Science.gov

Sample records for allied products industry

  1. Chemicals and Allied Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. F.; Hovious, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from chemical industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) wastewater treatment by-product type; (2) biological, and physical/chemical treatments; and (3) source treatment. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste. PMID:27620094

  3. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  4. HRD and Productivity: Allied Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    The author defines productivity and discusses ways to increase productivity in the workplace, with emphasis on human resource development (HRD). He discusses the use of quality circles, participative management, and layoffs to increase productivity. (CH)

  5. Ally

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ally ; CASRN 74223 - 64 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  6. Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical, Drug, and Paper and Allied Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in refining and industrial chemical, drug, and paper manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in…

  7. Faculty research productivity in allied health settings: a TQM approach.

    PubMed

    Paterson, M; Baker, D; Gable, C; Michael, S; Wintch, K

    1993-01-01

    Faculty research productivity in colleges of allied health has often been discussed in the literature over the last five years. Articles have focused on the problem of faculty research productivity from various viewpoints, but none have used a theoretical framework to analyze the problem. The total quality management (TQM) framework is currently being used in health care to improve quality and productivity. This article uses the TQM framework to synthesize literature concerning faculty research productivity and verifies the current relevance of synthesis findings using an allied health faculty survey. These analyses show that the TQM framework is useful in suggesting ways to increase faculty research productivity in colleges of allied health.

  8. Economic efficiency in fish farming: hope for agro-allied industries in Niagara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Dipeolu, A. O.; Aromolaran, A. B.; Williams, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    The challenge to increase the efficiency in food production level in Nigeria appears to be more urgent now than it has ever been in the history of the country. This is in view of the rapidly increasing population, the imminent decline in international economic and food aid and the need to conserve foreign exchange earnings through the production of raw materials to feed the growing industrial sector calls for urgent attention. The study was carried out in Ogun State. The descriptive statistics was used to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. The stochastic frontiers production analysis was applied to estimate the technical, allocative efficiency and economic efficiency among the fish farmers in the state. The results of economic efficiency revealed that fish farming is economically efficient with a range of between 55% and 84% efficiency level suggesting a favourable hope for the agro-allied industry such as poultry and cottage industries etc in the state. The result of hypothesis of inefficiency sources models showed that years of experience of fish farmers is significant at 1% probability level indicating the factor contributing to the fish farming experience in the state. Thus, the efficiency is due to the fact that farmers are experienced and fairly educated. On the basis of findings, policy is suggested to be directed towards the encouragement of entrepreneurs in fish farming in the state by providing enabling environment like credit facilities, public enlightenment programme and provision of social amenities like feeder roads, pipe-born water etc and given the fact that an increase in the level of formal education variable leads to less inefficiency, government policy should be focused on adopting the best technology (e.g. fast growing species and equipment) so as to improve the level of efficiency and investment which shall eventually lead to growth in output of fish farming and a lead to the establishment of agro-allied

  9. Industry/Community Colleges: Allies in the War for Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindle, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of partnerships between industry and community colleges as a way to improve the workforce by providing the skills and education needed to compete successfully in a global economy. Partnerships in areas of technology are emphasized. Seven examples of partnerships between Texas Instruments and community colleges are listed.…

  10. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? 63.11601 Section 63.11601 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Standards, Monitoring, and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11601 - What are the standards for new and existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing paints and allied products manufacturing facilities? 63.11601 Section 63.11601 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Standards, Monitoring, and Compliance Requirements § 63.11601 What are the standards for new and existing paints and...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  16. Industrial Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASTRAN is an offshoot of the computer-design technique used in construction of airplanes and spacecraft. [n this technique engineers create a mathematical model of the aeronautical or space vehicle and "fly" it on the ground by means of computer simulation. The technique enables them to study performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on the final configuration and proceeding with construction. From this base of aerospace experience, NASA-Goddard developed the NASTRAN general purpose computer program, which offers an exceptionally wide range of analytic capability with regard to structures. NASTRAN has been applied to autos, trucks, railroad cars, ships, nuclear power reactors, steam turbines, bridges, and office buildings. NASA-Langley provides program maintenance services regarded as vital by many NASTRAN users. NASTRAN is essentially a predictive tool. It takes an electronic look at a computerire$.dedgn and reports how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. It can, for example, note areas where high stress levels will occur-potential failure points that need strengthening. Conversely, it can identify over-designed areas where weight and material might be saved safely. NASTRAN can tell how pipes stand up under strong fluid flow, how metals are affected by high temperatures, how a building will fare in an earthquake or how powerful winds will cause a bridge to oscillate. NASTRAN analysis is quick and inexpensive. It minimizes trial-and-error in the design process and makes possible better, safe, lighter structures affording large-scale savings in development time and materials. Some examples of the broad utility NASTRAN is finding among industrial firms are shown on these pages.

  17. Biosynthesis and Function of Polyacetylenes and Allied Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Minto, Robert E.; Blacklock, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    Polyacetylenic natural products are a substantial class of often unstable compounds containing a unique carbon-carbon triple bond functionality, that are intriguing for their wide variety of biochemical and ecological functions, economic potential, and surprising mode of biosynthesis. Isotopic tracer experiments between 1960 and 1990 demonstrated that the majority of these compounds are derived from fatty acid and polyketide precursors. During the past decade, research into the metabolism of polyacetylenes has swiftly advanced, driven by the cloning of the first genes responsible for polyacetylene biosynthesis in plants, moss, fungi, and actinomycetes, and the initial characterization of the gene products. The current state of knowledge of the biochemistry and molecular genetics of polyacetylenic secondary metabolic pathways will be presented together with an up-to-date survey of new terrestrial and marine natural products, their known biological activities, and a discussion of their likely metabolic origins. PMID:18387369

  18. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified

  19. Thermal Exposure Effects on Properties of Al-Li Alloy Plate Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Wells, Douglas; Wagner, John; Babel, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) alloys offer significant performance benefits for aerospace structural applications due to their higher specific properties compared with conventional aluminum alloys. For example, the application of an Al-Li alloy to the space shuttle external cryogenic fuel tank contributed to the weight savings that enabled successful deployment of International Space Station components. The composition and heat treatment of this alloy were optimized specifically for strength-toughness considerations for an expendable cryogenic tank. Time dependent properties related to reliability, such as thermal stability, fatigue, and corrosion, will be of significant interest when materials are evaluated for a reusable cryotank structure. As most aerospace structural hardware is weight sensitive, a reusable cryotank will be designed to the limits of the materials mechanical properties. Therefore, this effort was designed to establish the effects of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one relatively production mature alloy and two developmental alloys C458 and L277. Tensile and fracture toughness behavior was evaluated after exposure to temperatures as high as 3oooF for up to IO00 hrs. Microstructural changes were also evaluated to correlate with the observed data trends. The ambient temperature parent metal data showed an increase in strength and reduction in elongation after exposure at lower temperatures. Strength reached a peak with intermediate temperature exposure followed by a decrease at highest exposure temperature. Characterizing the effect of thermal exposure on the properties of Al-Li alloys is important to defining a service limiting temperature, exposure time, and end-of-life properties.

  20. Ethics and Industrial Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Daniel

    The development of nanotechnology seems inevitable, for it alone would be able to solve or circumvent the huge difficulties to be faced by industrial and post-industrial societies, in both their private and their public aspects, and including the ageing population and its expectations with regard to health, the evolution of the climate, pollution, the management of food resources and raw materials, access to drinking water, control of energy production and consumption, equitable and sustainable development, etc.

  1. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  2. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  3. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  4. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  5. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  6. Turning gadflies into allies.

    PubMed

    Yaziji, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Multinational companies are the driving force behind globalization, but they are also the source of many of its most painful consequences, including currency crises, cross-border pollution, and overfishing. These problems remain unsolved because they are beyond the scope of individual governments; transnational organizations have also proved unequal to the task. Nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations have leaped into the breach. To force policy changes, they have seized on all forms of modern persuasion to influence public sentiment toward global traders, manufacturers, and investors. By partnering with NGOs instead of opposing them, companies can avoid costly conflict and can use NGOs' assets to gain competitive advantage. So far, however, most companies have proved ill equipped to deal with NGOs. Large companies know how to compete on the basis of product attributes and price. But NGO attacks focus on production methods and their spillover effects, which are often noneconomic. Similarly, NGOs are able to convert companies' standard competitive strengths--such as size and wide market awareness of their brands--into liabilities. That's because the wealthier and better known a company is, the juicier the target it makes. Emboldened by their successes, NGOs continue to take on new causes. By partnering with NGOs instead of reflexively opposing them, companies could draw on NGOs' key strengths--legitimacy, awareness of social forces, distinct networks, and specialized technical expertise--which most companies could use more of. And with NGOs as allies and guides, companies should also be able to accelerate innovation, foresee shifts in demand, shape legislation affecting them, and, in effect, set technical and regulatory standards for their industries.

  7. Knowledge of zoonoses among those affiliated with the ontario Swine industry: a questionnaire administered to selected producers, allied personnel, and veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Dawn M; Dewey, Catherine E; Rajić, Andrijana; Poljak, Zvonimir; Young, Beth

    2010-02-01

    Zoonoses are diseases caused by infectious agents that are transmitted from animals to humans. Some zoonoses have been associated with the pig and pork industry. To ensure the safety of pigs and pork and to improve public health it is essential to understand the level of knowledge of those affiliated with the swine industry. The purpose of our study was to assess the knowledge of and attitude toward zoonotic and other microbial hazards among targeted groups of stakeholders associated with the Ontario swine industry. A postal questionnaire was sent to 409 individuals representing producers, veterinarians, and allied industry personnel. The questionnaire included seven dichotomous and Likert-scale type questions on microbial hazards, addressing topics on familiarity, concern, presence, antimicrobial resistance, and knowledge transfer. The overall response rate was 53% (218/409). More respondents were concerned about the zoonotic potential of Salmonella spp. (53-94%) and swine influenza virus (64-75%) than other hazards. The group of veterinarians were more familiar (>89%) with all microbial hazards than other occupation groups. Additionally, antimicrobial resistance was reported as a problem by more (60%) veterinarians than producers (20%). Educational efforts should focus on preferred methods of knowledge transfer (e.g., producer meetings, magazine) to update swine industry personnel about zoonoses in an attempt to improve food safety and public health. PMID:19895261

  8. Isotopic Approaches to Allying Productivity and Sulfur Metabolism in Three Symbiotic Hydrothermal Vent Molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beinart, R.; Gartman, A.; Sanders, J. G.; Luther, G. W.; Girguis, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Symbioses between animals and chemosynthetic bacteria predominate at hydrothermal vents. In these associations, the endosymbiotic bacteria utilize chemical reductants for the energy to support autotrophy, providing primary nutrition for the host. Despite their ubiquity at vents worldwide, little is known about the rates of productivity of these symbioses under different physico-chemical regimes or how their metabolism effects the local geochemical environment. To address this matter, we used high-pressure flow through incubations and stable isotopic tracers to maintain three genera of symbiotic mollusc - the gastropods Alviniconcha and Ifremeria, and the mussel Bathymodiolus - at vent-like conditions. Via the incorporation of isotopically labeled compounds, we assessed their productivity when using different reduced sulfur species as reductants. Using cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry and discrete geochemical analyses, we concurrently measured their effect on sulfur flux from the vessels. We found that the symbionts of all three genera can support autotrophy with hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate, though at different rates. Additionally, by examining the rate of isotopic incorporation into biomass, we revealed intra-generic variability in productivity among the individuals in our experimental assemblages that are likely related to differences in the geochemical regime along the length of reactor. These geochemical gradients are due to the activity of other individuals within the vessel, since those organisms closest to the influent of the vent-like water had the highest measured carbon incorporation. Finally, we measured the uptake and excretion of sulfur species, which illustrate the degree to which these symbioses might impact local sulfur chemistry in situ. These experiments show that A) access to particular sulfur species differentially affects the productivity of vent symbioses, suggesting that competition for these substrates, both within and between host

  9. The usability of a product can be an ally of sustainability.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Thaiana P; Matias, Márcio; Gontijo, Leila A

    2012-01-01

    Few steps like turning off the tap while brushing your teeth, turn off the lights when leaving a room, recycle waste or using recycling bags are considered sustainable attitudes. Sustainable development is one that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the future generations and it doesn't deplete resources for the future. Consume with conscious is a sustainable habit and usability of products contributes to this. The goal of this paper is to prove that the usability of software contributes positivity or negativity for sustainability. By calculating the amount of electrical power dissipated by an electronic device, you can discover the amount of energy lost by it, and consequently, to relate this quantity with the amount charged by the concessionaire for each kWh of energy used. It was concluded that a software with low usability cause users to lose a lot of time interacting with it and thus spend more energy and money that goes against the concept of sustainability. PMID:22317029

  10. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  11. Product stewardship in the composites industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Donald C.; Merriman, Edmund A.

    1994-01-01

    The definition and purpose of Product Stewardship is discussed. Its' impact in the composites industry is stated. The report also outlines 12 ways that Product Stewardship can be utilized by consumers.

  12. Production Methods in Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaden, Elmer L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Compares two methods (batch and continuous) in which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Describes batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors and offers reasons why the batch method may be preferred. (JN)

  13. Allied Health Care Employees' Workplace Skills and Competencies: Are They Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Clifford R.; McClain, Mildred A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which allied health care providers considered the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS, 1991) and competencies as those that are necessary for entry level employment in the allied health care industry. The extent that allied health care supervisors and managers…

  14. Allies in the struggle.

    PubMed

    Draughn, Tricia; Elkins, Becki; Roy, Rakhi

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Providing a community that is committed to standards, diversity, and enhancement of the academic environment is often difficult. Offering an Allies or Safe Zone program is among of the first steps an institution can take to achieve a community that embraces diversity and creates a learning environment that is accepting of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered individuals. While there are many opportunities in institutional group settings to address these issues, they often go either unnoticed or untapped. How can being an ally impact the greater institutional environment? This paper will discuss the campus environment for LGBT students, examine existing Allies and Safe Zone programs, and offer a framework to assist program coordinators and participants in establishing comprehensive programs to change the campus climate and develop institutional environments that are gay affirmative.

  15. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  16. Industrial production of RHIC magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Anerella, M.D.; Fisher, D.H.; Sheedy, E.; McGuire, T.

    1996-07-01

    RHIC 8 cm aperture dipole magnets and quadrupole cold masses are being built for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Northrop Grumman Corporation at a production rate of one dipole magnet and two quadrupole cold masses per day. This work was preceded by a lengthy Technology Transfer effort which is described elsewhere. This paper describes the tooling which is being used for the construction effort, the production operations at each workstation, and also the use of trend plots of critical construction parameters as a tool for monitoring performance in production. A report on the improvements to production labor since the start of the programs is also provided. The magnet and cold mass designs, and magnetic test results are described in more detail in a separate paper.

  17. Fermentation products and their industrial use

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, G.; Arlie, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    A review on the tonnage of production of various industrial chemicals, their methods of synthesis, and the possibilities of the fermentative method being competitive with the synthetic method is given.

  18. Allied, MGC link on cyanate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.

    1993-02-24

    In the latest of a line of joint ventures in its plastics business, Allied Signal has reached agreement with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) to jointly develop thermoset cyanate ester resins and blends. The deal will involve further development of Allied Signal's Primaset phenol-formaldehyde cyanate ester resins, a new entrant in the thermoset arena. Although the Primaset resins were discovered in the 1960s, this would be the first time they are available commercially. The deal will marry Primaset technology with MGC's Skylex bisphenol A cyanate ester resins, says Fred DiAntonis, director/advanced materials at Allied Signal. The two firms are looking at marketing blends of the two materials. The potential market for these resins, used commercially by the electronics industry in printed circuit boards and by the aerospace industry in composites, is significant, says Robert P. Viarengo, Allied Signal president/performance materials. By aligning ourselves with MGC, the world leader in cyanate ester resin, we anticipate moving forward aggressively. The main competitor is Ciba, which acquired bisphenol A cyanate ester resins with its purchase of Rhone-Poulenc's high temperature resins business. DiAntonis estimates the market for cyanate ester resins could be worth $150 million by the end of the decade, although development costs have been in the tens of millions of dollars range.

  19. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  20. A precise and efficient detection of Beta-Cyfluthrin via fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers with ally fluorescein as functional monomer in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Gao, Lin; Wang, Jixiang; Pan, Jianming; Yan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xifeng

    2017-02-15

    In this study, an effective and precise fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers (FMIPs) for the determination of Beta-Cyfluthrin (BC) was synthesized via precipitation polymerization with SiO2 as the carrier, BC as the target molecule, ally fluorescein as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker. Moreover, the characteristic of material has been measured by FTIR, TEM, SEM, TGA, LSCM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Average diameter and shell thickness of as-synthesized microspheres were 300nm and 50nm, respectively. An excellent linear relationship of SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs with a correlation coefficient of 0.9919 could be gained covering a wide concentration range of 10.11-80nM described by the Stern-Volmer equation. The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated with the equation LOD=3σ/S and was found to be 10.11nM. The study demonstrated that SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs could improve the determination for BC and illustrated the good prospects of SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs for BC detection in agricultural products.

  1. A precise and efficient detection of Beta-Cyfluthrin via fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers with ally fluorescein as functional monomer in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Gao, Lin; Wang, Jixiang; Pan, Jianming; Yan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xifeng

    2017-02-15

    In this study, an effective and precise fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers (FMIPs) for the determination of Beta-Cyfluthrin (BC) was synthesized via precipitation polymerization with SiO2 as the carrier, BC as the target molecule, ally fluorescein as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker. Moreover, the characteristic of material has been measured by FTIR, TEM, SEM, TGA, LSCM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Average diameter and shell thickness of as-synthesized microspheres were 300nm and 50nm, respectively. An excellent linear relationship of SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs with a correlation coefficient of 0.9919 could be gained covering a wide concentration range of 10.11-80nM described by the Stern-Volmer equation. The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated with the equation LOD=3σ/S and was found to be 10.11nM. The study demonstrated that SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs could improve the determination for BC and illustrated the good prospects of SiO2-MPTMS@FMIPs for BC detection in agricultural products. PMID:27664679

  2. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  3. Educators' Guide to Ally Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010

    2010-01-01

    An ally is an individual who speaks out and stands up for a person or group that is targeted and/or discriminated against. An ally works to end oppression by supporting and advocating for people who are stigmatized, or treated unfairly because of who they are. In this context, Allies are referred to as people who do not identify as LGBT (lesbian,…

  4. Old wine in new bottles: tobacco industry's submission to European Commission tobacco product directive public consultation.

    PubMed

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Between September and December 2010 the European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General (DGSANCO) held a public consultation on a possible revision of the European Union Tobacco Products Directive (2001/37/EC). We used content analysis of the tobacco industry's and related parties' 300 submissions to the public consultation to determine if tobacco industry and its allies in Europe are prepared to reduce harm of the tobacco products as their public statements assert. The industry submission resorted to traditional tobacco industry arguments where illicit trade and freedom of choice were emphasized and misrepresented the conclusions of a DGSANCO-commissioned scientific report on smokeless tobacco products. Retailers and wholesalers referred to employment and economic growth more often than respondents from other categories. The pattern of responses in the submission differed dramatically from independent public opinion polls of EU citizens' support for tobacco control policies. None of the major tobacco manufacturers or their lobbying organizations supported any of the DGSANCO's proposed evidence based interventions (pictorial health warnings, plain packaging or point-of-sale display bans) to reduce harms caused by cigarette smoking. PMID:25467283

  5. Old wine in new bottles: Tobacco industry's submission to European Commission tobacco product directive public consultation

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Between September and December 2010 the European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General (DGSANCO) held a public consultation on a possible revision of the European Union Tobacco Products Directive (2001/37/EC). We used content analysis of the tobacco industry's and related parties' 300 submissions to the public consultation to determine if tobacco industry and its allies in Europe are prepared to reduce harm of the tobacco products as their public statements assert. The industry submission resorted to traditional tobacco industry arguments where illicit trade and freedom of choice were emphasized and misrepresented the conclusions of a DGSANCO-commissioned scientific report on smokeless tobacco products. Retailers and wholesalers referred to employment and economic growth more often than respondents from other categories. The pattern of responses in the submission differed dramatically from independent public opinion polls of EU citizens' support for tobacco control policies. None of the major tobacco manufacturers or their lobbying organizations supported any of the DGSANCO's proposed evidence based interventions (pictorial health warnings, plain packaging or point-of-sale display bans) to reduce harms caused by cigarette smoking. PMID:25467283

  6. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  7. Production of gaseous radiotracers for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Jagadeesan, K C; Anand, S; Chitra, S; Rana, Y S; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Gujar, H G; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes prerequisite tests, analysis and the procedure for irradiation of gaseous targets and production of gaseous radioisotopes i.e. argon-41 ((41)Ar) and krypton-79 ((79)Kr) in a 100MWTh DHRUVA reactor located at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai, India. The produced radioisotopes will be used as radiotracers for tracing gas phase in industrial process systems. Various details and prequalification tests required for irradiation of gaseous targets are discussed. The procedure for regular production of (41)Ar and (79)Kr, and assay of their activity were standardized. Theoretically estimated and experimentally produced amounts of activities of the two radioisotopes, irradiated at identical conditions, were compared and found to be in good agreement. Based on the various tests, radiological safety analysis and standardization of the irradiation procedure, necessary approval was obtained from the competent reactor operating and safety authorities for regular production of gaseous radiotracers in DHRUVA reactor. PMID:27518216

  8. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  9. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    PubMed

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy.

  10. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    PubMed

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. PMID:21326829

  11. Actual and desired computer literacy among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Agho, A O; Williams, A M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of computer literacy among allied health students, with specific focus on physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy students, and to investigate the perceived differences between actual computer literacy and desired computer literacy. Two established measurement instruments were used to collect data from a sample of 377 allied health students. T-tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were conducted to analyze the data. Results show that allied health students take very few computer courses, but they are generally aware of the applications of computers in the practice of allied health and they desire a higher level of computer literacy than they currently have.

  12. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  13. Productivity improvement using industrial engineering tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaam, H. A.; How, S. B.; Faisae, M. F.

    2012-09-01

    Minimizing the number of defects is important to any company since it influence their outputs and profits. The aim of this paper is to study the implementation of industrial engineering tools in a manufacturing recycle paper box company. This study starts with reading the standard operation procedures and analyzing the process flow to get the whole idea on how to manufacture paper box. At the same time, observations at the production line were made to identify problem occurs in the production line. By using check sheet, the defect data from each station were collected and have been analyzed using Pareto Chart. From the chart, it is found that glue workstation shows the highest number of defects. Based on observation at the glue workstation, the existing method used to glue the box was inappropriate because the operator used a lot of glue. Then, by using cause and effect diagram, the root cause of the problem was identified and solutions to overcome the problem were proposed. There are three suggestions proposed to overcome this problem. Cost reduction for each solution was calculated and the best solution is using three hair drier to dry the sticky glue which produce only 6.4 defects in an hour with cost of RM 0.0224.

