genus by Japanese researchers. The genus Malassezia now includes 14 species of basidiomycetous yeast. Culture-independent molecular analysis clearly demonstrated that the DNA of Malassezia spp. was predominantly detected in core body and arm sites, suggesting that they are the dominant fungal flora of the human body. Malassezia spp. have been implicated in skin diseases including pityriasis versicolor (PV), Malassezia folliculitis (MF), seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). While Malassezia spp. are directly responsible for the infectious diseases, PV and MF, they act as an exacerbating factor in AD and SD. The fatty acids generated by Malassezia lipase can induce inflammation of the skin, resulting in development of SD. Patch and serum immunoglobulin E tests revealed that AD patients were hypersensitive to Malassezia. However, these findings only partially elucidated the mechanism by which Malassezia spp. induce inflammation in the skin; understanding of the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in SD or AD remains incomplete. In this article, the latest findings of Malassezia research are reviewed with special attention to skin diseases. PMID:25736318

  8. Mapping Gene Associations in Human Mitochondria using Clinical Disease Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Scharfe, Curt; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Neuenburg, Jutta K.; Allen, Edward A.; Li, Guan-Cheng; Klopstock, Thomas; Cowan, Tina M.; Enns, Gregory M.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear genes encode most mitochondrial proteins, and their mutations cause diverse and debilitating clinical disorders. To date, 1,200 of these mitochondrial genes have been recorded, while no standardized catalog exists of the associated clinical phenotypes. Such a catalog would be useful to develop methods to analyze human phenotypic data, to determine genotype-phenotype relations among many genes and diseases, and to support the clinical diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Here we establish a clinical phenotype catalog of 174 mitochondrial disease genes and study associations of diseases and genes. Phenotypic features such as clinical signs and symptoms were manually annotated from full-text medical articles and classified based on the hierarchical MeSH ontology. This classification of phenotypic features of each gene allowed for the comparison of diseases between different genes. In turn, we were then able to measure the phenotypic associations of disease genes for which we calculated a quantitative value that is based on their shared phenotypic features. The results showed that genes sharing more similar phenotypes have a stronger tendency for functional interactions, proving the usefulness of phenotype similarity values in disease gene network analysis. We then constructed a functional network of mitochondrial genes and discovered a higher connectivity for non-disease than for disease genes, and a tendency of disease genes to interact with each other. Utilizing these differences, we propose 168 candidate genes that resemble the characteristic interaction patterns of mitochondrial disease genes. Through their network associations, the candidates are further prioritized for the study of specific disorders such as optic neuropathies and Parkinson disease. Most mitochondrial disease phenotypes involve several clinical categories including neurologic, metabolic, and gastrointestinal disorders, which might indicate the effects of gene defects within the

  9. Coeliac Disease With Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Warjri, Synrang Batngen; Ete, Tony; Beyong, Taso; Barman, Bhupen; Lynrah, Kyrshanlang G.; Nobin, Hage; Perme, Obang

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease has a significant association with many autoimmune disorders. It shares many common genetic and immunological features with other autoimmune diseases. Gluten, a gut-derived antigen, is the driver of the autoimmunity seen in coeliac disease. The altered intestinal permeability found in coeliac patients, coupled with a genetic predisposition and altered immunological response, may result in a systemic immune response that is directed against sites other than the gut. Gut-derived antigens may have a role in the pathogenesis of other autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Here we report a case of adult coeliac disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Association between alcohol and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by dense deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein in the brain, failure of the memory and dementia. At present, there is no cure for AD and current treatments only provide a temporary reduction of symptoms. Thus, there is a need for effective preventive/curative strategic approaches. Accordingly, epidemiological studies have reported a reduction in the prevalence of AD in individuals ingesting low amounts of alcohol, while a moderate consumption of ethanol may protect against Aβ. These data are conflicting with other observations that assigned detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use on brain function, which are apparently similar to those observed in AD. These discrepancies questioned whether or not alcohol is a protective agent against the development of AD, whether the probable protective effects are influenced by the quantity and/or frequency of drinking. These issues are addressed in this review with the aim to suggest the real risk of alcohol for developing or preventing AD. PMID:27588045

  11. Pathogenetic mechanisms in B27 associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Moll, J M

    1983-11-01

    Various aspects of pathogenesis, or more broadly, aetiopathogenesis, in the field of B27 related disorders are considered. The main conclusions can be expressed as follows: Genetic factors are involved in the causation of the spondarthritides, although there is still controversy within individual disorders concerning the precise mode of inheritance. For instance, in some conditions evidence appears stronger for a Mendelian mechanism, in others for a multifactorial process. The mode of the HLA-B27-receptor interaction is not yet fully established, but there is strong support for the one gene cross-tolerance theory, in ankylosing spondylitis at least. It is likely that environmental factors 'collaborate' with genetic factors in causing spondarthritic disease. The factors in the environment have yet to be proved, but there is some evidence that micro-organisms such as Klebsiella and Yersinia are involved (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's disease, reactive arthritis). Of noninfective environmental factors, trauma could play a part, as suggested by the mode of onset and pattern of development of some examples of ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis.

  12. Factors associated with psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, N.; Mori, E.; Yasuda, M.; Ikejiri, Y.; Imamura, T.; Shimomura, T.; Ikeda, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Yamashita, H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Many clinical and biological factors have been reported to be associated with the presence of psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease, although the associations were variable. The aim of this study was to clarify factors associated with the presence of psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS—Psychiatric functioning was studied in 228 patients with Alzheimer's disease based on the results of the behavioural pathology in Alzheimer's disease rating scale or the neuropsychiatric inventory. The effects of sex, education level, age, duration of illness, cognitive function, and apolipoprotein E genotype were investigated for dichotomous psychotic status with a multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS—Of the 228 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 118 (51.8%) showed evidence of delusions or hallucinations. Of these, 94 had delusions only, three had hallucinations only, and 21 had both. Older age, female sex, longer duration of illness, and more severe cognitive impairment were the factors independently associated with the presence of psychosis. The presence of psychosis was not significantly related to either educational level or apolipoprotein E genotype.
CONCLUSIONS—Age, sex, and severity of illness were independent factors associated with the presence of psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The reason why some patients with Alzheimer's disease develop psychosis remains unclear. There may be distinctive subtypes of Alzheimer's disease or the presence of individual factors which affect the development of psychosis.

 PMID:9598682

  13. Prospective associations between measures of adiposity and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Monik; Hu, Frank B; Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2012-08-01

    Obesity induced inflammation may promote periodontal tissue destruction and bone resorption inducing tooth loss. We examined the association between measures of adiposity and self-reported periodontal disease, using data from 36,910 healthy male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who were free of periodontal disease at baseline and followed for ≤20 years (1986-2006). Self-reported height, weight, and periodontal disease data were collected at baseline, weight and periodontal disease were additionally collected on biennial follow-up questionnaires and waist and hip circumference were self-reported in 1987. These self-reported measures have been previously validated. The multivariable adjusted associations between BMI (kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and first report of periodontal disease diagnosis were evaluated using time-varying Cox models. We observed 2,979 new periodontal disease diagnoses during 596,561 person-years of follow-up. Significant associations and trends were observed between all measures of adiposity and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, smoking, race, dental profession, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and diabetes status at baseline. BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with greater risk of periodontal disease (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.45). Elevated WC and WHR were significantly associated with a greater risk of periodontal disease (HR for extreme quintiles: WC = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.11-1.46; WHR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.17-1.54). The associations of BMI and WC were significant even among nondiabetics and never smokers. Given the high prevalence of overweight, obesity, and periodontal disease this association may be of substantial public health importance. PMID:21979390

  14. Genetic variants associated with celiac disease and the risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Henning; Willenborg, Christina; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Ferrario, Paola G; König, Inke R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with celiac disease are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic-epidemiological analyses identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with celiac disease. If there is a causal relation between celiac disease and CAD, one might expect that risk alleles primarily associated with celiac disease also increase the risk of CAD. In this study we identified from literature 41 SNPs that have been previously described to be genome-wide associated with celiac disease (p < 5 × 10(-08)). These SNPs were evaluated for their association with CAD in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) dataset, a meta-analysis comprising genome-wide SNP association data from 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. 24 out of 41 (58.5 %) risk alleles for celiac disease displayed a positive association with CAD (CAD-OR range 1.001-1.081). The remaining risk alleles for celiac disease (n = 16) revealed CAD-ORs of ≤1.0 (range 0.951-1.0). The proportion of CAD associated alleles was greater but did not differ significantly from the proportion of 50 % expected by chance (p = 0.069). One SNP (rs653178 at the SH2B3/ATXN2 locus) displayed study-wise statistically significant association with CAD with directionality consistent effects on celiac disease and CAD. However, the effect of this locus is most likely driven by pleiotropic effects on multiple other diseases. In conclusion, this genetically based approach provided no convincing evidence that SNPs associated with celiac disease contribute to the risk of CAD. Hence, common non-genetic factors may play a more important role explaining the coincidence of these two complex disease conditions.

  15. Human papillomavirus molecular biology and disease association

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Griffin, Heather; Kranjec, Christian; Murakami, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evolved over millions of years to propagate themselves in a range of different animal species including humans. Viruses that have co‐evolved slowly in this way typically cause chronic inapparent infections, with virion production in the absence of apparent disease. This is the case for many Beta and Gamma HPV types. The Alpha papillomavirus types have however evolved immunoevasion strategies that allow them to cause persistent visible papillomas. These viruses activate the cell cycle as the infected epithelial cell differentiates in order to create a replication competent environment that allows viral genome amplification and packaging into infectious particles. This is mediated by the viral E6, E7, and E5 proteins. High‐risk E6 and E7 proteins differ from their low‐risk counterparts however in being able to drive cell cycle entry in the upper epithelial layers and also to stimulate cell proliferation in the basal and parabasal layers. Deregulated expression of these cell cycle regulators underlies neoplasia and the eventual progression to cancer in individuals who cannot resolve high‐risk HPV infection. Most work to date has focused on the study of high‐risk HPV types such as HPV 16 and 18, which has led to an understanding of the molecular pathways subverted by these viruses. Such approaches will lead to the development of better strategies for disease treatment, including targeted antivirals and immunotherapeutics. Priorities are now focused toward understanding HPV neoplasias at sites other than the cervix (e.g. tonsils, other transformation zones) and toward understanding the mechanisms by which low‐risk HPV types can sometimes give rise to papillomatosis and under certain situations even cancers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25752814

  16. Human papillomavirus molecular biology and disease association.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, John; Egawa, Nagayasu; Griffin, Heather; Kranjec, Christian; Murakami, Isao

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evolved over millions of years to propagate themselves in a range of different animal species including humans. Viruses that have co-evolved slowly in this way typically cause chronic inapparent infections, with virion production in the absence of apparent disease. This is the case for many Beta and Gamma HPV types. The Alpha papillomavirus types have however evolved immunoevasion strategies that allow them to cause persistent visible papillomas. These viruses activate the cell cycle as the infected epithelial cell differentiates in order to create a replication competent environment that allows viral genome amplification and packaging into infectious particles. This is mediated by the viral E6, E7, and E5 proteins. High-risk E6 and E7 proteins differ from their low-risk counterparts however in being able to drive cell cycle entry in the upper epithelial layers and also to stimulate cell proliferation in the basal and parabasal layers. Deregulated expression of these cell cycle regulators underlies neoplasia and the eventual progression to cancer in individuals who cannot resolve high-risk HPV infection. Most work to date has focused on the study of high-risk HPV types such as HPV 16 and 18, which has led to an understanding of the molecular pathways subverted by these viruses. Such approaches will lead to the development of better strategies for disease treatment, including targeted antivirals and immunotherapeutics. Priorities are now focused toward understanding HPV neoplasias at sites other than the cervix (e.g. tonsils, other transformation zones) and toward understanding the mechanisms by which low-risk HPV types can sometimes give rise to papillomatosis and under certain situations even cancers.

  17. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms Associated with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sangwoo; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Chong-gue

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disorder involving multiple organs. Its cause is still unknown, but vasculitis is the major pathologic characteristic. The common vascular lesions associated with Behçet's disease are aneurysm formation, arterial or venous occlusive diseases, and varices. Arterial aneurysms mostly occur in large arteries. Intracranial aneurysms hardly occur with Behçet's disease. We would like to present a 41-year-old female patient with Behçet's disease who showed symptoms of severe headache due to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain computed tomography revealed multiple aneurysms. We also present a literature review of intracranial arterial aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease. PMID:27114964

  18. Associations of MICA Polymorphisms with Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingwen; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are characterized by inflammation resulting from the immune dysregulation that usually attacks joints, skin and internal organs. Many of them are considered as complex disease that may be predisposed by multiple genes and/or genetic loci, and triggered by environmental factors such as microbiome and cellular stress. The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene that encodes protein variants expressed under cellular stress conditions, and these MICA variants play important roles in immune activation and surveillance. Recently, accumulating evidences from both genetic and functional studies have suggested that MICA polymorphisms may be associated with various rheumatic diseases, and the expression of MICA variants may attribute to the altered immune responses in the diseases. The objective of this review is to discuss potential genetic associations and pathological relevance of MICA in inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may help us to understand pathogenesis contributing to the development of these diseases.

  19. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease.

  20. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease. PMID:27651947

  1. Array-based detection of genetic alterations associated with disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G.; Gray, Joe W.

    2007-09-11

    The present invention relates to DNA sequences from regions of copy number change on chromosome 20. The sequences can be used in hybridization methods for the identification of chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases.

  2. Finding Queer Allies: The Impact of Ally Training and Safe Zone Stickers on Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stephanie L.; Bartle, Eli; Masequesmay, Gina

    2008-01-01

    To counter heterosexism, homophobia, and gender binarism in higher education, "safe zone" or "ally" programs are efforts by American universities to create a welcoming environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning (LGBTQ) members of the campus community. This study describes perceptions of campus climate for LGBTQ…

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Lee, Joyce S; King, Talmadge E

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  4. Lyme disease associated neuroretinitis - Case report.

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Fejes, Imre; Jako, Maria; Tula, Areta; Terhes, Gabriella; Janaky, Marta; Bartfai, Gyorgy

    2015-12-01

    We describe a rare case of Lyme disease complicated by unilateral neuroretinitis in the right eye. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with blurred vision on her right eye. Because of the suspicion of optic neuritis (multiplex sclerosis) neurological examination was ordered. Surprisingly, computer tomography of the brain revealed incomplete empty sella, which generally results not monocular, but bilateral optic nerve swelling. Opthalmological examination (ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography) indicated not only monocular optic nerve, but retinal oedema next to the temporal part of the right optic disk. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) demonstrated no P100 latency delay and mild differences between the amplitudes of the responses of the left and right eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated the swelling of the optic nerve head and oedematous retina at the temporal part of the disk. Suspicion of an inflammatory cause of visual disturbance blood tests was ordered. Doxycycline treatment was ordered till the result of the blood test arrived. The Western blot and ELISA test were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Following one week corticosteroide and ceftriaxone treatments, the patient displayed a clinical improvement. Unilateral neuroretinitis with optic disk swelling due to neuroborreliosis is a rare complication and in many cases it is difficult to distinguish between inflammatory and ischemic lesions. Further difficulty in the diagnosis can occur when intracranial alterations such as empty sella is demonstrated by CT examination.

  5. Inferring drug-disease associations based on known protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang; Huang, Jianbin; Ma, Zhixin; Zhang, Jing; Zou, Yapeng; Gao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Inferring drug-disease associations is critical in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering novel functions of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Previous work is primarily based on drug-gene-disease relationship, which throws away many important information since genes execute their functions through interacting others. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel methodology that discover the drug-disease association based on protein complexes. Firstly, the integrated heterogeneous network consisting of drugs, protein complexes, and disease are constructed, where we assign weights to the drug-disease association by using probability. Then, from the tripartite network, we get the indirect weighted relationships between drugs and diseases. The larger the weight, the higher the reliability of the correlation. We apply our method to mental disorders and hypertension, and validate the result by using comparative toxicogenomics database. Our ranked results can be directly reinforced by existing biomedical literature, suggesting that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method offers new insight into drug-disease discovery. Our method is publicly available at http://1.complexdrug.sinaapp.com/Drug_Complex_Disease/Data_Download.html.

  6. Inferring drug-disease associations based on known protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inferring drug-disease associations is critical in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering novel functions of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Previous work is primarily based on drug-gene-disease relationship, which throws away many important information since genes execute their functions through interacting others. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel methodology that discover the drug-disease association based on protein complexes. Firstly, the integrated heterogeneous network consisting of drugs, protein complexes, and disease are constructed, where we assign weights to the drug-disease association by using probability. Then, from the tripartite network, we get the indirect weighted relationships between drugs and diseases. The larger the weight, the higher the reliability of the correlation. We apply our method to mental disorders and hypertension, and validate the result by using comparative toxicogenomics database. Our ranked results can be directly reinforced by existing biomedical literature, suggesting that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method offers new insight into drug-disease discovery. Our method is publicly available at http://1.complexdrug.sinaapp.com/Drug_Complex_Disease/Data_Download.html. PMID:26044949

  7. Inductive matrix completion for predicting gene–disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Nagarajan; Dhillon, Inderjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Most existing methods for predicting causal disease genes rely on specific type of evidence, and are therefore limited in terms of applicability. More often than not, the type of evidence available for diseases varies—for example, we may know linked genes, keywords associated with the disease obtained by mining text, or co-occurrence of disease symptoms in patients. Similarly, the type of evidence available for genes varies—for example, specific microarray probes convey information only for certain sets of genes. In this article, we apply a novel matrix-completion method called Inductive Matrix Completion to the problem of predicting gene-disease associations; it combines multiple types of evidence (features) for diseases and genes to learn latent factors that explain the observed gene–disease associations. We construct features from different biological sources such as microarray expression data and disease-related textual data. A crucial advantage of the method is that it is inductive; it can be applied to diseases not seen at training time, unlike traditional matrix-completion approaches and network-based inference methods that are transductive. Results: Comparison with state-of-the-art methods on diseases from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database shows that the proposed approach is substantially better—it has close to one-in-four chance of recovering a true association in the top 100 predictions, compared to the recently proposed Catapult method (second best) that has <15% chance. We demonstrate that the inductive method is particularly effective for a query disease with no previously known gene associations, and for predicting novel genes, i.e. genes that are previously not linked to diseases. Thus the method is capable of predicting novel genes even for well-characterized diseases. We also validate the novelty of predictions by evaluating the method on recently reported OMIM associations and on associations recently

  8. [Neuroimmunological diseases associated with VGKC complex antibodies].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels(VGKC) were first identified by radioimmunoassay of radioisotope labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were found only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in Morvan's syndrome and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins(for example LGI-1, Caspr-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. Caspr-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.

  9. Extended HLA-D region haplotype associated with celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M.D.; Smith, J.R.; Austin, R.K.; Kelleher, D.; Nepom, G.T.; Volk, B.; Kagnoff, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease has one of the strongest associations with HLA (human leukocyte antigen) class II markers of the known HLA-linked diseases. This association is primarily with the class II serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2. The authors previously described a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) characterized by the presence of a 4.0-kilobase Rsa I fragment derived from an HLA class II ..beta..-chain gene, which distinguishes the class II HLA haplotype of celiac disease patients from those of many serologically matched controls. They now report the isolation of this ..beta..-chain gene from a bacteriophage genomic library constructed from the DNA of a celiac disease patient. Based on restriction mapping and differential hybridization with class II cDNA and oligonucleotide probes, this gene was identified as one encoding an HLA-DP ..beta..-chain. This celiac disease-associated HLA-DP ..beta..-chain gene was flanked by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..-chain genes and, therefore, was probably in its normal chromosomal location. The HLA-DP..cap alpha..-chain genes of celiac disease patients also were studied by RFLP analysis. Celiac disease is associated with a subset of HLA-DR3, -DQw2 haplotypes characterized by HLA-DP ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-chain gene RFLPs. Within the celiac-disease patient population, the joint segregation of these HLA-DP genes with those encoding the serologic specificities HLA-DR3 and -DQw2 indicates: (i) that the class II HLA haplotype associated with celiac disease is extended throughout the entire HLA-D region, and (ii) that celiac-disease susceptibility genes may reside as far centromeric on this haplotype as the HLA-DP subregion.

  10. Disease-Associated Mutations That Alter the RNA Structural Ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Matthew; Martin, Joshua S.; Broadaway, Sam; Laederach, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often identify disease-associated mutations in intergenic and non-coding regions of the genome. Given the high percentage of the human genome that is transcribed, we postulate that for some observed associations the disease phenotype is caused by a structural rearrangement in a regulatory region of the RNA transcript. To identify such mutations, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of all known disease-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) that map to the untranslated regions (UTRs) of a gene. Rather than using minimum free energy approaches (e.g. mFold), we use a partition function calculation that takes into consideration the ensemble of possible RNA conformations for a given sequence. We identified in the human genome disease-associated SNPs that significantly alter the global conformation of the UTR to which they map. For six disease-states (Hyperferritinemia Cataract Syndrome, β-Thalassemia, Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia, Retinoblastoma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Hypertension), we identified multiple SNPs in UTRs that alter the mRNA structural ensemble of the associated genes. Using a Boltzmann sampling procedure for sub-optimal RNA structures, we are able to characterize and visualize the nature of the conformational changes induced by the disease-associated mutations in the structural ensemble. We observe in several cases (specifically the 5′ UTRs of FTL and RB1) SNP–induced conformational changes analogous to those observed in bacterial regulatory Riboswitches when specific ligands bind. We propose that the UTR and SNP combinations we identify constitute a “RiboSNitch,” that is a regulatory RNA in which a specific SNP has a structural consequence that results in a disease phenotype. Our SNPfold algorithm can help identify RiboSNitches by leveraging GWAS data and an analysis of the mRNA structural ensemble. PMID:20808897

  11. Cultural allies: creating allegiances across borders.

    PubMed

    Canales, M

    1998-03-01

    Culture brokerage, as a nursing intervention, is a strategy that is intended to assist nurses to "bridge" the gap between the orthodox health care system and the health belief systems of clients and their families who are from "different" cultures. However, this intervention often reinforces and solidifies borders, rather than expanding or eliminating them. Culture brokerage will be examined against social constructions of "borders", "Others", and the power relationships that influence these constructions. Fein's (1979) "universe of obligation" will provide the framework for a critique of the culture brokerage intervention. This paper argues that culture brokerage maintains existing borders by ignoring the power differentials that exist between the nurse and the client. Reconceptualizing the nurse as cultural ally begins the process of bringing all clients into the universe of obligation. The nurse, as cultural ally, recognizes the differences that exist between the nurse and the client, and asks each to examine how their different lives and experiences are connected. It is through this nurse-client allegiance that borders can be crossed and meaningful relationships created. PMID:10481642

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  13. Tuberous Sclerosis and Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Rare Association.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamashis; Bala, Bapi Lal; Ray, Achintya Narayan; Sherpa, Pasang Lahmu; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan

    2015-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are two different genetic diseases. Although these two diseases are associated very rarely, the association is well recognized. This occurs due to a large deletion involving both PKD-1 and TSC-2 genes on chromosome 16. This is also known as TSC-2/PKD-1 contiguous gene syndrome. We report a 26-year-old female patient with TSC who presented with severe metabolic acidosis due to renal failure. She had palpable enlarged kidneys bilaterally. CT scan of abdomen revealed bilateral enlarged lobulated kidneys studded with multiple cysts which was consistent with the diagnosis of ADPKD. PMID:26591174

  14. Genetic variants associated with neurodegenerative Alzheimer disease in natural models.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Claudia; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Ardiles, Álvaro O; Ewer, John; Palacios, Adrián G

    2016-01-01

    The use of transgenic models for the study of neurodegenerative diseases has made valuable contributions to the field. However, some important limitations, including protein overexpression and general systemic compensation for the missing genes, has caused researchers to seek natural models that show the main biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases during aging. Here we review some of these models-most of them rodents, focusing especially on the genetic variations in biomarkers for Alzheimer diseases, in order to explain their relationships with variants associated with the occurrence of the disease in humans. PMID:26919851

  15. Association between celiac disease and chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Giovanni; Viganò, Davide; Romano Settanni, Carlo; Morelli, Olivia; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Baldini, Vittorio; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by a gluten-induced damage of the small bowel in sensitive individuals that may cause malabsorption. Non-intestinal inflammatory diseases may trigger immunologic gluten intolerance in susceptible people and the HCV virus may be considered as a suitable candidate. Interferon therapy could precipitate symptom onset in subjects with silent celiac disease. In fact, symptoms such as diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss may occur during interferon therapy and are associated with serological positivity of anti-tranglutaminase antibodies. To date, considering the available literature data, it is very difficult to support a firm association between HCV chronic hepatitis and celiac disease. Thus, such a serological screening in HCV patients before starting interferon therapy should not be recommended. However, serology for celiac disease must be considered in patients who develop diarrhea and/or weight loss during such therapy. PMID:27458507

  16. Association between celiac disease and chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Casella, Giovanni; Viganò, Davide; Romano Settanni, Carlo; Morelli, Olivia; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Baldini, Vittorio; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by a gluten-induced damage of the small bowel in sensitive individuals that may cause malabsorption. Non-intestinal inflammatory diseases may trigger immunologic gluten intolerance in susceptible people and the HCV virus may be considered as a suitable candidate. Interferon therapy could precipitate symptom onset in subjects with silent celiac disease. In fact, symptoms such as diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss may occur during interferon therapy and are associated with serological positivity of anti-tranglutaminase antibodies. To date, considering the available literature data, it is very difficult to support a firm association between HCV chronic hepatitis and celiac disease. Thus, such a serological screening in HCV patients before starting interferon therapy should not be recommended. However, serology for celiac disease must be considered in patients who develop diarrhea and/or weight loss during such therapy. PMID:27458507

  17. Carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Takaaki; Nakamura, Ryogo; Nakao, Etsuhiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients (3 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 72 years) who were surgically treated for carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease. All patients except 1 were incidentally diagnosed with Kienböck disease and had little or no wrist pain. Radiographic tests revealed advanced Kienböck disease in all patients. Intraoperative findings indicated that the site of maximum compression on the median nerve was located at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet in 11 patients, and the volar dislocated fragment of the lunate was located proximally adjacent to the floor of the carpal tunnel inlet. This disorder is most prevalent in elderly women, and even advanced Kienböck disease can present without wrist pain. Our findings suggest that palmar protrusion of the lunate may be the primary cause of carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease.

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Takaaki; Nakamura, Ryogo; Nakao, Etsuhiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients (3 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 72 years) who were surgically treated for carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease. All patients except 1 were incidentally diagnosed with Kienböck disease and had little or no wrist pain. Radiographic tests revealed advanced Kienböck disease in all patients. Intraoperative findings indicated that the site of maximum compression on the median nerve was located at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet in 11 patients, and the volar dislocated fragment of the lunate was located proximally adjacent to the floor of the carpal tunnel inlet. This disorder is most prevalent in elderly women, and even advanced Kienböck disease can present without wrist pain. Our findings suggest that palmar protrusion of the lunate may be the primary cause of carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease. PMID:27578910

  19. Discovering disease-disease associations by fusing systems-level molecular data.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, Marinka; Janjić, Vuk; Larminie, Chris; Zupan, Blaž; Pržulj, Nataša

    2013-11-15

    The advent of genome-scale genetic and genomic studies allows new insight into disease classification. Recently, a shift was made from linking diseases simply based on their shared genes towards systems-level integration of molecular data. Here, we aim to find relationships between diseases based on evidence from fusing all available molecular interaction and ontology data. We propose a multi-level hierarchy of disease classes that significantly overlaps with existing disease classification. In it, we find 14 disease-disease associations currently not present in Disease Ontology and provide evidence for their relationships through comorbidity data and literature curation. Interestingly, even though the number of known human genetic interactions is currently very small, we find they are the most important predictor of a link between diseases. Finally, we show that omission of any one of the included data sources reduces prediction quality, further highlighting the importance in the paradigm shift towards systems-level data fusion.

