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Sample records for alligator rivers uranium

  1. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ((227)Ac, (40)K, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.

  2. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bichard, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body.

  3. Radionuclide migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Northern Australia Lessons from the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Airey, Peter L.

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in Northern Australia provides a ‘natural analogue’ for processes that are of relevance for assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal. In an international project extending over two decades, the Koongarra ore body was studied to increase the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention mechanisms that might occur in the vicinity of a geological repository. The research effort included extensive characterisation of the geological, hydrological and geochemical conditions at the site. Patterns of the distribution of radionuclides (predominantly members of the 238U decay chain, but also the rare isotopes 239Pu, 99Tc and 129I) were studied in both solid and groundwater phases. The project included detailed studies of uranium adsorption on mineral surfaces, and of subsequent processes that may lead to long-term uranium immobilisation. Numerous models for uranium migration were developed during the project. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research at Koongarra, and assesses the value of the site for integrating the results of a complex series of laboratory, modelling and field studies. The insights gained from this review of the Koongarra project may assist in maximising the potential scientific benefit of future natural analogue studies.

  4. Gender differences in haemogregarine infections in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Savannah River, South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Horan, Robert V; Grosse, Andrew M; Harris, Bess B; Metts, Brian S; Scott, David E; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2011-10-01

    We report a host gender bias in haemogregarine infection characteristics in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Prevalence and severity in female alligators was higher than it was in males. The reason for this pattern is not clear.

  5. Alligator rivers analogue project an OECD/NEA international project

    SciTech Connect

    Duerden, P.; Airey, P.; Pescatore, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia was studied as a natural analogue of the far field behaviour of high level waste repositories following groundwater ingress. A number of mathematical modelling approaches were developed for processes as diverse as groundwater transport, host rock weathering, radionuclide sorption, evolution of the uranium dispersion fan and the distribution of uranium series nuclides between mineral assemblages in weathered host rock. Some of these models are relevant to performance assessment at the level of individual processes and subsystem performance. Through the project, new insights into the application of the natural analogue approach to the assessment of potential waste repository sites were obtained.

  6. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  7. 33 CFR 165.T05-0091 - Safety Zone; Alligator River, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Alligator River, NC... Safety Zone; Alligator River, NC. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, Captain of the Port... on the waters of the Alligator River centered at (35°54′3″ N/076°00′25″ W) a position directly...

  8. Population status of the American alligator on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.M.

    1981-04-01

    Estimates are presented of alligator numbers, size distribution, sex ratios, reproductive effort, and population trends for all major components of the entire Savannah River Plant (SRP) alligator population. Savannah River Plant operations have impacted the alligator population in many different ways. The formation of man-made reservoirs has dramatically increased the amount of aquatic habitat available to alligators and has therefore increased the carrying capacity of the SRP site for this species. The thermal alteration of aquatic habitats on the SRP has also impacted the resident alligator population. Temperature elevations of aquatic habitat to greater than 38/sup 0/C result in the loss of this habitat to alligators. Moderate thermal increases on the other hand are responded to by alligator movement. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests the following future trends: low density populations distant from thermally altered areas will continue at a low density with the exception of localized increases.

  9. Uranium in river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 [times] 10[sup 7] mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

  10. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  11. Radionuclides and metals in freshwater mussels of the upper South Alligator River, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bruce; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Martin, Paul

    2008-03-01

    During an inspection of the old Rockhole Mine area in Kakadu National Park in 1999, it was found that a small amount of tailings from the former South Alligator uranium (U) mill had been uncovered by wet season rain and road works. Samples of sediment, water and freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, were collected from the South Alligator River, near and at the confluence of Rockhole Mine Creek, and adjacent to the exposed tailings. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios in sediments and mussel tissue indicate a small influence from the tailings and from Rockhole Mine adit water on 226Ra concentrations. The uptake of 226Ra in mussels does not correlate with other alkaline-earth metals. Mussel U concentrations are higher immediately downstream of Rockhole Mine Creek, but there is no noticeable increase in the immediate vicinity of the tailings area. A hypothetical ingestion of 2 kg of mussels from the sites was used to estimate the committed effective dose for a 10-year-old child resulting in a figure of 0.23 mSv per annum, of this total dose, 69% is attributed to 210Po. Only 0.03 mSv per annum can be directly linked to impacts of the tailings.