  14. Clinical laboratories: production industry or medical services?

    PubMed

    Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The current failure to evidence any link between laboratory tests, clinical decision-making and patient outcomes, and the scarcity of financial resources affecting healthcare systems worldwide, have put further pressure on the organization and delivery of laboratory services. Consolidation, merger, and laboratory downsizing have been driven by the need to deliver economies of scale and cut costs per test while boosting productivity. Distorted economics, based on payment models rewarding volume and efficiency rather than quality and clinical effectiveness, have underpinned the entrance of clinical laboratories into the production industry thus forcing them to relinquish their original mission of providing medical services. The sea change in laboratory medicine in recent years, with the introduction of ever newer and ever more complex tests, including 'omics', which impact on clinical decision-making, should encourage clinical laboratories to return to their original mission as long as payments models are changed. Rather than being considered solely in terms of costs, diagnostic testing must be seen in the context of an entire hospital stay or an overall payment for a care pathway: the testing process should be conceived as a part of the patient's entire journey. PMID:25405721

  15. [Guidelines to productivity bargaining in the health care industry].

    PubMed

    Fottler, M D; Maloney, W F

    1979-01-01

    A potential conflict exists between the recent growth of unionization in the health care industry and management efforts to increase productivity. One method of managing this conflict is to link employee rewards to employee productivity through productivity bargaining.

  16. Partnership with Industry: Film Production Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietveld, Richard; And Others

    The 1988 final report of a task force from the Florida Postsecondary Education Planning Commission stated that in order to ensure continued growth of the motion picture film industry in the state, the postsecondary community must provide a well-trained and competent work force adept in all aspects of the industry. The film industry is a growing…

  17. Clinical research in allied health.

    PubMed

    Selker, L G

    1994-01-01

    Allied health professionals in nutrition and medical dietetics, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology and audiology play both unique and key cross-cutting roles in the furtherance of clinical research. Clinical research in nutrition and medical dietetics uniquely focuses on food nutrient intake and the metabolic utilization of nutrients. Clinical research in occupational therapy has a special focus on the relationship of impairment to disability, the adaptation to disability and the maximization of function. Physical therapy clinical research uniquely targets movement dysfunction and its evaluation and treatment within the context of quality and effective care. Clinical research in speech-language pathology and audiology is singular in its focus on deafness and hearing disorders, voice, speech, language and related disorders, and intersections among these and other neurological and physical conditions. Thus, all of these disciplines are making unique contributions to clinical research. Clinical research in these allied health professions is much more than the above specific foci. Inasmuch as these disciplines are rooted in practice, their contributions to research are inherently clinical. Many, if not most, of these contributions represent further validations of clinical practice or its underlying knowledge base. This means that, at a macro level, clinical research in allied health is very much "applied" research. Within allied health clinical research, this emphasis is redoubled at the "person," or individual level, where considerable attention is given to concepts of function and effectiveness. Clinical research in allied health has played a key cross-cutting role through its emphasis on collaboration. Possibly due to their professional maturation within multidisciplinary academic units, allied health professionals have demonstrated a level of comfort with multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary collaborations unique within many

  18. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes.

  19. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  20. Emerging Innovation: Allied Health Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Janell B.

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a closer look at emerging fields in the allied health arena. The relatively new field of Health Information Technology is one of the exciting prospects, surging with growth opportunities. These individuals are medical language experts who interpret, process, store and retrieve health information for research and data collection.…

  1. Heterosexual Allies: A Descriptive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…

  2. Literature of Allied Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Sally

    This course text provides an outline of the literature of the allied health fields for librarians and others whose functions include providing operational and/or educational library support to allied health professionals and paraprofessionals. After consideration of what the allied health fields involve, including information on education,…

  3. Connecting Allied Health Students to Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, W. Kent; Mishoe, Shelley C.; Taft, Arthur A.; Campbell, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Statewide studies indicate a continuing shortfall of personnel in several allied health disciplines in rural Georgia. National trends indicate lagging enrollment in allied health education programs, suggesting that the workforce shortages will worsen. Purpose: This article describes the efforts of the School of Allied Health Sciences at…

  4. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  5. Biobased industrial products. Priorities for research and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    Biological sciences are likely to make the same impact on the formation of new industries in the next century as the physical and chemical sciences have had on industrial development throughout the century now coming to a close. The biological sciences, when combined with recent and future advances in process engineering, can become the foundation for producing a wide variety of industrial products from renewable plant resources. These "biobased industrial products" will include liquid fuels, chemicals, lubricants, plastics, and building materials. For example, genetically engineered crops currently under development include rapeseed that produces industrial oils, corn that produces specialty chemicals, and transgenic plants that produce polyesters. Except perhaps for large-scale production of bioenergy crops, the land and other agricultural resources of the United States are sufficient to satisfy current domestic and export demands for food, feed, and fiber and still produce the raw materials for most biobased industrial products.

  6. The Microbiological Production of Industrial Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    Compares traditional and newer methods by which microorganisms are used to produce industrial chemicals. Includes a discussion of economic considerations and new genetic methods in programing microorganisms. Details methods for producing enzymes, aliphatic organic compounds, amino acids, ethanol, n-butanol, and alkene oxides. (CS)

  7. Medical equipment industry in India: Production, procurement and utilization.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, Indira

    2013-01-01

    This article presents information on the medical equipment industry in India-on production, procurement and utilization related activities of key players in the sector, in light of the current policies of liberalization and growth of a "health-care industry" in India. Policy approaches to medical equipment have been discussed elsewhere.

  8. Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

  9. Medical equipment industry in India: Production, procurement and utilization.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, Indira

    2013-01-01

    This article presents information on the medical equipment industry in India-on production, procurement and utilization related activities of key players in the sector, in light of the current policies of liberalization and growth of a "health-care industry" in India. Policy approaches to medical equipment have been discussed elsewhere. PMID:24351379

  10. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  11. Vanguard industrial linear accelerator rapid product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harroun, Jim

    1994-07-01

    Siemens' ability to take the VanguardTM Industrial Linear Accelerator from the development stage to the market place in less than two years is described. Emphasis is on the development process, from the business plan through the shipment of the first commercial sale. Included are discussions on the evolution of the marketing specifications, with emphasis on imaging system requirements, as well as flexibility for expansion into other markets. Requirements used to create the engineering specifications, how they were incorporated into the design, and lessons learned from the demonstration system are covered. Some real-life examples of unanticipated problems are presented, as well as how they were resolved, including some discussion of the special problems encountered in developing a user interface and a training program for an international customer.

  12. Microbial xylanases: engineering, production and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-01-01

    and paper industries for a longer time but more and more attention has been paid to using them in producing sugars and other chemicals from lignocelluloses in recent years. Mining new genes from nature, rational engineering of known genes and directed evolution of these genes are required to get tailor-made xylanases for various industrial applications.

  13. Consolidation of the Uranium Production Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, C.M.

    1993-08-01

    As uranium prices fell from the record-high levels of the late 1970s, high-cost, unsubsidized producers the world over began to curtail operations or exit the uranium business entirely. Since 1980, the number of companies actively involved in uranium mining or exploration has decreased markedly. As this exodus has taken place, existing reserves and production operations have become consolidated in the hands of a shrinking number of producers. Some of these are large, vertically integrated nuclear fuel companies that adhere to a very long-term view of the uranium market. To that end, they continue to acquire reserves for that period when most analysts agree the uranium market will recover and prices will rebound to higher levels. For consumers, however, this consolidation of production and reserves into fewer hands could have serious implications in future years.

  14. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  15. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  16. Video Production Curriculum Guide. Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Calvin

    This curriculum guide is intended to help instructors implement video production as a trade and industrial education course offering with communication skills woven into each unit. The guide is written for a double-period class, meeting 350 hours per year for two years. The first year is based on single camera production; the second year is based…

  17. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    PubMed

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  18. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  19. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  20. Gerontologic Education for Allied Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazi, Kevan H.; Green, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Gives an overview of the aging population, allied health professions, and gerontology. Describes the modularization process used at the University of Texas--breaking a three-credit course into interdependent one-credit courses as a way to expose allied health students to a wide variety of gerontology topics through elective courses. (Contains 19…

  1. How Allies Collaborate; The NATO Training Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandevanter, E., Jr.

    A survey was made of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) coordination of training programs for allied military forces and its implications about collaboration among allies in peacetime. Three types of training were analyzed: (1) higher training, or the coordination of large military formations; (2) unit training of smaller teams; (3)…

  2. Measuring the impact of allied health research

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Jan; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Milanese, Steve; Hillier, Susan; King, Ellena; Johnston, Kylie; Wall, Kylie; Thorpe, Olivia; Young, Alexandra; Kumar, Saravana

    2011-01-01

    Background Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) rankings are given to academic journals in which Australian academics publish. This provides a metric on which Australian institutions and disciplines are ranked for international competitiveness. This paper explores the issues surrounding the ERA rankings of allied health journals in Australia. Methods We conducted a broad search to establish a representative list of general allied health and discipline-specific journals for common allied health disciplines. We identified the ERA rankings and impact factors for each journal and tested the congruence between these metrics within the disciplines. Results Few allied health journals have high ERA rankings (A*/A), and there is variability in the impact factors assigned to journals within the same ERA rank. There is a small group of allied health researchers worldwide, and this group is even smaller when divided by discipline. Current publication metrics may not adequately assess the impact of research, which is largely aimed at clinicians to improve clinical practice. Moreover, many journals are produced by underfunded professional associations, and readership is often constrained by small numbers of clinicians in specific allied health disciplines who are association members. Conclusion Allied health must have a stronger united voice in the next round of ERA rankings. The clinical impact of allied health journals also needs to be better understood and promoted as a research metric. PMID:21811386

  3. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  4. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  5. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  6. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  7. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José Luis

    2010-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a red xanthophyll (oxygenated carotenoid) with large importance in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis and the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous are currently known as the main microorganisms useful for astaxanthin production at the industrial scale. The improvement of astaxanthin titer by microbial fermentation is a requirement to be competitive with the synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures, which at present is the major source in the market. In this review, we show how the isolation of new strains of X. dendrorhous from the environment, the selection of mutants by the classical methods of random mutation and screening, and the rational metabolic engineering, have provided improved strains with higher astaxanthin productivity. To reduce production costs and enhance competitiveness from an industrial point of view, low-cost raw materials from industrial and agricultural origin have been adopted to get the maximal astaxanthin productivity. Finally, fermentation parameters have been studied in depth, both at flask and fermenter scales, to get maximal astaxanthin titers of 4.7 mg/g dry cell matter (420 mg/l) when X. dendrorhous was fermented under continuous white light. The industrial scale-up of this biotechnological process will provide a cost-effective method, alternative to synthetic astaxanthin, for the commercial exploitation of the expensive astaxanthin (about $2,500 per kilogram of pure astaxanthin). PMID:20711573

  8. Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surendra

    2006-12-01

    Recycling of guar gum industrial waste through vermitechnology was studied under laboratory conditions by using composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). Three different combination of guar gum industrial waste namely guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 40:30:30 ratio (T1), guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 60:20:20 ratio (T2), and guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 75:15:10 ratio (T3) were used for vermicomposting experiments. Chemical changes during vermicomposting were measured and comparatively T2 showed great increase (from its initial level) for total N (25.4%), phosphorus (72.8%) and potassium (20.9%) than the other treatments. T2 also showed higher vermicomposting coefficient (VC), higher mean biomass for P. excavatus (146.68 mg) and higher cocoon production (about 21.9% and 645.5% more than the T1 and T3, respectively). Maximum earthworm mortality during vermicomposting was recorded with T3 treatment while zero mortality was recorded for T2 treatment after 150 days. Overall, T2 treatment appeared to be an ideal combination for enhancing maximum biopotential of earthworms to management guar gum industrial waste as well as for earthworm biomass and cocoon production.

  9. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  11. Industry Immersion for Reading and Mathematics Improvement. Valley Products Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; And Others

    An intensive industry immersion program of reading and mathematics was conducted in Spring 1989 for employees at Valley Products, Inc., in a cooperative venture by the Literacy Foundation, Memphis, the Memphis City Schools Adult Education Program, and the company. Employee participants were assessed with the San Diego Quick Assessment Test to…

  12. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  13. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  14. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  15. Problematic Conceptualizations: Allies in Teacher Education for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2010-01-01

    This review of the literature on the concept ally and ally identity development was inspired by a qualitative study exploring the identities and social justice values of prospective teachers of color. Although the participants in the original study never used the term "ally," their narratives inspired me to characterize them as allies in the…

  16. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  17. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  18. Products Depend on Creative Potential: A Comment on the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghassib (2010) presents a provocative view of science as industry. He ties science specifically to a "productivist" industrial model and to knowledge production. If judged based on what is explicit in this article, his theory is useful and logical. There are, however, several concerns as well. Some of these are implied by the title of his article,…

  19. Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

    PubMed

    Hafting, Jeff T; Craigie, James S; Stengel, Dagmar B; Loureiro, Rafael R; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Yarish, Charles; Edwards, Maeve D; Critchley, Alan T

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products.

  20. Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

    PubMed

    Hafting, Jeff T; Craigie, James S; Stengel, Dagmar B; Loureiro, Rafael R; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Yarish, Charles; Edwards, Maeve D; Critchley, Alan T

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products. PMID:26986880

  1. A profile of minority allied health faculty.

    PubMed

    Walker, P W

    1989-01-01

    A survey of minority allied health faculty is being conducted by the Equal Representation in Allied Health Committee of the American Society of Allied Health Professions. Initiated in the spring of 1988, survey data collection is ongoing. The questionnaire was designed to gather demographic information as well as information regarding interests in professional and development/leadership workshops. This paper reports results from 106 valid returns. The majority of respondents were black females employed at four-year universities/colleges at the rank of assistant professor. An analysis of data using the chi-square statistic revealed a statistically significant but weak correlational relationship between sex and highest degree completed; academic rank and highest degree completed; academic rank and experience in allied health education; and tenure status and experience in allied health education. Cross tabulations between other variables were inconclusive. The data would suggest that the percentage of minority faculty with tenure appeared to exceed expectations when compared with results of previous studies of allied health faculty. Suggestions by respondents for professional development workshops included a variety of topics: management/administration skills, clinical skills, minority recruitment/retention, curriculum development/instructional design, and career advancement/leadership. Additional activities are needed to expand the existing data base and to promote networking among minority faculty. PMID:2737940

  2. Heterologous laccase production and its role in industrial applications

    PubMed Central

    Pezzella, Cinzia; Giardina, Paola; Faraco, Vincenza; Sannia, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, catalyzing the oxidation of an array of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. These enzymes are implicated in a variety of biological activities. Most of the laccases studied thus far are of fungal origin. The large range of substrates oxidized by laccases has raised interest in using them within different industrial fields, such as pulp delignification, textile dye bleaching and bioremediation. Laccases secreted from native sources are usually not suitable for large-scale purposes, mainly due to low production yields and high cost of preparation/purification procedures. Heterologous expression may provide higher enzyme yields and may permit to produce laccases with desired properties (such as different substrate specificities, or improved stabilities) for industrial applications. This review surveys researches on heterologous laccase expression focusing on the pivotal role played by recombinant systems towards the development of robust tools for greening modern industry. PMID:21327057

  3. Heterologous laccase production and its role in industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Alessandra; Pezzella, Cinzia; Giardina, Paola; Faraco, Vincenza; Giovanni, Sannia

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, catalyzing the oxidation of an array of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. These enzymes are implicated in a variety of biological activities. Most of the laccases studied thus far are of fungal origin. The large range of substrates oxidized by laccases has raised interest in using them within different industrial fields, such as pulp delignification, textile dye bleaching, and bioremediation. Laccases secreted from native sources are usually not suitable for large-scale purposes, mainly due to low production yields and high cost of preparation/purification procedures. Heterologous expression may provide higher enzyme yields and may permit to produce laccases with desired properties (such as different substrate specificities, or improved stabilities) for industrial applications. This review surveys researches on heterologous laccase expression focusing on the pivotal role played by recombinant systems towards the development of robust tools for greening modern industry. PMID:21327057

  4. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  5. The Productivity Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2014-07-01

    Chennai, also called the Detroit of India, is India's second fastest growing auto market and exports auto components and vehicles to US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. For inclusive growth and sustainable development, 250 auto component industries in Ambattur, Thirumalisai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estates located in Chennai have adopted the Cluster Development Approach called Automotive Component Cluster. The objective is to study the Value Chain, Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis by determining technical efficiency, peer weights, input and output slacks of 100 auto component industries in three estates. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper model by taking net worth, fixed assets, employment as inputs and gross output as outputs. The non-zero represents the weights for efficient clusters. The higher slack obtained reveals the excess net worth, fixed assets, employment and shortage in gross output. To conclude, the variables are highly correlated and the inefficient industries should increase their gross output or decrease the fixed assets or employment. Moreover for sustainable development, the cluster should strengthen infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships to decrease costs and to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the indigenous and export market.

  6. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  7. The Predictive Value of Selected Extrinsic and Intrinsic Indicators of Overall Job Satisfaction in Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Radiation Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine Technology Allied Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is the largest industry in the United States and 60 percent of its 14 million workers are in allied health jobs. The need to attract and retain allied health faculty is critical to preparing a competent workforce in healthcare. This study reports the results of a survey of 259 faculty members working in diagnostic radiologic technology,…

  8. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  9. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  10. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  11. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  12. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  13. Semi industrial scale RVNRL preparation, products manufacturing and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Manshol Bin W.

    1998-06-01

    Natural rubber latex vulcanisation by radiation aims towards the preparation of prevulcanised natural rubber latex in the name of RVNRL for use to produce chemical-free and environment-friendly latex products. Scale up RVNRL preparation is proven possible when a semi-commercial latex irradiator was commissioned in MINT in March 1996. The plant is designed to irradiate up to 6 000 cubic meters per annum of natural rubber latex. RVNRL has the required properties and successfully used on industrial scale production of quality gloves and balloons.

  14. Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Zengyuan; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Che, Tao; Chen, Erxue; Yan, Guangjian; Hu, Zeyong; Zhang, Lixin; Chu, Rongzhong; Su, Peixi; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Shaomin; Wang, Jindi; Niu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Jin, Rui; Wang, Weizhen; Ran, Youhua; Xin, Xiaozhou; Ren, Huazhong

    2009-11-01

    The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) is a simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment aiming to improve the observability, understanding, and predictability of hydrological and related ecological processes at a catchment scale. WATER consists of the cold region, forest, and arid region hydrological experiments as well as a hydrometeorology experiment and took place in the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The field campaigns have been completed, with an intensive observation period lasting from 7 March to 12 April, from 15 May to 22 July, and from 23 August to 5 September 2008: in total, 120 days. Twenty-five airborne missions were flown. Airborne sensors including microwave radiometers at L, K, and Ka bands, imaging spectrometer, thermal imager, CCD, and lidar were used. Various satellite data were collected. Ground measurements were carried out at four scales, that is, key experimental area, foci experimental area, experiment site, and elementary sampling plot, using ground-based remote sensing instruments, densified network of automatic meteorological stations, flux towers, and hydrological stations. On the basis of these measurements, the remote sensing retrieval models and algorithms of water cycle variables are to be developed or improved, and a catchment-scale land/hydrological data assimilation system is being developed. This paper reviews the background, scientific objectives, experiment design, filed campaign implementation, and current status of WATER. The analysis of the data will continue over the next 2 years, and limited revisits to the field are anticipated.

  15. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  16. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations. PMID:27357041

  17. Diversity, Productivity, and Stability of an Industrial Microbial Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pei-Zhong; Becker, Scott; Hoang, Tony; Bilgin, Damla; Lim, Yan Wei; Peterson, Todd C.; Mayfield, Stephen; Haerizadeh, Farzad; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Bafna, Vineet; McBride, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Managing ecosystems to maintain biodiversity may be one approach to ensuring their dynamic stability, productivity, and delivery of vital services. The applicability of this approach to industrial ecosystems that harness the metabolic activities of microbes has been proposed but has never been tested at relevant scales. We used a tag-sequencing approach with bacterial small subunit rRNA (16S) genes and eukaryotic internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) to measuring the taxonomic composition and diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes in an open pond managed for bioenergy production by microalgae over a year. Periods of high eukaryotic diversity were associated with high and more-stable biomass productivity. In addition, bacterial diversity and eukaryotic diversity were inversely correlated over time, possibly due to their opposite responses to temperature. The results indicate that maintaining diverse communities may be essential to engineering stable and productive bioenergy ecosystems using microorganisms. PMID:26896141

  18. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  19. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  20. Kentucky Allied Health Project Final Report: A State System for Allied Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    The accomplishments of the Kentucky Allied Health Project, which implemented a model articulated system of allied health education, are described. The system included plans to promote transition from one education level to another and articulation in educational planning and resource utilization. The project has greatly increased…

  1. Conservation and the industry sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following six highly energy intensive industries were studied as targets of energy conservation opportunity: food and kindred products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, petroleum and coal products, stone, glass and clay products, and primary manufacturing. After studying conservation actions within each industry the actions were grouped under three broad categories: increased combustion efficiency, process improvement, and good housekeeping. Some of the results were: (1) approximately 2.18 quads could be saved in 1980 and 2.57 quads in 1985 by installing cogenerative facilities in 50% of the industries, (2) regenerative air-preheaters could result in a 10-15% increase in furnace efficiency representing a 15-25% fuel savings (2.3 to 3.9 quads in 1980 and 2.7 to 4.5 quads in 1985), (3) several major industries have potential for energy savings by recycling-aluminum (0.2 quads), steel (1 quad), glass (0.006 quads), paper and cement (0.08 quads).

  2. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  3. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  4. Heat pump associations, alliances, and allies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Associations, Alliances, and Allies, a seminar and workshop sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was held in Memphis, Tennessee, April 10--11, 1991. The focus of the meeting was relationships forged between electric utilities and trade allies that sell residential heat pumps. one hundred and seven representatives of electric utilities, dealer/contractors, manufacturers, and consultants attended. Electric utility trade ally programs run the gamut from coop advertising to heat pump association to elaborate technician training programs. All utility participants recognize the important programs, since it is the trade ally who sells, installs, and services heat pumps, while it is the electric utility who gets blamed if the heat pumps fail to operate properly or are inefficient. Heat pumps are efficient and effective, but their efficiency and effectiveness depends critically upon the quality of installation and maintenance. A utility can thus help to ensure satisfied customers and can also help to achieve its own load shape objectives by working closely with its trade allies, the dealers, contractors, manufacturers, and distributors. Attendees spent the morning sessions of the two day meeting in plenary sessions, hearing about utility and dealer heat pump programs and issues. Afternoon roundtable discussions provided structured forums to discuss: Advertising; Heat pump association startup and operation; Rebates and incentives; Technician training school and centers; Installation inspection and dealer qualification; and Heat pump association training. These proceedings report on the papers presented in the morning plenary sessions and summarize the main points discussed in the afternoon workshops.