  20. Inverse Association of Parkinson Disease With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Te-Yu; Shen, Chih-Hao; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effects of the inflammatory mediators involved in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) on subsequent Parkinson disease have been reported, but no relevant studies have focused on the association between the 2 diseases. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk of Parkinson disease in patients with SLE. We identified 12,817 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database diagnosed with SLE between 2000 and 2010 and compared the incidence rate of Parkinson disease among these patients with that among 51,268 randomly selected age and sex-matched non-SLE patients. A Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate the risk factors of Parkinson disease in the SLE cohort. We observed an inverse association between a diagnosis of SLE and the risk of subsequent Parkinson disease, with the crude hazard ratio (HR) being 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.45–0.79) and adjusted HR being 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.51–0.90). The cumulative incidence of Parkinson disease was 0.83% lower in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. The adjusted HR of Parkinson disease decreased as the follow-up duration increased and was decreased among older lupus patients with comorbidity. We determined that patients with SLE had a decreased risk of subsequent Parkinson disease. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism. PMID:26579824

  1. Basis of Accreditation for Educational Programs in Allied Medical Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Medical Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed as a guide to accreditation for educational programs in the allied medical disciplines in Canada, this report provides educators with guidelines, general requirements and requirements for specific programs. Following information on the organization, structure, goals and terminology of accreditation of allied medical programs in Canada,…

  2. Allied Health Core Curriculum: Its Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, M. LaCheeta

    2004-01-01

    There is lack of a clear definition regarding an allied health core curriculum. The Pew Health Professions Commission and the Bureau of Health Professions use the following to define a core curriculum: "A set of interdisciplinary courses, clinical training, and other educational exposures designed to provide allied health students at each level…

  3. Building an Interdisciplinary Faculty Team for Allied Health Gerontology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glista, Sandra; Petersons, Maija

    2003-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team from various college allied health departments implemented Project AGE: Alliance for Gerontology Education to develop content to infuse in courses on the themes of age and culture, assistive technology, collaboration, and consumer health education. One goal was to foster interaction among allied health students to prepare…

  4. Development of Articulation Models for Allied Health Statewide Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Joanne; And Others

    Under the auspices of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education and with the aim of delineating issues in allied health education and making recommendations for alleviating the issues, an in-depth, two-year study was completed in 1975. The primary recommendations pertained to the development of a statewide plan for allied health education that…

  5. Allies and Competitors as Enscripted Audiences in Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan

    A set of much examined scientific papers which specifically portray a controversial topic and also manifest ally-peer and competitor-peer enscripted audiences are those written by James Watson and Francis Crick concerning their discovery of the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). The theoretical perspective of an ally-peer and…

  6. Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Law, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in…

  7. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  8. Standing "Straight" up to Homophobia: Straight Allies' Involvement in GSAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Alicia Anne

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay youth involvement in gay--straight alliances (GSAs) at their Ontario, Canada, high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are examined. Queer theoretical perspectives, as espoused by Britzman (1995, 1998) and Linville…

  9. From SNPs to Genes: Disease Association at the Gene Level

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Benjamin; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Schlitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) at a gene level is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes that lead to disease. In order to incorporate prior biological knowledge such as pathways and protein interactions in the analysis of GWAS data it is necessary to derive one measure of association for each gene. We compare three different methods to obtain gene-wide test statistics from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) based association data: choosing the test statistic from the most significant SNP; the mean test statistics of all SNPs; and the mean of the top quartile of all test statistics. We demonstrate that the gene-wide test statistics can be controlled for the number of SNPs within each gene and show that all three methods perform considerably better than expected by chance at identifying genes with confirmed associations. By applying each method to GWAS data for Crohn's Disease and Type 1 Diabetes we identified new potential disease genes. PMID:21738570

  10. Modulating Human Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is progressing rapidly in many industrialized countries. The United States population aged 65 and over is expected to double in size within the next 25 years. In sedentary people eating Western diets aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. About 80 percent of adults over 65 years of age have at least one chronic disease, and 50 percent have at least two chronic diseases. These chronic diseases are the most important cause of illness and mortality burden, and they have become the leading driver of healthcare costs, constituting an important burden for our society. Data from epidemiological studies and clinical trials indicate that many age-associated chronic diseases can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. Several recent studies suggest that more drastic interventions (i.e. calorie restriction without malnutrition and moderate protein restriction with adequate nutrition) may have additional beneficial effects on several metabolic and hormonal factors that are implicated in the biology of aging itself. Additional studies are needed to understand the complex interactions of factors that regulate aging and age-associated chronic disease. PMID:19364477

  11. Associations between periodontitis and systemic inflammatory diseases: response to treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawi, Una; Soory, Mena

    2013-09-01

    There is a significant prevalence of subjects with periodontitis presenting with other inflammatory conditions such as coronary heart disease, insulin resistance and arthritis. This pattern of disease presentation underscores the importance of inflammatory loading from chronic diseases, in driving their pathogeneses in a multidirectional manner. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and other agents play an important role in this process; for example, a single nucleotide polymorphism of the TNF-α gene is associated with significant periodontal attachment loss in patients with coronary heart disease. Changes in gene expression associated with inflammation and lipid metabolism in response to oral infection with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) have been demonstrated in mouse models, independent of the demonstration of atherosclerotic lesions. Insulin resistance is considered to be a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition, associated with altered glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, central obesity and coronary heart disease. It is accompanied by elevated levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α also relevant to the progression of periodontitis. There is evidence that uncontrolled periodontal disease contributes to maintenance of systemic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with increased risk of periodontitis in subjects with RA. The periodontal pathogen Pg is significant in contributing to citrullination of proteins resulting in immune dysregulation and autoimmune responses, seen in RA. However, they are both multifactorial chronic diseases with complex etiopathogeneses that affect their presentation. Consistent but weak associations are seen for surrogate markers of periodontitis such as tooth loss, with multiple systemic conditions. Effective treatment of periodontitis would be important in reducing systemic inflammatory loading from chronic local inflammation and in achieving systemic health. Lack of a consistent cause and effect relationship

  12. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Brandt, M. E.; Smith, T. B.; Thornhill, D. J.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in identifying the causative agents of disease in corals and understanding the impact of epizootics on reef communities, little is known regarding the interactions among diseases, corals, and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts ( Symbiodinium spp.). Since the genotypes of both corals and their resident Symbiodinium contribute to colony-level phenotypes, such as thermotolerance, symbiont genotypes might also contribute to the resistance or susceptibility of coral colonies to disease. To explore this, Symbiodinium were identified using the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of ribosomal DNA from diseased and healthy tissues within individual coral colonies infected with black band disease (BB), dark spot syndrome (DSS), white plague disease (WP), or yellow blotch disease (YB) in the Florida Keys (USA) and the US Virgin Islands. Most of the diseased colonies sampled contained B1, B5a, or C1 (depending on host species), while apparently healthy colonies of the same coral species frequently hosted these types and/or additional symbiont diversity. No potentially “parasitic” Symbiodinium types, uniquely associated with diseased coral tissue, were detected. Within most individual colonies, the same dominant Symbiodinium type was detected in diseased and visually healthy tissues. These data indicate that specific Symbiodinium types are not correlated with the infected tissues of diseased colonies and that DSS and WP onset do not trigger symbiont shuffling within infected tissues. However, few diseased colonies contained clade D symbionts suggesting a negative correlation between hosting Symbiodinium clade D and disease incidence in scleractinian corals. Understanding the influence of Symbiodinium diversity on colony phenotypes may play a critical role in predicting disease resistance and susceptibility in scleractinian corals.

  13. Accreditation in the allied health professions.

    PubMed

    Stull, G A

    1989-01-01

    Specialized accreditation in the allied health professions can and will fulfill its basic purpose if its efforts are guided by the principle that evaluation must place its emphasis on the outcome of the educational process, no matter how difficult it may be to assess. This requires the commitment and cooperation of both the accrediting body and the institution and program under review. Accreditation is a vitally important and valuable system in higher education in general, and the allied health professions are no exception. If the system is to be effective, however, every temptation must be resisted by all involved parties to debase it by using it for self-serving purposes. A recognized accrediting agency not only has the right, but indeed the responsibility, to ensure that the graduates of a program under review possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills essential for entrance into a given allied health profession. In cases where that minimal standard is not attained, the program should be required to remove those deficiencies in a timely manner or, if sufficiently serious, have its accreditation withheld or withdrawn. There should be no exceptions to this course of action. Every standard or essential adopted should be defensible on sound educational grounds, and every program should be evaluated according to whether it is in compliance. Accrediting bodies must direct their efforts toward evaluating educational quality. They must respect institutional rights and responsibilities and not even attempt to prescribe what will be taught or by whom, or who will administer a given program. The entire accreditation process must account for institutional diversity and should not discourage experimentation, innovation, or modernization. However, the standards and essentials that are ultimately adopted must be applied uniformly and fairly and not in an arbitrary or capricious manner. Hence, it is imperative that the standards and essentials be stated in such a way that

  14. Network analysis of genes and their association with diseases.

    PubMed

    Kontou, Panagiota I; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Dimou, Niki L; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2016-09-15

    A plethora of network-based approaches within the Systems Biology universe have been applied, to date, to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of various human diseases. In the present study, we perform a bipartite, topological and clustering graph analysis in order to gain a better understanding of the relationships between human genetic diseases and the relationships between the genes that are implicated in them. For this purpose, disease-disease and gene-gene networks were constructed from combined gene-disease association networks. The latter, were created by collecting and integrating data from three diverse resources, each one with different content covering from rare monogenic disorders to common complex diseases. This data pluralism enabled us to uncover important associations between diseases with unrelated phenotypic manifestations but with common genetic origin. For our analysis, the topological attributes and the functional implications of the individual networks were taken into account and are shortly discussed. We believe that some observations of this study could advance our understanding regarding the etiology of a disease with distinct pathological manifestations, and simultaneously provide the springboard for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies and its underlying genetic mechanisms.

  15. Network analysis of genes and their association with diseases.

    PubMed

    Kontou, Panagiota I; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Dimou, Niki L; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2016-09-15

    A plethora of network-based approaches within the Systems Biology universe have been applied, to date, to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of various human diseases. In the present study, we perform a bipartite, topological and clustering graph analysis in order to gain a better understanding of the relationships between human genetic diseases and the relationships between the genes that are implicated in them. For this purpose, disease-disease and gene-gene networks were constructed from combined gene-disease association networks. The latter, were created by collecting and integrating data from three diverse resources, each one with different content covering from rare monogenic disorders to common complex diseases. This data pluralism enabled us to uncover important associations between diseases with unrelated phenotypic manifestations but with common genetic origin. For our analysis, the topological attributes and the functional implications of the individual networks were taken into account and are shortly discussed. We believe that some observations of this study could advance our understanding regarding the etiology of a disease with distinct pathological manifestations, and simultaneously provide the springboard for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies and its underlying genetic mechanisms. PMID:27265032

  16. Collaborative Research in Allied Health. Proceedings of Collaborative Research in Allied Health Symposium, 1986 (Columbus, Ohio, September 18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, M. Rosita, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers are included: "Collaborative Research: Lessons from the Tower of Babel" (Baldwin); "Establishing a Data Base for Intrainstitutional Research in the Allied Health Professions" (Von Son, Beiley); "Determining Research Needs in a School of Allied Health Professions" (Bottjen et al.); "Surveying Research Interests and Needs of…

  17. Controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Nelson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The two most common HIV-associated renal diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV-immune-complex kidney disease, share the common pathologic finding of hyperplasia within the glomerulus. Podocyte injury is central to the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, the source of the proliferating glomerular epithelial cell remains a topic of debate. Parenchymal injury has been linked to direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV-1, although the mechanism of viral entry into this non-lymphoid compartment is unclear. Although transgenic rodent models have provided insight into viral proteins responsible for inducing renal disease, such models have important limitations. Rodent HIV-1 models, for instance, cannot replicate all aspects of immune activation, a process that could have an important role in the pathogenesis PMID:19776779

  18. Characterization of disease-associated N-linked glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Hui

    2013-02-01

    N-linked glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes, including cell-to-cell recognition, growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. Specific N-linked glycoprotein changes are associated with disease progression and identification of these N-linked glycoproteins has potential for use in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatments. In this review, we summarize common strategies for N-linked glycoprotein characterization and applications of these strategies to identification of glycoprotein changes associated with disease states. We also review the N-linked glycoproteins altered in diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Although assays for these glycoproteins have potential clinical utility, research is needed to translate these glycoproteins to clinical biomarkers.

  19. Characterization of disease-associated N-linked glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    N-linked glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes, including cell-to-cell recognition, growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. Specific N-linked glycoprotein changes are associated with disease progression and identification of these N-linked glycoproteins has potential for use in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatments. In this review, we summarize common strategies for N-linked glycoprotein characterization and applications of these strategies to identification of glycoprotein changes associated with disease states. We also review the N-linked glycoproteins altered in diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Although assays for these glycoproteins have potential clinical utility, research is needed to translate these glycoproteins to clinical biomarkers. PMID:23255236

  20. Ischemic retinopathy associated with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; Kaiser Junior, Roberto Luiz; Ruiz, Lilian Piron; Ruiz, Milton Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of a patient with ischemic retinopathy associated with Crohn’s disease. Case report This report presents a case of a 28-year-old female patient with Crohn’s disease and sudden decrease of visual acuity in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and multifocal electroretinography confirmed the clinical features of ischemic retinopathy. After systemic corticosteroid treatment, the patient developed epiretinal membrane without significant improvement in visual acuity. Discussion The patient presented with ischemic retinopathy associated with Crohn’s disease with deficiency of central visual acuity. Periodic examination by a retina specialist is recommended for patients being treated for Crohn’s disease. PMID:27524921

  1. [Citizens: allies of the health system].

    PubMed

    Venne, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Many international declarations recognize citizen participation as an important driver of success for health policy; however, in most countries the implementation of this principle has been delayed. Yet well-known phenomena, like ageing and incurred costs, should motivate decision makers to rely more on citizens and make them allies of the system, giving them power and responsibility. Citizens can first exercise this responsibility within the areas of prevention and health promotion. This responsibility then expands to include mutual assistance between community members. It is called upon in the definition of new social norms. It is recognized by the participation of citizens in health care decision-making bodies. Lastly, this responsibility applies when the time comes to choose which health services will be covered by the public system and which will be sent on to private insurers. The reasons to create a space for citizens are many. The methods to do it exist. What is needed is political willpower and means.

  2. Rehabilitation--an emerging allied health profession.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, R E; Pool, D A; Henke, R O; McCollum, P S

    1978-01-01

    Rehabilitation is perceived as the third phase of health care following preventive health care and curative medicine. The rehabilitation specialist assists the health care team in facilitating the patient to live and work with what he has left. The unique role of the rehabilitation specialist in the health care system is described, as well as his/her relation to traditional helth care personnel. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas in the School of Allied Health Sciences has offered professional education at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in the Department of Rehabilitation Science for the past five years. The curriculum description, student characteristics, and employment placements are distinguishing features of each program and describe how this rehabilitation specialist is educated. PMID:10307652

  3. An oral ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T

    2011-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic condition in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an oral ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a condition that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this condition and oral health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. PMID:21749875

  4. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Conclusion Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity. PMID:27784992

  5. An oral ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T

    2011-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic condition in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an oral ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a condition that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this condition and oral health care providers must be familiar with this disorder.

  6. Disease associations in eosinophilic oesophagitis and oesophageal eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic infiltration into oesophageal tissue, typical of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), has been described in several other conditions, including infections, hypersensitivity, and other autoimmune disorders. Since its description, EoE has been associated with an increasing number of diseases also characterized by tissue infiltration, including eosinophilic gastroenteritis and Crohn's disease. While an association between EoE and coeliac disease was previously reported, it is not supported by recent research. In contrast, EoE seems to be common in patients with a history of congenital oesophageal atresia, leading to hypotheses linking both disorders. The prevalence of EoE has also been shown to be eight times higher in patients with connective tissue disorders (CTDs), which has led to the proposal of an EoE-CTD phenotype, although this requires further assessment. This paper reviews the evidence of EoE's associations with several disorders, defining the common bases from an epidemiological, clinical, molecular and genetic perspective whenever possible.

  7. Chronic unremitting headache associated with Lyme disease-like illness.

    PubMed

    Kowacs, Pedro André; Martins, Rodrigo Tomazini; Piovesan, Elcio Juliato; Pinto, Maria Cristina Araujo; Yoshinari, Natalino Hagime

    2013-07-01

    The Brazilian Lyme-disease-like illness (BLDLI) or Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome is a unique zoonosis found in Brazil. It reproduces all the clinical symptoms of Lyme disease except for the high frequencies of relapse and the presence of autoimmune manifestations. Two cases of borreliosis manifesting with unremitting headache, which is a symptom associated with late-stage BLDLI, were presented. Clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the BLDLI and its associated headaches were showed and discussed in this article. BLDLI diagnosis requires additional attention by physicians, since the disease has a tendency to progress to the late, recurrent stage or the chronic form, and the associated headache can be confused with chronic primary headache or with analgesic-overuse one. Special attention should be paid to patients with headaches who have traveled to endemic areas. PMID:23857618

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease associated neoplasia: A surgeon’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A; Lazarev, Mark G; Gearhart, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk is known to increase with longer duration of the disease, family history of CRC, and history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis of the neoplastic changes associated with IBD is difficult owing to the heterogeneous endoscopic appearance and inter-observer variability of the pathological diagnosis. Screening and surveillance guidelines have been established which aim for early detection of neoplasia. Several surgical options are available for the treatment of IBD-associated neoplasia. Patients’ morbidities, risk factors for CRC, degree and the extent of neoplasia must be considered in choosing the surgical treatment. A multidisciplinary team including the surgeon, gastroenterologist, pathologist, and the patient who has a clear understanding of the nature of their disease is needed to optimize outcomes. PMID:26811640

  9. Attributable risk of exposures associated with sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Attributable risk combines information on the prevalence of an exposure with a measure of the associated increment in risk, providing an estimate of the proportion of incident or prevalent disease that might be avoided by eliminating the exposure. Thus, attributable risk identifies exposures most productively targeted by public health interventions. Attributable risk can be defined as the ratio of average excess risk to average risk. As with other measures of association between exposure and disease computed from observational data, adjustment must be made for confounding factors. Estimates of attributable risk are highly variable. Nonetheless, attributable risk retains its usefulness as an approximate measure of the public health significance of exposures associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted disease, provided it is estimated and interpreted cautiously. PMID:8843248

  10. Genome-wide association studies and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Bowcock, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    The identification of genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases and phenotypes represent a challenge for geneticists in the early part of the 21st century. These are not simple Mendelian disorders caused by single mutations, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington's disease, but common diseases that are usually polygenic in origin. The predisposing genes can be susceptibility factors or protective factors. One example of such a complex disease is the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. However, another example could be protection from an infectious disease. Both of these phenotypes are due in part to the presence of low-risk variants in the host. Moreover, all of these complex phenotypes require environmental triggers as well and, in the case of infectious diseases, these are pathogens. In the case of other common diseases such as cardiovascular disease the triggers are often lifestyle-related issues such as diet or exercise. Genome-wide association studies are now identifying some of these genetic susceptibility factors. PMID:20370638

  11. Membranous Nephropathy Associated With Immunological Disorder-Related Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dauvergne, Maxime; Moktefi, Anissa; Rabant, Marion; Vigneau, Cécile; Kofman, Tomek; Burtey, Stephane; Corpechot, Christophe; Stehlé, Thomas; Desvaux, Dominique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Rouvier, Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frouget, Thierry; Daugas, Eric; Jablonski, Mathieu; Dahan, Karine; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Remy, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Chazouilleres, Oliver; Sahali, Dil; Audard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and immunological disorder-related liver disease has not been extensively investigated, and the specific features of this uncommon association, if any, remain to be determined. We retrospectively identified 10 patients with this association. We aimed to describe the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of these patients and their therapeutic management. The possible involvement of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in these apparent secondary forms of MN was assessed by immunohistochemistry with renal and liver biopsy specimens. The mean delay between MN and liver disease diagnoses was 3.9 years and the interval between the diagnosis of the glomerular and liver diseases was <1.5 years in 5 patients. MN was associated with a broad spectrum of liver diseases including primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). AIH whether isolated (n = 3) or associated with PBC (n = 2) or PSC (n = 2) was the most frequent autoimmune liver disease. Circulating PLA2R antibodies were detected in 4 out of 9 patients but the test was performed under specific immunosuppressive treatment in 3 out of 9 patients. Seven of the 9 patients with available renal tissue specimens displayed enhanced expression of PLA2R in glomeruli whereas PLA2R was not expressed in liver parenchyma from these patients or in normal liver tissue. The study of immunoglobulin (Ig) subclasses of deposits in glomeruli revealed that the most frequent pattern was the coexistence of IgG1 and IgG4 immune deposits with IgG4 predominating. Detection of PLA2R antibodies in glomeruli but not in liver parenchyma is a common finding in patients with MN associated with autoimmune liver disease, suggesting that these autoantibodies are not exclusively detected in idiopathic MN. PMID:26222864

  12. Characterization of Disease-Associated Mutations in Human Transmembrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, János; Szakács, Gergely; Tusnády, Gábor E.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane protein coding genes are commonly associated with human diseases. We characterized disease causing mutations and natural polymorphisms in transmembrane proteins by mapping missense genetic variations from the UniProt database on the transmembrane protein topology listed in the Human Transmembrane Proteome database. We found characteristic differences in the spectrum of amino acid changes within transmembrane regions: in the case of disease associated mutations the non-polar to non-polar and non-polar to charged amino acid changes are equally frequent. In contrast, in the case of natural polymorphisms non-polar to charged amino acid changes are rare while non-polar to non-polar changes are common. The majority of disease associated mutations result in glycine to arginine and leucine to proline substitutions. Mutations to positively charged amino acids are more common in the center of the lipid bilayer, where they cause more severe structural and functional anomalies. Our analysis contributes to the better understanding of the effect of disease associated mutations in transmembrane proteins, which can help prioritize genetic variations in personal genomic investigations. PMID:26986070

  13. [Malassezia and its presumed association with skin diseases in dogs].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is the major species in Malassezia isolated from dogs, and there is a presumably Malassezia-associated skin disease,"Malassezia dermatitis" in the dog. The skin lesion is characterized by relatively demarcated erythema with some scaling at the sebum-rich areas, in which lichenification and hyperpigmentation could be involved in the chronic stage. The clinical features suggest that it corresponds to seborrheic dermatitis in humans. Hence, it might be possible to identify essential pathogenesis of the disease by clarifying its differences in humans and animals as a shared disease. PMID:23470954

  14. APOL1 Kidney Risk Alleles: Population Genetics and Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    Limou, Sophie; Nelson, George W.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Winkler, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    APOL1 kidney disease is a unique case in the field of the genetics of common disease: 2 variants (termed G1 and G2) with high population frequency have been repeatedly associated with nondiabetic CKDs, with very strong effect size (odds ratios 3–29) in populations of sub-Saharan African descent. This review provides an update on the spectrum of APOL1 kidney disease and on the worldwide distribution of these kidney risk variants. We also summarize the proper way to run a recessive analysis on joint and independent effects of APOL1 G1 and G2 kidney risk variants. PMID:25168832

  15. Atrophic gastritis is associated with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Kuroda, Masaaki; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Naito, Yuji; Hasegawa, Goji; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-07-01

    Atrophic gastritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection and other factors. Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to coronary artery disease. To our knowledge, however, no reports are available on the relationship between atrophic gastritis and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis, which is diagnosed based on serum pepsinogen levels (pepsinogen I ≤ 70 ng/mL and pepsinogen I/II ratio ≤ 3.0), and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in general Japanese population. Among 2,633 study subjects, 531 subjects (20.2%) were diagnosed as atrophic gastritis. The prevalence of coronary artery disease was higher in the atrophic gastritis-positive group than that in the atrophic gastritis-negative group (5.8% vs 2.8%, p = 0.0005). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that atrophic gastritis was independently associated with coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.72), after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and habits of smoking and drinking. These results suggest that atrophic gastritis is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa may be associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease.

  16. 582 Chronic Urticaria Associated with Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Guadalupe Peñaloza-González, Flor; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aida; Gonzalez-Carsolio, Aida; Burbano-Ceron, Andres-Leonardo; Barreto-Sosa, Adriana; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic urticaria has an incidence of 15% in the general population and sometimes is associated with chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, vitiligo and thyroid disorders. Chronic urticarial is characterized by wheals lasting more than 6 weeks, with alterations of the upper layers of the skin only. On histopathology there is a perivascular infiltrate characterized by T CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells. Cytokines produced by lymphocytes, mast cells and other cells increase the expression of vascular adhesion molecules. Other mediators such as histamine increase vascular permeability causing edema, clinically represented by wheals. Treatment of chronic urticaria includes first and second generation antihistamines as first line treatment. Sometimes there is a poor response to there drugs and second line treatments such as immunosupressors are indicated. A search for systemic disorders is helpful to identify associated pathology which makes chronic urticaria reluctant to therapy. Methods We performed a retrospective study considering patients with chronic urticaria attending our clinic during the last 5 years. Three hundred patients with urticaria were considered, with 16% (50 patients) with a chronic disease. Six patients with chronic urticaria were associated with thyroid disease. Results We considered 6 patients with chronic urticaria with altered thyroid function tests; 4 with subclinical hypothyroidism and 2 with subclinical hyperthyroidism. All of them had a poor response to antihistamines. When a thyroid disorder was identified, they received appropriate treatment achieving control of chronic urticaria. Treatment with antihistamines was continued. Conclusions Chronic urticaria is a disease often associated with systemic disorders including thyroid disease. We found an association with thyroid pathology in 2% of patients with chronic urticaria, with remission of cutaneous symptoms after treatment of endocrinologic disorder

  17. Occlusive vascular disease associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Mawad, M.E.; Hilal, S.K.; Michelsen, W.J.; Stein, B.; Ganti, S.R.

    1984-11-01

    Selective carotid angiography and computed tomography were used in a study of the association of occlusive vascular disease with cerebral arteriovenous malformations in 13 patients. The majority of the arterial occlusions were proximal to the vascular malformation. Some, however, extended distal to the major branch supplying the arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Selective angiography with subtraction techniques defines the distinct angioarchitecture of these AVMs and the associated stenoses and collateral telangiectases.

  18. Allied health team management of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J R; Brandt, K D

    1984-09-01

    The use of a coordinated team of allied health professionals (AHPs) to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis assigned to experimental groups (EG) and comparison groups (CG) was assessed. The EG patients were evaluated regularly by each AHP team member, whereas CG patients were seen by AHPs only upon referral. Of the 10 EG and 13 CG patients who remained in the study for 2 years, the EG patients initially exhibited somewhat greater disease activity than CG (as reflected by erythrocyte sedimentation rate and duration of morning stiffness). After 2 years, EG patients demonstrated less disease activity than at the outset, whereas CG patients either showed little change in these parameters or deteriorated during the study. Grip strength, which was initially similar in the two groups, improved in EG patients but decreased in CG patients, so that after 2 years a significant difference was noted between the two groups (p less than .05). Tendency to lose hand range of motion was also greater in CG than in EG patients. Some EG patients showed improvement in finger flexion deformities during the study. Furthermore, EG patients showed a greater tendency to acquire positive attitudes regarding themselves and family relationships. These results suggest that ongoing "team care" may be more efficacious than episodic use of AHPs in management of patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Improving health services in developing countries with new types of public and allied health personnel.

    PubMed

    Blayney, K D; Trulove, J W

    1982-10-01

    Allied health manpower in developing countries should be able to serve the specific needs of these countries in solving malnutrition, diarrheal disease, and other health problems. Disease patterns tend to evolve in stages with each stage requiring a special type of health manpower: 1) the 1st stage where infectious diseases are linked to poverty, malnutrition, and poor personal hygiene for which personnel trained to improve health through providing safe water supplies, improving sanitation, and immunizing the population are needed; 2) in the 2nd stages, diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiac diseases exist, requiring extensive technology such as is available in the US; and 3) the 3rd stage relates to an awareness of health hazards (caused by the environment, by the lifestyle dysfunctions of the society, and an emphasis on health promotion) and implies a responsibility for one's own health by the individual; this is a difficult stage to apply to developing countries since the ability to bring about change assumes literacy on the part of the population which is not always the case. Since most developing countries need to cause change in the 1st stage, more public health personnel such as sanitarians and generalist workers are needed. Training of these personnel should include on-the-job education; traditionally trained US allied health professionals are not always equipped to deal with health problems in developing countries. Health educators should look to the lessons learned by the US in the allied health movement: 1) the system of control that national membership organizations have over schooling and the job environment has contributed to an increased cost of health care delivery, unnecessary prolonged curricula, overspecialization, extreme protectionism for membership, and inappropriate fractionalization of health care delivery; 2) the emphasis on prolonged curricula sometimes causes the student to lose sight of the supposed direct relationship between

  20. Diseases in marine invertebrates associated with mariculture and commercial fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bateman, Kelly S.

    2015-10-01

    Diseases in marine invertebrates are increasing in both frequency and intensity around the globe. Diseases in individuals which offer some commercial value are often well documented and subsequently well studied in comparison to those wild groups offering little commercial gain. This is particularly the case with those associated with mariculture or the commercial fisheries. Specifically, these include many Holothuroidea, and numerous crustacea and mollusca species. Pathogens/parasites consisting of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from all groups have been associated with diseases from such organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Viral pathogens in particular, appear to be an increasingly important group and research into this group will likely highlight a larger number of diseases and pathogens being described in the near future. Interestingly, although there are countless examples of the spread of disease usually associated with transportation of specific infected hosts for development of aquaculture practices, this process appears to be continuing with no real sign of effective management and mitigation strategies being implicated. Notably, even in well developed countries such as the UK and the US, even though live animal trade may be well managed, the transport of frozen food appears to be less well so and as evidence suggests, even these to have the potential to transmit pathogens when used as a food source for example.

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, David N; Armstrong, Michelle E; Cooke, Gordon; Dodd, Jonathan D; Veale, Douglas J; Donnelly, Seamas C

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  2. Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Luke S.

    2015-01-01

    Although rare in its idiopathic form, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not uncommon in association with various associated medical conditions, most notably connective tissue disease (CTD). In particular, it develops in approximately 10% of patients with systemic sclerosis and so these patients are increasingly screened to enable early detection. The response of patients with systemic sclerosis to PAH-specific therapy appears to be worse than in other forms of PAH. Survival in systemic sclerosis-associated PAH is inferior to that observed in idiopathic PAH. Potential reasons for this include differences in age, the nature of the underlying pulmonary vasculopathy and the ability of the right ventricle to cope with increased afterload between patients with systemic sclerosis-associated PAH and idiopathic PAH, while coexisting cardiac and pulmonary disease is common in systemic sclerosis-associated PAH. Other forms of connective tissue-associated PAH have been less well studied, however PAH associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a better prognosis than systemic sclerosis-associated PAH and likely responds to immunosuppression. PMID:25705389

  3. Measuring heterosexual LGBT ally development: a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peter; Fujimoto, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities.

  4. Influencers of career choice among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Brown-West, A P

    1991-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that influence students' choice of an allied health profession. A survey of 153 students in three allied health programs at the University of Connecticut revealed that "the need to help others," "prestige," "professional autonomy," "opportunities for advancement," "income potential," and "the effect of the specialty on family and personal life," were the major influencers of career choice among allied health students. Only a few students regarded malpractice suits and AIDS as negative influencers. While medical laboratory science majors regarded these as important factors, dietetics and physical therapy majors did not. The article suggests further use of these findings by program directors and career counselors. PMID:1761410

  5. Faculty research productivity in allied health settings: a TQM approach.

    PubMed

    Paterson, M; Baker, D; Gable, C; Michael, S; Wintch, K

    1993-01-01

    Faculty research productivity in colleges of allied health has often been discussed in the literature over the last five years. Articles have focused on the problem of faculty research productivity from various viewpoints, but none have used a theoretical framework to analyze the problem. The total quality management (TQM) framework is currently being used in health care to improve quality and productivity. This article uses the TQM framework to synthesize literature concerning faculty research productivity and verifies the current relevance of synthesis findings using an allied health faculty survey. These analyses show that the TQM framework is useful in suggesting ways to increase faculty research productivity in colleges of allied health.

  6. A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise. PMID:20224767

  7. DISEASES: text mining and data integration of disease-gene associations.

    PubMed

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Binder, Janos X; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-03-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases. The DISEASES resource is accessible through a web interface at http://diseases.jensenlab.org/, where the text-mining software and all associations are also freely available for download.

  8. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%), dermatological conditions (12%) and respiratory illnesses (8%). There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%), as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%). Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4%) accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9%) and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several diagnoses such as Chagas

  9. HLA and other gene associations with dengue disease severity.

    PubMed

    Stephens, H A F

    2010-01-01

    Large case control gene association studies have been performed on cohorts of dengue virus (DENV) infected patients identified in mainland Southeast Asia, South Asia and the Caribbean. Candidate genes that have shown statistically significant associations with DENV disease severity encode HLA molecules, cell receptors for IgG (FcGII), vitamin D and ICAM3 (DCSIGN or CD209), pathogen recognition molecules such as mannose binding lectin (MBL), blood related antigens including ABO and human platelet antigens (HPA1 and HPA2). In ethnic Thais with secondary infections a variety of HLA class I alleles (HLA-A 0203, 0207, A11, B 15, B 44, B 46, B 48, B 51, B 52), DCSIGN promoter polymorphisms and the AB blood group, independently associate with either susceptibility or resistance to dengue fever (DF) and the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There is also evidence that some HLA associations with disease severity correlate with the DENV serotype inducing secondary infections. Taken together, there is now evidence that allelic variants of multiple gene loci involved in both acquired and innate immune responses contribute significantly to DENV disease outcome and severity. Further analysis of the genetic basis of severe DENV disease in different at risk populations may contribute to the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions.

  10. Genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Reitz, Christiane

    2013-10-01

    Over the past decade, research aiming to disentangle the genetic underpinnings of late-onset Alzheimer's disease has mostly focused on the identification of common variants through genome-wide association studies. The identification of several new susceptibility genes through these efforts has reinforced the importance of amyloid precursor protein and tau metabolism in the cause of the disease and has implicated immune response, inflammation, lipid metabolism, endocytosis/intracellular trafficking, and cell migration in the cause of the disease. Ongoing and future large-scale genome-wide association studies, translational studies, and next-generation whole genome or whole exome sequencing efforts, hold the promise to map the specific causative variants in these genes, to identify several additional risk variants, including rare and structural variants, and to identify novel targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment.