  5. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  6. Cr laser research at AlliedSignal

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Applied Physics Laboratory of AlliedSignal, Inc. has been developing Cr lasers and applications for a number of years. This operation has resulted in new laser designs and in improved engineering and packaging which are critical to acceptable performance in the field. Although most of the work has been part of military programs, AlliedSignal, with partners, has recently been offering its lasers to commercial programs as a supplier to the OEM market. This paper will present several laser systems which have recently been developed at AlliedSignal. These systems will include those based on alexandrite and Cr:LiSAF. The examples chosen will show the versatility of these laser materials.

  7. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product...

  8. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product...

  9. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product...

  10. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product...

  11. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product...

  12. International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes.

    PubMed

    Castleman, B I; Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals.

  13. Allied health students' attitudes toward euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Laken, D E; Dowd, S B

    1998-01-01

    Euthanasia, whether active or passive, remains a controversial issue in health care, and allied health professionals are likely to encounter situations of potential active or passive euthanasia during their careers. This survey of allied health students sought to determine their attitudes toward euthanasia and whether their self-reported euthanasia ideology corresponded with their behavioral endorsement of euthanasia actions. Disciplines and educational levels were also compared to determine differences between the program groups and their pro- or anti-euthanasia beliefs. Differing attitudes about euthanasia were found from group to group, and a significant correlation was found between the euthanasia ideology scores and the euthanasia behavioral scores.

  14. Building Alliances in Unlikely Places: Progressive Allies and the Tobacco Institute's Coalition Strategy on Cigarette Excise Taxes

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, Edith D.

    2009-01-01

    The tobacco industry often utilizes third parties to advance its policy agenda. One such utilization occurred when the industry identified organized labor and progressive groups as potential allies whose advocacy could undermine public support for excise tax increases. To attract such collaboration, the industry framed the issue as one of tax fairness, creating a labor management committee to provide distance from tobacco companies and furthering progressive allies' interests through financial and logistical support. Internal industry documents indicate that this strategic use of ideas, institutions, and interests facilitated the recruitment of leading progressive organizations as allies. By placing excise taxes within a strategic policy nexus that promotes mutual public interest goals, public health advocates may use a similar strategy in forging their own excise tax coalitions. PMID:19443832

  15. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  16. [The shoe industry: from productive reality to risk individualization].

    PubMed

    Saretto, Gianni; Dulio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article describes in detail each stage of the shoe manufacturing process: design, cutting and shearing, sewing and trimming, assemblage, sole preparation, finishing, packaging and stocking, shoe manufacturing with synthetic materials. It will then discuss new technologies and their impact on the improvement of the worker's health, safety and convenience. A definition of the shoe parts and of the materials and machinery employed in its production will be provided, as well as a synthesis of the occupational hazards involved in each department. Although dealing with competitors who can take advantage of low-cost production and lack of concern for labour protection and environmental issues, the industry should always take great care of topics such as innovation and automation, but also workplace health and safety, while pushing the limits of that technological advance which companies have to face. PMID:22697024

  17. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  18. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. PMID:26645658

  19. [The shoe industry: from productive reality to risk individualization].

    PubMed

    Saretto, Gianni; Dulio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article describes in detail each stage of the shoe manufacturing process: design, cutting and shearing, sewing and trimming, assemblage, sole preparation, finishing, packaging and stocking, shoe manufacturing with synthetic materials. It will then discuss new technologies and their impact on the improvement of the worker's health, safety and convenience. A definition of the shoe parts and of the materials and machinery employed in its production will be provided, as well as a synthesis of the occupational hazards involved in each department. Although dealing with competitors who can take advantage of low-cost production and lack of concern for labour protection and environmental issues, the industry should always take great care of topics such as innovation and automation, but also workplace health and safety, while pushing the limits of that technological advance which companies have to face.

  20. Industrial-hygiene survey report, Parkway Products, Inc. , Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    Industrial hygiene and biomonitoring data were collected during a survey at the Parkway Products Inc. facility located in Cincinnati, Ohio, one of the largest users of 4,4'-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA). Customized polyurethane products were manufactured for industry at this facility. Urinary concentrations of MBOCA were below the California standard of 100 micrograms/liter, with the exception of two samples taken from MBOCA mixers. The wipe samples taken showed a range of concentrations from 4 to 53 micrograms MBOCA per wipe which were collected near the MBOCA room where the chemical was stored as well as handled. Night-shift workers were exposed to higher concentrations, probably indicating that less care was taken during this shift in controlling the hazardous substance. There was no clear cut relationship established between environmental and biomonitoring results in this study, except for the workers in the MBOCA room. The author recommends frequent washing down of exposed areas, changing protective workclothes in specified facility locations, prohibition of eating or drinking or smoking in work areas, monthly urine monitoring, and continued education as to the hazards of the job.

  1. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    PubMed

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  2. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    PubMed Central

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  3. Developments in the use of Bacillus species for industrial production.

    PubMed

    Schallmey, Marcus; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species continue to be dominant bacterial workhorses in microbial fermentations. Bacillus subtilis (natto) is the key microbial participant in the ongoing production of the soya-based traditional natto fermentation, and some Bacillus species are on the Food and Drug Administration's GRAS (generally regarded as safe) list. The capacity of selected Bacillus strains to produce and secrete large quantities (20-25 g/L) of extracellular enzymes has placed them among the most important industrial enzyme producers. The ability of different species to ferment in the acid, neutral, and alkaline pH ranges, combined with the presence of thermophiles in the genus, has lead to the development of a variety of new commercial enzyme products with the desired temperature, pH activity, and stability properties to address a variety of specific applications. Classical mutation and (or) selection techniques, together with advanced cloning and protein engineering strategies, have been exploited to develop these products. Efforts to produce and secrete high yields of foreign recombinant proteins in Bacillus hosts initially appeared to be hampered by the degradation of the products by the host proteases. Recent studies have revealed that the slow folding of heterologous proteins at the membrane-cell wall interface of Gram-positive bacteria renders them vulnerable to attack by wall-associated proteases. In addition, the presence of thiol-disulphide oxidoreductases in B. subtilis may be beneficial in the secretion of disulphide-bond-containing proteins. Such developments from our understanding of the complex protein translocation machinery of Gram-positive bacteria should allow the resolution of current secretion challenges and make Bacillus species preeminent hosts for heterologous protein production. Bacillus strains have also been developed and engineered as industrial producers of nucleotides, the vitamin riboflavin, the flavor agent ribose, and the supplement poly

  4. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process. PMID:18942836

  5. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  6. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  7. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed. PMID:25163531

  8. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production--Modelling and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Daniela; Hagemann, Timo; Hansen, Kim; Gernaey, Krist V

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance on the basis of "standardized" measurements in terms of morphology, rheology, viscosity, mass transfer and productivity. However, because the variables are connected or dependent on each other, this task is not trivial. The aim of this review article is to gather available information in order to explain the interconnectivity between the different variables in submerged fermentations. An additional factor which makes the characterization of a fermentation broth even more challenging is that the data obtained are also dependent on the way they have been collected-meaning which technologies or probes have been used, and on the way the data is interpreted-i.e. which models were applied. The main filamentous fungi used in industrial fermentation are introduced, ranging from Trichoderma reesei to Aspergillus species. Due to the fact that secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, are not to be considered bulk products, organisms like e.g. Penicillium chrysogenum are just briefly touched upon for the description of some characterization techniques. The potential for development of different morphological phenotypes is discussed as well, also in view of what this could mean to productivity and-equally important-the collection of the data. An overview of the state of the art techniques for morphology characterization is provided, discussing methods that finally can be employed as the computational power has grown sufficiently in the recent years. Image analysis (IA) clearly benefits most but it also means that methods like near infrared measurement (NIR), capacitance and on-line viscosity now provide potential alternatives as powerful tools for characterizing morphology. These measuring

  9. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally means a country that is designated in accordance with § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  10. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign... of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321(k)) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  11. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign... of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321(k)) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  12. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  13. Horizons in Health (Allied Health Careers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emphasis Career Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The latest conditions affecting job demand, advancement, and compensation potential; educational requirements; and job descriptions are reported for allied health careers in the laboratory and hospital as physician assistants; therapists; nurses and nurses aids; dieticians and nutritionists; and dental assistants, hygienists, and laboratory…

  14. Turning Parents from Critics to Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarese, Margaret M.; Giannetti, Charlene C.

    1998-01-01

    Authors of "The Roller Coaster Years" (1997) advise how middle-level educators can turn wary, disinterested parents into allies. Teachers should welcome parents, advertise their own expertise, implement an early-warning system, portray children positively, convey shared values, reassure parents about children's safety, demonstrate insider…

  15. Predictors of Success for Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    A study of 424 allied health students (259 dental hygiene, 104 radiologic technology, and 61 respiratory therapy) found that the greater predictors of their academic success were the natural science subscore on the American College Test (ACT), high school grade point average, and class rank, age, and composite ACT score. (SK)

  16. ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT GRANTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    THE ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS PERSONNEL ACT OF 1966 AUTHORIZES THE SURGEON GENERAL TO MAKE GRANTS TO EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVING PROGRAMS WHICH QUALIFY STUDENTS (1) FOR THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE OR ITS EQUIVALENT OR THE MASTER'S DEGREE TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED FOR BASIC PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION, REGISTRATION, OR LICENSURE…

  17. Instructional Games in Allied Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Alice

    1980-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework and practical suggestions for incorporating games and simulation into allied health instruction. Discusses research findings that support the use of educational simulation/games as tools for higher cognitive learning and for the improvement of teaching effectiveness as measured by student achievement in the allied…

  18. Nursing and Allied Health Shortages: TBR Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Treva

    Staff members of the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission worked jointly to establish a task force to investigate and develop recommendations for addressing the workforce shortages in nursing and allied health in Tennessee. The investigation established that Tennessee already has a workforce shortage of…

  19. Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

    2008-06-01

    The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities.

  20. Standardized Curricula for Allied Health and Related Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational and technical programs in Mississippi: allied health and related technology I (health cluster I) and allied health and related technology II (health cluster II). Introductory materials include the philosophy and aims of allied health and related technology in…

  1. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  2. Minnesota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin includes recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  3. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  4. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources. PMID:27116971

  5. HIP-clad products for the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Morley F.; Nickel, Clinton F.

    1999-07-01

    The production of plastics and plastics components requires equipment that can withstand severe wear and, in a high percentage of cases, wear and corrosion environments. There are two basic elements of plastic extrusion equipment: the barrels and the screws. Both must manifest similar properties, but since screw elements are less costly and easier to replace, they are usually designed to wear out first. Due to the high cost of wear/corrosion-resistance materials, the industry used clad (i.e., bimetallic) components. Barrel sections and screw segments are both produced as hot-isostatic press clad components using similar processes. There are any number of material combinations that are used and that are possible for the right application.

  6. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  7. Selection of Waste Water Equalization Systems for Multi Product Batch Production Facility: An Industrial Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Vaidehi; Srinivasarao, Meka.; Dhanwani, Anand

    2010-10-01

    The generation rates of waste water from a batch plant causes significant variations in the flow rate as well as concentrations in the influent to effluent treatment plant. Flow equalization systems are used to reduce the shock loads. The present study deals with the suitability of two flow equalization schemes practiced in the industry with an objective of increasing production flexibility. The simulation study has conclusively established suitability of combined segregation tanks over distributed segregation tanks for a given production capacity. It is also shown that the production flexibility is more for combined scheme in comparison with the distributed scheme.

  8. Impact of information technology on productivity and efficiency in Iranian manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abri, Amir Gholam; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of information technology (IT) on the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing industries in Iran. So, the data will be collected from 23 Iranian manufacturing industries during "2002-2006" and the methods such as DEA and panel data used to study the subject. Results obtained by the above two methods represent that IT has a positive and statistically significant effect on the productivity of manufacturing industries. It will be more in high IT-intensive industries than the other industries. But, there is no significant difference between the growth of labor productivity in IT-producing and IT-using industries.

  9. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  10. Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  11. Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghassib, Hisham B.

    2010-01-01

    The basic premise of this paper is the fact that science has become a major industry: the knowledge industry. The paper throws some light on the reasons for the transformation of science from a limited, constrained and marginal craft into a major industry. It, then, presents a productivist industrial model of knowledge production, which shows its…

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a... Prison Industries, Inc., shall be accorded priority over products offered for sale by the workshops...

  17. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  18. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  19. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  20. Allis Prize Lecture: Gaseous Electronics Physics Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garscadden, Alan

    2002-10-01

    I was fortunate to enjoy the advice of K. G. Emeleus during my graduate studies and for many years afterwards. He introduced me to the papers of Will Allis and later I was privileged to correspond with Professor Allis. At this time I had moved from the Queens university environment to work at a large Air Force base. There I have worked with a lot of smart people, including several who also come to the GEC each year to be refreshed and calibrated. A personal overview is presented on a few of the many roles that atomic, molecular and optical physics, including gaseous electronics, play in programs of the Air Force Research Laboratory and subsequently on AF systems and operations. While there have been misses, overall there have been many successes with impacts that provide more effective systems, as recent experiences have demonstrated. Some example studies, involving primarily electron collision physics, successful and unsuccessful in being chosen for application, are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 32667 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis... guidance for industry entitled ``Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment.''...

  2. 76 FR 10067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...--Industrial Macromolecular Crystallography Association Correction In notice document 2011--2412 appearing on... and Production Act of 1993--Industrial Nacromolecular Crystallography Association'' should read... Macromolecular Crystallography Association''. 2. On the same page, in the second column, in the fourth line...

  3. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms. PMID:27657370

  4. AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    AMED: The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database is a resource from the Health Care Information Service of the British Library. AMED offers access to complementary and alternative medicine topics, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, herbalism, homeopathy, hospice care, hypnosis, palliative care, physiotherapy, podiatry, and rehabilitation. This column features a sample search to demonstrate the type of information available within AMED. AMED is available through the EBSCOhost and OVID platforms.

  5. Allied Health Students' Learning-Styles Identified with Two Different Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton-Rias, Dawn; Dunn, Rita; Terregrossa, Ralph; Geisert, Gene; Mangione, Robert; Ortiz, Samuel; Honigsfeld, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This research identified and compared the learning styles of 154 ethnically diverse, upper division undergraduate and graduate students in Allied Health utilizing the "Building Excellence" (BE) (Rundle & Dunn, 2000) and the "Productivity Environmental Preference Survey" (PEPS) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996). Relationships among age, class standing,…

  6. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-09-30

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. The original project objectives had to be modified as a result of DOE funding cuts, the Biomass Program did not receive adequate funding to fully fund its selected projects. Nonetheless, effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. PI Dorgan taught one of the newly developed classes will in the Fall 2006, after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revisions. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the

  7. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-07-31

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. Effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. The PI will be teaching one of the newly developed classes will next Fall (Fall 2006), after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revision. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the development of a better educated workforce and citizenry capable of providing technological innovation as a means of growing the economy and providing jobs. In particular, the

  8. Neurocognitive Allied Phenotypes for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S. Kristian; Harris, Margret S. H.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Pavuluri, Mani; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are genetically complex and represent the end product of multiple biological and social factors. Links between genes and disorder-related abnormalities can be effectively captured via assessment of phenotypes that are both associated with genetic effects and potentially contributory to behavioral abnormalities. Identifying intermediate or allied phenotypes as a strategy for clarifying genetic contributions to disorders has been successful in other areas of medicine and is a promising strategy for identifying susceptibility genes in complex psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, rather than being wholly distinct disorders, share genetic risk at several loci. Further, there is growing evidence of similarity in the pattern of cognitive and neurobiological deficits in these groups, which may be the result of the effects of these common genetic factors. This review was undertaken to identify patterns of performance on neurocognitive and affective tasks across probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as unaffected family members, which warrant further investigation as potential intermediate trait markers. Available evidence indicates that measures of attention regulation, working memory, episodic memory, and emotion processing offer potential for identifying shared and illness-specific allied neurocognitive phenotypes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, very few studies have evaluated neurocognitive dimensions in bipolar probands or their unaffected relatives, and much work in this area is needed. PMID:18448479

  9. The Importance and Weaknesses of the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2010-01-01

    To view contemporary Science as an industry is a very apt and timely stance. Ghassib's (2010) historical analysis of knowledge production, which he terms "A Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production," is an interesting one. It is important, however, to observe that the outline of this model is based entirely on the production of…

  10. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products''...

  11. 78 FR 19181 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products... information collection for a survey of the egg products industry. DATES: Comments on this notice must be.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Egg Products Industry Survey. Type of Request: New information...

  12. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  13. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  14. New industrial heat pump applications to ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    An energy cost reduction study of the Midwest Grain Products, Atchison, Kansas Beverage grade alcohol (from grain) and speciality starch plant has been completed. The objective was to find out effective energy cost reduction projects and to develop a coherent strategy for realizing the savings. There are many possible options for reducing energy cost. To facilitate a fair comparison of the options, Pinch Technology was used to identify appropriate heat recovery, heat pumping and cogeneration options. Of particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing heat pumps, for energy cost reduction or other profit increasing uses. Therefore, where a heat pumping scheme was identified, its merits relative to other potential projects was carefully evaluated to ensure that the heat pump was technically and economically sound. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other alcohol plants, due to the similarity of processes throughout the industry. This study and others indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 10--30% can be expected through increased heat recovery. Additional energy cost reductions can be achieved through the use of MVR evaporators and other heat pump systems. 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The insurance and risk management industries: new players in thedelivery of energy-efficient and renewable energy products andservices

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2001-11-26

    The insurance industry is typically considered to have little concern about energy issues. However, the historical involvement by insurers and allied industries in the development and deployment of familiar loss-prevention technologies such as automobile air bags, fire prevention/suppression systems, and anti-theft devices, shows that this industry has a tradition of utilizing technology to improve safety and otherwise reduce the likelihood of losses for which they would otherwise have to pay. Through an examination of the connection between risk management and energy efficiency, we have identified nearly 80 examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer''loss-prevention'' benefits, and have mapped these opportunities onto the appropriate segments of the very diverse insurance sector (life, health,property, liability, business interruption, etc.). Some insurers and risk managers are beginning to recognize these previously un-noticed benefits.This paper presents the business case for insurer involvement in energy efficiency and documents case studies of insurer efforts along these lines. We review steps taken by 52 forward-looking insurers and reinsurers, 5 brokers, and 7 insurance organizations, and 13non-insurance organizations in the energy-efficiency arena. The approaches can be grouped into the categories of: information, education,and demonstration; financial incentives; specialized policies and products; direct investment to promote energy efficiency and renewables; value-added customer services and inspections; efficient codes,standards, and policies; research and development; and in-house energy management in insurer-owned properties. Specific examples include reduced premiums for architects and engineers who practice building commissioning(reduces risk of property loss and liability-related claims), insurer promotion of improved indoor air quality practices (mitigating life,health, and liability risks), and insurer promotion of

  16. Deformation and fracture behavior of an 8090 Al-Li alloy at cryogenic temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, K.S.; Lee, S.; Kim, N.J.; Lee, Y.J.

    1995-04-15

    The rapid development of advanced Al-Li alloys in recent years has been driven largely by numerous potential structural applications in the aerospace industries requiring high-strength, high-modulus, and low-density metallic materials. Most recently, cryogenic mechanical properties of Al-Li alloys have received much attention following the reports of remarkable improvements in their strength, ductility and toughness at the low temperatures. Hence, commercial Al-Li alloys are now seriously considered for many cryogenic applications, such as the liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel tanks on future transatmospheric and hypersonic vehicles. Although improved strength-toughness relationships are not unusual in aluminum alloys at low temperatures, the magnitude of the improvement is quite significant in the Al-Li alloys. The origin of such behavior, however, is not clear, and there are several reports proposing different mechanisms for such behavior. Therefore, the present study aims at identifying the microfracture mechanism at room and low temperatures through in situ observation of the microfracture process.

  17. Effects of lubrication on superplastic forming of 8090 Al-Li sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.R.; Huang, J.C.; Liauo, J.M.; Hwang, Y.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The utilization of superplastic forming (SPF) for aluminum alloys in the aircraft industry has been a focus of study recently. In addition to the Al-Cu, Al-Mg, and Al-Zn-Mg base superplastic alloys, the Al-Li base system has attracted considerable attention. However, given the fact that the 8090 and 2090 Al-Li alloys exhibited uniaxial superplastic elongation in excess of 1,000%, the strain rate sensitivity at their optimum strain rate range is usually around 0.5[+-]0.2, compared with [approximately]0.75 seen in the 7575 Al alloys. the lower m-value in the Al-Li alloys might suggest a less uniform strain distribution during SPF, which will be of great concern in practice and is worth further careful studies. One of the improvement methods along this line is to use appropriate lubricants. The thickness distributions have been reported to be improved by the use of lubricants. Typical lubricants used for superplastic forming are graphite, boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, etc. The rejection force needed for removing the formed specimen from the close-die can also be reduced significantly by using lubricants. The current study is to examine the forming behavior of the 8090 Al-Li alloy superplastically formed in a circular open (free bulging) or close die to variable levels of depth, with or without lubrication.

  18. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    PubMed Central

    El-Kady, Ismael A.; Zohri, Abdel Naser A.; Hamed, Shimaa R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5 L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5 g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation. PMID:24778881

  19. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  20. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  1. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  2. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  3. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  4. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  5. Dedicated industrial oilseed crops as metabolic engineering platforms for sustainable industrial feedstock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemi...

  6. ALLY: An operator's associate for satellite ground control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushman, J. B.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Jones, P. M.; Rubin, K. S.

    1991-01-01

    The key characteristics of an intelligent advisory system is explored. A central feature is that human-machine cooperation should be based on a metaphor of human-to-human cooperation. ALLY, a computer-based operator's associate which is based on a preliminary theory of human-to-human cooperation, is discussed. ALLY assists the operator in carrying out the supervisory control functions for a simulated NASA ground control system. Experimental evaluation of ALLY indicates that operators using ALLY performed at least as well as they did when using a human associate and in some cases even better.

  7. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic...

  8. Finding Queer Allies: The Impact of Ally Training and Safe Zone Stickers on Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stephanie L.; Bartle, Eli; Masequesmay, Gina

    2008-01-01

    To counter heterosexism, homophobia, and gender binarism in higher education, "safe zone" or "ally" programs are efforts by American universities to create a welcoming environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning (LGBTQ) members of the campus community. This study describes perceptions of campus climate for LGBTQ…

  9. By-Product of Industrialization: The Victorian Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A case study designed to provide a picture of sex stereotypes in Europe and America before and after the industrial revolution. Qualities most often exhibited and admired by Victorian men and women are described. (Author/DB)

  10. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft guidance... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication...

  11. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  12. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  13. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... methods is found in appendix M of 40 CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  14. 10 CFR 40.25 - General license for use of certain industrial products or devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for use of certain industrial products or... General Licenses § 40.25 General license for use of certain industrial products or devices. (a) A general... of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, depleted uranium contained in...

  15. 10 CFR 40.25 - General license for use of certain industrial products or devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for use of certain industrial products or... General Licenses § 40.25 General license for use of certain industrial products or devices. (a) A general... of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, depleted uranium contained in...

  16. 10 CFR 40.25 - General license for use of certain industrial products or devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for use of certain industrial products or... General Licenses § 40.25 General license for use of certain industrial products or devices. (a) A general... of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, depleted uranium contained in...

  17. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    PubMed Central

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development. PMID:24031361

  18. 10 CFR 40.25 - General license for use of certain industrial products or devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for use of certain industrial products or... General Licenses § 40.25 General license for use of certain industrial products or devices. (a) A general... of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, depleted uranium contained in...

  19. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... PM10 emissions from wood particle dryers must not exceed a total of 0.4 pounds per 1000 square feet of... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What is...

  20. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operation. PM10 emissions from wood particle dryers must not exceed a total of 0.4 pounds per 1000 square... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Region 10 § 49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources....

  1. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  2. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  3. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications. PMID:24424298

  4. Cultural allies: creating allegiances across borders.

    PubMed

    Canales, M

    1998-03-01

    Culture brokerage, as a nursing intervention, is a strategy that is intended to assist nurses to "bridge" the gap between the orthodox health care system and the health belief systems of clients and their families who are from "different" cultures. However, this intervention often reinforces and solidifies borders, rather than expanding or eliminating them. Culture brokerage will be examined against social constructions of "borders", "Others", and the power relationships that influence these constructions. Fein's (1979) "universe of obligation" will provide the framework for a critique of the culture brokerage intervention. This paper argues that culture brokerage maintains existing borders by ignoring the power differentials that exist between the nurse and the client. Reconceptualizing the nurse as cultural ally begins the process of bringing all clients into the universe of obligation. The nurse, as cultural ally, recognizes the differences that exist between the nurse and the client, and asks each to examine how their different lives and experiences are connected. It is through this nurse-client allegiance that borders can be crossed and meaningful relationships created. PMID:10481642

  5. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion.

  6. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  7. Strategic funding priorities in the pharmaceutical sciences allied to Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    Aksu, Buket; De Beer, Thomas; Folestad, Staffan; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Lindén, Hans; Lopes, Joao Almeida; de Matas, Marcel; Oostra, Wim; Rantanen, Jukka; Weimer, Marco

    2012-09-29

    Substantial changes in Pharmaceutical R&D strategy are required to address existing issues of low productivity, imminent patent expirations and pressures on pricing. Moves towards personalized healthcare and increasing diversity in the nature of portfolios including the rise of biopharmaceuticals however have the potential to provide considerable challenges to the establishment of cost effective and robust supply chains. To guarantee product quality and surety of supply for essential medicines it is necessary that manufacturing science keeps pace with advances in pharmaceutical R&D. In this position paper, the EUFEPS QbD and PAT Sciences network make recommendations that European industry, academia and health agencies focus attention on delivering step changes in science and technology in a number of key themes. These subject areas, all underpinned by the sciences allied to QbD and PAT, include product design and development for personalized healthcare, continuous-processing in pharmaceutical product manufacture, quantitative quality risk assessment for pharmaceutical development including life cycle management and the downstream processing of biopharmaceutical products. Plans are being established to gain commitment for inclusion of these themes into future funding priorities for the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI).

  8. Basis of Accreditation for Educational Programs in Allied Medical Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Medical Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed as a guide to accreditation for educational programs in the allied medical disciplines in Canada, this report provides educators with guidelines, general requirements and requirements for specific programs. Following information on the organization, structure, goals and terminology of accreditation of allied medical programs in Canada,…

  9. Allied Health Core Curriculum: Its Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, M. LaCheeta

    2004-01-01

    There is lack of a clear definition regarding an allied health core curriculum. The Pew Health Professions Commission and the Bureau of Health Professions use the following to define a core curriculum: "A set of interdisciplinary courses, clinical training, and other educational exposures designed to provide allied health students at each level…

  10. Building an Interdisciplinary Faculty Team for Allied Health Gerontology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glista, Sandra; Petersons, Maija

    2003-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team from various college allied health departments implemented Project AGE: Alliance for Gerontology Education to develop content to infuse in courses on the themes of age and culture, assistive technology, collaboration, and consumer health education. One goal was to foster interaction among allied health students to prepare…

  11. Development of Articulation Models for Allied Health Statewide Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Joanne; And Others

    Under the auspices of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education and with the aim of delineating issues in allied health education and making recommendations for alleviating the issues, an in-depth, two-year study was completed in 1975. The primary recommendations pertained to the development of a statewide plan for allied health education that…

  12. Allies and Competitors as Enscripted Audiences in Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan

    A set of much examined scientific papers which specifically portray a controversial topic and also manifest ally-peer and competitor-peer enscripted audiences are those written by James Watson and Francis Crick concerning their discovery of the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). The theoretical perspective of an ally-peer and…

  13. Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Law, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in…

  14. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  15. Standing "Straight" up to Homophobia: Straight Allies' Involvement in GSAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Alicia Anne

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay youth involvement in gay--straight alliances (GSAs) at their Ontario, Canada, high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are examined. Queer theoretical perspectives, as espoused by Britzman (1995, 1998) and Linville…

  16. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  17. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  18. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Verzasconi, S.L.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090 + In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties. With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Determining an Optimum Model for Production in Paper Industry: Case Study of Iranian Mazandaran Wood and Paper Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Majid; Aghapour, Mohammad

    In current research, Mazandaran Wood and Paper Industries (MWPI) has been studied. With respect to increasing of paper consumption in the country, optimization of the product has been notified due to limitations in wood resources as the most important factor in the production. In the factory, three kinds of products are produced which are printing and writing paper, corrugated medium paper and newspaper paper. Linear programming method has been used in the research. Limitations are wood resources, manpower costs, chemical materials, distribution costs and production capacity. Profit maximization is objective function for three kinds of the products. Results show that with respect to the model, optimum amounts for printing and writing paper and corrugated medium paper have to increase 35 and 18%, respectively. But the amount of newspaper paper has to decrease 13% in comparison with real production.

  20. Accreditation in the allied health professions.

    PubMed

    Stull, G A

    1989-01-01

    Specialized accreditation in the allied health professions can and will fulfill its basic purpose if its efforts are guided by the principle that evaluation must place its emphasis on the outcome of the educational process, no matter how difficult it may be to assess. This requires the commitment and cooperation of both the accrediting body and the institution and program under review. Accreditation is a vitally important and valuable system in higher education in general, and the allied health professions are no exception. If the system is to be effective, however, every temptation must be resisted by all involved parties to debase it by using it for self-serving purposes. A recognized accrediting agency not only has the right, but indeed the responsibility, to ensure that the graduates of a program under review possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills essential for entrance into a given allied health profession. In cases where that minimal standard is not attained, the program should be required to remove those deficiencies in a timely manner or, if sufficiently serious, have its accreditation withheld or withdrawn. There should be no exceptions to this course of action. Every standard or essential adopted should be defensible on sound educational grounds, and every program should be evaluated according to whether it is in compliance. Accrediting bodies must direct their efforts toward evaluating educational quality. They must respect institutional rights and responsibilities and not even attempt to prescribe what will be taught or by whom, or who will administer a given program. The entire accreditation process must account for institutional diversity and should not discourage experimentation, innovation, or modernization. However, the standards and essentials that are ultimately adopted must be applied uniformly and fairly and not in an arbitrary or capricious manner. Hence, it is imperative that the standards and essentials be stated in such a way that

  1. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  2. Collaborative Research in Allied Health. Proceedings of Collaborative Research in Allied Health Symposium, 1986 (Columbus, Ohio, September 18, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, M. Rosita, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers are included: "Collaborative Research: Lessons from the Tower of Babel" (Baldwin); "Establishing a Data Base for Intrainstitutional Research in the Allied Health Professions" (Von Son, Beiley); "Determining Research Needs in a School of Allied Health Professions" (Bottjen et al.); "Surveying Research Interests and Needs of…

  3. A protocol for a systematic review of knowledge translation strategies in the allied health professions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the gap between knowledge and practice in order to realize the benefits of research through (a) improved health outcomes, (b) more effective health services and products, and (c) strengthened healthcare systems. While there is some understanding of strategies to put research findings into practice within nursing and medicine, we have limited knowledge of KT strategies in allied health professions. Given the interprofessional nature of healthcare, a lack of guidance for supporting KT strategies in the allied health professions is concerning. Our objective in this study is to systematically review published research on KT strategies in five allied health disciplines. Methods A medical research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify evidence that is relevant to each question of the review. Two reviewers will perform study selection and quality assessment using standard forms. For study selection, data will be extracted by two reviewers. For quality assessment, data will be extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Within each profession, data will be grouped and analyzed by research design and KT strategies using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group classification scheme. An overall synthesis across professions will be conducted. Significance A uniprofessional approach to KT does not represent the interprofessional context it targets. Our findings will provide the first systematic overview of KT strategies used in allied health professionals' clinical practice, as well as a foundation to inform future KT interventions in allied healthcare settings. PMID:21635763

  4. [Citizens: allies of the health system].

    PubMed

    Venne, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Many international declarations recognize citizen participation as an important driver of success for health policy; however, in most countries the implementation of this principle has been delayed. Yet well-known phenomena, like ageing and incurred costs, should motivate decision makers to rely more on citizens and make them allies of the system, giving them power and responsibility. Citizens can first exercise this responsibility within the areas of prevention and health promotion. This responsibility then expands to include mutual assistance between community members. It is called upon in the definition of new social norms. It is recognized by the participation of citizens in health care decision-making bodies. Lastly, this responsibility applies when the time comes to choose which health services will be covered by the public system and which will be sent on to private insurers. The reasons to create a space for citizens are many. The methods to do it exist. What is needed is political willpower and means.

  5. Rehabilitation--an emerging allied health profession.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, R E; Pool, D A; Henke, R O; McCollum, P S

    1978-01-01

    Rehabilitation is perceived as the third phase of health care following preventive health care and curative medicine. The rehabilitation specialist assists the health care team in facilitating the patient to live and work with what he has left. The unique role of the rehabilitation specialist in the health care system is described, as well as his/her relation to traditional helth care personnel. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas in the School of Allied Health Sciences has offered professional education at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in the Department of Rehabilitation Science for the past five years. The curriculum description, student characteristics, and employment placements are distinguishing features of each program and describe how this rehabilitation specialist is educated. PMID:10307652

  6. Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ambreen; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Niaz, Rai Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments. In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral. Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript. However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene. PMID:26417290

  7. Development of industrial catalysts for sustainable chlorine production.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Cecilia; Amrute, Amol P; Moser, Maximilian; Schmidt, Timm; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase oxidation of HCl to Cl(2) offers an energy-efficient and eco- friendly route to recover chlorine from HCl-containing byproduct streams in the chemical industry. This process has attracted renewed interest in the last decade due to an increased chlorine demand and the growing excess of byproduct HCl from chlorination processes. Since its introduction (by Deacon in 1868) and till recent times, the industrialization of this reaction has been hindered by the lack of sufficiently active and durable materials. Recently, RuO(2)-based catalysts with outstanding activity and stability have been designed and they are being implemented for large-scale Cl(2) recycling. Herein, we review the main limiting features of traditional Cu-based catalysts and survey the key steps in the development of the new generation of industrial RuO(2)-based materials. As the expansion of this technology would benefit from cheaper, but comparably robust, alternatives to RuO(2)-based catalysts, a nov el CeO(2)-based catalyst which offers promising perspectives for application in this field has been introduced.

  8. Industrialization of mAb production technology The bioprocessing industry at a crossroads

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purification technologies, promises nearly unlimited production capacity in the foreseeable future. The increase in titers has also led to a marked reduction in production costs, which could then become a relatively small fraction of sales price for future products which are sold at prices at or near current levels. The reduction of capacity and cost pressures for current state-of-the-art bulk production processes may shift the focus of process development efforts and have important implications for both plant design and product development strategies for both biopharmaceutical and contract manufacturing companies. PMID:20065641

  9. High-level production of the industrial product lycopene by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93-99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product. PMID:22865070

  10. High-Level Production of the Industrial Product Lycopene by the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93–99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3′,4′-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product. PMID:22865070

  11. High-level production of the industrial product lycopene by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93-99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product.

  12. Biologically based pest controls: Markets, industries, and products. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, R.L.; Inscoe, M.N.; Thorpe, K.W.

    1994-05-20

    Numbers and amounts of conventional pesticides to combat insect pests, weeds and plant diseases are likely to decline. Although biologically based pest control products have been touted as possible replacements, such products now comprise less than 2% of the market in the United States. Twelve large multinational companies market 80% of the world`s pesticides, valued at about $200 billion, and are responsible for about 20% of the activities to develop and/or produce biological products. In the U.S. about 65 small companies are responsible for 80% of the activities on biological products, which are valued at about $165 million. Without major changes in the research, development, and delivery system, biological products are not likely to be practical replacements for significant amounts of conventional pesticides in the foreseeable future.

  13. Industrial recovery capability. Final report. [Claus alumina catalyst for sulfur production

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.W.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report.

  14. Natural products and drug discovery: a survey of stakeholders in industry and academia

    PubMed Central

    Amirkia, Vafa; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Context: In recent decades, natural products have undisputedly played a leading role in the development of novel medicines. Yet, trends in the pharmaceutical industry at the level of research investments indicate that natural product research is neither prioritized nor perceived as fruitful in drug discovery programmes as compared with incremental structural modifications and large volume HTS screening of synthetics. Aim: We seek to understand this phenomenon through insights from highly experienced natural product experts in industry and academia. Method: We conducted a survey including a series of qualitative and quantitative questions related to current insights and prospective developments in natural product drug development. The survey was completed by a cross-section of 52 respondents in industry and academia. Results: One recurrent theme is the dissonance between the perceived high potential of NP as drug leads among individuals and the survey participants' assessment of the overall industry and/or company level strategies and their success. The study's industry and academic respondents did not perceive current discovery efforts as more effective as compared with previous decades, yet industry contacts perceived higher hit rates in HTS efforts as compared with academic respondents. Surprisingly, many industry contacts were highly critical to prevalent company and industry-wide drug discovery strategies indicating a high level of dissatisfaction within the industry. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that there is an increasing gap in perception between the effectiveness of well established, commercially widespread drug discovery strategies between those working in industry and academic experts. This research seeks to shed light on this gap and aid in furthering natural product discovery endeavors through an analysis of current bottlenecks in industry drug discovery programmes. PMID:26578954

  15. 76 FR 34914 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment... tentatively that set-top boxes and network equipment qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of... network equipment meet the criteria for covered products because classifying products of such type...

  16. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry... parties to submit to FDA comments on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendation regarding third-party governance of industry-sponsored tobacco product research. DATES: Submit electronic or...

  17. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic... submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). The guidance...

  18. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials with Live... submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). DATES: Although...

  19. 75 FR 73108 - Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Impurities in Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications...) guidance for industry ``Q3B(R) Impurities in New Drug Products,'' which was announced in August 2006. DATES... and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New ] Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, rm. 2201,...

  20. Appropriate Technology, Energy and Food Production in an Industrial Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytlik, Edward; Scanlin, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    With modern agriculture, the growing, processing, packaging, and distribution of food fit well into an industrial arts curriculum. Many areas of this system need closer attention: the high cost of energy in food production, the problems of land preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, food processing, and agriculture in an industrial arts curriculum.…

  1. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU

  2. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  3. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  5. 77 FR 35688 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  6. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere. PMID:19577916

  7. New industrial heat pump applications to fructose production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    An energy cost reduction study of the American Fructose Decatur,Inc. High Fructose Corn Syrup process has been completed. The objective was to find cost effective energy cost reduction projects and to develop a coherent strategy for realizing the savings. There are many possible options for reducing energy cost. To facilitate a fair comparison of the options, Pinch Technology was used to identify appropriate heat recovery, heat pumping and cogeneration options. Of particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing heat pumps, for energy cost reduction or other profit increasing uses. Therefore, where a heat pumping scheme was identified, its merits relative to other potential projects was carefully evaluated to ensure that the heat pump was technically and economically sound. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other wet corn milling sites which include a refinery section, due to the similarity of processes throughout the industry. This study and others indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 15--25% can be expected through increased heat recovery. Also, the use of MVR and thermocompression evaporators is appropriate and additional economically viable opportunities exist for using industrial heat pumps to increase even further the level of energy cost reduction achievable. 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. In Situ Assessment of Lattice in an Al-Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, A. J.; Obstalecki, M.; Tayon, W.; Hernquist, M.; Mudrock, R.; Kenesei, P.; Lienert, U.

    2013-01-01

    The lattice strains of individual grains are measured in an Al-Li alloy, AA 2195, using high-energy X-ray diffraction at a synchrotron source. The diffraction of individual grains in this highly textured production alloy was isolated through use of a depth-defining aperture. It is shown that hydrostatic stress, and in turn the stress triaxiality, can vary significantly from grain to grain.

  9. The relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity in a repetitive industrial task.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Das, Biman

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the manner by which production standards or goals, performance or production feedback and monetary or wage incentive affected or moderated the relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity in a repetitive production task in a fishing industry. The industrial study was conducted to measure worker satisfaction and productivity under various experimental conditions involving production standards, performance feedback and monetary incentive. Only the participative standard and performance feedback condition affected the worker satisfaction-productivity relationship significantly for the fish-trimming task. The positive correlation coefficient (0.87) for this condition was found to be highly significant. This has an important implication for setting a strategy for achieving higher worker satisfaction and productivity in such an industry. Production standards with feedback generally improved worker satisfaction and productivity. Monetary incentive further improved worker performance but added no incremental satisfaction gain. The incorporation of production standards, performance feedback and monetary incentive affected worker satisfaction and productivity differently and this had an effect on the worker satisfaction-productivity relationship. In an earlier laboratory study, no significant worker satisfaction-productivity relationship was found when subjects (college students) were provided with similar experimental conditions. PMID:14559421

  10. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  11. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of Al-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanakumar, R.; Ramakrishna, K. S.; Kanna, B. Avinash

    2013-06-01

    Al-Li alloys are being used in aircraft structures due to its low density and inherent mechanical properties. Fatigue Crack Growth (FCG) resistance is usually high compared to conventional Al-alloys attributed to increased modulus and crack closure. Extensive investigations concern about the FCG resistance and crack closure in Al-Li alloys. The present work reviews the FCG resistance in Al-Li alloys and the mechanisms associated with it. The alloy 8090 is taken for the consideration and sometimes compared with 2024.

  12. Measuring heterosexual LGBT ally development: a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peter; Fujimoto, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities.

  13. Influencers of career choice among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Brown-West, A P

    1991-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that influence students' choice of an allied health profession. A survey of 153 students in three allied health programs at the University of Connecticut revealed that "the need to help others," "prestige," "professional autonomy," "opportunities for advancement," "income potential," and "the effect of the specialty on family and personal life," were the major influencers of career choice among allied health students. Only a few students regarded malpractice suits and AIDS as negative influencers. While medical laboratory science majors regarded these as important factors, dietetics and physical therapy majors did not. The article suggests further use of these findings by program directors and career counselors. PMID:1761410

  14. Dry plasma processing for industrial crystalline silicon solar cell production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview on the standard crystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing processes typically applied in industry. Main focus has been put on plasma processes which can replace existing, mainly wet chemical processes within the standard process flow. Finally, additional plasma processes are presented which are suited for higher-efficient solar cells, i.e. for the “passivated emitter and rear cell” concept (PERC) or the “heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer” approach (HIT). Plasma processes for the deposition of thin dielectric or semiconducting layers for surface passivation, emitter deposition or anti-reflective coating purposes are presented. Plasma etching processes for the removal of phosphorus silicate glass or parasitic emitters, for wafer cleaning and masked and mask-free surface texturisation are discussed.

  15. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer products and industrial equipment subject... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  16. Air/Oil Seals R and D at AlliedSignal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    2006-01-01

    AlliedSignal aerospace company is committed to significantly improving the reliabilities of air/oil seals in their gas turbine engines. One motivation for this is that aircraft cabin air quality can be affected by the performance of mainshaft air/oil seals. In the recent past, coking related failure modes have been the focus of air/oil seal R&D at AlliedSignal. Many significant advances have been made to combat coke related failures, with some more work continuing in this area. This years R&D begins to address other commin failure modes. Among them, carbon seal "blistering" has been a chronic problem facing the sealing industry for many decades. AlliedSignal has launched an aggressive effort this year to solve this problem for our aerospace rated carbon seals in a short (one to two year) timeframe. Work also continues in developing more user-friendly tools and data for seal analysis & design. Innovations in seal cooling continue. Nominally non-contacting hydropad sealing concept is being developed for aerospace applications. Finally, proprietary work is in planning stages for development of a seal with the aggressive aim of zero oil leakage.

  17. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In terms of volume of wood used, pulp mills dominate Wisconsin's forest industry, but sawmills far outnumber any other category. There were 323 mills of all types operating in Wisconsin in 1990. Wisconsin is divided into five Survey Units. Industrial roundwood production rose from 328.7 million cubic feet in 1988 to 342.6 million cubic feet in 1990. Pulpwood accounted for 66 percent of the industrial roundwood production in 1990. In 1990, 83 percent of the total growing-stock removals due to harvest came from aspen, red oak, hard maple, red pine, white birch, jack pine, and soft maple.