  11. [Alveolar hemorrhage associated with intestinal inflammatory disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Rabec, C; Barcat, J; Rey, D

    2003-06-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is characterized by diffuse bleeding into alveolar spaces. Three histopathological patterns may be seen: 1) pulmonary capillaritis due to immunological aggression to the membrane, 2) diffuse alveolar damage within the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3) and "bland" DAH without alveolar or capillary damage. In the first two groups, pulmonary damage usually occurs within the context of a systemic disease. In the last, injury is usually found only in the lung, an entity called pulmonary hemosiderosis. We present a case of DAH with neither capillaritis nor diffuse alveolar damage in association with inflammatory bowel disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The case is interesting both because the association has not yet been described in the literature and because the presence of alveolar bleeding without evident tissue damage within the context of known autoimmune diseases may extend the field to include a new pathophysiological mechanism of pulmonary hemorrhage.

  12. The photosynthetic capacity in 35 ferns and fern allies: mesophyll CO2 diffusion as a key trait.

    PubMed

    Tosens, Tiina; Nishida, Keisuke; Gago, Jorge; Coopman, Rafael Eduardo; Cabrera, Hernán Marino; Carriquí, Marc; Laanisto, Lauri; Morales, Loreto; Nadal, Miquel; Rojas, Roke; Talts, Eero; Tomas, Magdalena; Hanba, Yuko; Niinemets, Ülo; Flexas, Jaume

    2016-03-01

    Ferns and fern allies have low photosynthetic rates compared with seed plants. Their photosynthesis is thought to be limited principally by physical CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons for low photosynthesis in species of ferns and fern allies (Lycopodiopsida and Polypodiopsida). We performed a comprehensive assessment of the foliar gas-exchange and mesophyll structural traits involved in photosynthetic function for 35 species of ferns and fern allies. Additionally, the leaf economics spectrum (the interrelationships between photosynthetic capacity and leaf/frond traits such as leaf dry mass per unit area or nitrogen content) was tested. Low mesophyll conductance to CO2 was the main cause for low photosynthesis in ferns and fern allies, which, in turn, was associated with thick cell walls and reduced chloroplast distribution towards intercellular mesophyll air spaces. Generally, the leaf economics spectrum in ferns follows a trend similar to that in seed plants. Nevertheless, ferns and allies had less nitrogen per unit DW than seed plants (i.e. the same slope but a different intercept) and lower photosynthesis rates per leaf mass area and per unit of nitrogen.

  13. Long-term trends in cardiovascular disease mortality and association with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A J

    2016-03-01

    The recent decline in cardiovascular disease mortality in Western countries has been linked with changes in life style and treatment. This study considers periods of decline before effective medical interventions or knowledge about risk factors. Trends in annual age-standardized death rates from cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and circulatory disease, and all cardiovascular disease are reviewed for three phases, 1881-1916, 1920-1939, and 1940-2000. There was a consistent decline in the cerebrovascular disease death rate between 1891 and 2000, apart from brief increases after the two world wars. The heart disease and circulatory disease death rate was declining between 1891 and 1910 before cigarette smoking became prevalent. The early peak in cardiovascular mortality in 1891 coincided with an influenza pandemic and a peak in the death rate from bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. There is also correspondence between short-term fluctuations in the death rates from these respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. This evidence of ecological association is consistent with the findings of many studies that seasonal influenza can trigger acute myocardial infarction and episodes of respiratory infection are followed by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Vaccination studies could provide more definitive evidence of the role in cardiovascular disease and mortality of influenza, other viruses, and common bacterial agents of respiratory infection.

  14. Policy and system change and community coalitions: outcomes from allies against asthma.

    PubMed

    Clark, Noreen M; Lachance, Laurie; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cindy; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Milanovich, Amy Friedman; Nicholas, Elisa; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley C; Wilkin, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Objectives. We assessed policy and system changes and health outcomes produced by the Allies Against Asthma program, a 5-year collaborative effort by 7 community coalitions to address childhood asthma. We also explored associations between community engagement and outcomes. Methods. We interviewed a sample of 1,477 parents of children with asthma in coalition target areas and comparison areas at baseline and 1 year to assess quality-of-life and symptom changes. An extensive tracking and documentation procedure and a survey of 284 participating individuals and organizations were used to ascertain policy and system changes and community engagement levels. Results. A total of 89 policy and system changes were achieved, ranging from changes in interinstitutional and intrainstitutional practices to statewide legislation. Allies children experienced fewer daytime (P = .008) and nighttime (P = .004) asthma symptoms than comparison children. In addition, Allies parents felt less helpless, frightened, and angry (P = .01) about their child's asthma. Type of community engagement was associated with number of policy and system changes. Conclusions. Community coalitions can successfully achieve asthma policy and system changes and improve health outcomes. Increased core and ongoing community stakeholder participation rather than a higher overall number of participants was associated with more change.

  15. Risk for travel-associated legionnaires' disease, Europe, 2009.

    PubMed

    Beauté, Julien; Zucs, Phillip; de Jong, Birgitta

    2012-11-01

    Legionnaires' disease is underreported in Europe; notification rates differ substantially among countries. Approximately 20% of reported cases are travel-associated. To assess the risk for travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (TALD) associated with travel patterns in European countries, we retrieved TALD surveillance data for 2009 from the European Surveillance System, and tourism denominator data from the Statistical Office of the European Union. Risk (number cases reported/number nights spent) was calculated by travel country. In 2009, the network reported 607 cases among European travelers, possibly associated with 825 accommodation sites in European Union countries. The overall risk associated with travel abroad was 0.3 cases/million nights. We observed an increasing trend in risk from northwestern to southeastern Europe; Greece had the highest risk (1.7). Our findings underscore the need for countries with high TALD risks to improve prevention and control of legionellosis; and for countries with high TALD risks, but low notification rates of Legionnaires' disease to improve diagnostics and reporting. PMID:23092591

  16. Is Dietitian Use Associated with Celiac Disease Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Mahadev, SriHari; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Tennyson, Christina A.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2013-01-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the treatment for celiac disease (CD), but due to its complexity, dietitian referral is uniformly recommended. We surveyed patients with CD to determine if dietitian use is associated with quality of life, symptom severity, or GFD adherence. The survey utilized three validated CD-specific instruments: the CD quality of life (CD-QOL), CD symptom index (CSI) and CD adherence test (CDAT). Four hundred and thirteen patients with biopsy-proven CD were eligible for inclusion. The majority (77%) were female and mean BMI was 24.1. Over three-quarters of patients (326, 79%) had seen a dietitian, however, 161 (39%) had seen a dietitian only once. Age, sex, and education level were not associated with dietitian use; nor was BMI (24.6 vs. 24.0, p = 0.45). On multivariate analysis, adjusting for age gender, education, duration of disease, and body mass index, dietitian use was not associated with CD-QOL, CSI, or CDAT scores. Our survey did not show an association between dietitian use and symptom severity, adherence, or quality of life. Delay in diagnosis was associated with poorer outcomes. This is a preliminary study with several limitations, and further prospective analysis is needed to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of dietitian-referral in the care of celiac disease patients. PMID:23676548

  17. Genome-wide association studies in pediatric chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A; Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna; Schaefer, Franz; Wong, Craig S

    2016-08-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become an established scientific method that provides an unbiased screen for genetic loci potentially associated with phenotypes of clinical interest, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, GWAS provides opportunities to gain new perspectives regarding the genetic architecture of CKD progression by identifying new candidate genes and targets for intervention. As such, it has become an important arm of translational science providing a complementary line of investigation to identify novel therapeutics to treat CKD. In this review, we describe the method and the challenges of performing GWAS in the pediatric CKD population. We also provide an overview of successful GWAS for kidney disease, and we discuss the established pediatric CKD cohorts in North America and Europe that are poised to identify genetic risk variants associated with CKD progression.

  18. Airway Surface Mycosis in Chronic Th2-Associated Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Paul; Lim, Dae Jun; Maskatia, Zahida Khan; Mak, Garbo; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Citardi, Martin J; Fakhri, Samer; Shaw, Joanne L.; Fothergil, Annette; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B; Luong, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental fungi have been linked to T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-related airway inflammation and the Th2-associated chronic airway diseases asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), but whether these organisms participate directly or indirectly in disease pathology remains unknown. Objective To determine the frequency of fungus isolation and fungus-specific immunity in Th2-associated and non-associated airway disease patients. Methods Sinus lavage fluid and blood were collected from sinus surgery patients (n=118) including CRS patients with and without nasal polyps and AFRS and non-CRS/non-asthmatic control patients. Asthma status was deteremined from medical history. Sinus lavage fluids were cultured and directly examined for evidence of viable fungi. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were restimulated with fungal antigens in an enzyme linked immunocell spot (ELISpot) assay to determine total memory fungus-specific IL-4-secreting cells. These data were compared to fungus-specific IgE levels measured from plasma by ELISA. Results Filamentous fungi were significantly more commonly cultured from Th2-associated airway disease subjects (asthma, CRSwNP, or AFRS: n=68) compared to non-Th2-associated control patients (n=31); 74% vs 16% respectively, p<0.001. Both fungus-specific IL-4 ELISpot (n=48) and specific IgE (n=70) data correlated with Th2-associated diseases (sensitivity 73% and specificity 100% vs. 50% and 77%, respectively). Conclusions The frequent isolation of fungi growing directly within the airways accompanied by specific immunity to these organisms only in patients with Th2-associated chronic airway diseases suggests that fungi participate directly in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Efforts to eradicate airway fungi from the airways should be considered in selected patients. Clinical Implications Airway fungi may contribute to the expression of sinusitis with nasal polyps and

  19. LncDisease: a sequence based bioinformatics tool for predicting lncRNA-disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junyi; Ma, Ruixia; Ma, Wei; Chen, Ji; Yang, Jichun; Xi, Yaguang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    LncRNAs represent a large class of noncoding RNA molecules that have important functions and play key roles in a variety of human diseases. There is an urgent need to develop bioinformatics tools as to gain insight into lncRNAs. This study developed a sequence-based bioinformatics method, LncDisease, to predict the lncRNA-disease associations based on the crosstalk between lncRNAs and miRNAs. Using LncDisease, we predicted the lncRNAs associated with breast cancer and hypertension. The breast-cancer-associated lncRNAs were studied in two breast tumor cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The qRT-PCR results showed that 11 (91.7%) of the 12 predicted lncRNAs could be validated in both breast cancer cell lines. The hypertension-associated lncRNAs were further evaluated in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II). The qRT-PCR results showed that 3 (75.0%) of the 4 predicted lncRNAs could be validated in Ang II-treated human VSMCs. In addition, we predicted 6 diseases associated with the lncRNA GAS5 and validated 4 (66.7%) of them by literature mining. These results greatly support the specificity and efficacy of LncDisease in the study of lncRNAs in human diseases. The LncDisease software is freely available on the Software Page: http://www.cuilab.cn/. PMID:26887819

  20. Disease-associated variants in different categories of disease located in distinct regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The invention of high throughput sequencing technologies has led to the discoveries of hundreds of thousands of genetic variants associated with thousands of human diseases. Many of these genetic variants are located outside the protein coding regions, and as such, it is challenging to interpret the function of these genetic variants by traditional genetic approaches. Recent genome-wide functional genomics studies, such as FANTOM5 and ENCODE have uncovered a large number of regulatory elements across hundreds of different tissues or cell lines in the human genome. These findings provide an opportunity to study the interaction between regulatory elements and disease-associated genetic variants. Identifying these diseased-related regulatory elements will shed light on understanding the mechanisms of how these variants regulate gene expression and ultimately result in disease formation and progression. Results In this study, we curated and categorized 27,558 Mendelian disease variants, 20,964 complex disease variants, 5,809 cancer predisposing germline variants, and 43,364 recurrent cancer somatic mutations. Compared against nine different types of regulatory regions from FANTOM5 and ENCODE projects, we found that different types of disease variants show distinctive propensity for particular regulatory elements. Mendelian disease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations are 22-fold and 10- fold significantly enriched in promoter regions respectively (q<0.001), compared with allele-frequency-matched genomic background. Separate from these two categories, cancer predisposing germline variants are 27-fold enriched in histone modification regions (q<0.001), 10-fold enriched in chromatin physical interaction regions (q<0.001), and 6-fold enriched in transcription promoters (q<0.001). Furthermore, Mendelian disease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations share very similar distribution across types of functional effects. We further found that

  1. Allied Health Chemistry Laboratory: Amino Acids, Insulin, Proteins, and Skin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, David F.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment specifically designed for allied health students. The students construct molecular models of amino acids, extract amino acids from their skin with hot water, and chromatographically analyze the skin extract and hydrolyzed insulin. (MLH)

  2. Actual and desired computer literacy among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Agho, A O; Williams, A M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of computer literacy among allied health students, with specific focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy students, and to investigate the perceived differences between actual computer literacy and desired computer literacy. Two established measurement instruments were used to collect data from a sample of 377 allied health students. T-tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were conducted to analyze the data. Results show that allied health students take very few computer courses, but they are generally aware of the applications of computers in the practice of allied health and they desire a higher level of computer literacy than they currently have.

  3. Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology.

  4. Polyglandular autoimmune diseases in a dermatological clinical setting: vitiligo-associated autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Amerio, Paolo; Di Rollo, Daniela; Carbone, Angelo; Auriemma, Matteo; Marra, Maria Elena; De Remigis, Pierluigi; Feliciani, Claudio; Tracanna, Marco; Tulli, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired hypomelanotic disorder characterized by depigmented macules resulting from the loss of functional melanocytes. Many different etiological hypotheses have been suggested for vitiligo, the most recent of which involves a combination of interacting environmental and genetic factors. Among the various pieces of evidence in support of an autoimmune origin of vitiligo, there is the epidemiological association with several autoimmune diseases. The most frequently reported association is with autoimmune thyroiditis; however, other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia and chronic urticaria have been described in variable percentages, depending upon the genetics of the population studied. Among the diseases described in association with vitiligo there are the so-called autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS). Here we report 31 cases of APS diagnosed in 113 vitiligo patients, according to the newest classification. Autoimmune association was more present in generalized non segmental vitiligo and was more frequent in females. The most frequent association was with thyroid autoimmune disease, followed by autoimmune gastritis and alopecia areata. ANA positivity was similar to that reported previously in the general population. We stress the importance of an assessment for autoimmune diseases in vitiligo patients. PMID:20395193

  5. Disease-associated repeat instability and mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Monika H M; Pearson, Christopher E

    2016-02-01

    Expanded tandem repeat sequences in DNA are associated with at least 40 human genetic neurological, neurodegenerative, and neuromuscular diseases. Repeat expansion can occur during parent-to-offspring transmission, and arise at variable rates in specific tissues throughout the life of an affected individual. Since the ongoing somatic repeat expansions can affect disease age-of-onset, severity, and progression, targeting somatic expansion holds potential as a therapeutic target. Thus, understanding the factors that regulate this mutation is crucial. DNA repair, in particular mismatch repair (MMR), is the major driving force of disease-associated repeat expansions. In contrast to its anti-mutagenic roles, mammalian MMR curiously drives the expansion mutations of disease-associated (CAG)·(CTG) repeats. Recent advances have broadened our knowledge of both the MMR proteins involved in disease repeat expansions, including: MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, and MLH3, as well as the types of repeats affected by MMR, now including: (CAG)·(CTG), (CGG)·(CCG), and (GAA)·(TTC) repeats. Mutagenic slipped-DNA structures have been detected in patient tissues, and the size of the slip-out and their junction conformation can determine the involvement of MMR. Furthermore, the formation of other unusual DNA and R-loop structures is proposed to play a key role in MMR-mediated instability. A complex correlation is emerging between tissues showing varying amounts of repeat instability and MMR expression levels. Notably, naturally occurring polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes can have dramatic effects upon the levels of repeat instability, which may explain the variation in disease age-of-onset, progression and severity. An increasing grasp of these factors holds prognostic and therapeutic potential.

  6. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration.

  7. [Citizens: allies of the health system].

    PubMed

    Venne, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Many international declarations recognize citizen participation as an important driver of success for health policy; however, in most countries the implementation of this principle has been delayed. Yet well-known phenomena, like ageing and incurred costs, should motivate decision makers to rely more on citizens and make them allies of the system, giving them power and responsibility. Citizens can first exercise this responsibility within the areas of prevention and health promotion. This responsibility then expands to include mutual assistance between community members. It is called upon in the definition of new social norms. It is recognized by the participation of citizens in health care decision-making bodies. Lastly, this responsibility applies when the time comes to choose which health services will be covered by the public system and which will be sent on to private insurers. The reasons to create a space for citizens are many. The methods to do it exist. What is needed is political willpower and means. PMID:24737815

  8. Granulomatous disease associated with pulmonary deposition of titanium.

    PubMed

    Redline, S; Barna, B P; Tomashefski, J F; Abraham, J L

    1986-10-01

    A patient presented with granulomatous lung disease associated with the pulmonary deposition of various metallic particles. To evaluate the relation between the metallic dust and the granulomatous process, lymphocyte transformation tests to aluminium sulphate, titanium chloride, beryllium sulphate, and nickel sulphate were performed. A lymphocyte proliferative response to titanium chloride was observed on two separate occasions; no responses to the other metals were shown. These results are consistent with hypersensitivity to titanium, and suggest, in this individual, a possible aetiological role between the inhalation of titanium and a granulomatous disease process.

  9. Strong association between glucocerebrosidase mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ran, Caroline; Brodin, Lovisa; Forsgren, Lars; Westerlund, Marie; Ramezani, Mehrafarin; Gellhaar, Sandra; Xiang, Fengqing; Fardell, Camilla; Nissbrandt, Hans; Söderkvist, Peter; Puschmann, Andreas; Ygland, Emil; Olson, Lars; Willows, Thomas; Johansson, Anders; Sydow, Olof; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Galter, Dagmar; Svenningsson, Per; Belin, Andrea Carmine

    2016-09-01

    Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA), originally implicated in Gaucher's disease, and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have investigated the possible involvement of genetic GBA variations in PD in the Swedish population. Three GBA variants, E326K, N370S, and L444P were screened in the largest Swedish Parkinson cohort reported to date; 1625 cases and 2025 control individuals. We found a significant association with high effect size of the rare variant L444P with PD (odds ratio 8.17; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-26.23; p-value = 0.0020) and a significant association of the common variant E326K (odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; p-value = 0.026). The rare variant N370S showed a trend for association. Most L444P carriers (68%) were found to reside in northern Sweden, which is consistent with a higher prevalence of Gaucher's disease in this part of the country. Our findings support the role of GBA mutations as risk factors for PD and point to lysosomal dysfunction as a mechanism contributing to PD etiology. PMID:27255555

  10. CD226 Gly307Ser association with multiple autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Hafler, J P; Maier, L M; Cooper, J D; Plagnol, V; Hinks, A; Simmonds, M J; Stevens, H E; Walker, N M; Healy, B; Howson, J M M; Maisuria, M; Duley, S; Coleman, G; Gough, S C L; Worthington, J; Kuchroo, V K; Wicker, L S; Todd, J A

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies provide insight into multigenic diseases through the identification of susceptibility genes and etiological pathways. In addition, the identification of shared variants among autoimmune disorders provides insight into common disease pathways. We previously reported an association of a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs763361/Gly307Ser in the immune response gene CD226 on chromosome 18q22 with type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. Here, we report efforts toward identifying the causal variant by exonic resequencing and tag SNP mapping of the 18q22 region in both T1D and multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to the analysis of newly available samples in T1D (2088 cases and 3289 controls) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) (821 cases and 1920 controls), resulting in strong support for the Ser(307) association with T1D (P=3.46 x 10(-9)) and continued potential evidence for AITD (P=0.0345), we provide evidence for association of Gly307Ser with MS (P=4.20 x 10(-4)) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (P=0.017). The Ser(307) allele of rs763361 in exon 7 of CD226 predisposes to T1D, MS, and possibly AITD and RA, and based on the tag SNP analysis, could be the causal variant. PMID:18971939

  11. Al-Li alloys and ultrahigh-strength steels for U. S. Navy aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.W.; Neu, C.E.; Kozol, J. )

    1990-05-01

    An evaluation is made of the development status and prospective performance advantages and cost reductions obtainable through the application of state-of-the-art Al-Li alloys to naval aircraft airframes and ultrahigh strength Ni-Co alloy steels to their landing gears. Structural weight fractions are expected to be reduced by 8-10 percent through substitution of high-stiffness Al-Li for conventional Al alloys. Ni-Co alloy steels enhance landing gear damage tolerance and resistance to environmental degradation, without associated weight penalty, when supplanting conventional low-alloy steels. Both materials are judged ready for immediate application to existing and next-generation U.S. Navy aircraft. 8 refs.

  12. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICANT ASSOCIATED FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN RODENTS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eryani, Laila; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K.C.; Guardiola, J. J.; Clair, H.B.; Prough, R.A.; Cave, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxicant associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) is a recently identified form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with exposure to industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants. Numerous studies have been conducted to test the association between industrial chemicals/ environmental pollutants and fatty liver disease both in vivo and in vitro. Objectives The objective of the paper is to report a list of chemicals associated with TAFLD. Methods Two federal databases of rodent toxicology studies– ToxRefDB (Environmental Protection Agency) and Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS, National Toxicology Program) were searched for liver endpoints. Combined, these two databases archive nearly 2000 rodent studies. TASH descriptors including fatty change, fatty necrosis, Oil red O positive staining, steatosis and lipid deposition were queried. Results Using these search terms, 123 chemicals associated with fatty liver were identified. Pesticides and solvents were the most frequently identified chemicals, while PCBs/dioxins were the most potent. About 44% of identified compounds were pesticides or their intermediates, and nearly 10% of pesticide registration studies in ToxRefDB were associated with fatty liver. Fungicides and herbicides were more frequently associated with fatty liver than insecticides. Conclusions More research on pesticides, solvents, metals and PCBs/dioxins in NAFLD/TAFLD is warranted due to their association with liver damage. PMID:25326588

  14. Methodological Orientations of Articles Appearing in Allied Health's Top Journals: Who Publishes What and Where

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Pamela Lea McCloud

    2012-01-01

    This study examined articles published in the major peer-reviewed journals, either hard copy, web, or both formats, in five allied health professions from January 2006 to December 2010. Research journals used in this study include: "Journal of Dental Hygiene," "Journal of the American Dietetic Association," "Journal of…

  15. Articulation Assistance for Columbus State Community College. Add-on Task #2: Pre-Tech for Allied Health. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, S. Judith; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in helping high school and entry-level community college students in acquiring the practical science skills necessary to ensure successful completion of an associate-level allied health program. The guide was originally developed to provide an articulation model for high school students interested in entering the…

  16. Linkage analysis versus association analysis: Distinguishing between two models that explain disease-marker associations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.E. )

    1993-08-01

    Recently, interest has grown in pursuing association studies for complex diseases, either instead of or in addition to linkage studies. Hence, it is timely to reconsider what a disease-marker association, particularly in the weak-to-moderate range (relative risk <10), can tell about disease etiology. To this end, this study accomplishes three aims: (1) It formulates two different models explaining weak-to-moderate associations and derives the relationship between them. One is a linkage disequilibrium model, and the other is a [open quotes]susceptibility,[close quotes] or pure association, model. The importance of drawing the distinction between these two models and the implications for understanding of the genetics of human disease are also discussed. It is argued that the linkage disequilibrium model represents true linkage but that the susceptibility model does not. (2) It examines two family-based association tests proposed recently by Parsian et al. and Spielman et al. and derives formulas for their behavior under the two models. It shows that, whereas these tests can confirm an association, they cannot determine whether the association is caused by the linkage disequilibrium model or the susceptibility model. The study also characterizes the probabilities yielded by the family association tests in the presence of weak-to-moderate associations, which will aid researchers using these tests. (3) It proposes two approaches, both based on linkage analysis, which can distinguish between the two models described above. One approach involves a straightforward linkage analysis of the data; the other involves a partitioned association-linkage (PAL) test, as suggested by Greenberg. Formulas are derived for testing identity by descent in affected sib pairs by using both approaches. (4) Finally, the formulas and arguments are illustrated with two examples from the literature and one computer-simulated data set. 39 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  18. VASCULOGENESIS IN VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE ASSOCIATED TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Lonser, Russell R.; Frerich, Jason; Huntoon, Kristin; Yang, Chunzhang; Merrill, Marsha; Abdullaev, Ziedulla; Pack, Svetlana; Shively, Sharon; Stamp, Gordon; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging data indicate that von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) associated tumors arise from embryologic hemangioblasts that can form vessels (endothelial cells) and blood cells. Nevertheless, the origin of VHL-associated vasculature is not known. To determine the origin of VHL-associated tumor vasculature, we investigated the neoplastic vasculature from VHL patients. METHODS: Microdissected VHL-associated tumor (compared to control non-VHL tissues) vascular features were examined using immunohistochemical staining for CA9, HIF-2a, HIF-1a, CD31 and Factor VIIIa. Origin of tumor vascular elements (tumor versus non-tumor) was assessed by LOH and FISH analysis. Intratumoral vasculogenesis was assessed in vivo using the VHL-deficient UMRC6 renal carcinoma murine xenograft model. RESULTS: We demonstrate that isolated vascular structures and blood vessels within VHL-associated neoplasms (including hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic tumors) are a result of tumor-derived vasculogenesis. Further, similar to hemangioblastomas, other VHL-associated neoplasms possess vascular tissue of tumor origin. Similarly, tumor-derived endothelial cells emerge within implanted VHL deficient UMRC6 renal cell carcinoma murine xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further establish the embryologic, developmentally arrested, hemangioblast as the tumor cell of origin for VHL-associated hemangioblastomas and indicate that it is also the progenitor cell for other VHL-associated tumors. SECONDARY CATEGORY: Neuropathology & Tumor Biomarkers.

  19. Human Microbiome and its Association With Health and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Althani, Asmaa A; Marei, Hany E; Hamdi, Wedad S; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Al Khodor, Souhaila; Al-Asmakh, Maha; Abdel-Aziz, Hassan; Cenciarelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    Human microbiota are distinct communities of microorganisms that resides at different body niches. Exploration of the human microbiome has become a reality due to the availability of powerful metagenomics and metatranscriptomic analysis technologies. Recent advances in sequencing and bioinformatics over the past decade help provide a deep insight into the nature of the host-microbial interactions and identification of potential deriver genes and pathways associated with human health, well-being, and predisposition to different diseases. In the present review, we outline recent studies devoted to elucidate the possible link between the microbiota and various type of diseases. The present review also highlights the potential utilization of microbiota as a potential therapeutic option to treat a wide array of human diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1688-1694, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. NK Cells in Healthy Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Camous, Xavier; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis

    2012-01-01

    NK cells exhibit the highest cytotoxic capacity within the immune system. Alteration of their number or functionality may have a deep impact on overall immunity. This is of particular relevance in aging where the elderly population becomes more susceptible to infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases amongst others. As the fraction of elderly increases worldwide, it becomes urgent to better understand the aging of the immune system to prevent and cure the elderly population. For this, a better understanding of the function and phenotype of the different immune cells and their subsets is necessary. We review here NK cell functions and phenotype in healthy aging as well as in various age-associated diseases. PMID:23251076

  1. NK cells in healthy aging and age-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Camous, Xavier; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis

    2012-01-01

    NK cells exhibit the highest cytotoxic capacity within the immune system. Alteration of their number or functionality may have a deep impact on overall immunity. This is of particular relevance in aging where the elderly population becomes more susceptible to infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases amongst others. As the fraction of elderly increases worldwide, it becomes urgent to better understand the aging of the immune system to prevent and cure the elderly population. For this, a better understanding of the function and phenotype of the different immune cells and their subsets is necessary. We review here NK cell functions and phenotype in healthy aging as well as in various age-associated diseases.

  2. RNA processing-associated molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anna Y

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctions of RNA processing and mutations of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. To elucidate the function of RNA processing and RBPs mutations in neuronal cells and to increase our understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, I have reviewed recent advances on RNA processing-associated molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, including RBPs-mediated dysfunction of RNA processing, dysfunctional microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of gene expression, and oxidative RNA modification. I have focused on neurodegeneration induced by RBPs mutations, by dysfunction of miRNA regulation, and by the oxidized RNAs within neurons, and discuss how these dysfunctions have pathologically contributed to neurodegenerative diseases. The advances overviewed above will be valuable to basic investigation and clinical application of target diagnostic tests and therapies.

  3. Folate: metabolism, genes, polymorphisms and the associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Nazki, Fakhira Hassan; Sameer, Aga Syed; Ganaie, Bashir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Folate being an important vitamin of B Complex group in our diet plays an important role not only in the synthesis of DNA but also in the maintenance of methylation reactions in the cells. Folate metabolism is influenced by several processes especially its dietary intake and the polymorphisms of the associated genes involved. Aberrant folate metabolism, therefore, affects both methylation as well as the DNA synthesis processes, both of which have been implicated in the development of various diseases. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the processes involved in folate metabolism and consequences of deviant folate metabolism, particular emphasis is given to the polymorphic genes which have been implicated in the development of various diseases in humans, like vascular diseases, Down's syndrome, neural tube defects, psychiatric disorders and cancers. PMID:24091066

  4. Duodenal-mucosal bacteria associated with celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ester; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Fernández-Murga, Maria Leonor; Sanz, Yolanda

    2013-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the gut microbiota composition that could be involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition and diversity of the cultivable duodenal mucosa-associated bacteria of CD patients and control children. Duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with active disease on a gluten-containing diet (n = 32), patients with nonactive disease after adherence to a gluten-free diet (n = 17), and controls (n = 8) were homogenized and plated on plate count agar, Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart agar, or yeast, Casitone, and fatty acid agar. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Renyi diversity profiles showed the highest diversity values for active CD patients, followed by nonactive CD patients and control individuals. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria were more abundant in patients with active CD than in the other child groups, while those of the phylum Firmicutes were less abundant. Members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae, particularly the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, were more abundant in patients with active disease than in controls. In contrast, members of the family Streptococcaceae were less abundant in patients with active CD than in controls. Furthermore, isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus mutans groups were more abundant in controls than in both CD patient groups, regardless of inflammatory status. The findings indicated that the disease is associated with the overgrowth of possible pathobionts that exclude symbionts or commensals that are characteristic of the healthy small intestinal microbiota. PMID:23835180

  5. Multiple facets of HIV-associated renal disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, D.R.; Gluz, I.C.; Kurz, J.; Thomé, G.G.; Zancan, R.; Bringhenti, R.N.; Schaefer, P.G.; dos Santos, M.; Barros, E.J.G.; Veronese, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model. The outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD or death were evaluated by baseline CD4 cell count. The percent distribution at initial clinical presentation was non-nephrotic proteinuria (54%), acute kidney injury (28%), nephrotic syndrome (23%), and chronic kidney disease (22%). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28%), mainly the collapsing form (HIVAN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (26%), and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) (25%) were the predominant renal histology. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 was a protective factor against CKD (hazard ratio=0.997; 95%CI=0.994-0.999; P=0.012). At last follow-up, 64% of patients with baseline CD4 ≥200 cells/mm3 had eGFR >60 mL·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1 compared to the other 35% of patients who presented with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (log rank=9.043, P=0.003). In conclusion, the main histological lesion of HIV-associated renal disease was HIVAN, followed by AIN and ICGN. These findings reinforce the need to biopsy HIV patients with kidney impairment and/or proteinuria. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 was associated with better renal function after 2 years of follow-up. PMID:27007656

  6. Multiple facets of HIV-associated renal disease.

    PubMed

    da Silva, D R; Gluz, I C; Kurz, J; Thomé, G G; Zancan, R; Bringhenti, R N; Schaefer, P G; Dos Santos, M; Barros, E J G; Veronese, F V

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model. The outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD or death were evaluated by baseline CD4 cell count. The percent distribution at initial clinical presentation was non-nephrotic proteinuria (54%), acute kidney injury (28%), nephrotic syndrome (23%), and chronic kidney disease (22%). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28%), mainly the collapsing form (HIVAN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (26%), and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) (25%) were the predominant renal histology. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 was a protective factor against CKD (hazard ratio=0.997; 95%CI=0.994-0.999; P=0.012). At last follow-up, 64% of patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm3 had eGFR >60 mL·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1 compared to the other 35% of patients who presented with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (log rank=9.043, P=0.003). In conclusion, the main histological lesion of HIV-associated renal disease was HIVAN, followed by AIN and ICGN. These findings reinforce the need to biopsy HIV patients with kidney impairment and/or proteinuria. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 was associated with better renal function after 2 years of follow-up.

  7. Dentists, antibiotics and Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

    PubMed

    Beacher, N; Sweeney, M P; Bagg, J

    2015-09-25

    Dentists prescribe significant volumes of antimicrobial drugs within primary care settings. There is good evidence that many of the prescriptions are not justified by current clinical guidance and that that there is considerable misuse of these drugs in dentistry. One of the risks associated with antibiotic administration is Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), an entity of which many healthcare workers, including dentists, have little knowledge or understanding. This review seeks to identify the extent and nature of the problem and provides an up to date summary of current views on CDAD, with particular reference to community acquired disease. As for all healthcare workers, scrupulous attention to standard infection control procedures and reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing are essential to reduce the risks of CDAD, prevent emergence of further resistant strains of microorganisms and maintain the value of the arsenal of antibiotics currently available to us.

  8. Noncompaction myocardium in association with type Ib glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Benjamin; Lindner, Martin; Vogel, Monika Nadja; Warth, Arne; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Renner, Marcus; Schnabel, Philipp; Schirmacher, Peter; Autschbach, Frank; Weichert, Wilko

    2012-10-15

    Noncompaction myocardium is a rare disorder assumed to occur as an arrest of the compaction process during the normal development of the heart. Left ventricular noncompaction has been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiac and extracardiac, especially neuromuscular abnormalities. Moreover, it has been suggested that metabolic alterations could be responsible for the noncompaction. However, no association of noncompaction myocardium with type Ib glycogen storage disease (GSD) has been reported so far. Type Ib GSD is due to a defect of a transmembrane protein which results, similar to type Ia GSD, in hypoglycemia, a markedly enlarged liver and, additionally, in neutropenia, recurrent infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Until now, no muscular or cardiac involvement has been described in type Ib GSD patients. The present case represents the first report of a noncompaction myocardium in a child with type Ib GSD who died of sudden clinical deterioration at the age of four.

  9. Collagenous gastritis associated with lymphocytic gastritis and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Stancu, M; De Petris, G; Palumbo, T P; Lev, R

    2001-12-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare disorder, with only 8 cases reported in the literature, 2 in children and 6 in adults. We report an additional case of collagenous gastritis in a 42-year-old man with celiac disease. A thickened (>10 microm) subepithelial collagen band with entrapped capillaries, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells was seen in the stomach, associated with lymphocytic gastritis. The duodenal mucosa showed severe villous atrophy but no subepithelial collagen deposition. No evidence of lymphocytic or collagenous colitis was found in the colon. The patient became symptom-free on a gluten exclusion diet and showed partial improvement of histopathologic findings after 3 months. Collagenous gastritis is a rare disease, but a wider recognition of its histopathologic features and clinical associations may bring more cases to light and provide additional clues in determining its etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:11735694

  10. Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-09

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use.

  11. Disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule its proposal to amend its adjudication regulations by clarifying and expanding the terminology regarding presumptive service connection for acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs based on findings from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2010. It also amends VA's regulation governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by court orders in the class action litigation of Nehmer v. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:24040683

  12. Disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule its proposal to amend its adjudication regulations by clarifying and expanding the terminology regarding presumptive service connection for acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs based on findings from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2010. It also amends VA's regulation governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by court orders in the class action litigation of Nehmer v. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

  13. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objective This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Conclusion Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients. PMID:25029472

  14. Current issues in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Cardile, Sabrina; Romano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Joint involvement is the most common extraintestinal manifestation in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may involve 16%-33% of patients at diagnosis or during follow-up. It is possible to distinguish asymmetrical, transitory and migrating arthritis (pauciarticular and polyarticular) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Clinical manifestations can be variable, and peripheral arthritis often occurs before gastrointestinal symptoms develop. The inflammatory intestinal pattern is variable, ranging from sub-clinical inflammation conditions, classified as indeterminate colitis and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the ileum, to Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Unlike the axial form, there is an association between gut inflammation and evolution of recurrent peripheral articular disease that coincides with a flare-up of intestinal disease. This finding seems to confirm a key role of intestinal inflammation in the pathogenesis of SpA. An association between genetic background and human leukocyte antigen-B27 status is less common in pediatric than n adult populations. Seronegative sacroiliitis and SpA are the most frequent forms of arthropathy in children with IBD. In pediatric patients, a correct therapeutic approach relies on the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, local steroid injections, physiotherapy and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy (infliximab). Early diagnosis of these manifestations reduces the risk of progression and complications, and as well as increasing the efficacy of the therapy. PMID:24415857

  15. Lhermitte-Duclos Disease in association with Cowden Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Colton; Fischer, Toria; Fischer, Ryan; Donald, Joseph; Rajpara, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Cowden syndrome (CS) is a rare genetic disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, linked to germline mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 10. Cowden syndrome often co-exists with Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD), with LDD included as a major criterion in CD diagnosis. This case involves a woman presenting with many of the classic diagnostic criterions and associations of CD, as well as with several comorbidities and unique objective findings. PMID:27617518

  16. Memantine-associated hyperkalaemia in a patient with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuo; Yamada, Hidetaka; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2013-09-01

    Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist that may improve cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease. It is predominantly excreted unchanged via the kidneys, and patients with decreased creatinine clearance must be treated with lower doses of memantine. However, it is unclear whether memantine itself can lead to renal dysfunction and/or hyperkalaemia. We report a patient with renal impairment and hyperkalaemia possibly associated with memantine administration.

  17. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients. PMID:27275199

  18. Informatics-Based Discovery of Disease-Associated Immune Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Amber; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Lacey, Precious N.; Fallahi, Mohammad; Hommes, Daniel W.; Sundrud, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in flow and mass cytometry are enabling ultra-high resolution immune profiling in mice and humans on an unprecedented scale. However, the resulting high-content datasets challenge traditional views of cytometry data, which are both limited in scope and biased by pre-existing hypotheses. Computational solutions are now emerging (e.g., Citrus, AutoGate, SPADE) that automate cell gating or enable visualization of relative subset abundance within healthy versus diseased mice or humans. Yet these tools require significant computational fluency and fail to show quantitative relationships between discrete immune phenotypes and continuous disease variables. Here we describe a simple informatics platform that uses hierarchical clustering and nearest neighbor algorithms to associate manually gated immune phenotypes with clinical or pre-clinical disease endpoints of interest in a rapid and unbiased manner. Using this approach, we identify discrete immune profiles that correspond with either weight loss or histologic colitis in a T cell transfer model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and show distinct nodes of immune dysregulation in the IBDs, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. This streamlined informatics approach for cytometry data analysis leverages publicly available software, can be applied to manually or computationally gated cytometry data, is suitable for any clinical or pre-clinical setting, and embraces ultra-high content flow and mass cytometry as a discovery engine. PMID:27669154

  19. Update on persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos R.; Shapiro, Eugene D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The pathogenesis, ecology, and epidemiology of Lyme disease have been well described, and antimicrobial treatment is very effective. There has been controversy about whether infection can persist and cause chronic symptoms despite treatment with antimicrobials. This review summarizes recent studies that have addressed this issue. Recent findings The pathogenesis of persistent nonspecific symptoms in patients who were treated for Lyme disease is poorly understood, and the validity of results of attempts to demonstrate persistent infection with B. burgdorferi has not been established. One study attempted to use xenodiagnosis to detect B. burgdorferi in patients who have been treated for Lyme disease. Another study assessed whether repeated episodes of erythema migrans were due to the same or different strains of B. burgdorferi. A possible cause of persistent arthritis in some treated patients is slow clearance of nonviable organisms that may lead to prolonged inflammation. The results of all of these studies continue to provide evidence that viable B. burgdorferi do not persist in patients who receive conventional antimicrobial treatment for Lyme disease. Summary Patients with persistent symptoms possibly associated with Lyme disease often provide a challenge for clinicians. Recent studies have provided additional evidence that viable B. burgdorferi do not persist after conventional treatment with antimicrobials, indicating that ongoing symptoms in patients who received conventional treatment for Lyme disease should not be attributed to persistent active infection. Video abstract http://links.lww.com/MOP/A23 PMID:25490690

  20. Vascular disease and risk factors are associated with cognitive decline in the alzheimer disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lorius, Natacha; Locascio, Joseph J; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects. A total of 812 participants (229 normal older control, 395 mild cognitive impairment, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 years. General linear, longitudinal mixed-effects, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Greater homocysteine level and white matter hyperintensity volume were associated with processing speed impairment (homocysteine: P=0.02; white matter hyperintensity: P<0.0001); greater Vascular Index score was associated with memory impairment (P=0.007); and greater number of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) alleles was associated with global cognitive impairment (P=0.007) at baseline. Apolipoprotein E ε4 was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (P=0.002) and processing speed impairment (P=0.001) over time, whereas higher total cholesterol was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (P=0.02) and memory impairment (P=0.06) over time. These results suggest a significant association of increased vascular disease and risk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline.

  1. Fascial Repair of Laparoscopic Ports with Allis-Hemostat Technique.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Alireza; Bagheri, Reza; Feizzadeh, Behzad; Tavassoli, Fatemeh; Barekati, Neusha

    2015-12-01

    Port site hernias are one of the most serious complications associated with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, we present a simple and reliable method for port site closure in laparoscopic surgery. From 2005 to 2011, 500 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery were enrolled for the study. They were evaluated considering age, sex, indication of laparoscopic surgery, and early and late complications of port site and were followed up at least for 1 year after the surgery. In our study, 180 males and 320 females with mean age of 36 years were enrolled. The most common indication for laparoscopic surgery was cholecystectomy in 320 patients (64 %). There were no early or late complications of port site after surgery. Our method is a new modification of the procedure presented by Spalding. Using Allis forceps and putting it under the fascia seems to be a more suitable technique which facilitates the laparoscopic port repair. We found it to be extremely safe, simple, and easy to teach. PMID:26730002

  2. Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease: A Potentially Reversible Condition

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Inês; Marques, Inês B.; Ferreira, Rogério; Sousa, Lívia

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease may occasionally associate with unspecific neurological symptoms, which are more commonly insidious, include cognitive or behavioural symptoms, and may associate with tremor, myoclonus, or ataxia. We report a 61-year-old female patient who presented with chronic headache, insidious mood, and cognitive disturbance which evolved in a few months to dementia associated with exuberant limb myoclonus. Diagnostic workup revealed high anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody titers and an inflammatory CSF profile, and it was negative for other possible etiologies. Treatment with steroids induced significant improvement. The diagnosis of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease is still controversial given the fact that the clinical presentation and diagnostic workup are unspecific, the pathophysiology is still undetermined, and the diagnosis is mostly of exclusion. No direct correlation is found between anti-thyroid antibody titers and clinical presentation, and it is currently speculated that other still unrecognized antibodies may be responsible for this clinical entity. It is extremely important to recognize this entity because it is potentially treatable with immunotherapies. It is also increasingly recognized that clinical improvement with first-line treatment with steroids may be absent or incomplete, and other immunotherapies as immunosuppressants, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasma exchange must be attempted in the clinical suspicion of EEAT. PMID:27127515

  3. [Neurologic diseases associated with the HTLV-1 virus in Panama].

    PubMed

    Gracia, F; Castillo, L; de Lao, S L; Archibold, C A; Larreátegui, M; Reeves, W C; Levine, P

    1990-09-01

    Studies of the prevalence of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) in 1984 to 1986 in the Republic of Panama revealed a national seroprevalence of 1 to 2%. Since 1985 clinical epidemiological studies of neurological diseases associated to HTLV-1 are being done. Two hundred and fitly six clinical cases of thirty eight different neurological diseases of unknown etiology studied in the Neurology Services of the Santo Tomas Hospital and the Social Security Metropolitan Hospital Complex have been associated in some way to the HTLV-1. Twelve cases of progressive spastic paraparesis were identified and related to HLTV-1 as an etiologic agent. The ratio of men to women was maintained at 1:1 with the average age at onset at 44 years and without racial preference. There are important doubts about the association of this virus to multiple sclerosis. The seroprevalence of the HTLV-1 virus in Panama is found to be similar to that reported in neighboring countries and the association of tropical spastic paraparesis to THLV-1 infection is identified.

  4. 3Disease Browser: A Web server for integrating 3D genome and disease-associated chromosome rearrangement data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruifeng; Liu, Yifang; Li, Tingting; Li, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangement (CR) events have been implicated in many tumor and non-tumor human diseases. CR events lead to their associated diseases by disrupting gene and protein structures. Also, they can lead to diseases through changes in chromosomal 3D structure and gene expression. In this study, we search for CR-associated diseases potentially caused by chromosomal 3D structure alteration by integrating Hi-C and ChIP-seq data. Our algorithm rediscovers experimentally verified disease-associated CRs (polydactyly diseases) that alter gene expression by disrupting chromosome 3D structure. Interestingly, we find that intellectual disability may be a candidate disease caused by 3D chromosome structure alteration. We also develop a Web server (3Disease Browser, http://3dgb.cbi.pku.edu.cn/disease/) for integrating and visualizing disease-associated CR events and chromosomal 3D structure. PMID:27734896

  5. Fontan-associated liver disease: Implications for heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Steven C; Crossland, David S; Hudson, Mark; Martin, Steven R; Myers, Robert P; Prieur, Tim; Hasan, Asif; Kirk, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are associated with multiple complications, including cirrhosis, portal hypertension, ascites, synthetic dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma, and these processes are increasingly recognized in post-Fontan patients. Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) can be defined as abnormalities in liver structure and function that result from the Fontan circulation and are not related to another disease process. FALD arises due to chronic congestion of the liver created by the elevated venous pressure and low cardiac output of the Fontan circulation, which may be superimposed on previous liver injury. Pathology studies have generally shown that FALD worsens as time post-Fontan increases, but the prevalence of FALD is not well defined because the majority of Fontan patients, even those with significant hepatic fibrosis, appear to be asymptomatic and biochemical or functional hepatic abnormalities are usually subtle or absent. Alternate non-invasive investigations, derived from the study of other chronic liver diseases, have been tested in small series of pediatric and adult Fontan patients, but they have been confounded by congestion and do not correlate well with liver biopsy findings. Liver disease can complicate Fontan circulatory failure and may even be significant enough to be considered a contraindication to heart transplantation or require combined heart-liver transplantation. The search for the optimal management strategy continues in the setting of increasing numbers of Fontan patients surviving to adulthood and being referred for heart transplantation. Thus, in this review we attempt to define the scope and significance of FALD and address transplant-related assessment and management of this challenging disorder. PMID:26586487

  6. Poikilocytosis in rabbits: prevalence, type, and association with disease.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Mary M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Burton, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research

  7. Altered Oral Viral Ecology in Association with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. PMID:24846382

  8. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease inversely associates with learning ability

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Hilary; Dong, Chuanhui; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Memory has been examined in subjects with imaging markers of cerebrovascular disease, but learning has been less well studied. We examined the relationship among subclinical cerebrovascular disease, cerebral volumes, and verbal learning in an ethnically and racially diverse community sample. Methods: A clinically stroke-free subset of Northern Manhattan Study participants underwent cognitive testing and brain MRI with quantification of white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and total cerebral volume (TCV) using semiautomated segmentation. We used generalized linear regression and mixed models to examine the association between imaging findings and verbal learning. Results: There were 1,272 participants (61% women, mean age 70 ± 9 years). Participants with greater WMHV and smaller TCV remembered fewer total words on a list-learning task (β = −0.83 per SD change in WMHV, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −1.22 to −0.45, p < 0.0001; and β = 0.48 per SD change in TCV, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.90, p = 0.03, respectively). Subclinical brain infarction (SBI) was not associated with total words learned (β = −0.04, 95% CI = −1.08 to 1.00, p = 0.94). Those with greater WMHV had increased odds of a flatter learning slope. After excluding participants with SBI, the association between total words learned and WMHV remained significant. All measurements were adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, medical insurance status, and the presence of SBI. Conclusions: White matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebral small vessel disease, may have an impact on learning slope. This suggests that verbal learning performance can be incorporated into neuropsychological measures for vascular cognitive impairment and that cerebrovascular disease discovered on imaging affects the ability to learn new information. PMID:26002489

  9. Emerging Issues Associated With Peri-implant Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Froum, Stuart J

    2016-07-01

    The biologic complication of peri-implantitis threatens the survival of dental implants that have successfully integrated and are in function. A list of seven risk factors associated with this disease was generated in 2006 at the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology. These factors were based on the prevailing literature. Since then, modifications to this list have been considered whereby some of the original items suggested to be associated with periimplantitis would be deleted, while, in light of evidence-based information, newer, emerging risks may be included. A common theme seems to be that many of these factors can be associated with an inflammatory "dysbalance" tipping the scale toward ongoing bone loss beyond that considered physiologic modeling or remodeling. This article aims to highlight some of these emerging items with the hope that a strategy toward prevention or early detection and treatment may be employed, rather than waiting and requiring potentially extensive surgical procedures or implant removal. PMID:27548396

  10. Allied Health Field, Ninth Grade. Introduction to Allied Health and the Health Care Team. Operation TACT [Toward an Allied Health Career Today] Curriculum [and Teachers' Handbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Storrs. School of Allied Health Professions.

    The two-part set consists of a student handbook and a related teachers' handbook in allied health education for use at the ninth grade level. The student handbook contains nine units which focus on the science curriculum: (1) introduction, (2) weights and measures, (3) human body, (4) chemistry, (5) electricity and magnetism, (6) heat and its…

  11. Allied Health Field, Tenth Grade. Introduction to Allied Health and the Health Care Team. Operation TACT [Toward an Allied Health Career Today] Curriculum [and Teachers' Handbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tracy

    The two-part set consists of a student handbook and a related teachers' handbook in allied health education for use at the tenth grade level. The student handbook consists of seven units which focus on the biology curriculum: (1) community water examination, (2) bacteriological examination of water, (3) the microscope, (4) microbes and man, (5)…

  12. Immune regulation in Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, R; Burrows, S R; Moss, D J

    1995-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the human herpesvirus family and, like many other herpesviruses, maintains a lifelong latent association with B lymphocytes and a permissive association with stratified epithelium in the oropharynx. Clinical manifestations of primary EBV infection range from acute infectious mononucleosis to an asymptomatic persistent infection. EBV is also associated with a number of malignancies in humans. This review discusses features of the biology of the virus, both in cell culture systems and in the natural host, before turning to the role of the immune system in controlling EBV infection in healthy individuals and in individuals with EBV-associated diseases. Cytotoxic T cells that recognize virally determined epitopes on infected cells make up the major effector arm and control the persistent infection. In contrast, the options for immune control of EBV-associated malignancies are more restricted. Not only is antigen expression restricted to a single nuclear antigen, EBNA1, but also these tumor cells are unable to process EBV latent antigens, presumably because of a transcriptional defect in antigen-processing genes (such as TAP1 and TAP2). The likelihood of producing a vaccine capable of controlling the acute viral infection and EBV-associated malignancies is also discussed. PMID:7565411

  13. Associations between pentraxin 3 and severity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Guan, Shaofeng; Fang, Weiyi; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Min; Qu, Xinkai

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between plasma levels of pentraxins 3 (PTX3) and C reactive protein (CRP) and the severity of coronary artery lesions. Design and methods 60 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) in our hospital were included. Plasma was collected during CAG. The coronary Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery lesions. Associations between Gensini scores and plasma levels of PTX3 and CRP were analysed. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included in the chronic renal dysfunction subgroup. Results A linear correlation was observed between PTX3 and the Gensini score (r=0.513, p<0.001). One-way analysis of variance showed that PTX3 levels were significantly higher in patients with Gensini scores >90 compared with patients with scores of 46–90 or <45 (0–45:4.8±0.8, 46–90:6.7±1.2, >90:7.7±2.0, p<0.001). Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that PTX3 levels were significantly associated with Gensini score in patients with chronic renal dysfunction (p=0.012), while no significant association was found for CRP. Conclusions PTX3 levers were positively associated with the severity of coronary artery lesions. PTX3 is closely associated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic renal dysfunction. PMID:25854969

  14. Pregnancy-associated retinal diseases and their management.

    PubMed

    Errera, Marie-Hélène; Kohly, Radha P; da Cruz, Lyndon

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated retinal diseases are conditions that may occur uniquely in pregnancy or, more commonly, general conditions that may worsen or alter during pregnancy as a result of hematologic, hormonal, metabolic, cardiovascular, and immunologic changes. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is by far the most common retinal condition that is altered by pregnancy. However, there are currently no widely accepted, precise clinical guidelines regarding its management during pregnancy. At present it is not possible to predict who will regress and who will progress without treatment. Some of the variation in progression of DR in pregnancy may be a result of well-known risk factors such as hypertension or inadequate glycemic control prior to pregnancy. Other pregnancy-associated retinal diseases are relatively uncommon, and their treatments are poorly characterized. Pre-existing conditions include the white dot syndromes, such as punctuate inner choroidopathy and ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, as well as chorioretinal neovascularization from many other etiologies. Retinal and chorioretinal disorders that can arise during pregnancy include central serous chorioretinopathy and occlusive vasculopathy such as retinal artery occlusion (Purtschers-like retinopathy) and retinal vein occlusion. There remains a small group that appear to be unique to pregnancy, with pre-eclampsia- and eclampsia-associated retinopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, or amniotic fluid embolism being the best described. In angiogenic retinal diseases outside of pregnancy, the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents) has proven helpful. There are no safety data about the use of anti-VEGF agents during pregnancy, and conventionally the proposed interventions have been laser photocoagulation and systemic or intravitreal injections of steroids. Most of the literature on the treatment of pregnancy associated-chorioretinal neovascularization is anecdotal.

  15. Collective judgment predicts disease-associated single nucleotide variants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years the number of human genetic variants deposited into the publicly available databases has been increasing exponentially. The latest version of dbSNP, for example, contains ~50 million validated Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs). SNVs make up most of human variation and are often the primary causes of disease. The non-synonymous SNVs (nsSNVs) result in single amino acid substitutions and may affect protein function, often causing disease. Although several methods for the detection of nsSNV effects have already been developed, the consistent increase in annotated data is offering the opportunity to improve prediction accuracy. Results Here we present a new approach for the detection of disease-associated nsSNVs (Meta-SNP) that integrates four existing methods: PANTHER, PhD-SNP, SIFT and SNAP. We first tested the accuracy of each method using a dataset of 35,766 disease-annotated mutations from 8,667 proteins extracted from the SwissVar database. The four methods reached overall accuracies of 64%-76% with a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.38-0.53. We then used the outputs of these methods to develop a machine learning based approach that discriminates between disease-associated and polymorphic variants (Meta-SNP). In testing, the combined method reached 79% overall accuracy and 0.59 MCC, ~3% higher accuracy and ~0.05 higher correlation with respect to the best-performing method. Moreover, for the hardest-to-define subset of nsSNVs, i.e. variants for which half of the predictors disagreed with the other half, Meta-SNP attained 8% higher accuracy than the best predictor. Conclusions Here we find that the Meta-SNP algorithm achieves better performance than the best single predictor. This result suggests that the methods used for the prediction of variant-disease associations are orthogonal, encoding different biologically relevant relationships. Careful combination of predictions from various resources is therefore a good strategy

  16. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  17. Model systems of human papillomavirus-associated disease.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, John

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a range of serious diseases, including the vast majority of cervical cancers, most anal cancers and around half of head and neck cancers. They are also responsible for troublesome benign epithelial lesions, including genital warts and laryngeal papillomas, and in some individuals HPVs lead to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and other difficult-to-manage diseases. As a result, there is a great need for model systems that accurately mimic papillomavirus infections in humans. This is complicated by the diverse variety of HPVs, which now number over 200 types, and the different strategies they have evolved to persist in the population. The most well-developed models involve the culture of HPV-containing keratinocytes in organotypic raft culture, an approach which appears to accurately mimic the life cycle of several of the high-risk cancer-associated HPV types. Included amongst these are HPV16 and 18, which cause the majority of cervical cancers. The low-risk HPV types persist less well in tissue-culture models, and our ability to study the productive life cycle of these viruses is more limited. Although ongoing research is likely to improve this situation, animal models of papillomavirus disease can provide considerable basic information as to how lesions form, regress and can be controlled by the immune system. The best studied are cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, rabbit oral papillomavirus and, more recently, mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV), the last of which is providing exciting new insights into viral tropisms and immune control. In addition, transgenic models of disease have helped us to understand the consequences of persistent viral gene expression and the importance of co-factors such as hormones and UV irradiation in the development of neoplasia and cancer. It is hoped that such disease models will eventually lead us to better understanding and better treatments for human disease. PMID:26456009

  18. Inflammation-induced thrombosis: mechanisms, disease associations and management.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Kenan; Donmez, Ayhan; Keser, Gokhan

    2012-01-01

    Although inflammation-induced thrombosis is a well-known entity, its pathogenesis remains complicated. There are complex interactions between inflammation and hemostasis, involving proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, tissue factor expression, platelet and endothelial activation, and microparticles. Inflammation increases procoagulant factors, and also inhibits natural anticoagulant pathways and fibrinolytic activity, causing a thrombotic tendency. Besides, chronic inflammation may cause endothelial damage, resulting in the loss of physiologic anticoagulant, antiaggregant and vasodilatory properties of endothelium. However, inflammation- induced venous thrombosis may develop even in the absence of vessel wall damage. On the other hand, coagulation also augments inflammation, causing a vicious cycle. This is mainly achieved by means of thrombin-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Platelets may also trigger inflammation by activating the dendritic cells. There are many systemic inflammatory diseases characterized by thrombotic tendency, including Behçet disease (BD), antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, Takayasu arteritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphosholipid syndrome, familial Mediterranean fever, thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) and inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammation-induced thrombosis may respond to immunosuppressive (IS) treatment, as in the case of BD. However effectiveness of this treatment can not be generalized to all other inflammatory diseases. For instance, IS agents do not have any beneficial role in the management of TAO. Heparin, antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and clopidogrel, colchicine and statins also have some antiinflammatory activity. However, decreased responsiveness to aspirin and clopidogrel treatments may be observed in inflammatory diseases, due to antiplatelet resistance caused by systemic inflammation. In the present

  19. Model systems of human papillomavirus-associated disease.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, John

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a range of serious diseases, including the vast majority of cervical cancers, most anal cancers and around half of head and neck cancers. They are also responsible for troublesome benign epithelial lesions, including genital warts and laryngeal papillomas, and in some individuals HPVs lead to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and other difficult-to-manage diseases. As a result, there is a great need for model systems that accurately mimic papillomavirus infections in humans. This is complicated by the diverse variety of HPVs, which now number over 200 types, and the different strategies they have evolved to persist in the population. The most well-developed models involve the culture of HPV-containing keratinocytes in organotypic raft culture, an approach which appears to accurately mimic the life cycle of several of the high-risk cancer-associated HPV types. Included amongst these are HPV16 and 18, which cause the majority of cervical cancers. The low-risk HPV types persist less well in tissue-culture models, and our ability to study the productive life cycle of these viruses is more limited. Although ongoing research is likely to improve this situation, animal models of papillomavirus disease can provide considerable basic information as to how lesions form, regress and can be controlled by the immune system. The best studied are cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, rabbit oral papillomavirus and, more recently, mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV), the last of which is providing exciting new insights into viral tropisms and immune control. In addition, transgenic models of disease have helped us to understand the consequences of persistent viral gene expression and the importance of co-factors such as hormones and UV irradiation in the development of neoplasia and cancer. It is hoped that such disease models will eventually lead us to better understanding and better treatments for human disease.

  20. Periodontal associations in cardiovascular diseases: The latest evidence and understanding.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, C M; Kim, J W M; Quan, V H; Nguyen, B H; Tran, S D

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are inflammatory diseases. Recent epidemiological studies have associated the effect of periodontitis on CVD progression. Findings of oral pathogens in carotid atheromas provided a plausible relationship between these two diseases. One possible mechanism is the infiltration of oral/periodontal pathogens through inflamed and ulcerated gingival epithelium. This results in translocation of oral pathogens throughout the systemic circulation affecting vascular tissues, and initiating a cascade of inflammatory reactions detrimental to the cardiovascular system. In addition, leakage of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines from the ulcerated periodontium into the bloodstream may cause the production of hepatic acute-phase proteins. Moreover, as chronic bacteremia occurs, the adaptive immune system is activated. Antibodies produced in response to periodontal pathogens trigger a cross-reaction between endothelial cells and modified low-density lipoprotein to enhance the movement of lipids into cells within the vessel wall. Some antibodies and inflammatory cytokines promote the Th1 response, thereby further activating macrophages within the atheroma. These plausible mechanisms are contributing factors in initiating and propagating atherogenesis. This review discusses the current understanding of CVD pathology/periodontitis, potential underlying mechanisms regarding this association, and general guidelines for treating patients with CVD risks. PMID:26587382

  1. Periodontal associations in cardiovascular diseases: The latest evidence and understanding.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, C M; Kim, J W M; Quan, V H; Nguyen, B H; Tran, S D

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are inflammatory diseases. Recent epidemiological studies have associated the effect of periodontitis on CVD progression. Findings of oral pathogens in carotid atheromas provided a plausible relationship between these two diseases. One possible mechanism is the infiltration of oral/periodontal pathogens through inflamed and ulcerated gingival epithelium. This results in translocation of oral pathogens throughout the systemic circulation affecting vascular tissues, and initiating a cascade of inflammatory reactions detrimental to the cardiovascular system. In addition, leakage of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines from the ulcerated periodontium into the bloodstream may cause the production of hepatic acute-phase proteins. Moreover, as chronic bacteremia occurs, the adaptive immune system is activated. Antibodies produced in response to periodontal pathogens trigger a cross-reaction between endothelial cells and modified low-density lipoprotein to enhance the movement of lipids into cells within the vessel wall. Some antibodies and inflammatory cytokines promote the Th1 response, thereby further activating macrophages within the atheroma. These plausible mechanisms are contributing factors in initiating and propagating atherogenesis. This review discusses the current understanding of CVD pathology/periodontitis, potential underlying mechanisms regarding this association, and general guidelines for treating patients with CVD risks.