  18. Industrial enzymatic production of cephalosporin-based beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Barber, Michael S; Giesecke, Ulrich; Reichert, Arno; Minas, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Cephalosporins are chemically closely related to penicillins both work by inhibiting the cell wall synthesis of bacteria. The first generation cephalosporins entered the market in 1964. Second and third generation cephalosporins were subsequently developed that were more powerful than the original products. Fourth generation cephalosporins are now reaching the market. Each newer generation of cephalosporins has greater Gram-negative antimicrobial properties than the preceding generation. Conversely, the 'older' generations of cephalosporins have greater Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) coverage than the 'newer' generations. Frequency of dosing decreases and palatability generally improve with increasing generations. The advent of fourth generation cephalosporins with the launch of cefepime extended the spectrum against Gram-positive organisms without a significant loss of activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Its greater stability to beta-lactamases increases its efficacy against drug-resistant bacteria. In this review we present the current situation of this mature market. In addition, we present the current state of the technologies employed for the production of cephalosporins, focusing on the new and environmentally safer 'green' routes to the products. Starting with the fermentation and purification of CPC, enzymatic conversion in conjunction with aqueous chemistry will lead to some key intermediates such as 7-ACA, TDA and TTA, which then can be converted into the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), again applying biocatalytic technologies and aqueous chemistry. Examples for the costing of selected products are provided as well. PMID:15719556

  19. Single cell oil production from low-cost substrates: the possibility and potential of its industrialization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Chen, Xue-fang; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xin-de; Ma, Long-long; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Currently, single cell oils (SCO) attract much attention because of their bi-function as a supplier of functional oils and feedstock for biodiesel production. However, high fermentation costs prevent their further application, and the possibility and potential of their industrialization is suspected. Therefore, various low-cost, hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates were utilized for SCO production. Of these substrates, lignocellulosic biomass, which is the most available and renewable source in nature, might be an ideal raw material for SCO production. Although many reviews on SCO have been published, few have focused on SCO production from low-cost substrates or evaluated the possibility and potential of its industrialization. Therefore, this review mainly presents information on SCO and its production using low-cost substrates and mostly focuses on lignocellulosic biomass. Finally, the possibility and potential of SCO industrialization is evaluated.

  20. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid.

  1. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

  2. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  3. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  4. Industrial side-products as possible soil-amendments.

    PubMed

    Toth, Brigitta; Veres, Szilvia; Bakonyi, Nora; Gajdos, Eva; Marozsan, Marianna; Levai, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    The protection of our environment is a common task. All pollution that expose our soils, plants or in the narrower and wider sense environment will appear sooner or later in the food chain and in human beings who are at the top of the food-chain pyramid. The aim of our work is to give a brief overview about the effects of some industrial wastes on the physiological parameters of plants. Compost, black soot, sewage sludge and lime sludge dust was examined. Sunflower seeds were used in the experiments. The filtrates of examined materials were added to the nutrient solution in different quantities because of different solubility. The contents of sample elements and uptake of the element were measured by ICP, the relative chlorophyll contents by SPAD 502. Disadvantageous and advantageous physiological effects of compost, black soot, sewage sludge and lime sludge were proved. Larger concentrations of aluminium were measured in the roots than in the shoots. The concentrations of chrome were below the control value in the shoots when black soot, compost, lime sludge and sewage sludge were added to the nutrient solution. The concentrations of zinc, phosphorous, magnesium and copper were very low when black soot was used, and it was lower than the control. The dry matter of shoots increased when compost and sewage sludge was used, but the growth of roots remained under the control level.

  5. New industrial heat pump applications to cheese production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    A energy cost reduction of the Sorrento Cheese Co. Inc. cheese/whey powder process has been completed. Of Particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing heat pumps for energy cost reduction or other profit improving uses. Pinch Technology was used to identify heat recovery, heat pumping, process modification and congeneration options. Pinch Technology provides a thermodynamically consistent base from which the relative merits of competing cost reduction options can be assessed. The study identified heat recovery opportunities which could save $198,000/yr at an over all payback of 26 months. Individual project paybacks range from 18 to 36 months. The use of heat pumps in the form of MVR and TVR evaporators is well established in the dairy industry. For this process, which already incorporates a TVR evaporator, no additional cost effective opportunities for utilizing heat pumps were identified. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other cheese/whey powder manufacturing sits. This study, and others, indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 10--15% can be expected. Also the use of MVR and TVR evaporators is appropriate. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Selected list of books and journals in allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1984-01-01

    This list of 450 books and 67 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs and personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Due to the necessity of limiting the scope of coverage because of the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused mainly on the twenty-six educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, in addition to programs in allied dental health and medical secretarial skills. Books are categorized by broad subject followed by an author/editor index; journals are listed alphabetically by title. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual (1984) journal subscriptions would require a total expenditure of approximately $15,000. PMID:6388696

  7. Allied Health Chemistry Laboratory: Amino Acids, Insulin, Proteins, and Skin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, David F.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment specifically designed for allied health students. The students construct molecular models of amino acids, extract amino acids from their skin with hot water, and chromatographically analyze the skin extract and hydrolyzed insulin. (MLH)

  8. Promoting the place of the allied health professions in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Rothan-Tondeur, Monique; Courcier, Soizic; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Leblanc, Judith; Peoch, Nadia; Lefort, Marie-Claude; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bassompierre, François; Bilbault, Pascal; Déal, Cécile; Diebolt, Vincent; Fraleux, Michèle; François, Bruno; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Misse, Christophe; Roussel, Christophe; Sibenaler, Claire; Simon, Tabassome; Tavernier, Blanche; Thoby, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research is of major importance to today's society, as scientific evidence is increasingly demanded as a basis for progress, whether this involves developing new healthcare products, improving clinical practice and care protocols or progress in prevention. Clinical research therefore requires professionals who are both experienced and increasingly well trained. Against this background, allied health professionals are becoming involved more and more, both as team members supporting clinical research projects and as managers or coordinators of projects in their own field. Clinical research activities provide an ideal opportunity for continuing professional development. All of this means that the professional skills of the allied health professions and clinical research support professions must be enhanced, their role promoted in the context of lecturer status and in the longer term, their status recognised by the supervisory authorities. PMID:25099668

  9. [Citizens: allies of the health system].

    PubMed

    Venne, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Many international declarations recognize citizen participation as an important driver of success for health policy; however, in most countries the implementation of this principle has been delayed. Yet well-known phenomena, like ageing and incurred costs, should motivate decision makers to rely more on citizens and make them allies of the system, giving them power and responsibility. Citizens can first exercise this responsibility within the areas of prevention and health promotion. This responsibility then expands to include mutual assistance between community members. It is called upon in the definition of new social norms. It is recognized by the participation of citizens in health care decision-making bodies. Lastly, this responsibility applies when the time comes to choose which health services will be covered by the public system and which will be sent on to private insurers. The reasons to create a space for citizens are many. The methods to do it exist. What is needed is political willpower and means. PMID:24737815

  10. Sexual problems in arthritis and allied conditions.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, A

    1981-01-01

    There is need for a greater readiness among the medical and paramedical professions to recognize the widespread occurrence of sexual problems in patients with arthritis and allied conditions. Sexual image, sexual drive, sexual competence, sexual expression, and sexual opportunity may all be adversely affected by the onset of arthritis, the type and degree of effect depending on the nature, severity, and duration of the disease and on the social and marital state of the patient. Single patients may have difficulty in forming stable sexual relationships and married patients in creating a mutually satisfying pattern of sexual expression. The physical and psychological state of patient and partner and the medication of both need careful consideration to determine contributory causes to the individual problem-complex of each patient. Based on the experience of 12 years' sexual counselling at a disabled living unit and an orthopaedic hospital, and of 4 years at a weekly clinic for disable people with sexual problems, the causes and means of amelioration of these problems are discussed. PMID:7287311

  11. Automation and robotics - Key to productivity. [in industry and space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The automated and robotic systems requirements of the NASA Space Station are prompted by maintenance, repair, servicing and assembly requirements. Trend analyses, fault diagnoses, and subsystem status assessments for the Station's electrical power, guidance, navigation, control, data management and environmental control subsystems will be undertaken by cybernetic expert systems; this will reduce or eliminate on-board or ground facility activities that would otherwise be essential, enhancing system productivity. Additional capabilities may also be obtained through the incorporation of even a limited amount of artificial intelligence in the controllers of the various Space Station systems.

  12. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO4·7H2O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH2PO4 and CaCl2·2H2O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO4·7H2O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  13. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    PubMed

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-10-15

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-value<0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  14. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    PubMed

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-value<0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  15. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. PMID:27130540

  16. 76 FR 34715 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Considering Whether an FDA-Regulated Product Involves the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...-Regulated Product Involves the Application of Nanotechnology; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Application of Nanotechnology''. This guidance is intended to provide industry with FDA's current... nanotechnology. The points to consider are intended to be broadly applicable to all FDA-regulated products,...

  17. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  18. Selected list of books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. health care system of the twenty-first century will be information driven; allied health literature will be a dynamic part of that information. This list of 415 books and 76 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either a health care or academic setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, focus has been directed primarily to the twenty-eight educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA) of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, nutrition, and speech pathology/audiology programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (177 books and 32 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1994 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $25,300. PMID:7920334

  19. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production.

  20. NASA Symposium on Productivity and Quality: Strategies for Improving Operations in Government and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium is to increase the awareness of productivity and quality issues in the United States, and to foster national initiatives through government and industry executive leadership. The Symposium will provide a forum for discussion of white-collar productivity issues by experienced executives from successful organizations and an opportunity to share information learned through Productivity initiatives in govemment, industry and academic organizations. It will focus on white-collar organizational issues that are common to large companies and technology oriented organizations. The Symposium program will include strategies for improving operations in government and industry and will be responsive to the management issues viewed necessary to increase our nation's productivity growth rate.

  1. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production. PMID:25027810

  2. Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Graham, Jay; Price, Lance B

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health crisis, eroding the discovery of antimicrobials and their application to clinical medicine. There is a general lack of knowledge of the importance of agricultural antimicrobial use as a factor in antimicrobial resistance even among experts in medicine and public health. This review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial drug use as a major driver of antimicrobial resistance worldwide for four reasons: It is the largest use of antimicrobials worldwide; much of the use of antimicrobials in agriculture results in subtherapeutic exposures of bacteria; drugs of every important clinical class are utilized in agriculture; and human populations are exposed to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens via consumption of animal products as well as through widespread release into the environment.

  3. Municipal and industrial waste product utilization for bauxite mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted on acidic bauxite mine soil to compare the effectiveness of fly ash and brown lime to ag-lime for pH and soluble salt control. After 3 additions (109 mt/ha) of liming materials, ag-lime and fly ash were superior to brown lime for controlling mine soil acidity over the three year period. All liming materials were equally effective in controlling soil salinity. Rye, wheat, and bermudagrass were grown sequentially from 1982 to 1984. Nitrogen treatments in the field consisted of the addition of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (50 mt/ha) and (424 kg/ha) commercial inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen mineralization characteristics of sewage sludge were compared to inorganic N fertilizer by measuring decomposition in the laboratory and ground cover establishment and dry matter production in the field. Field results indicated that inorganic N and sludge were equally effective in ground cover establishment and the production of dry matter for rye, wheat and bermudagrass in 1983. Forage tissues were analyzed for 16 trace elements (As, B, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, and Zn). Results were compared between lime and nitrogen treatments for each grass crop and harvest time. Fly ash generally increased B content in forage tissue compared to the other lime materials. Wheat accumulated the highest amount. Tissue concentrations of (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) were sufficiently low enough to not be detrimental to grazing animals or the human food chain. Overall, levels of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were sufficient to satisfy nutrient requirements for grazing animals.

  4. Dry fermented sausages of Southern Italy: a comparison of free amino acids and biogenic amines between industrial and homemade products.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia L; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria L; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-04-01

    This paper compares some important parameters and the free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of cured industrial and homemade meat products. To this aim, industrial and homemade "soppressata" and "salsiccia", typical dry fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formation in industrial products is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by a higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that appreciable differences exist between homemade and industrial sausages.

  5. Trends in utilization of agro-industrial byproducts for production of bacteriocins and their biopreservative applications.

    PubMed

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous, ribosomally synthesized bio-molecules having major roles in food preservation due to their antimicrobial action against food spoilage microorganisms. These have gained importance in the last decades because of increasing interest in natural products and their applications in the field of biopreservation, pharmaceutical, aquaculture, livestock, etc. Their production is quite expensive which includes the cost of synthetic media and downstream processing of which 30% of the total production cost relies on synthetic media and nutritional supplements used for growth of microorganisms. The low cost agro-industrial by-products, rich in nutritional supplements, can act as a good substitute for high valued synthetic media. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of cost effective, renewable agro-industrial by-products as substrates for the production of bacteriocins and their application in food as biopreservatives.

  6. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain. PMID:26789437

  7. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.

  8. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Pottery Production in Different Industrial Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Argáez, Marco Aurelio; Huacúz, Salvador Lucas; Trápaga, Gerardo

    2008-10-01

    The traditional process for pottery production was analyzed in this work by developing a fundamental mathematical model that simulates the operation of rustic pottery furnaces as employed by natives of villages in Michoacán, Mexico. The model describes radiative heat transfer and fluid flow promoted by natural convection, phenomena that determine the operation of these furnaces. An advanced radiation model called the “Discrete Ordinates Model” was implemented within a commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Process analysis was performed to determine the effect of the design variables on the quality of the pottery pieces and on energy efficiency. The variables explored were: (a) Geometric aspect ratio between diameter and height of the furnace ( D/H) and (b) Refractory thickness ( L). The model was validated using experimental temperature measurements from furnaces located in Santa Fe and Capula, Mexico. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerically calculated thermal histories. It was found that furnaces with high aspect ratio D/H and with thick refractory bricks promote thermal uniformity and energy savings. In general, any parameter that increases the conductive thermal resistance of the wall furnace isolates better, and helps energy savings. Operating conditions that provide the smallest thermal gradients and lowest energy consumption are given.

  10. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  11. Production, properties, and industrial food application of lactic acid bacteria-derived exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zannini, Emanuele; Waters, Deborah M; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-02-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are industrially important microorganisms in the development of functional food products and are used as starter cultures or coadjutants to develop fermented foods. There is large variability in EPS production by LAB in terms of chemical composition, quantity, molecular size, charge, presence of side chains, and rigidity of the molecules. The main body of the review will cover practical aspects concerning the structural diversity structure of EPS, and their concrete application in food industries is reported in details. To strengthen the food application and process feasibility of LAB EPS at industrial level, a future academic research should be combined with industrial input to understand the technical shortfalls that EPS can address.

  12. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers.

  13. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  14. Building interdisciplinary teamwork among allied health students through live clinical case simulations.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janet R; Rathsack, Christi; Downs, David; Jorgensen, Kathy; Karges, Joy R; Nelson, Debralee

    2008-01-01

    A limited, yet growing, body of research suggests that health care students educated in interdisciplinary teamwork may become more collaborative professionals in the workplace, which, in turn, may foster more productive and satisfied health care professionals. Researchers also have identified lower mortality and morbidity rates, fewer hospitalizations, decreased costs, and improved function by patients among significant health benefits of interdisciplinary teamwork, especially when it is applied to underserved and geriatric populations. Such positive outcomes have prompted medical schools and accreditation boards of many allied health professions to add interdisciplinary education into their training requirements. Meeting these requirements has challenged universities, where there are multiple allied health programs and limited time, faculty, and financial resources to coordinate interdisciplinary education. The challenges have been magnified by insufficient research on the most effective methods to educate university students about interdisciplinary teamwork. This article presents the background, evolution, and key building blocks of one such method: a simulation-based workshop designed at our university over 7 years to educate its allied health students about various health professions through shared learning, interaction, and collaboration.

  15. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  16. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  17. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  18. Allied Health Field, Ninth Grade. Introduction to Allied Health and the Health Care Team. Operation TACT [Toward an Allied Health Career Today] Curriculum [and Teachers' Handbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Storrs. School of Allied Health Professions.

    The two-part set consists of a student handbook and a related teachers' handbook in allied health education for use at the ninth grade level. The student handbook contains nine units which focus on the science curriculum: (1) introduction, (2) weights and measures, (3) human body, (4) chemistry, (5) electricity and magnetism, (6) heat and its…

  19. Allied Health Field, Tenth Grade. Introduction to Allied Health and the Health Care Team. Operation TACT [Toward an Allied Health Career Today] Curriculum [and Teachers' Handbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tracy

    The two-part set consists of a student handbook and a related teachers' handbook in allied health education for use at the tenth grade level. The student handbook consists of seven units which focus on the biology curriculum: (1) community water examination, (2) bacteriological examination of water, (3) the microscope, (4) microbes and man, (5)…

  20. Target selection and pharma industry productivity: what can we learn from technology S-curve theory?

    PubMed

    Brown, David

    2006-07-01

    The number of new drug approvals per annum has been decreasing regularly over the past decade, and changes made 12 to 15 years ago to the research and development approach of the pharmaceutical industry may have contributed to this fall in productivity. In particular, the rapid switch at that time away from an 'observation-led' approach toward a 'hypothesis-led' approach to target selection may be a key contributing factor to this issue. The strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are analyzed herein, and it is suggested that unsolved weaknesses in both approaches are holding back the productivity of the pharmaceutical/biotechnology industry.

  1. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds

    PubMed Central

    Papagianni, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review. PMID:24688663

  2. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  3. Selected list of books and journals in allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1990-01-01

    This list of 453 books and 74 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the twenty-six educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, and nutrition programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (179 books and 29 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1990 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $21,650. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $9,250. PMID:2393755

  4. Selected list of books and journals in allied health.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1992-01-01

    This list of 396 books and 77 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Due to the necessity of limiting the scope of coverage because of the large number and wide range of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the twenty-eight programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, nutrition, and speech pathology/audiology. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals is followed by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (194 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1992 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $22,800. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $10,850. PMID:1525616

  5. Selected list of books and journals in allied health *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.; Hill, Dorothy R.

    1996-01-01

    This list of 410 books and 76 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs or allied health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility of covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the educational programs listed and described in the AMA's Allied Health and Rehabilitation Professions Education Directory, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, medical secretarial, nutrition, and speech pathology/audiology programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (163 books and 31 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1996 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $26,740. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $11,160. PMID:16018053

  6. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dailin, Daniel Joe; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Othman, Nor Zalina; Malek, Roslinda; Phin, Hiew Siaw; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad; El Enshasy, Hesham Ali

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1).

  7. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  8. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.

  9. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  10. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  11. Role of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme in Enhanced Primary Care: allied health or allied outlier?

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme (CDSS) and the Allied Health Profession (AHP) program as they related to the greater Enhanced Primary Care Scheme introduced by the Australian Government to manage patients with chronic and complex diseases. A retrospective analysis of data pertaining to Medicare items related to dentistry and the allied health professions were extracted from the Medicare Benefits Schedule database online, and formed the basis of this study. The highest proportion of services was provided in the state of New South Wales. There appears to be synergy in the utilisation of services with jurisdictions either overutilising or underutilising services. Costs to the Enhanced Primary Care Scheme under the CDSS model (fee for service) were up to 40 times more expensive compared with the AHP model (fee per visit). Costs and treatment associated with the CDSS experienced an increase of 13350% during the period 2007-08, coincident with an increase in subsidization. Reconstructive dentistry accounted for the majority of the increase. Gender disparities in dentistry were less distinct when compared with AHPs and were postulated to be due to males presenting with conditions that were more progressive requiring more invasive treatment. A comparative analysis indicates significant differences in costs, nature of treatment and the manner of remuneration between dentistry and the AHPs. A fee for service schedule as evidenced by the CDSS is dependent on the degree of financial incentive as indicated by patterns in utilisation over time. The amount of treatment considered necessary may be influenced by the level of subsidy with treatment that may not reflect disease management. The AHP model, which is based around a fee for visit schedule, is not without its deficiencies but has not experienced significant rises in cost compared with the CDSS.

  12. Role of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme in Enhanced Primary Care: allied health or allied outlier?

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the Chronic Dental Disease Scheme (CDSS) and the Allied Health Profession (AHP) program as they related to the greater Enhanced Primary Care Scheme introduced by the Australian Government to manage patients with chronic and complex diseases. A retrospective analysis of data pertaining to Medicare items related to dentistry and the allied health professions were extracted from the Medicare Benefits Schedule database online, and formed the basis of this study. The highest proportion of services was provided in the state of New South Wales. There appears to be synergy in the utilisation of services with jurisdictions either overutilising or underutilising services. Costs to the Enhanced Primary Care Scheme under the CDSS model (fee for service) were up to 40 times more expensive compared with the AHP model (fee per visit). Costs and treatment associated with the CDSS experienced an increase of 13350% during the period 2007-08, coincident with an increase in subsidization. Reconstructive dentistry accounted for the majority of the increase. Gender disparities in dentistry were less distinct when compared with AHPs and were postulated to be due to males presenting with conditions that were more progressive requiring more invasive treatment. A comparative analysis indicates significant differences in costs, nature of treatment and the manner of remuneration between dentistry and the AHPs. A fee for service schedule as evidenced by the CDSS is dependent on the degree of financial incentive as indicated by patterns in utilisation over time. The amount of treatment considered necessary may be influenced by the level of subsidy with treatment that may not reflect disease management. The AHP model, which is based around a fee for visit schedule, is not without its deficiencies but has not experienced significant rises in cost compared with the CDSS. PMID:22951045

  13. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms.

  14. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms. PMID:26837707

  15. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms. PMID:26837707

  16. Industry/government collaborations on short-rotation woody crops for energy, fiber and wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Berg, S.

    1996-12-31

    More than twenty-five organizations can be identified in the US and Canada that have research plantings of 20 ha in size or greater of short-rotation woody crops and most of those are well-established forest products companies. In 1990, only 9 forest products companies had commercial or substantial research plantings of short-rotation woody crops. The recent harvest and use of hybrid poplars for pulp and paper production in the Pacific Northwest has clearly stimulated interest in the use of genetically superior hybrid poplar clones across North America. Industry and government supported research cooperatives have been formed to develop sophisticated techniques for producing genetically superior hybrid poplars and willows suited for a variety of locations in the US. While the primary use of commercially planted short-rotation woody crops is for pulp and paper, energy is a co-product in most situations. A document defining a year 2020 technology vision for America`s forest, wood and paper industry affirms that {open_quotes}biomass will be used not only for building materials and paper and paperboard products, but also increasingly for steam, power, and liquid fuel production.{close_quotes} To accomplish the goals of {open_quotes}Agenda 2020{close_quotes} a new collaborative research effort on sustainable forestry has been initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA). Both the new and old collaborative efforts are focusing on achieving substantial and sustainable gains in U.S. wood production for both energy and traditional wood products. AF&PA and DOE hope that industry and government partnerships addressing the competitiveness and energy efficiency of U.S. industries, can serve as a model for future research efforts.