  2. Clinical Profiles Associated with Influenza Disease in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Gregory V.; Long, James P.; Ortiz, Diana I.; Gainey, Melicia; Carper, Benjamin A.; Feng, Jingyu; Miller, Stephen M.; Bigger, John E.; Vela, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses continue to pose a threat to human health; thus, various vaccines and prophylaxis continue to be developed. Testing of these products requires various animal models including mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. However, because ferrets are naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza viruses and because the disease state resembles that of human influenza, these animals have been widely used as a model to study influenza virus pathogenesis. In this report, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate data involving 269 ferrets infected with seasonal influenza, swine influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from 16 different studies over a five year period. The aim of the analyses was to better qualify the ferret model by identifying relationships among important animal model parameters (endpoints) and variables of interest, which include survival, time-to-death, changes in body temperature and weight, and nasal wash samples containing virus, in addition to significant changes from baseline in selected hematology and clinical chemistry parameters. The results demonstrate that a disease clinical profile, consisting of various changes in the biological parameters tested, is associated with various influenza A infections in ferrets. Additionally, the analysis yielded correlates of protection associated with HPAI disease in ferrets. In all, the results from this study further validate the use of the ferret as a model to study influenza A pathology and to evaluate product efficacy. PMID:23472182

  3. Neoplastic associations of rheumatic diseases and rheumatic manifestations of cancer.

    PubMed

    Benedek, T G

    1988-05-01

    Associations between rheumatic diseases and malignant neoplasms are still inferential and based largely on epidemiologic data. Rheumatoid arthritis predisposes weakly to the occurrence of lymphoreticular neoplasms. This is more clearly true of Sjögren's disease, whether or not it is associated with RA. A subset of DM/PM which becomes manifest in close temporal proximity to a neoplasm may be a paraneoplastic reaction, but DM/PM, in general, does not predispose to neoplasia. Scleroderma in its early phase is associated with the development of breast cancer in women, and after a decade or longer, if pulmonary fibrosis has developed, with lung cancer. Of the drugs that have been used to treat these diseases, cyclophosphamide is most strongly implicated as a carcinogenic agent, particularly inducing lymphoreticular neoplasms and carcinoma of the bladder. Musculoskeletal symptoms that may be clues to the existence of cancer may either be caused by invasion of the neoplasm or be mediated by unidentified neurohumoral mechanisms. Except for multiple myeloma, primary neoplasms of skeletal tissues tend to occur under the age of 50 years. Metastatic disease occurs congruently with the age incidence of the primary neoplasm. Metastases may mimic mono- or oligoarticular arthritis if they happen to be periarticular or synovial. These metastases result most often from carcinoma of the lung or, in women, carcinoma of the breast. Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy usually is due to carcinomas of the lung other than the small cell variety, and infrequently from other intrathoracic primary or secondary neoplasms. RA may be mimicked. Both skeletal metastases and HPOA are detected with greater sensitivity, but not specificity, by isotopic scanning techniques than by radiography. Of the other paraneoplastic musculoskeletal syndromes, neuromyopathy is the most frequent. It must be distinguished from cachexia, polymyositis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and the myasthenic syndrome. Both

  4. Association between abdominal aortic plaque and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Luo, Songyuan; Luo, Jianfang; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Currently, the association between abdominal aortic plaques and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not yet been clarified clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques by ultrasound imaging and to explore its association with CAD in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Between October 2014 and June 2015, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Cardiology at Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. Ultrasound scanning of the abdominal aortas was performed in 1,667 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. Results Of the 1,667 study patients (male, 68.9%; mean age, 63±11 years) undergoing coronary angiography, 1,268 had CAD. Compared with 399 patients without CAD, 1,268 patients with CAD had higher prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques (37.3% vs 17%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the presence of CAD (odds ratio =2.08; 95% confidence interval =1.50–2.90; P<0.001). Of the 1,268 patients with CAD, the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was 27.0% (98/363) in patients with one-vessel disease, 35.0% (107/306) in patients with two-vessel disease, and 44.7% (268/599) in patients with three-vessel disease. Stepwise increases in the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaque was found depending on the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001; P-value for trend <0.001). In an ordinal logistic regression model, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the severity of CAD according to the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was higher in patients with CAD than in those without CAD. Abdominal aortic plaque was an independent factor associated with the presence and severity of CAD. PMID:27279740

  5. Economic burden of disease-associated malnutrition in China.

    PubMed

    Linthicum, Mark T; Thornton Snider, Julia; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Wu, Yanyu; LaVallee, Chris; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Benner, Jennifer E; Philipson, Tomas J

    2015-05-01

    Disease-associated malnutrition (DAM) is a well-recognized problem in many countries, but the extent of its burden on the Chinese population is unclear. This article reports the results of a burden-of-illness study on DAM in 15 diseases in China. Using data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the published literature, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost because of DAM were calculated; a financial value of this burden was calculated following WHO guidelines. DALYs lost annually to DAM in China varied across diseases, from a low of 2248 in malaria to a high of 1 315 276 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The total burden was 6.1 million DALYs, for an economic burden of US$66 billion (Chinese ¥ 447 billion) annually. This burden is sufficiently large to warrant immediate attention from public health officials and medical providers, especially given that low-cost and effective interventions are available.

  6. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, Frank K; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Foster, Gary D; Richter, Joel E

    2008-08-01

    Nearly all epidemiologic studies have found an association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Changes in gastroesophageal anatomy and physiology caused by obesity may explain the association. These include an increased prevalence of esophageal motor disorders, diminished lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, the development of a hiatal hernia, and increased intragastric pressure. Central adiposity may be the most important risk for the development of reflux and related complications such as Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Weight loss, through caloric restriction and behavioral modification, has been studied infrequently as a means of improving reflux. Bariatric surgery and its effects on a number of obesity-related disorders have been studied more extensively. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been consistently associated with improvement in the symptoms and findings of GERD. The mechanism of action through which this surgery is successful at improving GERD may be independent of weight loss and needs further examination. Current evidence suggests that laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding should be avoided in these patients as the impact on gastroesophageal reflux disease appears unfavorable.

  7. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy.

  8. Mitigating false-positive associations in rare disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Akle, Sebastian; Chun, Sung; Jordan, Daniel M; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Clinical sequencing is expanding, but causal variants are still not identified in the majority of cases. These unsolved cases can aid in gene discovery when individuals with similar phenotypes are identified in systems such as the Matchmaker Exchange. We describe risks for gene discovery in this growing set of unsolved cases. In a set of rare disease cases with the same phenotype, it is not difficult to find two individuals with the same phenotype that carry variants in the same gene. We quantify the risk of false-positive association in a cohort of individuals with the same phenotype, using the prior probability of observing a variant in each gene from over 60,000 individuals (Exome Aggregation Consortium). Based on the number of individuals with a genic variant, cohort size, specific gene, and mode of inheritance, we calculate a P value that the match represents a true association. A match in two of 10 patients in MECP2 is statistically significant (P = 0.0014), whereas a match in TTN would not reach significance, as expected (P > 0.999). Finally, we analyze the probability of matching in clinical exome cases to estimate the number of cases needed to identify genes related to different disorders. We offer Rare Disease Match, an online tool to mitigate the uncertainty of false-positive associations. PMID:26378430

  9. Mitigating false-positive associations in rare disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Akle, Sebastian; Chun, Sung; Jordan, Daniel M; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Clinical sequencing is expanding, but causal variants are still not identified in the majority of cases. These unsolved cases can aid in gene discovery when individuals with similar phenotypes are identified in systems such as the Matchmaker Exchange. We describe risks for gene discovery in this growing set of unsolved cases. In a set of rare disease cases with the same phenotype, it is not difficult to find two individuals with the same phenotype that carry variants in the same gene. We quantify the risk of false-positive association in a cohort of individuals with the same phenotype, using the prior probability of observing a variant in each gene from over 60,000 individuals (Exome Aggregation Consortium). Based on the number of individuals with a genic variant, cohort size, specific gene, and mode of inheritance, we calculate a P value that the match represents a true association. A match in two of 10 patients in MECP2 is statistically significant (P = 0.0014), whereas a match in TTN would not reach significance, as expected (P > 0.999). Finally, we analyze the probability of matching in clinical exome cases to estimate the number of cases needed to identify genes related to different disorders. We offer Rare Disease Match, an online tool to mitigate the uncertainty of false-positive associations.

  10. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    PubMed

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables. PMID:27277362

  11. Challenges associated with peripheral arterial disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Barochiner, Jessica; Aparicio, Lucas S; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an increasingly recognized disorder that is associated with functional impairment, quality-of-life deterioration, increased risk of cardiovascular ischemic events, and increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality. Although earlier studies suggested that PAD was more common in men, recent reports based on more sensitive tests have shown that the prevalence of PAD in women is at least the same as in men, if not higher. PAD tends to present itself asymptomatically or with atypical symptoms more frequently in women than in men, and is associated with comorbidities or situations particularly or exclusively found in the female sex, such as osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, the use of oral contraceptives, and a history of complications during pregnancy. Fat-distribution patterns and differential vascular characteristics in women may influence the interpretation of diagnostic methods, whereas sex-related vulnerability to drugs typically used in subjects with PAD, differences in risk-factor distribution among sexes, and distinct responses to revascularization procedures in men and women must be taken into account for proper disease management. All these issues pose important challenges associated with PAD in women. Of note, this group has classically been underrepresented in research studies. As a consequence, several sex-related challenges regarding diagnosis and management issues should be acknowledged, and research gaps should be addressed in order to successfully deal with this major health issue. PMID:24648743

  12. Challenges Associated with Metal Chelation Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Bharathi, P.; Suram, Anitha; Venugopal, Chitra; Jagannathan, Ramya; Poddar, Pankaj; Srinivas, Pullabhatla; Sambamurti, Kumar; Rao, Kosagisharaf Jagannatha; Scancar, Janez; Messori, Luigi; Zecca, Luigi; Zatta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    A close association between brain metal dishomeostasis and the onset and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been clearly established in a number of studies, although the underlying biochemical mechanisms remain obscure. This observation renders chelation therapy an attractive pharmacological option for the treatment of this disease. However, a number of requirements must be fulfilled in order to adapt chelation therapy to AD so that the term “metal targeted strategies” seems now more appropriate. Indeed, brain metal redistribution rather than brain metal scavenging and removal is the major goal of this type of intervention. The most recent developments in metal targeted strategies for AD will be discussed using, as useful examples, clioquinol, curcumin, and epigallocatechin, and the future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:19363258

  13. Membranous nephropathy PLA2R+ associated with Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vanessa dos Santos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) — a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi — is a major health problem in Latin America. The immune response against the parasite is responsible for chronic CD lesions. Currently, there are no reports of an association between CD and membranous nephropathy (MN). The detection of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as a target antigen in idiopathic MN can improve the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary forms of MN. The authors report the case of a male patient with positive serology for CD who presented sudden death and underwent autopsy. Histological sections of the heart showed multifocal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells, leading to myocardiocytes necrosis and interstitial fibrosis. The kidneys showed a MN with positive expression for PLA2R. As far as we know, this is the first report of a case of primary MN in a patient with CD, with severe chronic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. PMID:26558244

  14. A novel emaravirus is associated with redbud yellow ringspot disease.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, Patrick L; Laney, Alma G; Druciarek, Tobiasz; Ho, Thien; Gergerich, Rose C; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2016-08-15

    Yellow ringspot is the only virus-like disease reported in redbud (Cercis spp.) with symptoms including vein clearing, chlorotic ringspots and oak-leaf pattern. A putative new emaravirus was present in all trees displaying typical yellow ringspot symptoms and the name redbud yellow ringspot associated virus is proposed. The virus genome is composed of at least five RNA segments. Two coding regions were studied to determine isolate diversity with results pointing to a homogeneous virus population. Host range was evaluated using graft transmission and by testing species found in close proximity to infected trees. Mite transmission with Aculops cercidis, the predominant species found in redbud trees in the epicenter of the disease, was evaluated but was not found to be a vector of the virus. Based on this study and the accumulated knowledge on emaravirus evolution we propose that speciation is allopatric, with vectors being a major component of the process.

  15. Membranous nephropathy PLA2R+ associated with Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Xavier-Júnior, José Cândido Caldeira; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) - a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi - is a major health problem in Latin America. The immune response against the parasite is responsible for chronic CD lesions. Currently, there are no reports of an association between CD and membranous nephropathy (MN). The detection of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as a target antigen in idiopathic MN can improve the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary forms of MN. The authors report the case of a male patient with positive serology for CD who presented sudden death and underwent autopsy. Histological sections of the heart showed multifocal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells, leading to myocardiocytes necrosis and interstitial fibrosis. The kidneys showed a MN with positive expression for PLA2R. As far as we know, this is the first report of a case of primary MN in a patient with CD, with severe chronic cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

  16. The pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Kelly Miller

    2012-11-01

    Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) remains the most life-threatening complication in Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients. The pathogenesis of HAEC has not been determined and many hypotheses regarding the etiology of HAEC have been proposed. These include a possible causal relationship between the abnormal enteric nervous system development in HD and the development of enterocolitis. Based on the complex genetic causes of HD that have been discovered and the resultant heterogeneous group of patients that exists, the causes of HAEC are likely multiple. New insights regarding the relationship of the role of the enteric nervous system and its interaction between intestinal barrier function, innate host immunity, and commensal microflora have been discovered, which may shed light on this perplexing problem. This review presents current known risk factors of HAEC and the proposed theories and supporting evidence for the potential etiologies of HAEC.

  17. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Petrina Jáuregui, Estrella; Elizondo Armendáriz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a particularly important problem in patients who need this type of nutritional support for a long time. Prevalence of the condition is highly variable depending on the series, and its clinical presentation is different in adults and children. The etiology of PNALD is not well defined, and participation of several factors at the same time has been suggested. When a bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is detected for a long time, other causes of liver disease should be ruled out and risk factors should be minimized. The composition of lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition is one of the factors related to PNALD. This article reviews the different types of lipid emulsions and the potential benefits of emulsions enriched with omega-3 fatty acids.

  18. Selected list of books and journals in allied health *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.; Hill, Dorothy R.

    1996-01-01

    This list of 410 books and 76 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and described in the AMA's Allied Health and Rehabilitation Professions Education Directory, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, nutrition, and speech pathology/audiology programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (163 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1996 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $26,740. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $11,160. PMID:16018053

  19. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an often overlooked but important nutrient, required in small amounts for multiple essential functions in the body. A recent study on cows fed genetically modified Roundup®-Ready feed revealed a severe depletion of serum Mn. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, has also been shown to severely deplete Mn levels in plants. Here, we investigate the impact of Mn on physiology, and its association with gut dysbiosis as well as neuropathologies such as autism, Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, anxiety syndrome, Parkinson's disease (PD), and prion diseases. Glutamate overexpression in the brain in association with autism, AD, and other neurological diseases can be explained by Mn deficiency. Mn superoxide dismutase protects mitochondria from oxidative damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a key feature of autism and Alzheimer’s. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis depends on Mn, and its deficiency leads to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Lactobacillus, depleted in autism, depend critically on Mn for antioxidant protection. Lactobacillus probiotics can treat anxiety, which is a comorbidity of autism and chronic fatigue syndrome. Reduced gut Lactobacillus leads to overgrowth of the pathogen, Salmonella, which is resistant to glyphosate toxicity, and Mn plays a role here as well. Sperm motility depends on Mn, and this may partially explain increased rates of infertility and birth defects. We further reason that, under conditions of adequate Mn in the diet, glyphosate, through its disruption of bile acid homeostasis, ironically promotes toxic accumulation of Mn in the brainstem, leading to conditions such as PD and prion diseases. PMID:25883837

  20. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies.

    PubMed

    Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an often overlooked but important nutrient, required in small amounts for multiple essential functions in the body. A recent study on cows fed genetically modified Roundup(®)-Ready feed revealed a severe depletion of serum Mn. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup(®), has also been shown to severely deplete Mn levels in plants. Here, we investigate the impact of Mn on physiology, and its association with gut dysbiosis as well as neuropathologies such as autism, Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, anxiety syndrome, Parkinson's disease (PD), and prion diseases. Glutamate overexpression in the brain in association with autism, AD, and other neurological diseases can be explained by Mn deficiency. Mn superoxide dismutase protects mitochondria from oxidative damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a key feature of autism and Alzheimer's. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis depends on Mn, and its deficiency leads to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Lactobacillus, depleted in autism, depend critically on Mn for antioxidant protection. Lactobacillus probiotics can treat anxiety, which is a comorbidity of autism and chronic fatigue syndrome. Reduced gut Lactobacillus leads to overgrowth of the pathogen, Salmonella, which is resistant to glyphosate toxicity, and Mn plays a role here as well. Sperm motility depends on Mn, and this may partially explain increased rates of infertility and birth defects. We further reason that, under conditions of adequate Mn in the diet, glyphosate, through its disruption of bile acid homeostasis, ironically promotes toxic accumulation of Mn in the brainstem, leading to conditions such as PD and prion diseases. PMID:25883837

  1. Genetic determinants of quantitative traits associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Smolková, Božena; Bonassi, Stefano; Buociková, Verona; Dušinská, Mária; Horská, Alexandra; Kuba, Daniel; Džupinková, Zuzana; Rašlová, Katarína; Gašparovič, Juraj; Slíž, Ivan; Ceppi, Marcello; Vohnout, Branislav; Wsólová, Ladislava; Volkovová, Katarína

    2015-08-01

    Established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may be moderated by genetic variants. In 2403 unrelated individuals from general practice (mean age 40.5 years), we evaluated the influence of 15 variants in 12 candidate genes on quantitative traits (QT) associated with CVD (body mass index, abdominal obesity, glucose, serum lipids, and blood pressure). Prior to multiple testing correction, univariate analysis associated APOE rs429358, rs7412 and ATG16L1 rs2241880 variants with serum lipid levels, while LEPR rs1137100 and ATG16L1 rs2241880 variants were linked to obesity related QTs. After taking into account confounding factors and correcting for multiple comparisons only APOE rs429358 and rs7412 variants remained significantly associated with risk of dyslipidemia. APOE rs429358 variant almost tripled the risk in homozygous subjects (OR = 2.97; 95% CI 1.09-8.10, p < 0.03) and had a lesser but still highly significant association also in heterozygous individuals (OR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.24-2.10; p < 0.001). Associations with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome were not significant after Bonferroni correction. The influence of genetic variation is more evident in dyslipidemia than in other analyzed QTs. These results may contribute to strategic research aimed at including genetic variation in the set of data required to identify subjects at high risk of CVD. PMID:26043189

  2. Loss of semantic associative categories in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Passafiume, Domenico; De Federicis, Lucia Serenella; Carbone, Gabriele; Di Giacomo, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of semantic memory is one of the primary neuropsychological deficits caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we hypothesize that the breakdown of semantic memory in the mild-to-moderate stage of AD is due to the disruption of the semantic network that links the concepts. Furthermore, the loss of these links is not homogeneous through the semantic association categories (i.e., Superordinate, Contiguity, Part/Whole, Attribute, Function). Twenty-two subjects (11 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia and 11 control subjects matched on demographics) participated in the study. Both controls and patients with AD underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation and three experimental tasks: (1) Naming Task, (2) Semantic Association Task, and (3) Semantic Knowledge Task. Results showed that: (1) The AD group was significantly different from the normal controls group in all the experimental tasks; (2) the Semantic Association Task was significantly worse than the other tasks; (3) for the AD group, the scores of the Function and Part/Whole association categories were higher than in the other categories; and (4) living stimuli were more impaired than nonliving. These data confirm prior research showing the semantic association is differently impaired in AD patients. PMID:23373643

  3. Association of coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease in Lebanese population

    PubMed Central

    Milane, Aline; Khazen, Georges; Zeineddine, Nabil; Amro, Mazen; Masri, Leila; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Youhanna, Sonia; Salloum, Angelique K; Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Othman, Raed; Kabbani, Samer; Sbeite, Hana; Chami, Youssef; Chammas, Elie; el Bayeh, Hamid; Gauguier, Dominique; Abchee, Antoine B; Zalloua, Pierre; Barbari, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Background: More evidence is emerging on the strong association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. We assessed the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and renal dysfunction level (RDL) in a group of Lebanese patients. Methods: A total of 1268 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were sequentially enrolled in a multicenter cross sectional study. Angiograms were reviewed and CAD severity scores (CADSS) were determined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and clinical and laboratory data were obtained. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min. Logistic regression model was performed using multivariate analysis including all traditional risk factors associated with both diseases. ANOVA and the Tukeytestswere used to compare subgroups of patients and to assess the impact of each disease on the severity of the other. Results: Among the 82% patients who exhibited variable degrees of CAD, 20.6% had an eGFR < 60 ml/min. Logistic regression analysis revealed a bidirectional independent association between CAD and CKD with an OR = 2.01 (P < 0.01) and an OR = 1.99 (P < 0.01) for CAD and CKD frequencies, respectively. We observed a steady increase in the CADSS mean as eGFR declined and a progressive reduction in renal function with the worsening of CAD (P < 0.05). This correlation remained highly significant despite considerable inter-patient variability and was at its highest at the most advanced stages of both diseases. Conclusions: Our results show a strong, independent and graded bidirectional relationship between CAD severity and RDL. We propose to add CAD to the list of risk factors for the development and progression of CKD. PMID:26629090

  4. Associations of Prolonged QTc in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Indik, Julia H.; Nair, Vineet; Rafikov, Ruslan; Nyotowidjojo, Iwan S.; Bisla, Jaskanwal; Kansal, Mayank; Parikh, Devang S.; Robinson, Melissa; Desai, Anand; Oberoi, Megha; Gupta, Akash; Abbasi, Taimur; Khalpey, Zain; Patel, Amit R.; Lang, Roberto M.; Dudley, Samuel C.; Choi, Bum-Rak; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Machado, Roberto F.; Desai, Ankit A.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden death is a leading cause of mortality in sickle cell disease, implicating ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Prolonged QTc on an electrocardiogram (ECG), commonly seen with myocardial ischemia, is a known risk for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). We hypothesized that prolonged QTc is associated with mortality in sickle cell disease. ECG were analyzed from a cohort of 224 sickle patients (University of Illinois at Chicago, UIC) along with available laboratory, and echocardiographic findings, and from another cohort of 38 patients (University of Chicago, UC) for which cardiac MRI and free heme values were also measured. In the UIC cohort, QTc was potentially related to mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.22 per 10ms, (P = 0.015), and a HR = 3.19 (P = 0.045) for a QTc>480ms. In multivariate analyses, QTc remained significantly associated with survival after adjusting for inpatient ECG status (HR 1.26 per 10ms interval, P = 0.010) and genotype status [HR 1.21 per 10ms interval, P = 0.037). QTc trended toward association with mortality after adjusting for both LDH and hydroxyurea use (HR 1.21 per 10ms interval, P = 0.062) but was not significant after adjusting for TRV. In univariate analyses, QTc was related to markers of hemolysis including AST (P = 0.031), hemoglobin (P = 0.014), TR velocity (P = 0.036), higher in inpatients (P<0.001) and those with an SS compared to SC genotype (P<0.001) in the UIC cohort as well as to free heme in the UC cohort (P = 0.002). These findings support a relationship of prolonged QTc with hemolysis and potentially mortality in sickle cell disease. PMID:27736922

  5. Associations between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of carbonated beverages was reported to be associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2010 were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 5517 respondents >19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of carbonated beverages or outcome variables. The community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontal treatment needs tended to increase with the consumption of carbonated beverages. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for various factors including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, dental checkup within a year, consumption of coffee of the individuals with the consumption of carbonated beverages once or less per month, once or less per week and twice or more per week were 1.109(0.804,1.528), 1.404(1.035,1.906), and 1.466(1.059,2.029), respectively. A subgroup analysis revealed that in individuals with body mass index < 25 or waist circumference < 90 cm for males or < 80 cm for females, the prevalence of periodontal disease increased with higher consumption of carbonated beverages (P for trend < 0.05). Consumption of carbonated beverages was positively associated with the risk of periodontal disease in Korean adults. In a subgroup analysis, the individuals consuming carbonated beverages with body mass index < 25 or waist circumference < 90 cm for males or < 80 cm for females were more likely to have periodontal disease. Consumption of carbonated beverages may be considered to be

  6. Zoonotic diseases associated with reptiles and amphibians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are popular as pets. There are increased concerns among public health officials because of the zoonotic potential associated with these animals. Encounters with reptiles and amphibians are also on the rise in the laboratory setting and with wild animals; in both of these practices, there is also an increased likelihood for exposure to zoonotic pathogens. It is important that veterinarians remain current with the literature as it relates to emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases attributed to reptiles and amphibians so that they can protect themselves, their staff, and their clients from potential problems.

  7. A new ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Thekke-Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2014-08-30

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new ophiovirus in symptomatic plants. The virus was detected in all BMD samples collected from several production areas of North America and was thus named blueberry mosaic associated virus. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by high bootstrap values, places the virus within the family Ophioviridae. The genome organization resembles that of citrus psorosis virus, the type member of the genus Ophiovirus. The implications of this discovery in BMD control and blueberry virus certification schemes are also discussed.

  8. Travel associated legionnaires' disease in Europe in 1999.

    PubMed

    Lever, F; Joseph, C A

    2001-04-01

    The European Surveillance Scheme for Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease was notified of the highest number of cases in travellers in 1999 since the scheme began in 1987. This reflects enhanced surveillance activities and an increase in the use of urinary antigen detection for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The scheme's extensive reporting and investigation activities are complemented in some countries by the activities of tour operators, who have been legally responsible for the health and safety of their clients since the 1996 European Commission's Package Travel Directive came into force. In recent years, the work conducted by the collaborators has helped establish good surveillance and control in sites used by travellers.

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  10. RFLP analysis for APP 717 mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeldenrust, S R; Murrell, J; Farlow, M; Ghetti, B; Roses, A D; Benson, M D

    1993-06-01

    Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) has been shown to be associated with three distinct point mutations within the same codon of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. The mutation identified in the Indiana kindred is a G-->T transversion at the first position of the codon for amino acid 717, resulting in a substitution of phenylalanine for valine in the APP protein. Screening of persons at risk for the APP Phe-717 mutation using a variation of the polymerase chain reaction identified nine positives among 34 tested. In addition, DNA from 145 FAD subjects were tested for the three known APP 717 mutations.

  11. Factors associated with lowered intelligence in homozygous sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, S; Singhal, A; Thomas, P; Serjeant, G

    1995-10-01

    The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 60 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and 60 age and sex matched controls with a normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype aged 15-18 years, followed up in a cohort study from birth, was assessed by the Wechsler intelligence scales for children or for adults. IQ appeared to be normally distributed in both genotypes but mean values in SS disease were 5.6 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 10.2) lower than in AA controls (p = 0.016). The difference occurred in both verbal (5.5 points, p = 0.017) and performance (5.0 points, p = 0.044) subscales of the IQ score and the IQ defect in SS disease was associated with a significantly lower attention factor score (p = 0.005) but not with other factor scores. The genotype difference in IQ was not accounted for by differences in parental occupational level, school absenteeism, or school drop out, or reported activity level. In SS disease, IQ was not related to mean steady state haemoglobin, fetal haemoglobin, or mean cell haemoglobin concentration, or clinical severity as judged by the frequency of painful crises, hospital admission, or sick visits. IQ, at age 15-18 years, correlated with the patients' height at all ages from 1 to 10 years (partial correlations increasing from 0.14 (p = 0.15) at age 1 to 0.27 (p = 0.004) at age 10). Adjusting for height reduced the mean genotype difference in IQ to 5.5 (95% CI 0.6 to 10.3) points at age 1 and to 2.6 points (95% CI to -2.3, 7.5) at age 10. Prepubertal height therefore accounted for much of the genotype difference in IQ. It is speculated that early factors, possible nutritional, contribute to both impaired growth and mental development in sickle cell disease. PMID:7492195

  12. The spectrum of nephrocutaneous diseases and associations: Genetic causes of nephrocutaneous disease.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Jay; Fenves, Andrew Z; Jackson, J Mark; Kimball, Alexa B; Menter, Alan

    2016-02-01

    There are a significant number of diseases and treatment considerations of considerable importance relating to the skin and renal systems. This emphasizes the need for dermatologists in practice or in clinical training to be aware of these associations. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews the genetic syndromes with both renal and cutaneous involvement that are most important for the dermatologist to be able to identify, manage, and appropriately refer to nephrology colleagues. Part II reviews the inflammatory syndromes with relevant renal manifestations and therapeutic agents commonly used by dermatologists that have drug-induced effects on or require close consideration of renal function. In addition, we will likewise review therapeutic agents commonly used by nephrologists that have drug-induced effects on the skin that dermatologists are likely to encounter in clinical practice. In both parts of this continuing medical education article, we discuss diagnosis, management, and appropriate referral to our nephrology colleagues in the context of each nephrocutaneous association. There are a significant number of dermatoses associated with renal abnormalities and disease, emphasizing the need for dermatologists to be keenly aware of their presence in order to avoid overlooking important skin conditions with potentially devastating renal complications. This review discusses important nephrocutaneous disease associations with recommendations for the appropriate urgency of referral to nephrology colleagues for diagnosis, surveillance, and early management of potential renal sequelae.

  13. The spectrum of nephrocutaneous diseases and associations: Genetic causes of nephrocutaneous disease.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Jay; Fenves, Andrew Z; Jackson, J Mark; Kimball, Alexa B; Menter, Alan

    2016-02-01

    There are a significant number of diseases and treatment considerations of considerable importance relating to the skin and renal systems. This emphasizes the need for dermatologists in practice or in clinical training to be aware of these associations. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews the genetic syndromes with both renal and cutaneous involvement that are most important for the dermatologist to be able to identify, manage, and appropriately refer to nephrology colleagues. Part II reviews the inflammatory syndromes with relevant renal manifestations and therapeutic agents commonly used by dermatologists that have drug-induced effects on or require close consideration of renal function. In addition, we will likewise review therapeutic agents commonly used by nephrologists that have drug-induced effects on the skin that dermatologists are likely to encounter in clinical practice. In both parts of this continuing medical education article, we discuss diagnosis, management, and appropriate referral to our nephrology colleagues in the context of each nephrocutaneous association. There are a significant number of dermatoses associated with renal abnormalities and disease, emphasizing the need for dermatologists to be keenly aware of their presence in order to avoid overlooking important skin conditions with potentially devastating renal complications. This review discusses important nephrocutaneous disease associations with recommendations for the appropriate urgency of referral to nephrology colleagues for diagnosis, surveillance, and early management of potential renal sequelae. PMID:26775773

  14. Association Between Thoracic Aortic Disease and Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Christian; Eriksson, Per; Franco‐Cereceda, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background The study hypothesis was that thoracic aortic disease (TAD) is associated with a higher‐than‐expected prevalence of inguinal hernia. Such an association has been reported for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and hernia. Unlike AAA, TAD is not necessarily detectable with clinical examination or ultrasound, and there are no population‐based screening programs for TAD. Therefore, conditions associated with TAD, such as inguinal hernia, are of particular clinical relevance. Methods and Results The prevalence of inguinal hernia in subjects with TAD was determined from nation‐wide register data and compared to a non‐TAD group (patients with isolated aortic stenosis). Groups were balanced using propensity score matching. Multivariable statistical analysis (logistic regression) was performed to identify variables independently associated with hernia. Hernia prevalence was 110 of 750 (15%) in subjects with TAD versus 29 of 301 (9.6%) in non‐TAD, P=0.03. This statistically significant difference remained after propensity score matching: 21 of 159 (13%) in TAD versus 14 of 159 (8.9%) in non‐TAD, P<0.001. Variables independently associated with hernia in multivariable analysis were male sex (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) 3.4 (2.1 to 5.4), P<0.001; increased age, OR 1.02/year (1.004 to 1.04), P=0.014; and TAD, OR 1.8 (1.1 to 2.8), P=0.015. Conclusions The prevalence of inguinal hernia (15%) in TAD is higher than expected in a general population and higher in TAD, compared to non‐TAD. TAD is independently associated with hernia in multivariable analysis. Presence or history of hernia may be of importance in detecting TAD, and the association warrants further study. PMID:25146705

  15. Effective Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease by Means of Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, R.; Ramírez, J.; Górriz, J. M.; López, M.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Illán, I.; Segovia, F.; Padilla, P.