  17. Microparticle based morphology engineering of filamentous microorganisms for industrial bio-production.

    PubMed

    Walisko, Robert; Krull, Rainer; Schrader, Jens; Wittmann, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Filamentous microorganisms are important work horses in industrial biotechnology and supply enzymes, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, bulk and fine chemicals. Here we highlight recent findings on the use of microparticles in the cultivation of filamentous bacteria and fungi, with the aim of enabling a more precise control of their morphology towards better production performance. First examples reveal a broad application range of microparticle based processes, since multiple filamentous organisms are controllable in their growth characteristics and respond by enhanced product formation.

  18. The Industrial Property Rights Education in Collaboration with the Creative Product Design Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokoro, Tetsuro; Habuchi, Hitoe; Chonan, Isao

    Recently, the Advanced Courses of Electronic System Engineering and Architecture and Civil Engineering of Gifu National College of Technology have introduced a creative subject, “Creative Engineering Practice”. In this subject, students study intellectual property rights. More specifically, they learn and practice industrial proprietary rights, procedures for obtaining a patent right, how to use Industrial Property Digital Library and so forth, along with the practice of creative product design. The industrial property rights education in collaboration with the creative product design education has been carried out by the cooperation of Japan Patent Office, Japan Institute of Invention and Innovation and a patent attorney. Through the instruction of the cooperative members, great educative results have been obtained. In this paper, we will describe the contents of the subject together with its items to pursue an upward spiral of progress.

  19. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  20. U.S. Ethanol Industry Production Capacity Outlook: Update of 2001 Survey Results

    SciTech Connect

    MaDonald, Tom; Yowell, Gary; McCormack, Mike

    2002-07-18

    California Energy Commission staff conducted a survey of the U.S. ethanol industry between May and August 2001. This survey was designed to develop a complete and accurate inventory of the country’s existing and planned ethanol production capacity during the period California is looking to increase its use of ethanol as a substitute for the gasoline additive MTBE.

  1. The Texas Production Manual: A Source Book for the Motion Picture and Video Industry. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttruff, Alma J., Ed.

    This manual is a cross-referenced directory to film industry personnel and services available in the State of Texas. The Who's Who section contains an alphabetical listing of companies and individuals in the state engaged in some aspect of motion picture or video production. These listings include brief summaries of each company and individuals'…

  2. A Survey of Educational Needs and Online Training Perceptions in the Wood Products Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada-Pineda, Henry J.; Conn, Samuel S.; Sanchez, L. Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 651 wood products industries were surveyed to determine their educational needs and quantify their interest in receiving continuing education via an online format. In the survey, respondents were asked to rank, in order of priority, their educational needs. With a 15.2% response rate, survey respondents (n=99) indicated that an online…

  3. 75 FR 35493 - Guidance for Industry on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing Medical Products for Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... the Federal Register of March 29, 2005 (70 FR 15868), FDA announced the availability of a draft... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical...

  4. Critique of "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carole Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on Hisham Ghassib's article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" In his article, Ghassib (2010) provides an overview of the philosophical foundations that led to exact science, its role in what was later to become a driving force in the modern…

  5. 75 FR 33311 - Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2007D-0169) Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  6. 75 FR 73109 - Guidance for Industry on Antibacterial Drug Products: Use of Noninferiority Trials to Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Antibacterial Drug Products: Use of Noninferiority Trials to Support Approval; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for...

  7. 75 FR 45641 - Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for...

  8. 76 FR 58018 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for...

  9. Production Technology Curriculum Materials FY 90. Illinois Plan for Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Dennis; And Others

    This packet contains technology-based learning activities for the production technology course at the orientation level (grades 9 and 10) of the Illinois Plan for Industrial Technology Education curriculum project. The packet includes a course rationale, mission, description, and outline. Suggested learning objectives and suggested learning…

  10. 76 FR 36133 - Draft Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Classification of Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... if: ``through either chemical reaction or intermolecular forces or both, the product mediates a... Issues; and Interpretation of the Term ``Chemical Action'' in the Definition of Device Under Section 201...'' and ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Interpretation of the Term 'Chemical Action' in...

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of industrial sweetpotatoes for ethanol production and anthocyanins extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) system was studied for ethanol production in flour industrial sweetpotato (ISP) feedstocks (lines: white DM02-180 and purple NC-413) as an integrated cost saving process, and to examine the feasibility of extracting anthocyanins from flour purple IS...

  12. Comments on Ghassib's "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Ken W.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on Hisham B. Ghassib's "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Ghassib's article focuses on the transformation of science from pre-modern times to the present. Ghassib (2010) notes that, unlike in an earlier era when the economy depended on static…

  13. Review of Hisham Ghassib: Where Does Creativity Fit into the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neber, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his comments on Hisham Ghassib's article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Ghassib (2010) describes historical transformations of science from a marginal and non-autonomous activity which had been constrained by traditions to a self-autonomous,…

  14. Competencies Needed by Full-Time Employees to Enter the Apple Production Industry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, George W.

    A study identified the competencies needed by full-time employees entering the apple production industry. Other objectives of the study included: (1) identification of differences among competency areas needed for employees working for large, medium, and small growers (based on acreage); and (2) identification of differences among competency areas…

  15. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  16. Apparel Design and Production: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The apparel design and production guide is the second of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. Designed to provide youths and adults with intensive preparation for initial entry employment and also with career advancement opportunities within specific categories of jobs,…

  17. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  18. Opportunities for the Advancement of Home Economists in the Home Equipment and Related-Product Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Carol M.; Hunt, Fern E.

    1987-01-01

    Home economists' (n=151) perceptions of and factors associated with advancement in the home equipment and related-product industries were analyzed. Relationships were found between index score and educational level, extent of business training, years of employment, number of professional positions held, years in career, and mentor/sponsor…

  19. A Short Commentary on "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's brief comment on Hisham B. Ghassib's "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Ghassib (2010) takes the reader through an interesting history of human innovation and processes and situates his theory within a productivist model. The deliberate attention to…

  20. Allied health: untapped potential in the Australian health system.

    PubMed

    Philip, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Although comprising around 20 per cent ofAustralia's health care workforce, allied health and its contribution to improving health outcomes remains poorly understood and largely invisible in the Australian health policy and reform environment. There is strong evidence demonstrating the benefits of allied health in improving patient outcomes, minimising risk and harm from illness and improving health system efficiency and capacity to meet increased demand cost effectively. Despite this, the existing health model, funding and culture prevent us from effectively accessing these benefits at a system level. The untapped potential of allied health represents a major underutilised resource to address many of the challenges facing Australia's health system today. A transformational change in the Australian health system in how, where and by whom care is provided is necessary. Australia's health model and culture needs to shift, to genuinely involve the consumer and make fill use of all three pillars of the patient care workforce. PMID:26629583

  1. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K.

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  3. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Susan; Holden, Libby; Golenko, Xanthe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in allied health, a clearer understanding is required of what assists and encourages research as well as the barriers and challenges. Participants and methods This study used written surveys to collect data relating to motivators, enablers, and barriers to research capacity building. Respondents were asked to answer questions relating to them as individuals and other questions relating to their team. Allied health professionals were recruited from multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Queensland Health. Eighty-five participants from ten healthcare teams completed a written version of the research capacity and culture survey. Results The results of this study indicate that individual allied health professionals are more likely to report being motivated to do research by intrinsic factors such as a strong interest in research. Barriers they identified to research are more likely to be extrinsic factors such as workload and lack of time. Allied health professionals identified some additional factors that impact on their research capacity than those reported in the literature, such as a desire to keep at the “cutting edge” and a lack of exposure to research. Some of the factors influencing individuals to do research were different to those influencing teams. These results are discussed with reference to organizational behavior and theories of motivation. Conclusion Supporting already motivated allied health professional individuals and teams to conduct research by increased skills training, infrastructure, and quarantined time is likely to produce better outcomes for research capacity building investment. PMID

  4. Improving health services in developing countries with new types of public and allied health personnel.

    PubMed

    Blayney, K D; Trulove, J W

    1982-10-01

    training and actual needs of the community, 3) requiring degrees before health training was not necessary; and 4) look to more realistic student selection criteria related to the demands of the job rather than of the education program to avoid job turnover. Funding should be found for training a new type of allied health professional that would combine preparation for public and allied health; in addition US schools should extend their medical equipment repair programs to include students from other countries. The production of health personnel appropriately trained to deal with problems and situations specific for developing countries could be a breakthrough in upgrading these countries' health status.

  5. Immune allied genetic algorithm for Bayesian network structure learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qin; Lin, Feng; Sun, Wei; Chang, KC

    2012-06-01

    Bayesian network (BN) structure learning is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we present an improved approach to enhance efficiency of BN structure learning. To avoid premature convergence in traditional single-group genetic algorithm (GA), we propose an immune allied genetic algorithm (IAGA) in which the multiple-population and allied strategy are introduced. Moreover, in the algorithm, we apply prior knowledge by injecting immune operator to individuals which can effectively prevent degeneration. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we present some experimental results.

  6. Implementation of acrylamide mitigation strategies on industrial production of French fries: challenges and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Van Poucke, Christof; Kerkaert, Barbara; de Muer, Nathalie; Denon, Quenten; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated various additives or process aids on the industrial production of French fries, based on their acrylamide mitigation potential and other quality parameters. The application of acetic and citric acid, calcium lactate and asparaginase was investigated on the production of frozen par-fried French fries at the beginning and end of the 2008 and 2009 potato storage season. Despite the fact that some of these treatments significantly reduced acrylamide content of the final product in preliminary laboratory experiments, their application on the industrial production of French fries did not result in additional acrylamide reductions compared to the standard product. Asparaginase was additionally tested in a production line of chilled French fries (not par-fried). Since for this product a longer enzyme-substrate contact time is allowed, a total asparagine depletion was observed for the enzyme treated fries after four days of cold storage. French fries upon final frying presented acrylamide contents below the limit of detection (12.5 μg kg⁻¹) with no effects on the sensorial properties of the final product.

  7. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  8. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  9. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  10. Bacterial L-arabinose isomerases: industrial application for D-tagatose production.

    PubMed

    Boudebbouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2011-12-01

    D-tagatose is a natural monosaccharide with a low caloric value and has an anti-hyperglycemiant effect. This hexose has potential applications both in pharmaceutical and agro-food industries. However, the use of D-tagatose remains limited by its production cost. Many production procedures including chemical and biological processes were developed and patented. The most profitable production way is based on the use of L-arabinose isomerase which allows the manufacture of D-tagatose with an attractive rate. Future developments are focused on the generation of L-arabinose isomerases having biochemical properties satisfying the industrial applications. This report provides a brief review of the most recent patents that have been published relating to this area.

  11. The forest products industry in southeast Asia: An emphasis on Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, E.T. . School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries); Atmawidjaja, R. . Faculty of Forestry); Achmadi, S.S. . Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science)

    1993-05-01

    Wood production has increased rapidly in Southeast Asia in recent years. Harvesting intensity has also increased dramatically. To such an extent that the destruction of the tropical rainforest is of great concern to many people. This paper discusses the forest resources of three major wood-producing countries of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and the utilization of these resources in world markets. Because Indonesia is now the largest timber producer in the region, special emphasis is placed on the development of its forest products industry. Concern for the tropical forest and the effect of sustainable forestry development on the growth of the forest products industry, the economy, and the social environment are discussed.

  12. Regulating workflow speed through product architecture: experiences from the Swedish magazine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenqvist, Christopher; Lindgren, Mats

    1998-12-01

    Coordination of content providers, producers and distributors has become increasingly important in the magazine industry when working with short life-cycle products. It is therefore interesting to study the product development and manufacturing process of magazines because of its short lead times. Production difficulties in the workflow process are often consequences of the product architecture. The aim of this research was to establish a concept for magazine architecture which could lead to substantial lead time reduction and improved product quality. In this research we studied magazine productions from Sweden's major magazine producer on both the customer site and from the manufacturing site. Monthly magazines, which had long time records about workload and production workflow were selected. The analysis was based on production data from the graphic arts service providers and from the editorial staff combined with open-ended interviews. The analysis shows that a re-arranged product architecture can increase both productivity and quality. It is clear that the product architecture of magazines regulates the workflow speed. The possibility of changing the product architecture might be difficult due to old traditions and different cultures within the editorial and manufacturing units. A solution to these problems should be sought through common efforts of both sides.

  13. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  14. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  15. Study on Properties of Environment-friendly Concrete Containing Large Amount of Industrial by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, H.; Maruoka, M.; Sadayama, C.; Nemoto, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamaji, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to reduce CO2 discharged from the cement and concrete industries by effective use of industrial by-products, such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and so on. In this paper, the properties of concrete containing large amount of industrial by-products and very small amount of alkaline activator including cement or sludge from ready mixed concrete plant are analyzed. As the result, it was confirmed that concretes containing large amount of industrial by-products can achieve sufficient compressive strength. However, these concretes showed poor frost resistance. It was thought that the reason was coarsening of air void system and this caused their poor frost resistance. Therefore, in order to micronize the air void system and improve frost resistance, the combination of air entraining agent and antifoaming agent was applied. By this method, it was confirmed that the frost resistance of some these concrete improved. In this study, other properties of these concretes, such as fresh properties and other durability were evaluated and it was confirmed that these concretes show sufficient properties.

  16. Enhanced production of β-carotene by recombinant industrial wine yeast using grape juice as substrate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guo-liang; Liang, Heng-yu; Duan, Chang-qing; Han, Bei-zhong

    2012-02-01

    In this study, both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73-63 and FY-09 derived from the industrial wine yeast T73-4 and laboratory yeast FY1679-01B, respectively, were constructed and compared for their β-carotene production in real grape juice. The results showed that highest β-carotene content (5.89 mg/g) was found in strain T73-63, which was 2.1 fold higher than that of strain FY-09. Although the cell growth was inhibited by the metabolic burden induced by the production of heterogeneous β-carotene, the pigment yield in T73-63 was still 1.7 fold higher than that of FY-09. Furthermore, high contents of ergosterol and fatty acid were also observed in T73-63. These results suggest that industrial wine yeast has highly active metabolic flux in mevalonate pathway, which leads to more carbon flux into carotenoid branch compared to that of laboratory yeast. The results of this study collectively suggest that in the application of recombinant strains to produce carotenoid using agro-industrial by-products as substrate, the suitable host strains should have active mevalonate pathway. For this purpose, the industrial wine yeast is a suitable candidate. PMID:22080204

  17. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal... guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... availability of a draft guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal ] Drug...

  18. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    PubMed

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals. PMID:18980741

  19. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    PubMed

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals.

  20. 22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. Drawing no. 50153, traced from Allis Chalmers drawing #699, April 24, 1906. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  1. Trends in Allied Dental Education: An Analysis of the Past and a Look to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, N. Karl; Morr, Kathleen E.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents and discusses data on the allied dental workforce and allied dental education, including number of education programs; applications, first-year enrollment, and capacity; number of graduates; gender, race, and ethnicity; cost of education; and faculty. (EV)

  2. Oral health promotion by the oral health products industry: unrecognised and unappreciated?

    PubMed

    Barnett, M L

    2008-03-01

    There is often ambivalence in the way dentists view the oral health care industry. On the one hand, there are the skeptics who view corporate activities as suspect, calling into question the validity of industry-sponsored research and considering all promotional activities as self-serving. On the other hand, there are those who will evaluate research, whether industry sponsored or not, on its merits and appreciate corporate philanthropy that aims to give something back to the profession, although at times the expectations of the amount of financial support available are markedly in excess of the actual amount based on dental product sales. (Yes--and don't let your young children see this!--the tooth fairy who goes around dispensing endless number of dollars or pounds or euros does not actually exist!) Recognizing that, of necessity, corporations exist to make a profit, I would submit that the relationship of responsible companies to the profession can often be looked at as a partnership in which both sides benefit. Ultimately, all have as a goal the improvement of the oral health of our patients (or consumers) which is facilitated by the availability of effective products. In addition to marketing products, the oral care industry plays a large, though oftentimes unnoticed, role in oral health promotion. For the most part, this involves targeted financial support or contributions of products that serve to enhance patients' understanding of oral diseases and the need for good oral care, and/or provide access to care for underserved groups. In the following sections, I will give some examples of industry-supported health promotion activities, most of which will be activities in the United States with which I am most familiar. These are examples only--the list is not intended to be exhaustive and a company's name will be included in only the few instances in which it is an integral part of the programme title. PMID:18435227

  3. Relationship between Lighting and Noise Levels and Productivity of the Occupants in Automotive Assembly Industry

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Jafar; Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva

    2013-01-01

    Work environment affects human productivity and his performance. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of lighting and noise levels on human productivity in the automotive assembly industry. Method. Subjects were 181 workers from different parts of an automobile assembly industry. Illuminance (Lx) at the height of 30 inches from the surface of work station and noise (dBA) were locally measured. Also human productivity by the Goldsmith and Hersey scale (1980) was measured. Data were analyzed by using SPSS v20 Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. The results showed that the relationship between noise level and human productivity is negative and significant (P < 0.05, r = −0.178), but there was no significant relationship between lighting and human productivity (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results, in assembly tasks, noise has a negative impact on human productivity, and lighting does not affect this. So, in order to increase employee productivity, noise control and reduction to less than the standard values (less than 85 dB) is necessary. PMID:24250340

  4. Effect of pre-treatments on hydrolysis and methane production potentials of by-products from meat-processing industry.

    PubMed

    Luste, Sami; Luostarinen, Sari; Sillanpää, Mika

    2009-05-15

    In this study, the effect of five pre-treatments (thermal, ultrasound, acid, base and bacterial product) on hydrolysis and methane production potentials of four by-products from meat-processing industry was studied. The bacterial product Liquid Certizyme 5 increased soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol) of digestive tract content and drumsieve waste the most as compared to untreated material (62 and 96%, respectively), while ultrasound was the most effective to increase CODsol with dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge (88%) and grease trap sludge (188%). In batch experiments, thermal treatment increased methane production potential of drumsieve waste, acid of grease trap sludge and all pre-treatments of DAF sludge. However, with all other pre-treatments, methane production potential was decreased compared to untreated materials, apparently due to inhibition by hydrolysis products and/or possible re-crystallization of some compounds. Methane production potentials from the untreated materials were as follows: digestive tract content 400+/-50m(3)CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added), drumsieve waste 230+/-20m(3)CH(4)/tVS(added), DAF sludge 340+/-17m(3)CH(4)/tVS(added) and grease trap sludge 900+/-44m(3)CH(4)/tVS(added).

  5. [Effects of Eliminating Backward Production Capacities on Reduction of Dioxin Emissions in Key Industries].

    PubMed

    Geng, Jing; Lu, Yong-long; Ren, Bing-nan; Wang, Tie-yu

    2016-03-15

    Phase-out of backward production facilities can significantly reduce the emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from the industrial thermal process. An estimation of reduced dioxin emissions due to closure of backward production capacities is valuable to objectively evaluate China's efforts in and contribution to performing the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Our group previously evaluated environmental effects of the phase-out of backward production facilities on dioxin emissions from 2006 to 2009. Based on the above study, due to the phase-out of backward production capacities from 2010 to 2013, the reductions in dioxin emissions to air from power generation sector, coke sector, and iron & steel (including ferroalloy) sector were estimated to be 86.13, 133.94 and 78.78 g · a⁻¹, respectively. Because the emission factors used in this paper are a little bit conservative, the actual reduced emissions may be greater than the estimated values. Besides the industrial sectors mentioned above, reduced dioxin emissions can also be estimated in more industrial sectors such as cement, calcium carbide, metal smelting and papermaking sectors. The paper also provided methods for the future comprehensive evaluation of dioxin reduction.

  6. Industrial wastewater as raw material for exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed; Oszako, Tomasz; Miled, Nabil; Ben Rebah, Faouzi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Rhizobium leguminosarum cultivated in wastewater generated by oil companies (WWOC1 and WWOC2) and fish processing industry (WWFP). The results obtained in Erlenmeyer flasks indicated that the rhizobial strain grew well in industrial wastewater. Generally, wastewater composition affected the growth and the EPS production. WWFP allowed good bacterial growth similar to that obtained with the standard medium (YMB). During growth, various quantities of EPS were produced and yields varied depending on the media. Growing in YMB, EPS production did not exceed 9.7 g/L obtained after 72 h of growth. In wastewater, the maximum EPS value reached 11.1 g/L obtained with the fish processing wastewater, after 72 h of growth. The use of a mixture of the oil company wastewater (WWOC2) and the fish processing wastewater (WWFP) as culture medium affected not only the rhizobial strain growth, but also EPS production. The highest EPS (42.4 g/L, after 96 h of culture) was obtained using a ratio of WWFP and WWOC2 of 50:50 (v:v). Therefore, this work shows the ability of Rhizobium leguminosarum, growing in industrial wastewater as new economic medium, to produce EPS. This biopolymer could be applied in enormous biotechnological areas.

  7. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers. PMID:23844787

  8. Ashbya gossypii beyond industrial riboflavin production: A historical perspective and emerging biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Silva, Rui; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii has been safely and successfully used for more than two decades in the commercial production of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Its industrial relevance combined with its high genetic similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae together promoted the accumulation of fundamental knowledge that has been efficiently converted into a significant molecular and in silico toolbox for its genetic engineering. This synergy has enabled a directed and sustained exploitation of A. gossypii as an industrial riboflavin producer. Although there is still room for optimizing riboflavin production, the recent years have seen an abundant advance in the exploration of A. gossypii for other biotechnological applications, such as the production of recombinant proteins, single cell oil and flavour compounds. Here, we will address the biotechnological potential of A. gossypii beyond riboflavin production by presenting (a) a physiological and metabolic perspective over this fungus; (b) the molecular toolbox available for its manipulation; and (c) commercial and emerging biotechnological applications for this industrially important fungus, together with the approaches adopted for its engineering. PMID:26456510

  9. [Effects of Eliminating Backward Production Capacities on Reduction of Dioxin Emissions in Key Industries].