    In this paper we present a novel classification method of SPECT images for the early diagnosis of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). The proposed method is based on Association Rules (ARs) aiming to discover interesting associations between attributes contained in the database. The system uses firstly voxel-as-features (VAF) and Activation Estimation (AE) to find tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs act as inputs to secondly mining ARs between activated blocks for controls, with a specified minimum support and minimum confidence. ARs are mined in supervised mode, using information previously extracted from the most discriminant rules for centering interest in the relevant brain areas, reducing the computational requirement of the system. Finally classification process is performed depending on the number of previously mined rules verified by each subject, yielding an up to 95.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for AD diagnosis.

  16. Association between celiac disease and primary lactase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Basso, M S; Luciano, R; Ferretti, F; Muraca, M; Panetta, F; Bracci, F; Ottino, S; Diamanti, A

    2012-12-01

    Primary lactase deficiency (PLD) is a common inherited condition caused by a reduced activity of lactase. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms C/T(-13910) and G/A(-22018) upstream of the lactase gene are associated with lactase nonpersistence. In celiac disease (CD) patients, lactose intolerance could be due to secondary lactase deficiency and to PLD. The aim of this study were to evaluate the association of PLD and CD using genetic test, and to define the prevalence of PLD in celiac subjects compared with a control population. A total of 188 controls and 92 biopsy-proven CD patients were included in the study. More than 70% of all subjects were found homozygous for the polymorphisms. Differences in the prevalence of PLD were not found between CD patients and controls.In conclusions, the hereditary lactase deficiency is frequent in Italian CD children as in control population.

  17. The association between periodontal disease parameters and severity of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Mohammad; Meybodi, Fatemeh Rashidi; Asgari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for heart attack and stroke. In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal infection and atherosclerosis. The aim of this research was to determine the possible association between chronic periodontal disease and severity of atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two subjects that were referred to Chamran Heart Hospital in Isfahan for angiography were involved in this study. Fifty-nine subjects had coronary artery obstruction (CAO) and 23 showed no obstruction after angiography. The severity of CAO was assessed. Periodontal parameters including pocket depth (PD), gingival recession (R), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) of all subjects were recorded. The decayed-missing-filled (DMF) index of all subjects was also measured. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation test, Chi-square, and independent t-test were used. Results: There were significant positive correlation between variables R, PD, CAL, decayed (D), missing (M), DMF, BOP, and degree of CAO. However, there were no significant differences between filling variable degree of CAO (left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery). Independent t-test showed that the mean of variables R, PD, AL, D, M, and DMF in patients with obstructed arteries were significantly higher than subjects without CAO. But there were no significant differences between variable F in two groups. Conclusion: The results of this cross-section analytical study showed an association between periodontal disease and dental parameters with the severity of CAO measured by angiography. However, this association must not interpret as a cause and effect relationship. PMID:27274346

  18. Allied health: untapped potential in the Australian health system.

    PubMed

    Philip, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Although comprising around 20 per cent ofAustralia's health care workforce, allied health and its contribution to improving health outcomes remains poorly understood and largely invisible in the Australian health policy and reform environment. There is strong evidence demonstrating the benefits of allied health in improving patient outcomes, minimising risk and harm from illness and improving health system efficiency and capacity to meet increased demand cost effectively. Despite this, the existing health model, funding and culture prevent us from effectively accessing these benefits at a system level. The untapped potential of allied health represents a major underutilised resource to address many of the challenges facing Australia's health system today. A transformational change in the Australian health system in how, where and by whom care is provided is necessary. Australia's health model and culture needs to shift, to genuinely involve the consumer and make fill use of all three pillars of the patient care workforce. PMID:26629583

  19. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K.

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  20. Association Between Genetic Traits for Immune-Mediated Diseases and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Wang, Yunpeng; Schork, Andrew J.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Karch, Celeste M.; Cruchaga, Carlos; McEvoy, Linda K.; Witoelar, Aree; Chen, Chi-Hua; Holland, Dominic; Brewer, James B.; Franke, Andre; Dillon, William P.; Wilson, David M.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Hess, Christopher P.; Miller, Zachary; Bonham, Luke W.; Shen, Jeffrey; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Karlsen, Tom H.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Dale, Anders M.; Desikan, Rahul S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, places a large burden on families and society. Although epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests a relationship between inflammation and AD, their relationship is not well understood and could have implications for treatment and prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a subset of genes involved with increased risk of inflammation are also associated with increased risk for AD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a genetic epidemiology study conducted in July 2015, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between AD (International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project stage 1) and Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, and psoriasis using summary data from genome-wide association studies at multiple academic clinical research centers. P values and odds ratios from genome-wide association studies of more than 100 000 individuals were from previous comparisons of patients vs respective control cohorts. Diagnosis for each disorder was previously established for the parent study using consensus criteria. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the pleiotropic (conjunction) false discovery rate P value. Follow-up for candidate variants included neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology; longitudinal Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale scores as a measure of cognitive dysfunction (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative); and gene expression in AD vs control brains (Gene Expression Omnibus data). RESULTS Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (false discovery rate P < .05) were associated with both AD and immune-mediated diseases. Of these, rs2516049 (closest gene HLA-DRB5; conjunction false discovery rate P = .04 for AD and psoriasis, 5.37 × 10−5 for AD, and 6.03 × 10−15 for psoriasis) and rs12570088 (closest gene IPMK; conjunction false discovery rate P = .009 for

  1. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Susan; Holden, Libby; Golenko, Xanthe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in allied health, a clearer understanding is required of what assists and encourages research as well as the barriers and challenges. Participants and methods This study used written surveys to collect data relating to motivators, enablers, and barriers to research capacity building. Respondents were asked to answer questions relating to them as individuals and other questions relating to their team. Allied health professionals were recruited from multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Queensland Health. Eighty-five participants from ten healthcare teams completed a written version of the research capacity and culture survey. Results The results of this study indicate that individual allied health professionals are more likely to report being motivated to do research by intrinsic factors such as a strong interest in research. Barriers they identified to research are more likely to be extrinsic factors such as workload and lack of time. Allied health professionals identified some additional factors that impact on their research capacity than those reported in the literature, such as a desire to keep at the “cutting edge” and a lack of exposure to research. Some of the factors influencing individuals to do research were different to those influencing teams. These results are discussed with reference to organizational behavior and theories of motivation. Conclusion Supporting already motivated allied health professional individuals and teams to conduct research by increased skills training, infrastructure, and quarantined time is likely to produce better outcomes for research capacity building investment. PMID

  2. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  3. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  4. Antioxidant Supplementation in the Treatment of Aging-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Valeria; Izzo, Viviana; Corbi, Graziamaria; Russomanno, Giusy; Manzo, Valentina; De Lise, Federica; Di Donato, Alberto; Filippelli, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is generally considered as the consequence of an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants species, which often results into indiscriminate and global damage at the organismal level. Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress and this depends, almost in part, from a decreased performance of their endogenous antioxidant system. As many studies reported an inverse correlation between systemic levels of antioxidants and several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes and neurological disorders, antioxidant supplementation has been foreseen as an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention for aging-associated pathologies. However, the expectations of this therapeutic approach have often been partially disappointed by clinical trials. The interplay of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the systemic redox system is very complex and represents an issue that is still under debate. In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed. The controversial outcomes of antioxidants supplementation therapies, which might partially depend from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented. PMID:26903869

  5. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or peripheral nerve conduction, but fewer studies have considered these outcomes. It is possible that the most sensitive manifestation of pesticide neurotoxicity is a general malaise lacking in specificity and related to mild cognitive dysfunction, similar to that described for Gulf War syndrome. Most studies have focused on organophosphate insecticides, but some found neuro-toxic effects from other pesticides, including fungicides, fumigants, and organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. Pesticide exposure may also be associated with increased risk of Parkinson disease; several classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, have been implicated. Studies of other neurodegenerative diseases are limited and inconclusive. Future studies will need to improve assessment of pesticide exposure in individuals and consider the role of genetic susceptibility. More studies of pesticides other than organophosphates are needed. Major unresolved issues include the relative importance of acute and chronic exposure, the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning, and the relationship of pesticide-related neurotoxicity to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:15198914

  6. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  7. Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  8. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD) are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephropathological changes are commonly observed in the non-tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy (RN). In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy (PN) or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with RN. Despite emerging evidence that PN provides equivalent local tumor control to RN while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer. PMID:22649783

  9. Association Between Autonomic Impairment and Structural Deficit in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Hsiang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Pei-Chin; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, I-Hsiao; Yu, Chiun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Che

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have impaired autonomic function and altered brain structure. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of gray matter volume (GMV) determined by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to autonomic impairment in patients with PD. Whole-brain VBM analysis was performed on 3-dimensional T1-weighted images in 23 patients with PD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. The relationship of cardiovascular autonomic function (determined by survey) to baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) (determined from changes in heart rate and blood pressure during the early phase II of the Valsalva maneuver) was tested using least-squares regression analysis. The differences in GMV, autonomic parameters, and clinical data were correlated after adjusting for age and sex. Compared with controls, patients with PD had low BRS, suggesting worse cardiovascular autonomic function, and smaller GMV in several brain locations, including the right amygdala, left hippocampal formation, bilateral insular cortex, bilateral caudate nucleus, bilateral cerebellum, right fusiform, and left middle frontal gyri. The decreased GMVs of the selected brain regions were also associated with increased presence of epithelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the circulation. In patients with PD, decrease in cardiovascular autonomic function and increase in circulating EPC level are associated with smaller GMV in several areas of the brain. Because of its possible role in the modulation of the circulatory EPC pool and baroreflex control, the left hippocampal formation may be a bio-target for disease-modifying therapy and treatment monitoring in PD. PMID:26986144

  10. Associations between peripheral vertigo and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Viliušytė, Edita; Macaitytė, Raminta; Vaitkus, Antanas; Rastenytė, Daiva

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesize that peripheral vertigo is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Two mechanisms could be considered – gastric acids may directly irritate the respiratory mucosa and cause inflammation, or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) could be present and cause local infection. Reflux material (Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pepsin) could get into the middle ear via Eustachian tube and affect osseous structures directly. Disturbance of ossicles could cause tinnitus, which is more common for peripheral vertigo. H. pylori could also get in the esophagus and in the upper respiratory tract via gastroesophageal reflux, and could cause tympanosclerosis and fixation of ossicles. In our study group, 120 of 153 (78.4%) patients had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diagnostic tests of H. pylori (rapid urease test or blood antibody test) were performed for 96 of 120 (80%) patients with GERD and were found positive for 32 of 96 (33.3%) patients. Peripheral vertigo was present in 93 of 120 (77.6%) patients with GERD compared to 33 of 126 (26%) patients without GERD (χ(2)=9.016, p=0.003). H. pylori and peripheral vertigo coexisted in 26 of 126 patients (20.6%) (OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.49-3.74, p=0.55). Our study demonstrated statistically significant association between peripheral vertigo and GERD but not between peripheral vertigo and H. pylori. Further more extensive investigations are needed in order to explore our hypothesis.

  11. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  12. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations.

  13. Association Between Autonomic Impairment and Structural Deficit in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hsiang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Pei-Chin; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, I-Hsiao; Yu, Chiun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Che

    2016-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have impaired autonomic function and altered brain structure. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of gray matter volume (GMV) determined by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to autonomic impairment in patients with PD. Whole-brain VBM analysis was performed on 3-dimensional T1-weighted images in 23 patients with PD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. The relationship of cardiovascular autonomic function (determined by survey) to baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) (determined from changes in heart rate and blood pressure during the early phase II of the Valsalva maneuver) was tested using least-squares regression analysis. The differences in GMV, autonomic parameters, and clinical data were correlated after adjusting for age and sex. Compared with controls, patients with PD had low BRS, suggesting worse cardiovascular autonomic function, and smaller GMV in several brain locations, including the right amygdala, left hippocampal formation, bilateral insular cortex, bilateral caudate nucleus, bilateral cerebellum, right fusiform, and left middle frontal gyri. The decreased GMVs of the selected brain regions were also associated with increased presence of epithelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the circulation. In patients with PD, decrease in cardiovascular autonomic function and increase in circulating EPC level are associated with smaller GMV in several areas of the brain. Because of its possible role in the modulation of the circulatory EPC pool and baroreflex control, the left hippocampal formation may be a bio-target for disease-modifying therapy and treatment monitoring in PD.

  14. Immune allied genetic algorithm for Bayesian network structure learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qin; Lin, Feng; Sun, Wei; Chang, KC

    2012-06-01

    Bayesian network (BN) structure learning is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we present an improved approach to enhance efficiency of BN structure learning. To avoid premature convergence in traditional single-group genetic algorithm (GA), we propose an immune allied genetic algorithm (IAGA) in which the multiple-population and allied strategy are introduced. Moreover, in the algorithm, we apply prior knowledge by injecting immune operator to individuals which can effectively prevent degeneration. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we present some experimental results.

  15. Collagenous gastritis: histopathologic features and association with other gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Leung, Stanley T; Chandan, Vishal S; Murray, Joseph A; Wu, Tsung-Teh

    2009-05-01

    Collagenous gastritis (CG) characterized by the deposition of a subepithelial collagen band and accompanying inflammatory infiltrate is a rare disorder. The natural history and pathogenesis of CG remain unclear. We describe the histologic features (23 gastric, 18 duodenal, and 4 colonic biopsies) and clinical findings of an additional 12 cases. Histologic features including active or chronic inflammation, surface epithelial injury, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, intestinal metaplasia, and Helicobacter pylori, and measurement of thickness of subepithelial collagenous band were evaluated in gastric biopsies. The clinical features, endoscopic findings, and follow-up were obtained and correlated with histologic features. There was an even number of males (n=6) and females (n=6). Four patients were children/young adults, 3 of whom (75%) presented with anemia and gastric nodularity. Eight patients were adults, 6 of whom (75%) had an associated autoimmune disease (1 with Hashimoto thyroiditis and polymyositis) or other intestinal disease (3 with celiac sprue, 1 with collagenous colitis, 1 with collagenous sprue), in contrast to none in the 4 children/young adults, P=0.06. The range of subepithelial collagen thickness was 15 to 120 microm in CG. The collagenous layer showed surface epithelial injury and entrapped inflammatory cells. On presentation, the thickened collagen distribution in the antrum and body was variably patchy and diffuse. Four (33%) patients showed lymphocytic gastritis (3 within the same biopsy); one of these patients also had celiac sprue and another had collagenous sprue. Three (25%) patients had celiac sprue (2 had duodenal biopsy proven and 1 had a clinical diagnosis of celiac sprue). An additional patient had duodenal biopsies showing collagenous sprue. Four patients had follow-up biopsies during a 3 to 119-month period after the diagnosis of CG. CG persisted on the follow-up gastric biopsies in 3 (75%) of the 4 patients, and the other patient had

  16. The Association Between Peptic Ulcer Disease and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Guo, How-Ran; Chang, Chia-Yu; Weng, Shih-Feng; Li, Pi-I; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Wu, Wen-Shiann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stroke is a common cause of death worldwide, but about 30% of ischemic stroke (IS) patients have no identifiable contributing risk factors. Because peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and vascular events share some common risk factors, we conducted a population-based study to evaluate the association between PUD and IS. We followed up a representative sample of 1 million residents of Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2011. We defined patients who received medications for PUD and had related diagnosis codes as the PUD group, and a reference group matched by age and sex was sampled from those who did not have PUD. We also collected data on medical history and monthly income. The events of IS occurred after enrollment were compared between the 2 groups. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models at the 2-tailed significant level of 0.05. The PUD group had higher income and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), heart disease, and hyperlipidemia. They also had a higher risk of developing IS with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 1.20–1.41). Other independent risk factors included male sex, older age, lower income, and co-morbidity of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and heart disease. PUD is a risk factor for IS, independent of conventional risk factors such as male sex, older age, lower income, and co-morbidity of hypertension, DM, and heart disease. Prevention strategies taking into account PUD should be developed and evaluated. PMID:27258514

  17. Sudden death associated with danon disease in women.

    PubMed

    Miani, Daniela; Taylor, Matthew; Mestroni, Luisa; D'Aurizio, Federica; Finato, Nicoletta; Fanin, Marina; Brigido, Silvana; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    Danon disease is an X-linked systemic disorder characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and skeletal myopathy affecting young men. Electrocardiogram usually displays a Wolff-Parkinson-White preexcitation pattern. Less has been reported about the phenotype in women, although later-onset cardiac symptoms have been described. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge of the phenotype of Danon disease in women. We clinically followed and evaluated with echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), and genetic testing a family affected by Danon disease in which 2 men and 6 women showed a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype. Affected family members carried a nucleotide substitution at position 294 in exon 3 (c.294 G → A) that changed a tryptophan residue to a stop codon at position W98X in the lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene. Four women died suddenly (1 aborted) at 37 to 54 years of age. Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern with atrioventricular block was detected in 2 of 6 women. Four had successful pregnancies without symptoms of heart failure. cMRI showed late gadolinium enhancement areas in a clinically healthy woman who was a mutation carrier. Two patients underwent heart transplantation; histology of explanted hearts demonstrated severe interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophic cardiomyocytes with cytoplasmic vacuoles, and myofibrillar disarray. In conclusion, LAMP2 mutation can cause a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype in women that includes a high risk of sudden death. cMRI may be useful in women harboring LAMP2 mutations to permit early detection of cardiac involvement and guide timely considerations of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy. Heart transplantation should be considered at onset of heart failure symptoms owing to rapid progression of the disease.

  18. Insects and allies associated with bromeliads: a review.

    PubMed

    Frank, J H; Lounibos, L P

    2009-01-01

    Bromeliads are a Neotropical plant family (Bromeliaceae) with about 2,900 described species. They vary considerably in architecture. Many impound water in their inner leaf axils to form phytotelmata (plant pools), providing habitat for terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae, while their outer axils provide terraria for an assemblage of fully terrestrial arthropods. Many bromeliads are epiphytic.Dominant terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata are typically larvae of Diptera, of which at least 16 families have been reported, but in some circumstances are Coleoptera, of which only three families have been reported. Other groups include crabs and the insect orders Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, plus Hemiptera with adults active on the water surface. The hundreds of arthropod species are detritivores or predators and do not harm their host plants. Many of them are specialists to this habitat.Terrestrial arthropods with terrestrial larvae inhabiting bromeliad terraria include many more arachnid and insect orders, but relatively few specialists to this habitat. They, too, are detritivores or predators.Arthropod herbivores, especially Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Lepidoptera, consume leaves, stems, flowers, pollen, and roots of bromeliads. Some herbivores consume nectar, and some of these and other arthropods provide pollination and even seed-dispersal.Ants have complex relationships with bromeliads, a few being herbivores, some guarding the plants from herbivory, and some merely nesting in bromeliad terraria. A few serve as food for carnivorous bromeliads, which also consume other terrestrial insects.Bromeliads are visited by far more species of arthropods than breed in them. This is especially notable during dry seasons, when bromeliads provide moist refugia.

  19. Insects and allies associated with bromeliads: a review

    PubMed Central

    Frank, J. H.; Lounibos, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bromeliads are a Neotropical plant family (Bromeliaceae) with about 2,900 described species. They vary considerably in architecture. Many impound water in their inner leaf axils to form phytotelmata (plant pools), providing habitat for terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae, while their outer axils provide terraria for an assemblage of fully terrestrial arthropods. Many bromeliads are epiphytic. Dominant terrestrial arthropods with aquatic larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata are typically larvae of Diptera, of which at least 16 families have been reported, but in some circumstances are Coleoptera, of which only three families have been reported. Other groups include crabs and the insect orders Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, plus Hemiptera with adults active on the water surface. The hundreds of arthropod species are detritivores or predators and do not harm their host plants. Many of them are specialists to this habitat. Terrestrial arthropods with terrestrial larvae inhabiting bromeliad terraria include many more arachnid and insect orders, but relatively few specialists to this habitat. They, too, are detritivores or predators. Arthropod herbivores, especially Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Lepidoptera, consume leaves, stems, flowers, pollen, and roots of bromeliads. Some herbivores consume nectar, and some of these and other arthropods provide pollination and even seed-dispersal. Ants have complex relationships with bromeliads, a few being herbivores, some guarding the plants from herbivory, and some merely nesting in bromeliad terraria. A few serve as food for carnivorous bromeliads, which also consume other terrestrial insects. Bromeliads are visited by far more species of arthropods than breed in them. This is especially notable during dry seasons, when bromeliads provide moist refugia. PMID:20209047

  20. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases? Unveiling associations of three diseases and viral loci.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K; Lindegaard, Hanne M; Rossing, Peter; Petersen, Thor; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Bettina; Lorenzen, Tove; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Jensen, Sara B; Bahrami, Shervin; Lajer, Maria; Schmidt, Kathrine L M; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Junker, Peter; Laska, Magdalena J

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases encompass a plethora of conditions in which the immune system attacks its own tissue, identifying them as foreign. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the development of immune response to self, including differences in genotypes, hormonal milieu, and environmental factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus was associated with each of the three diseases. Although there was a significant overlap, most loci only occurred in one of the studied disease. Remarkably, within each disease, there was a statistical interaction (synergy) between two loci. Additional synergy between retroviral loci and human lymphocyte antigens is reported for multiple sclerosis. We speculate the possibility that recombinants or mixed viral particles are formed and that the resulting viruses stimulate the innate immune system, thereby initiating the autoimmune response. PMID:26091722

  1. Associations of welding and manganese exposure with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of welding and manganese exposure with Parkinson disease (PD) using meta-analyses of data from cohort, case-control, and mortality studies. Methods: Epidemiologic studies related to welding or manganese exposure and PD were identified in a PubMed search, article references, published reviews, and abstracts. Inclusion criteria were 1) cohort, case-control, or mortality study with relative risk (RR), odds ratio (OR), or mortality OR (MOR) and 95 confidence intervals (95% CI); 2) RR, OR, and MOR matched or adjusted for age and sex; 3) valid study design and analysis. When participants of a study were a subgroup of those in a larger study, only results of the larger study were included to assure independence of datasets. Pooled RR/OR estimates and 95% CIs were obtained using random effects models; heterogeneity of study effects were evaluated using the Q statistic and I2 index in fixed effect models. Results: Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria for the welding meta-analysis and 3 studies for the manganese exposure meta-analysis. The pooled RR for the association between welding and PD for all study designs was 0.86 (95% CI 0.80–0.92), with absence of between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0). Effect measures for cohort, case-control, and mortality studies were similar (0.91, 0.82, 0.87). For the association between manganese exposure and PD, the pooled OR was 0.76 (95% CI 0.41–1.42). Conclusions: Welding and manganese exposure are not associated with increased PD risk. Possible explanations for the inverse association between welding and PD include confounding by smoking, healthy worker effect, and hormesis. PMID:22965675

  2. Pulmonary Hypoplasia Associated with Congenital Heart Diseases: A Fetal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruchonnet-Metrailler, Isabelle; Bessieres, Bettina; Bonnet, Damien; Vibhushan, Shamila; Delacourt, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of the fetal pulmonary vasculature may affect lung morphogenesis. Postnatal studies have suggested that pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) may be associated with congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Objective To determine the prevalence of PH associated with CHDs, and to evaluate whether CHDs with right outflow obstruction were associated with the highest risk of lung growth impairment. Methods Between January 2006 and December 2010, fetuses with CHD obtained following the termination of pregnancies due to fetal abnormalities were examined in a prospective manner for the detection of heart and lung defects. CHDs were classified into five pathophysiological groups. Lung weight (LW), body weight (BW), and LW/BW ratio were analyzed for each case. The expression of CD31 and VEGF in the lung was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Fetuses with CHDs and right outflow obstruction had significantly lower LW for a given BW, and significantly lower LW/BW ratios for a given gestational age. When defining PH as a fetal LW/BW ratio <0.015 before 28 weeks, and <0.012 after 28 weeks, PH was detected in 15 of the 119 fetuses analyzed (13%). It was significantly associated with CHD with right outflow obstruction, independently of chromosomal abnormalities and associated extracardiac abnormalities (p<0.03). Right outflow obstruction was detected in 60% of the fetuses with CHD and PH, but in only 32% of those with CHD but no PH. In fetuses with right outflow obstruction, no difference was observed between those with PH and those without PH, in terms of the ratio of pulmonary artery diameter to aortic diameter, lung CD31 expression, or lung VEGF expression. Conclusion CHDs with right outflow obstruction are a significant risk factor for prenatally acquired PH. The occurrence of fetal PH is not correlated with abnormalities of the pulmonary vasculature, suggesting the involvement of perfusion-independent mechanisms. PMID:24699523

  3. 22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. Drawing no. 50153, traced from Allis Chalmers drawing #699, April 24, 1906. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  4. Trends in Allied Dental Education: An Analysis of the Past and a Look to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, N. Karl; Morr, Kathleen E.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents and discusses data on the allied dental workforce and allied dental education, including number of education programs; applications, first-year enrollment, and capacity; number of graduates; gender, race, and ethnicity; cost of education; and faculty. (EV)

  5. Variations in ORAI1 Gene Associated with Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Onouchi, Yoshihiro; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kakimoto, Nobuyuki; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Hamada, Hiromichi; Honda, Takafumi; Yasukawa, Kumi; Terai, Masaru; Ebata, Ryota; Higashi, Kouji; Saji, Tsutomu; Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Kishi, Fumio; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Nagai, Toshiro; Hamamoto, Kunihiro; Sato, Yoshitake; Honda, Akihito; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Sato, Junichi; Shibuta, Shoichi; Miyawaki, Masakazu; Oishi, Ko; Yamaga, Hironobu; Aoyagi, Noriyuki; Yoshiyama, Megumi; Miyashita, Ritsuko; Murata, Yuji; Fujino, Akihiro; Ozaki, Kouichi; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Abe, Jun; Seki, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Tohru; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Shunichi; Hara, Toshiro; Hata, Akira; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD; MIM#61175) is a systemic vasculitis syndrome with unknown etiology which predominantly affects infants and children. Recent findings of susceptibility genes for KD suggest possible involvement of the Ca(2+)/NFAT pathway in the pathogenesis of KD. ORAI1 is a Ca(2+) release activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel mediating store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) on the plasma membrane. The gene for ORAI1 is located in chromosome 12q24 where a positive linkage signal was observed in our previous affected sib-pair study of KD. A common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism located within exon 2 of ORAI1 (rs3741596) was significantly associated with KD (P = 0.028 in the discovery sample set (729 KD cases and 1,315 controls), P = 0.0056 in the replication sample set (1,813 KD cases vs. 1,097 controls) and P = 0.00041 in a meta-analysis by the Mantel-Haenszel method). Interestingly, frequency of the risk allele of rs3741596 is more than 20 times higher in Japanese compared to Europeans. We also found a rare 6 base-pair in-frame insertion variant associated with KD (rs141919534; 2,544 KD cases vs. 2,414 controls, P = 0.012). These data indicate that ORAI1 gene variations are associated with KD and may suggest the potential importance of the Ca(2+)/NFAT pathway in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:26789410

  6. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether exposure to environmentally relevant levels of pesticides in groundwater is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PD and pesticide levels in groundwater. This cross-sectional study included 332 971 Medicare beneficiaries, including 4207 prevalent cases of PD from the 2007 Colorado Medicare Beneficiary Database. Residential pesticide levels were estimated from a spatial model based on 286 well water samples with atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor measurements. A logistic regression model with known PD risk factors was used to assess the association between residential groundwater pesticide levels and prevalent PD. We found that for every 1.0 µg/L of pesticide in groundwater, the risk of PD increases by 3% (odds ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.04) while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender suggesting that higher age-standardized PD prevalence ratios are associated with increasing levels of pesticides in groundwater. PMID:25939349

  7. Genome-wide association interaction analysis for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusareva, Elena S; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Bellenguez, Céline; Cuyvers, Elise; Colon, Samuel; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Dickson, Dennis W; Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Bessonov, Kyrylo; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Harold, Denise; Williams, Julie; Amouyel, Philippe; Sleegers, Kristel; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Van Steen, Kristel; Ramirez, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    We propose a minimal protocol for exhaustive genome-wide association interaction analysis that involves screening for epistasis over large-scale genomic data combining strengths of different methods and statistical tools. The different steps of this protocol are illustrated on a real-life data application for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (2259 patients and 6017 controls from France). Particularly, in the exhaustive genome-wide epistasis screening we identified AD-associated interacting SNPs-pair from chromosome 6q11.1 (rs6455128, the KHDRBS2 gene) and 13q12.11 (rs7989332, the CRYL1 gene) (p = 0.006, corrected for multiple testing). A replication analysis in the independent AD cohort from Germany (555 patients and 824 controls) confirmed the discovered epistasis signal (p = 0.036). This signal was also supported by a meta-analysis approach in 5 independent AD cohorts that was applied in the context of epistasis for the first time. Transcriptome analysis revealed negative correlation between expression levels of KHDRBS2 and CRYL1 in both the temporal cortex (β = -0.19, p = 0.0006) and cerebellum (β = -0.23, p < 0.0001) brain regions. This is the first time a replicable epistasis associated with AD was identified using a hypothesis free screening approach.

  8. Nutrigenomics and its Impact on Life Style Associated Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shalika; Kumar, Shiv; Rathore, Nikita; Padwad, Yogendra; Bhushana, Shashi

    2016-06-01

    Post-human genome revelation observes the emergence of 'Nutigenomics' as one of the exciting scientific advancement influencing mankind around the world. Food or more precisely 'nutrition' has the major impact in defining the cause-response interaction between nutrient (diet) and human health. In addition to substantial understanding of nutrition-human-health interaction, bases of 'nutrigenomic' development foster on advent in transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics as well as insight into food as health supplement. Interaction of selected nutrient with associated genes in specific organ or tissue necessary to comprehend that how individual's genetic makeup (DNA transcribed into mRNA and then to proteins) respond to particular nutrient. It provided new opportunities to incorporate natural bioactive compounds into food for specific group of people with similar genotype. As inception of diabetes associated with change in gene expression of, not limited to, protein kinase B, insulin receptor, duodenal homeobox and glucokinase, thus, targeting such proteins by modifying or improving the nutritional availability or uptake may help to devise novel food, supplements, or nutraceuticals. In this article, various aspects of R&D in nutrigenomics are reviewed to ascertain its impact on human health, especially with life-style associated diseases. PMID:27252592

  9. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether exposure to environmentally relevant levels of pesticides in groundwater is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PD and pesticide levels in groundwater. This cross-sectional study included 332 971 Medicare beneficiaries, including 4207 prevalent cases of PD from the 2007 Colorado Medicare Beneficiary Database. Residential pesticide levels were estimated from a spatial model based on 286 well water samples with atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor measurements. A logistic regression model with known PD risk factors was used to assess the association between residential groundwater pesticide levels and prevalent PD. We found that for every 1.0 µg/L of pesticide in groundwater, the risk of PD increases by 3% (odds ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.04) while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender suggesting that higher age-standardized PD prevalence ratios are associated with increasing levels of pesticides in groundwater.