    PubMed

    Geng, Jing; Lu, Yong-long; Ren, Bing-nan; Wang, Tie-yu

    2016-03-15

    Phase-out of backward production facilities can significantly reduce the emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from the industrial thermal process. An estimation of reduced dioxin emissions due to closure of backward production capacities is valuable to objectively evaluate China's efforts in and contribution to performing the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Our group previously evaluated environmental effects of the phase-out of backward production facilities on dioxin emissions from 2006 to 2009. Based on the above study, due to the phase-out of backward production capacities from 2010 to 2013, the reductions in dioxin emissions to air from power generation sector, coke sector, and iron & steel (including ferroalloy) sector were estimated to be 86.13, 133.94 and 78.78 g · a⁻¹, respectively. Because the emission factors used in this paper are a little bit conservative, the actual reduced emissions may be greater than the estimated values. Besides the industrial sectors mentioned above, reduced dioxin emissions can also be estimated in more industrial sectors such as cement, calcium carbide, metal smelting and papermaking sectors. The paper also provided methods for the future comprehensive evaluation of dioxin reduction. PMID:27337915

  10. Whey valorisation: a complete and novel technology development for dairy industry starter culture production.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Papapostolou, Harris; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bosnea, Loulouda A

    2009-08-01

    Whey is the major by-product of the dairy industry, produced in large quantities and usually disposed off causing major environmental pollution, due to its high organic load that makes treatment cost prohibitive. This paper comprises a contribution on the valorisation of this high polluting liquid waste of the dairy industry, based on research for the production of novel dairy starter cultures using whey as raw material. Starter cultures are used for cheese ripening in order to: (i) accelerate ripening, (ii) improve quality and (iii) increase shelf-life. The developed technology involves biomass production from whey followed by thermal drying of cultures. Specifically, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and kefir yeasts were thermally dried, and their efficiency in lactose and milk whey fermentations was studied. The most suitable culture regarding its technological properties was kefir, which was used for cheese ripening in freeze-dried and thermally dried form. Besides the reduction of production cost, which is an essential requirement for the food industry, the use of thermally dried kefir displayed several other advantages such as acceleration of ripening, increase of shelf-life, and improvement of hard-type cheese quality.

  11. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  12. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  13. Elementary and Secondary Students Perceptions of Allied Health Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Paul J.; And Others

    This study was designed to examine the preceptions of allied health careers by elementary and secondary school students. A 6-part, 45-question survey was designed and administered to randomly selected classes of third, sixth, ninth, and twelfth grade students in the Shawnee Mission (Kansas) school district. Three hundred and five surveys were…

  14. Joining the Struggle: White Men as Social Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Christopher Edward; Mather, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experience of White men as they sought to support individuals from oppressed groups and participate in a community with other allies like themselves. This research was conducted from a social constructivist epistemological paradigm and informed by a constructivist grounded theory methodology. The following research…

  15. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 2 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 21-36) on nursing skills based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (21) urine elimination; (22) bowel elimination; (23)…

  16. National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviewed are the history and organization, purpose and programs, and public services of the National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, an organization geared toward eradicating Tay-Sachs disease (a hereditary disorder affecting primarily Jewish infants which generally leads to deterioration and death by the child's fifth year). (SBH)

  17. The National Tay Sachs and Allied Diseases Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Paula

    1986-01-01

    The National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association is involved in education, research, and prevention of Tay-Sachs, an inherited metabolic disorder which destroys the central nervous system, and over 30 related disorders. The group features a parent peer group network and a support group for carrier couples. (CL)

  18. Allied Health Technologies Multiskilled Patient Care Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersema, Mary; Stacy, Carole Ann

    This curriculum guide explains the national health care skills standards and lists skill standards for health care technicians, especially in Michigan. The 10 sections of the guide cover the following: (1) introduction to the national health care skills strands; (2) allied health technologies multiskilled curriculum framework and program design…

  19. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  20. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) (22 U.S.C... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND...

  1. Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gloria

    A partnership was formed to address the crisis that rural health care facilities in rural Nebraska face in attracting and hiring trained health care workers. The Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO) project trained economically disadvantaged individuals in high technology medical fields. Five objectives were outlined in the project:…

  2. Allied Health Occupations II (Health Careers--Core Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with background informational material and practical skills used in various health fields. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: safety; ethical and legal…

  3. Selected list of books and journals in allied health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1988-01-01

    This list of 435 books and 76 journals is intended as a selection guide to be used in a library supporting allied health educational programs and/or health personnel in either an academic or health care setting. Because of the impossibility pf covering the large number and wide variety of allied health professions and occupations, the recommended publications are focused primarily on the twenty-six educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation of the American Medical Association, plus physical therapy, dental allied health, nutrition, and medical secretarial programs. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase (176 books and 29 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and journals (1988 subscriptions) would require an expenditure of about $19,000. The cost of only the asterisked items totals $7,900. PMID:3066428

  4. Index of Graduate Theses and Projects in Allied Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Allied Health, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Contains 1,073 entries from 91 institutions, giving author, institution, year, degree, emphasis, discipline, and title, arranged by topic: allied health, biocommunication arts, child development/care, clinical psychology, dentistry, environmental health, exercise science, food service, health education, health services, medical laboratories, nurse…

  5. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS..., Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines,...

  6. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 1-20) based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (1) the health worker and the law; (2) introduction to ethics in the healing…

  7. The Allied Health Professions: Opportunities for Minority Students. Career Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Maria

    The term "allied health" refers to a cluster of health professions encompassing as many as 200 occupational titles (exclusive of physicians and nurses) involved with the delivery of health or related services pertaining to the identification, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of diseases and disorders; dietary and nutritional services; and…

  8. Health Planning that Magnifies the Community's Voice: Allies against Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfoss, Frances D.; Kelly, Cynthia; Taylor-Fishwick, Jude

    2005-01-01

    Allies Against Asthma, a working group of the Consortium for Infant and Child Health (CINCH), conducted a comprehensive asthma needs assessment in Hampton Roads, Virginia, in 2001. Results from extant data and parent surveys indicated that asthma prevalence was high (15% to 18%), 45% to 50% of children received primary care for asthma in the…

  9. Undocumented Student Allies and Transformative Resistance: A Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Angela Chuan-Ru; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines staff and faculty allies working to help meet the needs of undocumented students at a large research university in the western region of the U.S. Drawing on scholarly work rooted in critical race theory and ethnic studies, the authors highlight forms of transformative resistance. They focus on four key findings: (1) student…

  10. Influencers of Career Choice among Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-West, Anne P.

    1991-01-01

    Major influences on career choice among 153 allied health students were need to help others, prestige, autonomy, and advancement and income potential. Risk of malpractice suits and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome were negative influences for medical laboratory majors, but not for dietetics and physical therapy majors. (SK)

  11. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  13. Characteristics of comprehensive Chemical Industry Database CD-NET : Centered around chemical product information file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Hideo

    This paper describes Chemical Product Information File of Chemical Industry Database, CD-NET provided by Chemical Data Service Inc.. It defines "information" first, then explains file organization and presents how Chemical product Information File is located in CD-NET. Mentioning its complementary relation with JICST's JOIS-F the author defines the File as chemical product information for business purpose. All of the information items in the File emphasize that it is exactly a type of business and practical database. To distinguish general items from important items by product, all of the information is categorized into II classes by general chemical product and by area. The scope and emphasized items under each class are described in detail.

  14. Allied Health Education/Transfer of Credit: Recommendations of the North Carolina Articulation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Ralph H., Ed.; Huther, John W., Ed.

    The North Carolina Allied Health Articulation Project was launched to develop procedures which would enable an individual to transfer credit from an allied health education program in one setting to some program in higher education. In 1972-73, study committees were appointed to deal with the allied health professions of physical therapy,…

  15. 42 CFR 136.304 - Publication of a list of allied health professions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of a list of allied health professions... of a list of allied health professions. The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall publish from time to time in the Federal Register a list of the allied health professions for consideration for...

  16. Development of a Scale to Determine Enrollment Barriers into Allied Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, J. P.; Folio, M. Rhonda; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Zhang, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Scale of Allied Health Education Barriers to identify factors limiting enrollment in college/university allied health education programs. Development of the Scale of Allied Health Education Barriers was conducted through the following four stages: (1) review of literature, (2) focus group studies, (3)…

  17. 42 CFR 136.304 - Publication of a list of allied health professions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication of a list of allied health professions... of a list of allied health professions. The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall publish from time to time in the Federal Register a list of the allied health professions for consideration for...

  18. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  19. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  20. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  1. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  2. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  3. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  4. 42 CFR 413.87 - Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied health education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.87 Payments for Medicare+Choice nursing and allied... reimbursement for approved nursing and allied health education programs and the methodology for determining...

  5. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  6. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  7. 42 CFR 413.85 - Cost of approved nursing and allied health education activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost of approved nursing and allied health... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.85 Cost of approved nursing and allied health... methodology for Medicare payment of the costs of approved nursing and allied health education activities....

  8. A Seat at the Table that I Set: Beyond Social Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Toby

    2009-01-01

    An ally, as defined by dictionary.com, is "a person, group, or nation that is associated with others for some common cause or purpose." Therefore, allies are people whose orientation is "outside" of the oppressed group. An ally is often a person who recognizes her privileges and works in alliance with members of oppressed groups to stand against…

  9. On the Process and Consequences of Job Rationing in Oregon's Declining Wood Products Industry. WRDC Discussion Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joe B.; And Others

    The study of the mobility of the wood products labor force was made in response to a predicted decline in manpower needs for the wood products industry in western Oregon and western Washington. Variables affecting workers' employability and mobility were analyzed to determine the potential in Oregon for mobility within and out of the industry, the…

  10. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  11. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation—100 years later

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The availability of new methods and knowledge opens many new doors for industrial microbiology, and a comprehensive view on this process is worthwhile due to the new interest. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the first industrial exploitation of Chaim Weizmann's ABE fermentation process, covers the main aspects of old and new developments, thereby outlining a model development in biotechnology. All major aspects of industrial microbiology are exemplified by this single process. This includes new technologies, such as the latest developments in metabolic engineering, the exploitation of biodiversity and discoveries of new regulatory systems such as for microbial stress tolerance, as well as technological aspects, such as bio- and down-stream processing. PMID:27199350

  12. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation-100 years later.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The availability of new methods and knowledge opens many new doors for industrial microbiology, and a comprehensive view on this process is worthwhile due to the new interest. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the first industrial exploitation of Chaim Weizmann's ABE fermentation process, covers the main aspects of old and new developments, thereby outlining a model development in biotechnology. All major aspects of industrial microbiology are exemplified by this single process. This includes new technologies, such as the latest developments in metabolic engineering, the exploitation of biodiversity and discoveries of new regulatory systems such as for microbial stress tolerance, as well as technological aspects, such as bio- and down-stream processing. PMID:27199350

  13. Introducing Astronomy Allies: We are here to help!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting will be the first meeting that has Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies will provide a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  14. Intensifying of the processes of mechanical separation of oil products from industrial waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kostova, I.

    1995-11-01

    The raised requirements for discharge of industrial effluents in the Black Sea and in the rivers lead to the development of more efficient technologies for additional treatment and improving the existing facilities. Pollutants with concentrations which are several times higher than the admissible rates according to the Bulgarian Standards, are found at many places along the Black Sea Coast. This is due to the imperfect construction of the water treatment facilities and their improper maintenance. Oil products are one of the main pollutants in water basins. The negative influence which they have on the ecological balance comes from the fact that they are among the most difficulty and slowly dissociating organic substances. They have negative impact on the physical and chemical qualities of water and obstruct the self-purification process disrupting its biological life. In this paper the opportunity to intensify the processes of mechanical separation of oil products from industrial waste water is discussed.

  15. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  16. Solid by-products of coal combustion: Fly ash as a source of industrial minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Rapp, D.M.; Bukowski, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash is one of the most important by-products of coal combustion. It is a complex mix of cenospheres, reactive glasses, magnetite and carbon, in addition to minor quantities of other minerals. Fly ash components are determined by the type of coal, the combustion technology, material collection system and the temperature of combustion. The changing mix of coal burned in power plants is increasingly making the fly ash characteristics independent of the locally mined coal. Fly ash is thus becoming a raw material independent of the existence of a local coal mining industry. Currently, about 65 million tons of fly ash are generated annually in the United States. This is equivalent to the crushed stone production of such highly industrialized states as Illinois. Only about twenty percent of the total fly ash are currently used, mostly in low value applications such as road building materials and concrete additions. The fly ash currently represents an environmental and financial liability to electric utilities. The increasingly competitive and boundaryless electricity market in the US increases the incentive to look at fly ash in terms of its individual components and recognize their potential as industrial minerals in the production of value added materials. For example, zeolites and other adsorbents could be produced from reactive glasses, magnetite could be used in pigments and ferrite manufacture, activated carbon could serve in pollution control and cenospheres could be used to make lightweight ceramics. If one begins to look at fly ash as a source of industrial minerals and not as a waste product, this change in perspective could turn a financial and environmental liability into an economic opportunity.

  17. Collaborative Research in Allied Health. Proceedings of Collaborative Research in Allied Health Symposium (Columbus, Ohio, September 20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, M. Rosita, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers are included: "Consortia and Collaborative Research: Getting Started" (Hansen); "Coordination of the Health Care System in the State of Michigan" (Burian, Boyden, Herbert); "Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Allied Health" (Doiron, Douglas); "Interprofessional Collaboration in the Analysis of Public Policy" (Dunn);…

  18. Productivity measurement in the presence of externalities: An example from the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Kelly Ann

    Traditional productivity measures have ensured that environmental regulations were seen as deterrents to productivity growth. Such measures are constructed in a manner which make this conclusion inevitable. Traditional productivity measures include the regulation-induced additions to inputs, whether qualitatively or quantitatively, while continuing to ignore the value of the pollution emitted. The measure proposed in this thesis is derived formally from a model of social welfare. With the exception of 'prices' for emitted pollutants, for which marginal damage estimates will proxy, the proposed measure relies upon market prices, which are then incorporated into a conventional Divisia framework. Data from the electricity generation industry are used to construct both the conventional and newly proposed TFP growth rates. The industry provides an ideal framework within which this growth measure can be tested. It is a large industry that affects a majority of society as it is both consumed as a final good and pervasively used as an intermediate good. The industry is also a large polluter. On an annual basis it has been responsible for approximately one-third of the emissions of carbon-dioxide, one-third of the emissions of nitrous oxides, and two-thirds of the sulfur dioxides emissions, nationally. Furthermore, performance of the proposed measure across various samples was allowed by the diversity of utilities in the industry both with respect to location and fuel mix. Incorporating the value of externalities results in a productivity growth measure which is substantially improved. The difference in calculated productivity gains between the two measures is shown to be sizable under a number of circumstances. As well, the empirical analysis offers some general lessons as to the treatment of various pollutants--it is clearly demonstrated that movement in one pollutant cannot be used to proxy movements in others, or be used as an indicator as to the bias of traditional TFP

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic

  20. Engineering of the glycerol decomposition pathway and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast improves ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Tang, Yan; Guo, Zhongpeng; Shi, Guiyang

    2013-10-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of industrial ethanol production and its formation consumes up to 4 % of the sugar substrate. This study modified the glycerol decomposition pathway of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to optimize the consumption of substrate and yield of ethanol. This study is the first to couple glycerol degradation with ethanol formation, to the best of our knowledge. The recombinant strain overexpressing GCY1 and DAK1, encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, respectively, in glycerol degradation pathway, exhibited a moderate increase in ethanol yield (2.9 %) and decrease in glycerol yield (24.9 %) compared to the wild type with the initial glucose concentration of 15 % under anaerobic conditions. However, when the mhpF gene, encoding acetylating NAD⁺-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, was co-expressed in the aforementioned recombinant strain, a further increase in ethanol yield by 5.5 % and decrease in glycerol yield by 48 % were observed for the resultant recombinant strain GDMS1 when acetic acid was added into the medium prior to inoculation compared to the wild type. The process outlined in this study which enhances glycerol consumption and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast is a promising metabolic engineering strategy to increase ethanol production by reducing the formation of glycerol.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  2. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed.

  3. A Total Factor Productivity Based Structure for Tactical Cluster Assessment: Empirical Investigation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Fleming, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and assess the efficiency of the United States (U.S.) airline industry through the total factor productivity (TFP) method. While airlines use various resources to produce a heterogeneous group of outputs, this article focuses on certain fundamental outputs as final products of selected airlines. The results from this analysis indicate that the national airlines (US. domestic carriers) have higher TFP as compared to the major airlines. While major airlines have drastically cut costs in the past few years, they also need to improve efficiency or risk going out of business. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency and productivity of a selection of U.S. airlines for the years 1996 through 2001. These years have been chosen as a good example of years in which the industry experienced normal growth and generally positively returns. Subsequent to 2001 the industry experienced two severe external shocks, namely, the September 11, 2001. terrorist attacks and the Iraq war. These anomalous shocks make the years after 2001 inconsistent with respect to the type of index developed in this article.

  4. Effect of Metals, Metalloids and Metallic Nanoparticles on Microalgae Growth and Industrial Product Biosynthesis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Krystian; Iwanek, Waldemar; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2015-10-09

    Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various metals can be one of methods applied to induce cell stress and synthesis of target products in microalgae cultures. In this review, the potential of producing diverse biocompounds (pigments, lipids, exopolymers, peptides, phytohormones, arsenoorganics, nanoparticles) from microalgae cultures upon exposure to various metals, is evaluated. Additionally, different methods to alter microalgae response towards metals and metal stress are described. Finally, possibilities to sustain high growth rates and productivity of microalgal cultures in the presence of metals are discussed.

  5. Manual and computer-aided materials selection for industrial production: An exercise in decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Seth P.

    1990-01-01

    Students are introduced to methods and concepts for systematic selection and evaluation of materials which are to be used to manufacture specific products in industry. For this laboratory exercise, students are asked to work in groups to identify and describe a product, then to proceed through the process to select a list of three candidates to make the item from. The exercise draws on knowledge of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, common materials test techniques, and resource management skills in finding and assessing property data. A very important part of the exercise is the students' introduction to decision making algorithms, and learning how to apply them to a complex decision making process.

  6. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  7. Effect of Metals, Metalloids and Metallic Nanoparticles on Microalgae Growth and Industrial Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miazek, Krystian; Iwanek, Waldemar; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various metals can be one of methods applied to induce cell stress and synthesis of target products in microalgae cultures. In this review, the potential of producing diverse biocompounds (pigments, lipids, exopolymers, peptides, phytohormones, arsenoorganics, nanoparticles) from microalgae cultures upon exposure to various metals, is evaluated. Additionally, different methods to alter microalgae response towards metals and metal stress are described. Finally, possibilities to sustain high growth rates and productivity of microalgal cultures in the presence of metals are discussed. PMID:26473834

  8. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas

  9. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the u.s. Forest products industry value chain.

    PubMed

    Heath, Linda S; Maltby, Van; Miner, Reid; Skog, Kenneth E; Smith, James E; Unwin, Jay; Upton, Brad

    2010-05-15

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO(2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO(2)-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions.

  10. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  11. Product pricing in the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry - An executive summary of SAMICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Capabilities, methodology, and a description of input data to the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) are presented. SAMICS were developed to provide a standardized procedure and data base for comparing manufacturing processes of Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) subcontractors, guide the setting of research priorities, and assess the progress of LSA toward its hundred-fold cost reduction goal. SAMICS can be used to estimate the manufacturing costs and product prices and determine the impact of inflation, taxes, and interest rates, but it is limited by its ignoring the effects of the market supply and demand and an assumption that all factories operate in a production line mode. The SAMICS methodology defines the industry structure, hypothetical supplier companies, and manufacturing processes and maintains a body of standardized data which is used to compute the final product price. The input data includes the product description, the process characteristics, the equipment cost factors, and production data for the preparation of detailed cost estimates. Activities validating that SAMICS produced realistic price estimates and cost breakdowns are described.

  12. Study on the Key Factor Parameters to Increase Productivity in Construction and Manufacturing Industries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazyed, K.; Alaswad, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Proper management of human and non-human resources in construction and manufacturing projects can give-in considerable savings in time and cost. Construction and Manufacturing industry faces issues in connection with problems related with productivity and the problems are usually connected with performance of employees. The performance of employees is affected by many factors. In this paper a survey was made on respondents who are employed various projects of Saudi Arabia. The researcher developed a theoretical framework from the existing research which was used as a Model to collect and analyze the field data to test the hypothesis. In this research activity three predictors (commitment, job satisfaction and job performance) for determining the change in productivity. The results highlight that commitment and job performance (respectively) are the two predictors which are explaining 37% of variation in the productivity of the companies. The results also show that Job Satisfaction has no role in the prediction of productivity.

  13. Optimisation of Environmental Conditions for Enhanced Production of Fungal Exopectinase Using Agro-industrial Wastes.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sabika; Prasuna, R Gyana; Theja, B; Chakradhar, Y M S

    2014-07-01

    Management of household solid waste and agro industrial residues generated from various sources is a serious problem due to huge ever increasing population and pollution. Application of these worthless agro waste materials to generate a commercially valuable product, pectinase enzyme, using locally isolated fungal strain, Aspergillus flavipes, was the main motive of this study. Physiological characterisation and enzyme profile determination were done along with formulation of production media. Fruit skins, rags were used as C source and oil cakes were used for N source. Various combinations of these C and N sources were applied for revised production of pectinase enzyme compared to YEP basal media (29 U/ml). A huge increase in pectinase production of 40 U/ml was obtained with Citrus peel - Sesame oil cake (CS) media. The enzyme had its maximum activity at 500C, 4.5 pH. This was achieved at 45 min in 1.5% substrate concentration. PMID:26563086

  14. Archaeal Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Co- and Terpolyesters from Biodiesel Industry-Derived By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Krauss, Carmen; Koller, Martin; Stelzer, Franz; Braunegg, Gerhart

    2013-01-01

    The archaeon Haloferax mediterranei was selected for production of PHA co- and terpolyesters using inexpensive crude glycerol phase (CGP) from biodiesel production as carbon source. CGP was assessed by comparison with the application of pure glycerol. Applying pure glycerol, a copolyester with a molar fraction of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) of 0.90 mol/mol and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) of 0.10 mol/mol, was produced at a volumetric productivity of 0.12 g/Lh and an intracellular PHA content of 75.4 wt.-% in the sum of biomass protein plus PHA. Application of CGP resulted in the same polyester composition and volumetric productivity, indicating the feasibility of applying CGP as feedstock. Analysis of molar mass distribution revealed a weight average molar mass Mw of 150 kDa and polydispersity Pi of 2.1 for pure glycerol and 253 kDa and 2.7 for CGP, respectively; melting temperatures ranged between 130 and 140°C in both setups. Supplying γ-butyrolactone as 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) precursor resulted in a poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate] (PHBHV4HB) terpolyester containing 3HV (0.12 mol/mol) and 4HB (0.05 mol/mol) in the poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) matrix; in addition, this process runs without sterilization of the bioreactor. The terpolyester displayed reduced melting (melting endotherms at 122 and 137°C) and glass transition temperature (2.5°C), increased molar mass (391 kDa), and a polydispersity similar to the copolyesters. PMID:24453697

  15. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  16. Impact of exporting dependence on livestock production systems, industry structure, and research.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K L; Kirton, A H

    1997-02-01

    From 84 to 93% of New Zealand's annual production from livestock is exported to over 100 markets throughout the world. This export dependence has produced production systems that are low-cost because the Mediterranean maritime climate allows animals to graze outdoors throughout the year without provision for housing and with minimal requirements for cropping, harvesting, and forage storage. These systems exploit the inherent tendencies for ruminants to have annual production cycles that can be synchronized to use the seasonal availability of pasture, but this means that processing facilities must handle peak supply for brief periods. Processing technology can reduce the impact of peaks in supply that may not match market demand. The disadvantages of seasonality in processing costs are outweighed by lower production costs, as well as by the opportunity to manage large numbers of animals per labor unit. Cooperative structures that are owned by livestock producers are a common feature, especially in New Zealand's dairy industry. This continued preference for cooperatives may reflect the need to have a guaranteed processor for a perishable product such as milk, as well as sharing the risk in an export industry that has scant control over prices received. In addition, management systems for ruminant livestock can only respond slowly to changes in market demand because their production cycles last at least 12 mo and only one or two offspring are produced in each cycle. Export marketing of livestock products is complicated by trade barriers and by dumping of subsidized surpluses. Negotiations to eliminate these practices may mean that livestock production systems in many countries will have to adopt some principles similar to those developed in New Zealand, not because of export dependence but because this dependence has created low-cost systems.