  10. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome and Graves’ disease: Is autoimmunity the link between the two diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Sobia; Shah, Parvez A.; Kuchay, M. Shafi; Bhat, Manzoor A.; Rashid, Aafia; Ahmed, Sanjeed; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy of women of child-bearing age. Although some studies have suggested an association between PCOS and autoimmune thyroiditis, to our knowledge, only a few cases indicating association between PCOS and Graves’ disease are reported. Objective: We aim to describe this first case series of six women presenting with PCOS and Graves’ disease together. Materials and Methods: Women attending the endocrinology clinic at a tertiary care centre in north India and fulfilling the AE-PCOS criteria for diagnosis of PCOS were studied using a predefined proforma for any clinical, biochemical and imaging features of Graves’ disease. Results: The series consisted of six women with a mean age of 27.5 years and menarche as 12.6 years. All women were lean with mean BMI of 22.73 kg / m2 and three out of six had waist circumference <80 cm. The mean FG score of subjects was 16.66 and average total testosterone was 77.02 ng / dl (25.0-119.64). All the patients had suppressed TSH, the average being 0.052 μIU/ml (0.01-0.15). Thyroid gland was enlarged in all clinically and on ultrasonography and imaging with 99mTc and/or RAIU revealed diffuse increased uptake. Conclusions: The association of a rare disorder like Graves’ disease with a relatively common disorder like PCOS is unlikely to be because of a chance alone and may point to a common aetiopathogenic linkage leaving a scope for molecular characterization. PMID:23226647

  11. [Ulcerative colitis associated with autoimmune hepatitis: a differential form of inflammatory bowel disease?].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Escobar, L M; Crespo Madrid, N; Vila Miravet, V; Pujol Muncunill, G; Varea Calderón, V; Martín de Carpi, J

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that can be associated with different autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Some specific and differential characteristics in children with IBD associated to AIH have been described. Our aim is to describe the clinical pattern of this association observed in our patients, confirming its differential characteristics as compared to classical IBD in children.

  12. Network Consistency Projection for Human miRNA-Disease Associations Inference

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changlong; Liao, Bo; Li, Xiaoying; Li, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    Prediction and confirmation of the presence of disease-related miRNAs is beneficial to understand disease mechanisms at the miRNA level. However, the use of experimental verification to identify disease-related miRNAs is expensive and time-consuming. Effective computational approaches used to predict miRNA-disease associations are highly specific. In this study, we develop the Network Consistency Projection for miRNA-Disease Associations (NCPMDA) method to reveal the potential associations between miRNAs and diseases. NCPMDA is a non-parametric universal network-based method that can simultaneously predict miRNA-disease associations in all diseases but does not require negative samples. NCPMDA can also confirm the presence of miRNAs in isolated diseases (diseases without any known miRNA association). Leave-one-out cross validation and case studies have shown that the predictive performance of NCPMDA is superior over that of previous method. PMID:27779232

  13. Genome-wide prioritization of disease genes and identification of disease-disease associations from an integrated human functional linkage network

    PubMed Central

    Linghu, Bolan; Snitkin, Evan S; Hu, Zhenjun; Xia, Yu; DeLisi, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We integrate 16 genomic features to construct an evidence-weighted functional-linkage network comprising 21,657 human genes. The functional-linkage network is used to prioritize candidate genes for 110 diseases, and to reliably disclose hidden associations between disease pairs having dissimilar phenotypes, such as hypercholesterolemia and Alzheimer's disease. Many of these disease-disease associations are supported by epidemiology, but with no previous genetic basis. Such associations can drive novel hypotheses on molecular mechanisms of diseases and therapies. PMID:19728866

  14. SLC6 Transporters: Structure, Function, Regulation, Disease Association and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Pramod Akula; Foster, James; Carvelli, Lucia; Henry, L. Keith

    2012-01-01

    The SLC6 family of secondary active transporters are integral membrane solute carrier proteins characterized by the Na+-dependent translocation of small amino acid or amino acid-like substrates. SLC6 transporters, which include the serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, taurine, creatine, as well as amino acid transporters, are associated with a number of human diseases and disorders making this family a critical target for therapeutic development. In addition, several members of this family are directly involved in the action of drugs of abuse such as cocaine, amphetamines, and ecstasy. Recent advances providing structural insight into this family have vastly accelerated our ability to study these proteins and their involvement in complex biological processes. PMID:23506866

  15. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  16. Marshall-Stickler phenotype associated with von Willebrand disease

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.R.; Baker, K.S.; Schaefer, G.B.

    1997-01-20

    We report on 6 individuals from three different kindreds with Marshall-Stickler (MS) phenotype, with characteristic orofacial abnormalities, arthropathy, deafness, and eye findings, all of whom were discovered to have a mild bleeding diathesis and coagulation-study findings consistent with mild von Willebrand disease (vWD). MS syndrome has been linked in some cases to the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) on chromosome 12q, and to the collagen XI gene (COL11A2) on chromosome 6. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) is encoded by a 180-Kb gene located on the short arm of chromosome 12. This is the first reported association of these two disorders. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Familial nephropathy associated with hepatic type of glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Sonobe, H; Ogawa, K; Takahashi, I

    1976-11-01

    The female patient was diagnosed as having Von Gierke's disease at 14 years of age, based on clinical manifestations, laboratory examination and liver biopsy. At 19 years of age she had uremia and died from its deterioration at 24 years of age. The parents were consanguineous, and a 27-year-old sister is presently hospitalized for renal insufficiency with hepatomegaly. On autopsy, the patient's kidneys were highly contracted and contained a number of small cysts, mainly in the medulla. Histological examination indicated periglomerular fibrosis, glomerular hyalinization, tubular atrophy or cystic dilatation and intersitial fibrosis with round cell infiltration. These findings correspond to Fanconi's familial juvenile nephronophthisis, except for age. The liver was markedly enlarged and indicated severe, glycogen deposits, but the kidney did not contain glycogen deposits. It can, therefore, be presumed that the renal lesions were not a secondary consequence of long-term glycogen deposits but that renal and hepatic lesions were associated with each other. PMID:1070908

  18. Juvenile polyarteritis nodosa associated with toxoplasmosis presenting as Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Özge; Çakar, Nilgün; Gür, Gökçe; Kocabaş, Abdullah; Gülhan, Belgin; Çaycı, Fatma Şemsa; Çelikel, Banu Acar

    2014-04-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium-sized arteries. Juvenile PAN and Kawasaki disease (KD) both cause vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries, and share common features. They have overlapping clinical features. Treatment should be managed according to the severity of symptoms and persistence of clinical manifestations. Herein is described the case of a 14-year-old boy first diagnosed with KD, who then fulfilled the criteria for juvenile PAN due to the development of severe myalgia, persistent fever, polyneuropathy and coronary arterial dilatation. He also had acute toxoplasmosis at the onset of vasculitis symptoms. The final diagnosis was of juvenile PAN associated with toxoplasmosis infection. Toxoplasma infection can be considered as an etiological agent for PAN and other vasculitis syndromes. Awareness of toxoplasmosis-related PAN facilitates early diagnosis, and instigation of appropriate treatment.

  19. Associations Between Hyperuricemia and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad Sah, Om Shankar; Qing, Yu Xue

    2015-01-01

    Context: In human beings, uric acid is the poorly soluble circulating end product of the purine nucleotide metabolism. A reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) contributes to hyperuricemia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Evidence Acquisition: Hyperuricemia is defined as a serum uric acid level > 7.0 mg/dL in males and > 6.0 mg/dL in females, while CKD is defined as kidney damage or a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for 3 months or more, irrespective of the cause. Hyperuricemia is common in CKD and may occur because of decreased excretion, increased production, or a combination of both mechanisms. Results: The causes for hyperuricemia in overproducers may be either exogenous or endogenous. CKD has become a global public health problem because of its high prevalence and the accompanying increase in the risk of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The most common risk factors for CKD are obesity and the metabolic syndrome, which is strongly associated with hyperuricemia probably as a consequence of insulin resistance and the effects of insulin to reduce the urinary urate excretion. For recurring bouts of hyperuricemia or gout, patients should have a blood test and joint fluid test to determine whether the medication taken is effective. Interventional studies are a useful clinical research tool in clarifying the role of hyperuricemia in CKD. Conclusions: Although many evidence-based studies have suggested that uric acid itself may harm patients with CKD by increasing inflammation and CKD progression, the issue is still a matter of controversy. Special attention should be paid to specific contraindications to certain drugs and the possibility of infectious arthritis. PMID:26290849

  20. Elementary and Secondary Students Perceptions of Allied Health Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Paul J.; And Others

    This study was designed to examine the preceptions of allied health careers by elementary and secondary school students. A 6-part, 45-question survey was designed and administered to randomly selected classes of third, sixth, ninth, and twelfth grade students in the Shawnee Mission (Kansas) school district. Three hundred and five surveys were…

  1. Joining the Struggle: White Men as Social Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Christopher Edward; Mather, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experience of White men as they sought to support individuals from oppressed groups and participate in a community with other allies like themselves. This research was conducted from a social constructivist epistemological paradigm and informed by a constructivist grounded theory methodology. The following research…

  2. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 2 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 21-36) on nursing skills based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (21) urine elimination; (22) bowel elimination; (23)…

  3. Allied Health Technologies Multiskilled Patient Care Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersema, Mary; Stacy, Carole Ann

    This curriculum guide explains the national health care skills standards and lists skill standards for health care technicians, especially in Michigan. The 10 sections of the guide cover the following: (1) introduction to the national health care skills strands; (2) allied health technologies multiskilled curriculum framework and program design…

  4. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  5. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) (22 U.S.C... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND...

  6. Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gloria

    A partnership was formed to address the crisis that rural health care facilities in rural Nebraska face in attracting and hiring trained health care workers. The Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO) project trained economically disadvantaged individuals in high technology medical fields. Five objectives were outlined in the project:…

  7. Allied Health Occupations II (Health Careers--Core Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with background informational material and practical skills used in various health fields. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: safety; ethical and legal…

  8. Index of Graduate Theses and Projects in Allied Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Allied Health, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Contains 1,073 entries from 91 institutions, giving author, institution, year, degree, emphasis, discipline, and title, arranged by topic: allied health, biocommunication arts, child development/care, clinical psychology, dentistry, environmental health, exercise science, food service, health education, health services, medical laboratories, nurse…

  9. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS..., Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines,...

  10. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 1-20) based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (1) the health worker and the law; (2) introduction to ethics in the healing…

  11. Health Planning that Magnifies the Community's Voice: Allies against Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfoss, Frances D.; Kelly, Cynthia; Taylor-Fishwick, Jude

    2005-01-01

    Allies Against Asthma, a working group of the Consortium for Infant and Child Health (CINCH), conducted a comprehensive asthma needs assessment in Hampton Roads, Virginia, in 2001. Results from extant data and parent surveys indicated that asthma prevalence was high (15% to 18%), 45% to 50% of children received primary care for asthma in the…

  12. Undocumented Student Allies and Transformative Resistance: A Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Angela Chuan-Ru; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines staff and faculty allies working to help meet the needs of undocumented students at a large research university in the western region of the U.S. Drawing on scholarly work rooted in critical race theory and ethnic studies, the authors highlight forms of transformative resistance. They focus on four key findings: (1) student…

  13. Influencers of Career Choice among Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-West, Anne P.

    1991-01-01

    Major influences on career choice among 153 allied health students were need to help others, prestige, autonomy, and advancement and income potential. Risk of malpractice suits and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were negative influences for medical laboratory majors, but not for dietetics and physical therapy majors. (SK)

  14. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  16. Fibrocytes are associated with the fibrosis of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pu-Ping; Qu, Yong-Qiang; Shuai, Qun; Tao, Si-Ming; Bao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shang-Wen; Wang, Dian-Hua

    2013-01-15

    Fibrocytes contribute significantly to fibrosis in many cardiac diseases. However, it is not clear whether fibrocytes are associated with the fibrosis in coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to determine whether fibrocytes are involved in cardiac fibrosis in CHD. We identified the presence of fibrocytes in CHD heart by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, examined the collagen volume fraction by Masson's Trichrome staining, and evaluated the correlation between fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis. In conjunction, we examined the location of CXCL12, a homing factor and specific ligand for CXCR4, by immunohistochemistry. Fibrocytes were identified in 26 out of 27 CHD hearts and in 10 out of 11 normal hearts. Combinations, including CD34/αSMA, CD34/procollagen-I, CD45/αSMA, CXCR4/procollagen-I and CXCR4/αSMA, stained significantly more fibrocytes in CHD hearts as compared with those in normal hearts (p<0.05). There were positive correlations between the collagen volume fraction and the amount of fibrocytes (r=0.558; p=0.003<0.01) and between the number of CXCR4(+) fibrocytes and the CXCL12(+) cells (r=0.741; p=0.000<0.01) in CHD hearts. Based upon these findings, we conclude that fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, may contribute to the increase in the fibroblast population in CHD heart. PMID:23177618

  17. Parsing the Interferon Transcriptional Network and Its Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Sara; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Moodley, Devapregasan; LeBoité, Hugo; Rothamel, Katherine; Raj, Towfique; Ye, Chun Jimmie; Chevrier, Nicolas; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Feng, Ting; Lee, Mark; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Clark, James D; Hegen, Martin; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Hacohen, Nir; De Jager, Philip L; Regev, Aviv; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2016-01-28

    Type 1 interferon (IFN) is a key mediator of organismal responses to pathogens, eliciting prototypical "interferon signature genes" that encode antiviral and inflammatory mediators. For a global view of IFN signatures and regulatory pathways, we performed gene expression and chromatin analyses of the IFN-induced response across a range of immunocyte lineages. These distinguished ISGs by cell-type specificity, kinetics, and sensitivity to tonic IFN and revealed underlying changes in chromatin configuration. We combined 1,398 human and mouse datasets to computationally infer ISG modules and their regulators, validated by genetic analysis in both species. Some ISGs are controlled by Stat1/2 and Irf9 and the ISRE DNA motif, but others appeared dependent on non-canonical factors. This regulatory framework helped to interpret JAK1 blockade pharmacology, different clusters being affected under tonic or IFN-stimulated conditions, and the IFN signatures previously associated with human diseases, revealing unrecognized subtleties in disease footprints, as affected by human ancestry. PMID:26824662

  18. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Nephrotic Syndrome–Associated Thromboembolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ayoob, Rose; Smoyer, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary After infections, thromboembolism is considered by many experts to be the most significant life-threatening complication of nephrotic syndrome. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiology, clinical and molecular pathophysiology, and management of this complication. Children (2.8%) are less likely than adults (26.7%) with nephrotic syndrome to develop thromboembolism. However, infants and children aged >12 years are at much greater risk. Membranous histologic changes increase thromboembolic risk at all ages; in particular, adults with membranous nephropathy have the highest reported risk (37.0%) and children with membranous histology have a rate (25%) that approaches the overall adult rate. There are striking, but variable, pathologic alterations of molecular hemostasis associated with nephrotic syndrome. No clear molecular therapeutic targets have been identified, but most studies show that the major pathologic changes involve antithrombin, fibrinogen, and factors V and VIII. There is inadequate evidence to support routine prophylactic therapy. Therapy includes anticoagulation in all cases, with thrombolysis reserved for those with the most severe thromboembolic disease. Future hemostatic research in nephrotic syndrome should focus on identifying cohorts at highest risk for thrombosis through the use of clinical markers and biomarkers as well as searching for molecular targets to correct the prothrombotic pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:22344511

  19. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  20. Psoriasis and dilated cardiomyopathy: coincidence or associated diseases?

    PubMed

    Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Shuvy, Mony; Lotan, Chaim; Planer, David

    2008-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disease which affects 1-3% of the population. The etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is probably the end result of a variety of toxic, metabolic or infectious agents. During a computerized search for cardiomyopathy among all patients hospitalized with psoriasis in the Hadassah University Hospital since 1980 we found an increased prevalence of cardiomyopathy, and specifically dilated cardiomyopathy. We present 4 patients who suffer from both conditions. In accordance with previous data, an association between preexisting psoriasis and dilated cardiomyopathy is suggested. We suggest that the genetic risk factors of dilated cardiomyopathy are shared by psoriasis, and more specifically psoriatic arthritis. Alternatively, the immune reaction that is triggered in dilated cardiomyopathy leading to the progression of the disease might be enhanced in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Chronic inflammation and persistent secretion of proinflammatory cytokines may be considered a potential pathway, triggering the initiation and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy in psoriatic patients. Further investigation of the genetic and immune risk factors involved in dilated cardiomyopathy and in psoriasis may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  1. Using CSF biomarkers to replicate genetic associations in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schott, Jonathan M

    2012-07-01

    Defining cases and controls on the basis of biomarkers rather than clinical diagnosis may reduce sample sizes required for genetic studies. The aim of this study was to assess whether characterizing case/control status on the basis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile would increase power to replicate known genetic associations for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Independent of clinical diagnosis, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects with 2 CSF biomarkers for AD (Aβ1-42 < 192 pg/mL and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau) > 23 pg/mL, "CSF-positive") were compared with those without CSF evidence for AD (Aβ1-42 > 192 pg/mL and 181-phosphorylated tau < 23 pg/mL, "CSF-negative"). Minor allele frequency (MAF) and odds ratios (ORs) between these 2 groups were calculated for 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interest. Two hundred thirty-two individuals were CSF-positive and 94 CSF-negative. There were no differences in age (74.7 ± 7.2 vs. 75.0 ± 6.5 years, p = 0.7), but significant differences in Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (25.9 ± 2.6 vs. 28.2 ± 1.7, p < 0.001) between the CSF-positive and CSF-negative groups. Significant differences in MAF (p < 0.05, uncorrected) were seen for CR1 (rs1408077; OR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.49), PICALM (rs541458; OR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47-0.98), TOMM40 (rs2075650; OR, 4.30; 95% CI, 2.61-7.06); and possession of 1 or more APOE ε4 alleles (OR, 9.84; 95% CI, 5.48-17.67). These results suggest that using biomarkers of AD pathology to define case and control status may increase power in genetic association studies.

  2. Soy isoflavone intake is associated with risk of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michael A; Navarro, Sandi L; Bruce, Margaret E; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis affecting children. Incidence of KD varies according to ethnicity and is highest in Asian populations. Although genetic differences may explain this variation, dietary or environmental factors could also be responsible. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary soy and isoflavone consumption in a cohort of KD children just before disease onset and their mothers' intake during pregnancy and nursing. We tested the hypothesis that soy isoflavone consumption is associated with risk of KD in US children, potentially explaining some of the ethnic-cultural variation in incidence. We evaluated soy food intake and isoflavone consumption in nearly 200 US KD cases and 200 age-matched controls using a food frequency questionnaire for children and in their mothers. We used a logistic regression model to test the association of isoflavones and KD. Maternal surveys on soy intake during pregnancy and nursing showed no significant differences in isoflavone consumption between groups. However, we identified significantly increased KD risk in children for total isoflavone (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.96) and genistein (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.46-4.16) intakes, when comparing high soy consumers vs nonconsumers. In addition, significantly increased KD risk occurred in Asian-American children with the highest consumption (total isoflavones: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.73-30.75; genistein: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.92-36.24) compared to whites. These findings indicate that childhood dietary isoflavone consumption, but not maternal isoflavone intake during pregnancy and nursing, relates to KD risk in an ethnically diverse US population.

  3. The association between aluminum-containing products and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, A B; White, E; Koepsell, T D; Reifler, B V; van Belle, G; Larson, E B

    1990-01-01

    The association between exposure to aluminum through the lifetime use of antiperspirants and antacids and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was explored in a case-control study of 130 matched pairs. Cases were clinically diagnosed between January 1980 and June 1985 at two geriatric psychiatric clinics in Seattle, Wash. Controls were friends or non-blood relatives of the case. Subjects were matched by age, sex, and the relationship between the case and his or her surrogate. For all antiperspirant/deodorant use, regardless of aluminum content, there was no association with AD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.6-2.4). For aluminum-containing antiperspirants, the overall adjusted OR was 1.6 (95% CI = 1.04-2.4) with a trend toward a higher risk with increasing frequency of use (p for trend = 0.03), the adjusted OR in the highest tertile being 3.2. For antacids regardless of aluminum content, the overall adjusted OR was 3.1 (95% CI = 1.2-7.9). Here, a steep dose-response gradient was found (p for trend = 0.009), with an adjusted OR for the highest tertile of 11.7. However, when only aluminum-containing antacids were analyzed, the overall adjusted OR was only 0.7 (95% CI = 0.3-2.0) and there was no significant dose-response trend. These results are provocative but inconclusive due to methodologic problems relating to the necessary use of surrogate respondents and the long time period of potential exposure for this dementing disease. PMID:2319278

  4. Soy isoflavone intake is associated with risk of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Portman, Michael A; Navarro, Sandi L; Bruce, Margaret E; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis affecting children. Incidence of KD varies according to ethnicity and is highest in Asian populations. Although genetic differences may explain this variation, dietary or environmental factors could also be responsible. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary soy and isoflavone consumption in a cohort of KD children just before disease onset and their mothers' intake during pregnancy and nursing. We tested the hypothesis that soy isoflavone consumption is associated with risk of KD in US children, potentially explaining some of the ethnic-cultural variation in incidence. We evaluated soy food intake and isoflavone consumption in nearly 200 US KD cases and 200 age-matched controls using a food frequency questionnaire for children and in their mothers. We used a logistic regression model to test the association of isoflavones and KD. Maternal surveys on soy intake during pregnancy and nursing showed no significant differences in isoflavone consumption between groups. However, we identified significantly increased KD risk in children for total isoflavone (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.96) and genistein (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.46-4.16) intakes, when comparing high soy consumers vs nonconsumers. In addition, significantly increased KD risk occurred in Asian-American children with the highest consumption (total isoflavones: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.73-30.75; genistein: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.92-36.24) compared to whites. These findings indicate that childhood dietary isoflavone consumption, but not maternal isoflavone intake during pregnancy and nursing, relates to KD risk in an ethnically diverse US population. PMID:27440537

  5. Salivary Microbiota and Metabolome Associated with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Filippis, Francesca; De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry–solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacterial groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P < 0.05) differed in the saliva samples of the T-CD children. As shown by community-level catabolic profiles, the highest Shannon's diversity and substrate richness were found in HC. Pyrosequencing data showed the highest richness estimator and diversity index values for HC. Levels of Lachnospiraceae, Gemellaceae, and Streptococcus sanguinis were highest for the T-CD children. Streptococcus thermophilus levels were markedly decreased in T-CD children. The saliva of T-CD children showed the largest amount of Bacteroidetes (e.g., Porphyromonas sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Prevotella nanceiensis), together with the smallest amount of Actinobacteria. T-CD children were also characterized by decreased levels of some Actinomyces species, Atopobium species, and Corynebacterium durum. Rothia mucilaginosa was the only Actinobacteria species found at the highest level in T-CD children. As shown by multivariate statistical analyses, the levels of organic volatile compounds markedly differentiated T-CD children. Some compounds (e.g., ethyl-acetate, nonanal, and 2-hexanone) were found to be associated with T-CD children. Correlations (false discovery rate [FDR], <0.05) were found between the relative abundances of bacteria and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The findings of this study indicated that CD is associated with oral dysbiosis that could affect the oral metabolome. PMID:24657864

  6. Allied Health Education/Transfer of Credit: Recommendations of the North Carolina Articulation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Ralph H., Ed.; Huther, John W., Ed.

    The North Carolina Allied Health Articulation Project was launched to develop procedures which would enable an individual to transfer credit from an allied health education program in one setting to some program in higher education. In 1972-73, study committees were appointed to deal with the allied health professions of physical therapy,…

  7. 42 CFR 136.304 - Publication of a list of allied health professions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of a list of allied health professions... of a list of allied health professions. The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall publish from time to time in the Federal Register a list of the allied health professions for consideration for...

  8. Development of a Scale to Determine Enrollment Barriers into Allied Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, J. P.; Folio, M. Rhonda; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Zhang, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale of Allied Health Education Barriers to identify factors limiting enrollment in college/university allied health education programs. Development of the Scale of Allied Health Education Barriers was conducted through the following four stages: (1) review of literature, (2) focus group studies, (3)…

  9. 42 CFR 136.304 - Publication of a list of allied health professions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication of a list of allied health professions... of a list of allied health professions. The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall publish from time to time in the Federal Register a list of the allied health professions for consideration for...

  10. Allied Health Care Employees' Workplace Skills and Competencies: Are They Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Clifford R.; McClain, Mildred A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which allied health care providers considered the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS, 1991) and competencies as those that are necessary for entry level employment in the allied health care industry. The extent that allied health care supervisors and managers…

  11. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  12. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  13. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  14. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  15. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  16. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  17. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  18. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  19. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  20. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  1. Effective diagnosis of genetic disease by computational phenotype analysis of the disease-associated genome.

    PubMed

    Zemojtel, Tomasz; Köhler, Sebastian; Mackenroth, Luisa; Jäger, Marten; Hecht, Jochen; Krawitz, Peter; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Doelken, Sandra; Ehmke, Nadja; Spielmann, Malte; Oien, Nancy Christine; Schweiger, Michal R; Krüger, Ulrike; Frommer, Götz; Fischer, Björn; Kornak, Uwe; Flöttmann, Ricarda; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; Moreau, Yves; Lewis, Suzanna E; Haendel, Melissa; Smedley, Damian; Horn, Denise; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N

    2014-09-01

    Less than half of patients with suspected genetic disease receive a molecular diagnosis. We have therefore integrated next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics, and clinical data into an effective diagnostic workflow. We used variants in the 2741 established Mendelian disease genes [the disease-associated genome (DAG)] to develop a targeted enrichment DAG panel (7.1 Mb), which achieves a coverage of 20-fold or better for 98% of bases. Furthermore, we established a computational method [Phenotypic Interpretation of eXomes (PhenIX)] that evaluated and ranked variants based on pathogenicity and semantic similarity of patients' phenotype described by Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms to those of 3991 Mendelian diseases. In computer simulations, ranking genes based on the variant score put the true gene in first place less than 5% of the time; PhenIX placed the correct gene in first place more than 86% of the time. In a retrospective test of PhenIX on 52 patients with previously identified mutations and known diagnoses, the correct gene achieved a mean rank of 2.1. In a prospective study on 40 individuals without a diagnosis, PhenIX analysis enabled a diagnosis in 11 cases (28%, at a mean rank of 2.4). Thus, the NGS of the DAG followed by phenotype-driven bioinformatic analysis allows quick and effective differential diagnostics in medical genetics.

  2. Effective diagnosis of genetic disease by computational phenotype analysis of the disease-associated genome.

    PubMed

    Zemojtel, Tomasz; Köhler, Sebastian; Mackenroth, Luisa; Jäger, Marten; Hecht, Jochen; Krawitz, Peter; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Doelken, Sandra; Ehmke, Nadja; Spielmann, Malte; Oien, Nancy Christine; Schweiger, Michal R; Krüger, Ulrike; Frommer, Götz; Fischer, Björn; Kornak, Uwe; Flöttmann, Ricarda; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; Moreau, Yves; Lewis, Suzanna E; Haendel, Melissa; Smedley, Damian; Horn, Denise; Mundlos, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N

    2014-09-01

    Less than half of patients with suspected genetic disease receive a molecular diagnosis. We have therefore integrated next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics, and clinical data into an effective diagnostic workflow. We used variants in the 2741 established Mendelian disease genes [the disease-associated genome (DAG)] to develop a targeted enrichment DAG panel (7.1 Mb), which achieves a coverage of 20-fold or better for 98% of bases. Furthermore, we established a computational method [Phenotypic Interpretation of eXomes (PhenIX)] that evaluated and ranked variants based on pathogenicity and semantic similarity of patients' phenotype described by Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms to those of 3991 Mendelian diseases. In computer simulations, ranking genes based on the variant score put the true gene in first place less than 5% of the time; PhenIX placed the correct gene in first place more than 86% of the time. In a retrospective test of PhenIX on 52 patients with previously identified mutations and known diagnoses, the correct gene achieved a mean rank of 2.1. In a prospective study on 40 individuals without a diagnosis, PhenIX analysis enabled a diagnosis in 11 cases (28%, at a mean rank of 2.4). Thus, the NGS of the DAG followed by phenotype-driven bioinformatic analysis allows quick and effective differential diagnostics in medical genetics. PMID:25186178

  3. Introducing Astronomy Allies: We are here to help!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting will be the first meeting that has Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies will provide a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  4. Recovery of uncommon bacteria from blood: association with neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Beebe, J L; Koneman, E W

    1995-07-01

    Table 6 is a summary of the organisms discussed with a listing of the environmental source, the endogenous source, the predisposing factors including neoplasms, and the postulated mechanisms by which the organism can gain access to the circulation. The evidence considered indicates that the entrance of one of these microorganisms into the bloodstream of a human being depends on the presence of multiplicity of predisposing factors. In the majority of cases of bacteremia due to one of these unusual organisms, two or more predisposing factors are present. Certain predisposing factors, such as cancer chemotherapy or intravenous catheterization, often provide a barrier break, while others, such as liver disease, may render the host immune system less capable of clearing organisms from the circulation. For organisms such as Campy-lobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella spp., attributes that allow the invasion of a healthy host are present and seem to be enhanced by the simultaneous presence of a predisposing condition, such as liver disease, in the host. Although somewhat fragmentary, a number of individual case reports describe bacteremia due to one of these organisms occurring weeks to years after surgery and after other therapeutic measures had effected a supposed cure of a cancer. It may be speculated that cancer patients, even after a cure, are still susceptible to bloodstream invasion by one of the aforementioned organisms by virtue of the presence of one or more predisposing metabolic, physiologic, or immunologic factors, even though these factors may be cryptic. The predominance of hematologic malignancies among cases of bacteremia due to these unusual organisms is also apparent. Although, as pointed out by Keusch (169), the reduction in the performance of immune function in hematologic malignancies compared with solid tumors is likely to be responsible, other associations of certain organisms with specific neoplasms warrant further examination. The frequency of

  5. Recovery of uncommon bacteria from blood: association with neoplastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, J L; Koneman, E W

    1995-01-01

    Table 6 is a summary of the organisms discussed with a listing of the environmental source, the endogenous source, the predisposing factors including neoplasms, and the postulated mechanisms by which the organism can gain access to the circulation. The evidence considered indicates that the entrance of one of these microorganisms into the bloodstream of a human being depends on the presence of multiplicity of predisposing factors. In the majority of cases of bacteremia due to one of these unusual organisms, two or more predisposing factors are present. Certain predisposing factors, such as cancer chemotherapy or intravenous catheterization, often provide a barrier break, while others, such as liver disease, may render the host immune system less capable of clearing organisms from the circulation. For organisms such as Campy-lobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella spp., attributes that allow the invasion of a healthy host are present and seem to be enhanced by the simultaneous presence of a predisposing condition, such as liver disease, in the host. Although somewhat fragmentary, a number of individual case reports describe bacteremia due to one of these organisms occurring weeks to years after surgery and after other therapeutic measures had effected a supposed cure of a cancer. It may be speculated that cancer patients, even after a cure, are still susceptible to bloodstream invasion by one of the aforementioned organisms by virtue of the presence of one or more predisposing metabolic, physiologic, or immunologic factors, even though these factors may be cryptic. The predominance of hematologic malignancies among cases of bacteremia due to these unusual organisms is also apparent. Although, as pointed out by Keusch (169), the reduction in the performance of immune function in hematologic malignancies compared with solid tumors is likely to be responsible, other associations of certain organisms with specific neoplasms warrant further examination. The frequency of

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome might be associated with dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Asproudis, Ioannis; Tsoumani, Anthoula T.; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Theopistos, Vasileios; Paschidis, Konstantinos A.; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.; Christodoulou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background A possible association between dry eye disease (DED) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been hypothesized based on the fact that they both share an inflammatory pathogenesis. Methods Ninety-five patients with IBS and 276 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All patients answered a questionnaire regarding DED symptoms and had a complete ophthalmic examination. DED signs were evaluated using Schirmer’s 1 and tear break-up time (tBUT) tests in both groups. Results Female IBS participants presented significantly lower Schirmer’s test and tBUT (P=0.002 and P<0.001 respectively) than controls. Both diagnostic tests in male IBS patients were also significantly lower than in controls (P<0.001). 72% of IBS patients gave at least 3 positive answers to the questionnaire compared with 42% of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest a correlation between IBS and DED. DED symptoms can cause further complications in patients with IBS, and should be considered in their management. However, further research is needed to establish a possible pathophysiologic association. PMID:27708515

  7. DNA Microarray Characterization of Pathogens Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs.

  8. Clinical features of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zheng, Xing-Ju; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2015-10-07

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the lung. This study aimed to identify clinical features of RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD). Patients with RA were retrospectively enrolled and sub-classified as RA-ILD or RA without ILD based on high-resolution computed tomography imaging. Pulmonary function testing parameters and levels of RA-related biomarkers, tumour markers, and acute-phase proteins were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression model was used to assess the strength of association between RA-ILD and clinical features of interest. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess potential predictive value of clinical features for detecting RA-ILD. Comparison analysis indicated that the percentage of predicted value of total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were reduced in patients with RA-ILD. Tumour markers CA15-3 and CA125 were increased in patients with RA-ILD. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased DLCO was related to the increased likelihood of RA-ILD (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = [0.91, 0.98]). The cut-off point at 52.95 percent of predicted value could sensitively discriminate RA patients with or without ILD. Our study suggested that DLCO value could be a useful tool for detecting ILD in patients with RA.

  9. Changes in chromatin structure associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P N; Lukiw, W J; De Boni, U; McLachlan, D R

    1981-11-01

    The enzyme micrococcal nuclease was used to examine the accessibility of chromatin extracted from brains of 13 patients with senile and presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Compared with chromatin extracted from brains of 8 patients without neurological signs or brain pathology and brains of 7 patients with nonAlzheimer dementia, Alzheimer chromatin was less accessible to this enzyme. Reduced accessibility was reflected by a reduced yield of mononucleosomes in comparison with dinucleosomes and larger oligomers. Both neuronal and glial chromatin were found to be similarly affected. The reduced yield of mononucleosomes from Alzheimer chromatin is not due to their increased breakdown, but is probably related to protein associated with the internucleosomal linker region that retards nuclease action. Dinucleosomes isolated from control and Alzheimer nuclease digests were examined for their protein complement. Three perchloric acid-soluble proteins situated in the histone H1 region of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels were present in elevated levels in Alzheimer dinucleosomes. These results represent the first example of altered chromosomal proteins associated with a diseased state of the brain.

  10. Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-Campos, José; González-Guevara, Lucía; Cauli, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with intellectual disability (ID) is a life-long debilitating condition, which is characterized by cognitive function impairment and other neurological signs. Children with ASD-ID typically attain motor skills with a significant delay. A sub-group of ASD-IDs has been linked to hyperlactacidemia and alterations in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. The objective of this report is to describe the clinical features of patients with these comorbidities in order to shed light on difficult diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in such patients. We reported the different clinical features of children with ID associated with hyperlactacidemia and deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II–IV activity whose clinical presentations are commonly associated with the classic spectrum of mitochondrial diseases. We concluded that patients with ASD and ID presenting with persistent hyperlactacidemia should be evaluated for mitochondrial disorders. Administration of carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid is partially beneficial, although more studies are needed to assess the efficacy of this vitamin/cofactor treatment combination. PMID:25679448

  11. Association and heterogeneity at the GAPDH locus in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mariet; Cox, Claire; Belbin, Olivia; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Wilcox, Samantha L; Howell, Chanley C; Hunter, Talisha A; Culley, Oliver; Walker, Louise P; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2012-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH) and its paralogs were implicated in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), although the strength and direction of association have not been consistent. We genotyped 3 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3741916-GAPDH 5' UTR, rs2029721-pGAPD, and rs4806173-GAPDHS) in 3 case-control series (2112 cases and 3808 controls). Rs3741916 showed the strongest LOAD association (p = 0.003). The minor allele of rs3741916 showed a protective effect in our combined series (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-0.96). This is consistent with results from the 2 published follow-up studies and in opposite direction of the original report. Meta-analysis of the published series with ours suggests presence of heterogeneity (Breslow-Day p < 0.0001). Meta-analysis of only the follow-up series including ours revealed a significant protective effect for the minor allele of rs3741916 (OR = 0.85%, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96, p = 0.009). Our results support the presence of LOAD variants and heterogeneity at the GAPDH locus. The most promising rs3741916 variant is unlikely to be functional given opposing effects in different series. Identification of functional variant(s) in this region likely awaits deep sequencing.

  12. Post-traumatic stress in Crohn's disease and its association with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Cámara, Rafael J A; Gander, Marie-Louise; Begré, Stefan; von Känel, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Objective Violence, accidents and natural disasters are known to cause post-traumatic stress, which is typically accompanied by fear, suffering and impaired quality of life. Similar to chronic diseases, such events preoccupy the patient over longer periods. We hypothesised that post-traumatic stress could also be caused by Crohn's disease (CD), and that CD specific post-traumatic stress could be associated with an increased risk of disease exacerbation. Methods A cohort of CD patients was observed over 18 months in various types of locations providing gastroenterological treatment in Switzerland. The cohort included 597 consecutively recruited adults. At inclusion, CD specific post-traumatic stress was assessed using the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (range 0–51 points). During follow-up, clinical aggravation was assessed by combining important outcome measures. Patients with post-traumatic stress levels suggestive of a post-traumatic stress disorder (≥ 15 points) were compared with patients with lower post-traumatic stress levels as well as with patients without post-traumatic stress. Also, the continuous relation between post-traumatic stress severity and risk of disease exacerbation was assessed. Results The 88 (19.1%) patients scoring ≥15 points had 4.3 times higher odds of exacerbation (95% CI 2.6 to 7.2) than the 372 (80.9%) patients scoring <15 points, and 13.0 times higher odds (95% CI 3.6 to 46.2) than the 45 (9.8%) patients scoring 0 points. The odds of exacerbation increased by 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.8) per standard deviation of post-traumatic stress. Conclusions CD specific post-traumatic stress is frequent and seems to be associated with exacerbation of CD. Thus gastroenterologists may want to ask about symptoms of post-traumatic stress and, where relevant, offer appropriate management according to current knowledge. PMID:24349679

  13. Association between gastroesophageal reflux disease and coronary heart disease: A nationwide population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) development, if any, and to evaluate whether longer use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the risk of CHD.Patients diagnosed with GERD between 2000 and 2011 were identified as the study cohort (n = 12,960). Patients without GERD were randomly selected from the general population, frequency-matched with the study group according to age, sex, and index year, and evaluated as the comparison cohort (n = 51,840). Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to determine the incidence of CHD. The risk of CHD was evaluated in both groups by using Cox proportional hazards regression models.The GERD patients had a greater probability of CHD than the cohort without GERD did (log-rank test, P < 0.001 and 11.8 vs 6.5 per 1000 person-years). The GERD cohort had a higher risk of CHD than the comparison cohort did after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, alcohol-related illness, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, biliary stone, anxiety, depression, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-1.66). The risk of CHD was greater for the patients treated with PPIs for more than 1 year (aHR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.34-2.08) than for those treated with PPIs for <1 year (aHR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.39-1.74).Our population-based cohort study results indicate that GERD was associated with an increased risk of developing CHD, and that PPI use for more than 1 year might increase the risk of CHD. PMID:27399102

  14. Association studies in late onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goate, A.M.; Lendon, C.; Talbot, C.

    1994-09-01

    Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is characterized by an adult onset progressive dementia and the presence of numerous plaques and tangles within the brain at autopsy. The senile plaques are composed of a proteinaceous core surrounded by dystrophic neurites. The major protein component of the core is {beta}-amyloid but antibodies to many other proteins bind to senile plaques, e.g., antibodies to apolioprotein E (ApoE) and to {alpha}1-antichymotrypsin (AACT). Genetic studies have implicated mutations within the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein gene as the cause of AD in a small number of early onset AD families. More recently, assocition studies in late onset AD have demonstrated a positive association between ApoE-{epsilon}4 and AD. We report evidence for a negative association between ApoE-{epsilon}2 and AD in a large sample of sporadic late onset AD cases and matched controls supporting the role of ApoE in the etiology of AD. Ninety-three patients with sporadic AD (average age = 75 years, s.d. 8 yrs.) and 67 normal controls from the same ethnic background (age = 77 yrs., s.d. 10 yrs.) were recruited through the patient registry of the Washington University Alzheimer`s Disease Research Center. We found a statistically significant increase in ApoE-{epsilon}4 allele frequency in patients compared with controls ({chi}{sup 2}=7.75, 1 d.f., one tailed p=0.0027) and a significant decrease in {epsilon}2 allele frequency (Fisher`s exact test, one tailed p=0.0048), whereas the decreased frequency of {epsilon}3 in the patient groups was not statistically significant. Allele {epsilon}2 conferred a strong protective effect in our sample, with the odds ratio for AD for subjects possessing this allele being 0.08 (85% confidence interval 0.01-0.69). Similar studies using a polymorphism within the AACT gene showed no association with alleles at this locus in the entire AD sample or in AD cases homozygous for ApoE-{epsilon}3.

  15. A Case of Variegate Porphyria in Association With Coeliac Disease and Bisphosphonate Associated Dental Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ogundipe, Olayinka A.

    2009-01-01

    This case describes an older patient with a rare diagnosis of variegate porphyria presenting with acute abdominal pains and bloating, intermittent loose stools and jaw pains following surgical repair of an osteoporotic hip fracture. She was noted to have acute hyponatraemia. All the abdominal symptoms and the hyponatraemia were initially attributed to an acute episode of variegate porphyria with an accompanying syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. However, following further evaluations necessitated by the incomplete resolution of the abdominal symptoms, it became apparent that some of the persisting symptoms were due to a concurrent and new presentation of serology positive coeliac disease. The jaw pains were established to be due to dental osteonecrosis in association with the use of bisphosphonate therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. The various symptoms and signs subsequently settled uneventfully following institution of appropriate management options for the various coexisting diagnoses. Keywords Abdominal pain; Abdominal bloating; Loose stools; Hyponatraemia; Variegate porphyria; Coeliac disease; Osteoporosis; Bisphosphonates; Osteonecrosis PMID:22481993

  16. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors.

  17. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors. PMID:23148507

  18. Genetics Home Reference: uromodulin-associated kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and How They Work Educational Resources (4 links) Disease InfoSearch: Medullary cystic kidney disease 2 Merck Manual Home Edition: ... Registry (3 links) Familial juvenile gout Glomerulocystic kidney disease with hyperuricemia and ... cystic kidney disease 2 Scientific articles on PubMed ( ...

  19. Associative reinstatement memory measures hippocampal function in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Melanie; Giannoylis, Irene; De Belder, Maya; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-09-01

    In Parkinson's Disease (PD), hippocampal atrophy is associated with rapid cognitive decline. Hippocampal function is typically assessed using memory tests but current clinical tools (e.g., free recall) also rely on executive functions or use material that is not optimally engaging hippocampal memory networks. Because of the ubiquity of executive dysfunction in PD, our ability to detect true memory deficits is suboptimal. Our previous behavioural and neuroimaging work in other populations suggests that an experimental memory task - Associative Reinstatement Memory (ARM) - may prove useful in investigating hippocampal function in PD. In this study, we investigated whether ARM is compromised in PD and we assessed its convergent and divergent validity by comparing it to standardized measures of memory and of attention and executive functioning in PD, respectively. Using fMRI, we also investigated whether performance in PD relates to degree of hippocampal engagement. Fifteen participants with PD and 13 age-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing as well as an ARM fMRI recognition paradigm in which they were instructed to identify word pairs comprised of two studied words (intact or rearranged pairs) and those containing at least one new word (new or half new pairs). ARM is measured by the differences in hit rates between intact and rearranged pairs. Behaviourally, ARM was poorer in PD relative to controls and was correlated with verbal memory measures, but not with attention or executive functioning in the PD group. Hippocampal activation associated with ARM was reduced in PD relative to controls and covaried with ARM scores in both groups. To conclude, ARM is a sensitive measure of hippocampal memory function that is unaffected by attention or executive dysfunction in PD. Our study highlights the benefit of integrating cognitive neuroscience frameworks and novel experimental tasks to improve the practice of clinical neuropsychology in PD. PMID

  20. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic Losses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al Zoubi, I G; Al Sheyab, O M; Al Zoubi, M G; Alekish, M O; Al Gharabat, R J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Jordan and associated clinical signs, complications and preliminary economic losses. In mid-April, 2013, two adult dairy cattle developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD and were confirmed as positive by PCR. The two cases were in Bani Kenanah district, Irbid governorate, on the Jordanian border of Israel and Syria. The disease spread rapidly to all the districts of Irbid governorate. During the month following the emergence of the disease, data were collected related to the epidemiology of the disease and the numbers of affected cattle on the premises. Forty-one dairy cattle holdings were surveyed. The morbidity rate ranged from 3% to 100%, (Mean = 35.1%, SD ±28.5%). The mortality rate ranged from 0% to 20%, (Mean = 1.3%, SD ±4.4%). The case fatality rate ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 6.2%, SD ±22%). The overall morbidity rate was 26%, mortality rate 1.9% and case fatality rate 7.5%. Skin nodules, anorexia, decreased milk production and decreased body weight were common clinical signs, while mastitis and myiasis were seen as complications in a few affected animals. Decreased body weight ranged from 0% to 80%, (Mean = 23.1%, SD ±15.7%). Decreased milk production ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 51.5%, SD ±22.2%). Affected cattle were treated mainly with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The cost of treatment ranged from 0 to 84.3 British Pound/animal, (Mean = 27.9 GBP, SD ±22.5 GBP). LSD continues to spread through the Middle East region and poses a serious threat to the rest of Asia and Europe. International collaboration and communication is warranted to prevent the further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe.

  1. Severe outbreak of disease in the southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) associated with border disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Marco, Ignasi; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge Ramon; Rosell, Rosa; Vidal, Enric; Hurtado, Ana; Juste, Ramon; Pumarola, Marti; Lavin, Santiago

    2007-02-25

    An outbreak of a previously unreported disease affecting southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the central Pyrenees (NE Spain) was recorded in 2001 and 2002. There was a marked temporal distribution, most animals being found between February and June. After the outbreak, the population was found to have decreased by about 42%, most probably due to the disease. We examined 20 affected chamois. Clinical manifestations included depression, weakness and movement difficulties in all cases. Three chamois presented abnormal behaviour, with absence of flight reaction, and 16 showed different degrees of alopecia with skin hyperpigmentation. At necropsy cachexia was observed in all animals, four chamois had abscesses in different parts of the body, four had pneumonia, one had an extensive subcutaneous infection on the head and neck and one had severe orchitis. Microscopic lesions were found in the brain, mainly edema, gliosis, espongiosis, cariorrexis and neuronal multifocal necrosis. A perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was present in three of them. Skin lesions included marked follicular atrophy, mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular hyperkeratosis, and hypermelanosis. In 13 chamois there were haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, and in three individuals kidney "cloissone" was observed. Intraeritrocitic parasites were detected either by direct observation or PCR in 8 of 17 chamois. A pestivirus was isolated and detected by RT-PCR from 12 of 13 affected chamois and antigenic characterized as border disease virus by monoclonal antibodies. This is the first time a border disease virus has been associated with an outbreak of a high-mortality disease in a wild species.

  2. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmunity, immune-mediated diseases and airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Timothy S C

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel class of innate-like T cells, expressing a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and able to recognize small molecules presented on the non-polymorphic MHC-related protein 1. Their intrinsic effector-memory phenotype, enabling secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their relative abundance in humans imply a significant potential to contribute to autoimmune processes. However, as MAIT cells were unknown until recently and specific immunological tools were unavailable, little is known of their roles in disease. Here I review observations from clinical studies and animal models of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases including the roles of MAIT cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and airways diseases. MAIT cell deficiencies are frequently observed in peripheral blood, and at sites of disease such as the airways in asthma. However, MAIT cells have a specific sensitivity to suppression by therapeutic corticosteroids that may confound many of these observations, as may the tendency of the surface marker CD161 to activation-induced down-regulation. Nonetheless, the dependence on bacteria for the development of MAIT cells suggests a potentially important protective role linking the influences of early life microbial exposures and subsequent development of autoimmunity. Conversely, MAIT cells could contribute to chronic inflammation either through TCR-independent activation, or potentially by TCR recognition of as yet undiscovered ligands. Future research will be greatly facilitated by the immunological tools that are now available, including murine genetic models and human and murine specific tetramers.

  3. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmunity, immune-mediated diseases and airways disease.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Timothy S C

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel class of innate-like T cells, expressing a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and able to recognize small molecules presented on the non-polymorphic MHC-related protein 1. Their intrinsic effector-memory phenotype, enabling secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their relative abundance in humans imply a significant potential to contribute to autoimmune processes. However, as MAIT cells were unknown until recently and specific immunological tools were unavailable, little is known of their roles in disease. Here I review observations from clinical studies and animal models of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases including the roles of MAIT cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and airways diseases. MAIT cell deficiencies are frequently observed in peripheral blood, and at sites of disease such as the airways in asthma. However, MAIT cells have a specific sensitivity to suppression by therapeutic corticosteroids that may confound many of these observations, as may the tendency of the surface marker CD161 to activation-induced down-regulation. Nonetheless, the dependence on bacteria for the development of MAIT cells suggests a potentially important protective role linking the influences of early life microbial exposures and subsequent development of autoimmunity. Conversely, MAIT cells could contribute to chronic inflammation either through TCR-independent activation, or potentially by TCR recognition of as yet undiscovered ligands. Future research will be greatly facilitated by the immunological tools that are now available, including murine genetic models and human and murine specific tetramers. PMID:26778581

  4. Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini Infection and Associated Hepatobiliary Disease Is Associated with Iron Loaded M2-like Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Banchob

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection. PMID:25548425

  5. Drug-disease association and drug-repositioning predictions in complex diseases using causal inference-probabilistic matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jihong; Li, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-09-22

    The high incidence of complex diseases has become a worldwide threat to human health. Multiple targets and pathways are perturbed during the pathological process of complex diseases. Systematic investigation of complex relationship between drugs and diseases is necessary for new association discovery and drug repurposing. For this purpose, three causal networks were constructed herein for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neoplasms, respectively. A causal inference-probabilistic matrix factorization (CI-PMF) approach was proposed to predict and classify drug-disease associations, and further used for drug-repositioning predictions. First, multilevel systematic relations between drugs and diseases were integrated from heterogeneous databases to construct causal networks connecting drug-target-pathway-gene-disease. Then, the association scores between drugs and diseases were assessed by evaluating a drug's effects on multiple targets and pathways. Furthermore, PMF models were learned based on known interactions, and associations were then classified into three types by trained models. Finally, therapeutic associations were predicted based upon the ranking of association scores and predicted association types. In terms of drug-disease association prediction, modified causal inference included in CI-PMF outperformed existing causal inference with a higher AUC (area under receiver operating characteristic curve) score and greater precision. Moreover, CI-PMF performed better than single modified causal inference in predicting therapeutic drug-disease associations. In the top 30% of predicted associations, 58.6% (136/232), 50.8% (31/61), and 39.8% (140/352) hit known therapeutic associations, while precisions obtained by the latter were only 10.2% (231/2264), 8.8% (36/411), and 9.7% (189/1948). Clinical verifications were further conducted for the top 100 newly predicted therapeutic associations. As a result, 21, 12, and 32 associations have been studied and

  6. Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

    2014-01-01

    Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n = 135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n = 21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n = 20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n = 14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n = 57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n = 16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n = 12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n = 116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n = 45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n = 36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology.

  7. Glutathione as a Biomarker in Parkinson's Disease: Associations with Aging and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mischley, Laurie K.; Standish, Leanna J.; Weiss, Noel S.; Padowski, Jeannie M.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; White, Collin C.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Oxidative stress contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology and progression. The objective was to describe central and peripheral metabolites of redox metabolism and to describe correlations between glutathione (Glu) status, age, and disease severity. Methods. 58 otherwise healthy individuals with PD were examined during a single study visit. Descriptive statistics and scatterplots were used to evaluate normality and distribution of this cross-sectional sample. Blood tests and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used to collect biologic data. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the strength and direction of the association. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes in PD (PRO-PD) were used to rate disease severity using regression analysis. Results. Blood measures of Glu decreased with age, although there was no age-related decline in MRS Glu. The lower the blood Glu concentration, the more severe the UPDRS (P = 0.02, 95% CI: −13.96, −1.14) and the PRO-PD (P = 0.01, 95% CI: −0.83, −0.11) scores. Discussion. These data suggest whole blood Glu may have utility as a biomarker in PD. Future studies should evaluate whether it is a modifiable risk factor for PD progression and whether Glu fortification improves PD outcomes.

  8. Data and programs in support of network analysis of genes and their association with diseases.

    PubMed

    Kontou, Panagiota I; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Dimou, Niki L; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2016-09-01

    The network-based approaches that were employed in order to depict the relationships between human genetic diseases and their associated genes are described. Towards this direction, monopartite disease-disease and gene-gene networks were constructed from bipartite gene-disease association networks. The latter were created by collecting and integrating data from three diverse resources, each one with different content, covering from rare monogenic disorders to common complex diseases. Moreover, topological and clustering graph analyses were performed. The methodology and the programs presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Network analysis of genes and their association with diseases" [1]. PMID:27508260

  9. End-stage renal disease associated with prophylactic lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Aiff, Harald; Attman, Per-Ola; Aurell, Mattias; Bendz, Hans; Schön, Staffan; Svedlund, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lithium associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to compare the relative risk of ESRD in lithium users versus non-lithium users. Second, the role of lithium in the pathogenesis of ESRD was evaluated. We used the Swedish Renal Registry to search for lithium-treated patients with ESRD among 2644 patients with chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT)-either dialysis or transplantation, within two defined geographical areas in Sweden with 2.8 million inhabitants. The prevalence date was December 31, 2010. We found 30 ESRD patients with a history of lithium treatment. ESRD with RRT was significantly more prevalent among lithium users than among non-lithium users (p<0.001). The prevalence of ESRD with RRT in the lithium user population was 15.0‰ (95% CI 9.7-20.3), and close to two percent of the RRT population were lithium users. The relative risk of ESRD with RRT in the lithium user population compared with the general population was 7.8 (95% CI 5.4-11.1). Out of those 30 patients, lithium use was classified, based on chart reviews, as being the sole (n=14) or main (n=10) cause of ESRD in 24 cases. Their mean age at the start of RRT was 66 years (46-82), their mean time on lithium 27 years (12-39), and 22 of them had been on lithium for 15 years or more. We conclude that lithium-associated ESRD is an uncommon but not rare complication of lithium treatment.

  10. The Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Ming-Fong; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty infiltration of the pancreas has been shown to interfere with insulin secretion. Both insulin sensitivity and secretion are important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and prediabetes. However, the relationship between diabetes, prediabetes, and fatty pancreas remains unknown. We aim to investigate the relationships that fatty pancreas and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have with prediabetes and diabetes in a Chinese population. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 7,464 subjects were recruited. NAFLD and fatty pancreas were assessed by sonography. Clinico-metabolic parameters were compared among subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between fatty pancreas and NAFLD and diabetes or prediabetes with adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. Results With an increase in glycemia, a significantly greater proportion of subjects had NAFLD and fatty pancreas (test for trend p<0.05). Similar trends were also found for hypertension, general and central obesity, low-HDL cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. In the logistic regression analysis, age, hypertension, male gender, hypertriglyceridemia, and central obesity were significantly associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Furthermore, the ORs of prediabetes and diabetes for NAFLD were 1.798 (95% CI 1.544–2.094) and 2.578 (95% CI 2.024–3.284), respectively. In addition, fatty pancreas was independently related to diabetes (OR, 1.379; 95% CI, 1.047–1.816) and prediabetes (OR, 1.222; 95% CI, 1.002–1.491) in male subjects. Conclusions Both NAFLD and fatty pancreas were associated with diabetes independent of age, gender, adiposity, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Fatty pancreas was also related to prediabetes in males. PMID:23671610

  11. Allergic disease as an association of steroid sulphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sakura, N; Nishimura, S; Matsumoto, T; Ohsaki, M; Ogata, T

    1997-11-01

    Ten of 31 patients with steroid sulphatase (STS) deficiency were found to have an allergic disease (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis). STS deficiency may predispose patients to allergic disease.

  12. 77 FR 47795 - Disease Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents: Peripheral Neuropathy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO32 Disease Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents... number). Comments should indicate that they are submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AO32--Disease... possible associations between the occurrence of a disease in humans and exposure to an herbicide...

  13. Visual loss associated with orbital and sinus diseases.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, A J; Kronberg, F G; Culbertson, W

    1984-08-01

    Visual loss associated with orbital and sinuses diseases is mainly due to infectious processes, trauma and neoplasm. From 1975 to 1983, we have encountered 34 such cases. The most common cause in our series was infectious processes, either due to aerobic or anaerobic bacteria or fungi (aspergillosis and phycomycosis). Iatrogenic trauma resulting in complete unilateral irreversible blindness was the second most common etiology in the series of cases that came to our attention for several reasons. Three of our patients with complete blindness, even with documented absence of light perception, secondary to infections or mucocele, underwent emergency surgical treatment with successful restoration of vision. Other patients with various degrees of visual loss experienced improvement, often to normal levels, when timely appropriate surgical treatment was applied. Orbital or optic nerve decompression was used according to pathologic findings encountered. High resolution CT scan has been very helpful in precisely pinpointing the lesion. It is also indispensable in the follow-up of orbital abscesses in order to rule out intracranial complications. Blindness with immediate onset secondary to either external or iatrogenic trauma, with rare exceptions, has a dismal prognosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential for salvage of vision or even lives of patients affected by such dreadful complications.

  14. Probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Leo R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to update the current and potential future role of probiotics for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Included in this review, is an update on the testing of newer probiotics (e.g., Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) in animal models of CDAD. There is a focus on the modulation of signal transduction pathways (i.e., transcription factors like cAMP response element-binding, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor kappa B), as well as the inhibition of certain kinases (e.g., p38 mitogen activated protein kinases) by probiotics. Inhibition of signal transduction by probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, result in multiple effects on intestinal fluid secretion, neutrophil influx into the colon, inflammation, and colonocyte apoptosis that may positively impact CDAD. Recent clinical approaches with probiotics, for the prevention of primary and recurrent CDAD, are also summarized in this review paper. Future directions for the treatment of CDAD by probiotics are also mentioned in this review. In particular, the use of multi-strain probiotic formulations such as Ecologic® AAD and VSL #3® may represent a rationale pharmacological approach, particularly as adjunctive therapies for CDAD. Understanding the mechanistic basis of CDAD, and how probiotics interfere at ceratin steps in the pathogenic process, may also present the opportunity to design other multi-strain probiotics that could have a future impact on CDAD. PMID:23946887

  15. Usage of cancer associated autoantibodies in the detection of disease

    PubMed Central

    Dudas, Steven P.; Chatterjee, Madhumita; Tainsky, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts toward deciphering the complexity of the tumor specific proteome by profiling immune responses generated against tumor associated antigens (TAAs) holds great promise for predicting the presence of cancer long before the development of clinical symptoms. The immune system is capable of sensing aberrant expression of certain cellular components involved in tumorigenesis and the resultant autoantibody response provides insights to the targets that are responsible for eliciting immunogenicity to these cellular components. Analysis of the cancer-specific humoral immune response has led to panels of biomarkers that are specific and sensitive biomarkers of disease. Using multianalyte-based in vitro analytical discovery platforms which can be easily adapted into clinical diagnostic screening tests, body fluids such as serum, plasma saliva, or urine can be interrogated to detect autoantibodies against natural or recombinant antigens, which may possess etiologic significance to cancer. Non-invasive screening tests exhibiting high specificity and sensitivity to detect early stage cancer in the heterogeneous population of cancer patients potentially have the greatest impact in decreasing mortality rates. Overall, this review summarizes different experimental approaches in the development of diagnostic screening tests for the early detection of cancer and their implementation in the development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays. PMID:20938086

  16. Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Disease, Version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Holmstrom, Bjorn; Ashrani, Aneel; Bockenstedt, Paula L; Chesney, Carolyn; Eby, Charles; Fanikos, John; Fenninger, Randolph B; Fogerty, Annemarie E; Gao, Shuwei; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hendrie, Paul; Kuderer, Nicole; Lee, Alfred; Lee, Jason T; Lovrincevic, Mirjana; Millenson, Michael M; Neff, Anne T; Ortel, Thomas L; Paschal, Rita; Shattil, Sanford; Siddiqi, Tanya; Smock, Kristi J; Soff, Gerald; Wang, Tzu-Fei; Yee, Gary C; Zakarija, Anaadriana; McMillian, Nicole; Engh, Anita M

    2015-09-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Disease outline strategies for treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients with a diagnosis of cancer or for whom cancer is clinically suspected. VTE is a common complication in patients with cancer, which places them at greater risk for morbidity and mortality. Therefore, risk-appropriate prophylaxis is an essential component for the optimal care of inpatients and outpatients with cancer. Critical to meeting this goal is ensuring that patients get the most effective medication in the correct dose. Body weight has a significant impact on blood volume and drug clearance. Because obesity is a common health problem in industrialized societies, cancer care providers are increasingly likely to treat obese patients in their practice. Obesity is a risk factor common to VTE and many cancers, and may also impact the anticoagulant dose needed for safe and effective prophylaxis. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the data supporting new dosing recommendations for VTE prophylaxis in obese patients with cancer. PMID:26358792

  17. Amino acid runs in eukaryotic proteomes and disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Samuel; Brocchieri, Luciano; Bergman, Aviv; Mrázek, Jan; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a comparative proteome analysis of the five complete eukaryotic genomes (human, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana), focusing on individual and multiple amino acid runs, charge and hydrophobic runs. We found that human proteins with multiple long runs are often associated with diseases; these include long glutamine runs that induce neurological disorders, various cancers, categories of leukemias (mostly involving chromosomal translocations), and an abundance of Ca2 + and K+ channel proteins. Many human proteins with multiple runs function in development and/or transcription regulation and are Drosophila homeotic homologs. A large number of these proteins are expressed in the nervous system. More than 80% of Drosophila proteins with multiple runs seem to function in transcription regulation. The most frequent amino acid runs in Drosophila sequences occur for glutamine, alanine, and serine, whereas human sequences highlight glutamate, proline, and leucine. The most frequent runs in yeast are of serine, glutamine, and acidic residues. Compared with the other eukaryotic proteomes, amino acid runs are significantly more abundant in the fly. This finding might be interpreted in terms of innate differences in DNA-replication processes, repair mechanisms, DNA-modification systems, and mutational biases. There are striking differences in amino acid runs for glutamine, asparagine, and leucine among the five proteomes. PMID:11782551

  18. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders. PMID:26996178

  19. Werner helicase polymorphism is not associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; de Labio, Roger Willian; Gatti, Luciano Lobo; Rigolin, Valdeci O S; Bertolucci, Paulo H F; Smith, Marília de A C

    2004-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is also considered a progeroid genetic syndrome. The etiology of AD is complex and the mechanisms underlying its pathophysiology remains to be clarified. Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized as a segmental progeroid syndrome. The gene (WRN) was recently identified. Its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. This study investigates the association of AD with the WRN 1367 polymorphisms in samples of 67 DA patients, 56 elderly healthy and 66 young healthy controls. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. We observed that the genotype distributions of WRN 1367 variants were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all subject samples. Furthermore, chi-square test comparison for genotype distributions and allele frequencies did not reveal any significant difference among the three groups of subjects (P>0.05). These results support the idea that these variants are not involved as a risk factor for developing AD.

  20. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J Paul; Glascock, Abigail L; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710