  17. Comparison of conventional and solar-water-heating products and industries report

    SciTech Connect

    Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J

    1980-07-11

    President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-heating systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the product, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. Based on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the product. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.

  18. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  19. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis.

  20. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    PubMed Central

    Saloojee, Y.; Dagli, E.

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

  1. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways. PMID:21662987

  2. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  3. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. PMID:26551652

  4. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded. PMID:26393620

  6. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjing; Shen, Nan; Yin, Hua; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast. Here, using ethanol as the sole carbon source and 4-methylpyrazole as the selection marker, we constructed a new mutant strain with lower acetaldehyde production and improved ethanol tolerance via traditional mutagenesis strategy. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of mutant strain and industrial brewing strain showed that the acetaldehyde concentration of mutant strain was 81.67 % lower, whereas its resistant staling value was 1.0-fold higher. Owing to the mutation, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant strain decreased to about 30 % of the wild-type strain. In the meantime, the fermentation performance of the newly screened strain has little difference compared with the wild-type strain, and there are no safety problems regarding the industrial usage of the mutant strain. Therefore, we suggest that the newly screened strain could be directly applied to brewing industry.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  8. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co-Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10-15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC-Co materials.

  9. Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-10-01

    The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the β-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Poly β-hydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 using sugar industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K

    2013-01-01

    The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h(-1) L(-1), using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.

  11. Prerequisites for the pharmaceutical industry to develop and commercialise helminths and helminth-derived product therapy.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Cornelia; Kapur, Vishal; Loging, Will; Erb, Klaus J

    2013-03-01

    During the past 10 years, immunologists, epidemiologists and parasitologists have made many new exciting discoveries in the field of helminth-mediated immune regulation. In addition, many animal experiments have shown that certain helminths or products derived from helminths can protect mice from developing allergic or autoimmune disease. Some clinical trials utilising Trichuris suis or Necator americanus for the treatment of allergic disorders and inflammatory bowel disease have been conducted. The outcomes of these trials suggest that they may be used to treat these disorders. However, to date no helminth therapy is routinely being applied to patients and no helminth-derived product therapy has been developed. In order to bring new drugs to the market and shoulder the enormous costs involved in developing such therapies, pharmaceutical companies need to be involved. However, currently the resources from the pharmaceutical industry devoted to this concept are relatively small and there are good reasons why the industry may have been reluctant to invest in developing these types of therapies. In this review article, the hurdles that must be overcome before the pharmaceutical industry might invest in these novel therapies are outlined.

  12. Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-06-01

    Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine.

  13. The Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Textile Industry Clusters in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Indian textile industry is one the largest and oldest sectors in the country and among the most important in the economy in terms of output, investment and employment (E). The sector employs nearly 35 million people and after agriculture, is the second-highest employer in the country. Its importance is underlined by the fact that it accounts for around 4 % of Gross Domestic Product, 14 % of industrial production, 9 % of excise collections, 18 % of E in the industrial sector, and 16 % of the country's total exports (Ex) earnings. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the Textile Manufacturers has adopted the Cluster Development Approach. The objective is to study the physical and financial performance, correlation, regression and Data Envelopment Analysis by measuring technical efficiency (Ø), peer weights (λi), input slacks (S-), output slacks (S+) and return to scale of four textile clusters (TCs) namely IchalKaranji Textile Cluster, Maharashtra; Ludhiana Textile Cluster, Punjab; Tirupur Textile Cluster, Tamilnadu and Panipat Textile Cluster, Haryana in India. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper Model by taking number of units (U) and number of E as inputs and sales (S) and Ex in crores as an outputs. The non-zero λi's represents the weights for efficient clusters. The S > 0 obtained for one TC reveals the excess U (S-) and E (S-) and shortage in sales (S+) and Ex (S+). To conclude, for inclusive growth and sustainable development, the inefficient TC should increase their S/turnover and Ex, as decrease in number of enterprises and E is practically not possible. Moreover for sustainable development, the TC should strengthen infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships to decrease cost, increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  14. Development of New Cementitious Caterials by Alkaline Activating Industrial by-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jimenez, A.; García-Lodeiro, I.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    The alkaline activation of aluminosiliceous industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag and fly ash is widely known to yield binders whose properties make them comparable to or even stronger and more durable than ordinary Portland cement. The present paper discusses activation fundamentals (such as the type and concentration of alkaline activator and curing conditions) as well as the structure of the cementitious gels formed (C-A-S-H, N-A-S-H). The durability and strength of these systems make these materials apt for use in many industrial applications, such as precast concrete elements (masonery blocks, railroad sleepers), protective coatings for materials with low fire ratings and lightweight elements.

  15. Corrosion behavior of 8090 Al-Li alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Z.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.L. . Inst. of Metal Research); Zhu, Z.Y. . Inst. of Corrosion and Protection of Metals)

    1993-06-01

    An evaluation was conducted of the corrosion behavior of 8090 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy (UNS A98090), when aged under various conditions and subjected to corrosion in a solution of 3.5% NaCl + 1% H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. Susceptibility to pitting, intergranular corrosion, and exfoliation corrosion was shown to be influenced by heat treatment, which reduced from natural aging, through overaging to peak aging, Materials with peak aging showed low corrosion resistance. The decreased corrosion resistance corresponded to decreased corrosion potential of the alloy. Insoluble constituents were susceptible to corrosion. The corrosion extended along grain boundaries. Al-Li alloys showed mismatched tensile strength and stress corrosion resistance. The growth rate of stress corrosion cracks was large in the peak-aged state. The growth rate was strengthened by overaging, but tensile strength was reduced. That problem was solved by retrogression and reaging processing.

  16. Influence of Psychological Factors on Product Development. Lessons from Aerospace and other Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, E. S.

    2002-10-01

    Product development is a major determinant of quality and cost as companies throughout the world struggle to optimize product development processes. Engineering tasks are usually implicitly assumed to be a primarily technical activity, but in reality they feature numerous nontechnical factors as well. This book focuses on the interrelationships of social, technical, and organizational aspects of the product development process. Cases observed in industry and research laboratories are presented and interpreted based on the socio-technical system approach (Emery / Trist) of examining the reciprocal relationship between the technical and the social subsystems. This book is primarily intended for engineering and quality professionals who want to know the limitations of current methods used in product development, to examine the so-called soft factors by means of grounded studies of their effect on R&D performance, not only to acknowledge the influence of soft factors but to actively consider their potential to improve the work environment. Academic researchers of the topic will also find many references and material for advanced courses on project and quality management. In addition to numerous cases from the aerospace industry, its general solution concepts are generalizable to other industries in which the high degree of product complexity necessitates effective interaction among different disciplines. The historical evaluation is neither intended for introductory purposes nor to propose a return to the past, but as a survey of the relevant factors to be applied in present and future projects. The author holds a degree in Electronics Engineering from the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronautica, Brazil, as well as a PhD in Administration Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. He draws on profound academic research as well as a wealth of practical experience in avionics, telecommunications, systems control, and the space industry

  17. Industrialization study. [impact of government incentives and barriers on decision making in the industrial production of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The investment process in U.S. industries was studied in order to characterize the critical elements in major high risk investment decisions. Because motivation was determined to be the greatest single factor force in inducing a company to invest in a high risk venture, the relative impact of alternative government programs and policies on personal and financial motivations were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to ascertain the effect on these programs and policies on photovoltaic industrialization. The government alternatives are ranked on the basis of their ease of implementation and their probable effect. The recommended sequence in which government policies would be applied to maximize the industrialization of the photovoltaic venture is discussed.

  18. Industrial production of L-ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) and D-isoascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Pappenberger, Günter; Hohmann, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was first isolated in 1928 and subsequently identified as the long-sought antiscorbutic factor. Industrially produced L-ascorbic acid is widely used in the feed, food, and pharmaceutical sector as nutritional supplement and preservative, making use of its antioxidative properties. Until recently, the Reichstein-Grüssner process, designed in 1933, was the main industrial route. Here, D-sorbitol is converted to L-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) as key intermediate, using a bio-oxidation with Gluconobacter oxydans and several chemical steps. Today, industrial production processes use additional bio-oxidation steps with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare as biocatalyst to convert D-sorbitol to the intermediate 2KGA without chemical steps. The enzymes involved are characterized by a broad substrate range, but remarkable regiospecificity. This puzzling specificity pattern can be understood from the preferences of these enyzmes for certain of the many isomeric structures which the carbohydrate substrates adopt in aqueous solution. Recently, novel enzymes were identified that generate L-ascorbic acid directly via oxidation of L-sorbosone, an intermediate of the bio-oxidation of D-sorbitol to 2KGA. This opens the possibility for a direct route from D-sorbitol to L-ascorbic acid, obviating the need for chemical rearrangement of 2KGA. Similar concepts for industrial processes apply for the production of D-isoascorbic acid, the C5 epimer of L-ascorbic acid. D-isoascorbic acid has the same conformation at C5 as D-glucose and can be derived more directly than L-ascorbic acid from this common carbohydrate feed stock.

  19. Enhanced production of industrial enzymes in Mucoromycotina fungi during solid-state fermentation of agricultural wastes/by-products.

    PubMed

    Takó, Miklós; Kotogán, Alexandra; Krisch, Judit; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Mondal, Keshab C; Papp, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    Cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic enzyme production of zygomycetes Mucor corticolus, Rhizomucor miehei, Gilbertella persicaria and Rhizopus niveus were investigated using agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Solid-state cultures were carried out on untreated corn residues (stalk and leaf) as single substrate (SSF1) or corn residues and wheat bran in mixed fermentation (SSF2). Rapid production of endoglucanase (CMCase) was observed with maximal activity reaching after about 48-h fermentation, while cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase enzymes generally had their peak after 72-h incubation. Highest filter paper degrading (FPase), CMCase, CBH and β-glucosidase activities obtained were (U g⁻¹ dss) 17.3, 74.1, 12.2 and 158.3, for R. miehei, G. persicaria, M. corticolus and Rh. niveus, respectively. M. corticolus proved to be the best lipolytic enzyme producer in SSF1 presenting 447.6 U g⁻¹ dss yield, while R. miehei showed 517.7 U g⁻¹ dss activity in SSF2. Rh. niveus exhibited significantly greater protease production than the other strains. Suc-AAPF-pNA hydrolyzing activities of this strain were 1.1 and 1.96 U g⁻¹ dss in SSF1 and SSF2, respectively. We conclude that the used corn stalk and leaf residues could potentially be applicable as strong inducers for cellulase and lipase production by Mucoromycotina fungi. PMID:26344030

  20. The solidification behavior of 8090 Al-Li alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.L.; Hu, Z.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Shi, C.X. . Inst. of Metal Research)

    1993-10-01

    In this work, the solidification and segregation behaviors of 8090 Al-Li alloy have been investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the metallographic-electron microprobe method. The results show that 8090 Al-Li alloy has a much more complex solidification path than Al-Li binary alloy due to the addition of many alloying elements and the presence of impure elements. Solidification begins at about 635 C with the reaction of L [yields] [alpha]-Al + L[prime], and this reaction goes on to termination. The alloying element Cu and impure elements Fe and Si have a strong segregation tendency. During solidification, Cu segregates to the interdendrite and finally forms [alpha]-Al + T[sub 2] eutectic. As a result, the solidification temperature range is greatly extended. Iron and Si form the insoluble constituents Al[sub 7]Cu[sub 2]Fe, AlLiSi, etc., although their concentrations in the alloy are quite low. With the increase of Fe content, there is a eutectic reaction of [alpha]-Al/Al[sub 3]Fe at about 595 C. The formation of insoluble constituents is influenced by both concentrations of impure elements in the alloy and the cooling rate.

  1. The solidification behavior of 8090 Al-Li alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Hu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Shi, C. X.

    1993-10-01

    In this work, the solidification and segregation behaviors of 8090 Al-Li alloy have been investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the metallographic-electron microprobe method. The results show that 8090 Al-Li alloy has a much more complex solidification path than Al-Li binary alloy due to the addition of many alloying elements and the presence of impure elements. Solidification begins at about 635 °C with the reaction of L → α-Al + L', and this reaction goes on to termination. The alloying element Cu and impure elements Fe and Si have a strong segregation tendency. During solidification, Cu segregates to the interdendrite and finally forms α-Al + T2 eutectic. As a result, the solidification temperature range is greatly extended. Iron and Si form the insoluble constituents Al7Cu2Fe, AlLiSi, etc., although their concentrations in the alloy are quite low. With the increase of Fe content, there is a eutectic reaction of α-Al/Al3Fe at about 595 °C. The formation of insoluble constituents is influenced by both concentrations of impure elements in the alloy and the cooling rate.

  2. Evidence based practice profiles: Differences among allied health professions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most previous studies of allied health professionals' evidence based practice (EBP) attitudes, knowledge and behaviours have been conducted with profession specific questionnaires of variable psychometric strength. This study compared the self-report EBP profiles of allied health professionals/trainees in an Australian university. Methods The Evidence-Based Practice Profile (EBP2) questionnaire assessed five domains (Relevance, Terminology, Practice, Confidence, Sympathy) in 918 subjects from five professional disciplines. One and 2-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests analysed differences based on prior exposure to EBP, stage of training, professional discipline, age and gender. Results There were significant differences between stages of training (p < 0.001) for all domains and between EBP exposure groups for all but one domain (Sympathy). Professional discipline groups differed for Relevance, Terminology, Practice (p < 0.001) and Confidence (p = 0.006). Males scored higher for Confidence (p = 0.002) and females for Sympathy (p = 0.04), older subjects (> 24 years) scored higher for all domains (p < 0.05). Age and exposure affected all domains (p < 0.02). Differences in stages of training largely explained age-related differences in Confidence and Practice (p ≤ 0.001) and exposure-related differences in Confidence, Practice and Sympathy (p ≤ 0.023). Conclusions Across five allied health professions, self-report EBP characteristics varied with EBP exposure, across stages of training, with profession and with age. PMID:20937140

  3. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production.

  4. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  5. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production. PMID:27394995

  6. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine and lower water toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Xirou, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Dailianis, Stefanos; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2016-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and treated wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination efficiency and kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. As chlorine concentration increases the removal also increases linearily. After 1 and 24 hours of contact the chlorine relative removal efficiencies for the biochar made from olive seeds are 50 and 77 ± 4%, respectively. It seems that the removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0

  7. Dyeing industry effluent system as lipid production medium of Neochloris sp. for biodiesel feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Vidyadharani; Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  8. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  9. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field. PMID:12747542

  10. Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Ş.; Arıkan, İ. H.; Demirel, H.; Güngör, N.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  11. Nice White Men or Social Justice Allies?: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine How White Male Faculty and Administrators Engage in Ally Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.; Bondi, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Numerous scholars have offered definitions and perspectives for White people to be or become social justice allies. The purpose of this study was to examine the complicated realities that social justice allies in higher education face when working on campus. Using a critical interpretivist approach grounded in critical race theory, the authors…

  12. Industry Approach to Nutrition-Based Product Development and Reformulation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Leroy, Fabienne; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been a proliferation of initiatives to classify food products according to their nutritional composition (e.g., high in fat/sugar) to better guide consumer choices and regulate the food environment. This global trend, lately introduced in Asia as well, utilizes nutrient profiling (NP) to set compositional criteria for food products. Even though the use of NP to set targets for product reformulation has been proposed for years, to date only two NP systems have been specifically developed for that purpose. The majority of the NP applications, especially in Asia, focus on marketing and/or health claim regulation, as well as front-of-pack labeling. Product reformulation has been identified, by the World Health Organization and other official bodies, as a key tool for the food industry to help address public health nutrition priorities and provide support towards the reduction of excessive dietary sugar, salt and fats. In the United Kingdom, the Responsibility Deal is an excellent example of a public-private collaborative initiative that successfully reduced the salt content of products available in the supermarkets by 20-30%, resulting in an estimated 10% reduction in salt intake at the population level. Validation of NP systems targeted towards reformulation supports the hypothesis that, by adopting them, the industry can actively support existing policies in the direction of lowering consumptions in public health-sensitive nutrients. The symposium presented a discussion on the current NP landscape in Asia, the importance of reformulation for public health and the Nestlé approach to improve the food environment in Asia through NP.

  13. Industry Approach to Nutrition-Based Product Development and Reformulation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Leroy, Fabienne; Spieldenner, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been a proliferation of initiatives to classify food products according to their nutritional composition (e.g., high in fat/sugar) to better guide consumer choices and regulate the food environment. This global trend, lately introduced in Asia as well, utilizes nutrient profiling (NP) to set compositional criteria for food products. Even though the use of NP to set targets for product reformulation has been proposed for years, to date only two NP systems have been specifically developed for that purpose. The majority of the NP applications, especially in Asia, focus on marketing and/or health claim regulation, as well as front-of-pack labeling. Product reformulation has been identified, by the World Health Organization and other official bodies, as a key tool for the food industry to help address public health nutrition priorities and provide support towards the reduction of excessive dietary sugar, salt and fats. In the United Kingdom, the Responsibility Deal is an excellent example of a public-private collaborative initiative that successfully reduced the salt content of products available in the supermarkets by 20-30%, resulting in an estimated 10% reduction in salt intake at the population level. Validation of NP systems targeted towards reformulation supports the hypothesis that, by adopting them, the industry can actively support existing policies in the direction of lowering consumptions in public health-sensitive nutrients. The symposium presented a discussion on the current NP landscape in Asia, the importance of reformulation for public health and the Nestlé approach to improve the food environment in Asia through NP. PMID:26598851

  14. Precisionism: Art in the Industrial Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Brianna

    2006-01-01

    A result of the industrial age was a short-lived but powerful new American art movement called Precisionism, most evident in painting, but visible also in drawing, photography, and print-making, focusing on industrial and mechanical subjects. Precisionism originated in the 1920s, allied with European Cubism's fascination with shape and geometric…

  15. Industrial Arts Program Goals and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    The first section of the manual on secondary level industrial arts goal and competencies concerns the ALIVE (Allied Learning Vocational Exploration) Program, a student-managed, individualized learning program involving art, home economics, and industrial arts in a team instruction approach. It provides goals, competencies, and performance…

  16. Macroinvertebrate production and food web energetics in an industrially contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Runck, Clay

    2007-04-01

    This study examines secondary production and periphyton-invertebrate food web energetics at two sites in an industrially contaminated, nutrient-enriched stream. Secondary production data and data from the literature were used to calculate potential amounts of mercury transferred from periphyton to chironomid larvae and into terrestrial food webs with emerging adults. The nutritional quality of periphyton was characterized using energy content, chlorophyll a, protein, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and percentage of organic matter. Chironomid larvae (Orthocladiinae: Cricotopus spp.) comprised 96% of all macroinvertebrates collected from stones at the two sites. Cricotopus production was extremely high: production was 59.5 g AFDM x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the site upstream of a 1-ha settling basin and 32.4 g AFDM x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the site below the basin. Apparent differences in annual secondary production were associated with reduced organic content (i.e., nutritional quality) of the periphyton matrix under different loading of total suspended solids. The periphyton matrix at both sites was contaminated with inorganic (Hg(II)) and methyl (MeHg) mercury. The amount of Hg(II) potentially ingested by Cricotopus was calculated to be 49 mg Hg(II) x m(-1) x yr(-1) at the upstream site and 19 mg Hg(II)x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the downstream site. Mercury ingestion by Cricotopus at the downstream site was calculated to be 2% of the estimated annual deposition of particulate-bound Hg(II) to the stream bed. Emergence of adult Cricotopus was calculated to remove 563 microg Hg(II)x m(-2) x yr(-1) from the stream at the upstream site and 117 microg Hg(II) x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the downstream site, which amounted to 4.1 g Hg(II)/yr for the 2.1-km reach of stream included in this study. The ratio of metal export in emergence production to surface area for the study stream was 10 to 10(3) times higher than ratios calculated for lakes using data from the literature. This study is the first well

  17. Towards the industrial production of medicinal tincture by ultrasound assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Valachovic, P; Pechova, A; Mason, T J

    2001-04-01

    Experiments related to the industrial production of medicinal tinctures of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) were performed using ultrasonically assisted extraction and quality of the final tincture was evaluated by gas chromatography and dry residue determination. The constituents of the active sage compound: borneol, cineole, alpha- and beta-thujone and also the dry residue were measured. In the case of valerian extractions, the efficiency of sonicated extraction was compared with classical extraction. The course of only the dry residue was monitored. The influence of ultrasound on the quality of valerian tincture was examined by HPLC. PMID:11326604

  18. Ion exchange in the atomic energy industry with particular reference to actinide and fission product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed are some of the uses of ion exchange processes used by the nuclear industry for the period April, 1978 to April, 1983. The topics dealt with are: thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, cesium and actinide-lanthanide separations; the higher actinides - Cm, Bk, Cf, Es and Fm; fission products; ion exchange in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Consideration is given to safety in the use of ion exchangers and in safe methods of disposal of such materials. Full scale and pilot plant process descriptions are included as well as summaries of laboratory studies. 130 references.

  19. A Framework for Implementing Virtual Collaborative Networks - Case Study on Automobile Components Production Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvinnia, Elham; Khayami, Raouf; Ziarati, Koorush

    Virtual collaborative networks are composed of small companies which take most advantage from the market opportunity and are able to compete with large companies. So some frameworks have been introduced for implementing this type of collaboration; although none of them has been standardized completely. In this paper we specify some instances that need to be standardized for implementing virtual enterprises. Then, a framework is suggested for implementing virtual collaborative networks. Finally, based on that suggestion, as a case study, we design a virtual collaborative network in automobile components production industry.

  20. Agriculture and Logging and Lumber Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in agriculture and logging and lumber mill products industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document…