  12. Herpetofaunal diversity of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.; Pike, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past century, habitat alteration and fragmentation have increased dramatically, which increases the need for improving our understanding of how species and biological communities react to these modifications. A national strategy on biological diversity has focused attention on how these habitat modifications affect species, especially herpetofauna (i.e., changes in species richness, community evenness and similarity, and dominant/rare species). As part of this strategy, we surveyed Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, a coastal, mixed second-growth forested swamp (MFS) and pocosin wetland (PW), in North Carolina for amphibians and reptiles from September 2000 to August 2001. We randomly selected three sites (3 x 3 km) in two major habitat types (MFS, PW) and completed random surveys and trapping using transects, quadrats, nighttime aural road surveys, drift fences, canal transects, coverboards, incidental captures, and evening road surveys. We also collected herpetofauna opportunistically throughout the refuge to establish an updated species list. For analysis, we used Shannon-Weiner species diversity (H'), evenness (1'), species richness and species detectability (COMDYN4), and community percent similarity index to determine herpetofaunal community differences. We estimated 39 species in MFS and 32 species in PW (P < 0.10). Species detectability was similar between habitats (0.84 to 0.86). More reptilian species (+ 31 %) inhabited MFS than PW, but estimated amphibian species richness was identical (17 spp.). H' was higher (P < 0.000 I) for PW (2.6680) than for MFS (2.1535) because of lower J' in the latter (0.6214 vs. 0.8010). Dominance of three Rana species caused lower J' and H' in MFS. Similarity between the communities was 56.6%; we estimated 22-24 species in common for each habitat (95% CI = 18 to 31 spp.). We verified 49 of the 52 herpetofaunal species on the refuge that were known to exist in the area. Restoration of natural water flows may

  13. Potential impact of Dare County landfills on Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Augspurger, T.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff of leachate from East Lake and Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris landfills has the potential to impact wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Dare and Hyde Counties, North Carolina. Sediment quality of samples collected in August 2000 at 14 locations down-gradient from the landfills was assessed by measuring metal and organic contaminants in the sediments, chronic toxicity of solid-phase sediment (28-d static-renewal exposures; survival and growth as test endpoints) and acute toxicity of sediment porewater (96-h static exposures) to Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda). In addition, contaminant bioaccumulation from 4 sediments was determined using 28-d exposures of Lumbriculus variegatus (freshwater oligochaete). Although survival was not impaired, length of H. azteca was significantly reduced in sediments from 5 locations. Pore water from 4 locations was acutely toxic to H. azteca. Metals and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were bioaccumulated by L. variegatus from the sediments. Several metals and PAHs exceeded sediment quality guidelines, and metals in porewater from several sites exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic wildlife. Runoff of leachate from the landfills has reduced sediment quality and has the potential to adversely affect wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.

  14. Thermoluminescence and excess 226Ra decay dating of late Quaternary fluvial sands, East Alligator River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew; Wohl, Ellen; East, Jon

    1992-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was applied to seven samples of siliceous fluvial sands from the East Alligator River of Northern Australia, giving ages ranging from modern to 6000 yr B.P. Two methods of estimating the equivalent dose (ED), total bleach and regenerative, were applied to the 90- to 125-μm quartz fraction of the samples in order to determine the reliability and internal consistency of the technique. High-resolution γ and α spectroscopy were used to measure radionuclide contents; these measurements revealed an excess 226Ra activity compared with 230Th. This excess decreased with depth, and was used directly to derive mean sedimentation rates, and thus sediment ages. Both this method and one 14C date confirmed the validity of the TL values, which increased systematically with depth and were consistent with site stratigraphy. TL was of limited use in the dating of these late Holocene deposits because of age uncertainties of 500 to 1600 yr, resulting from a significant residual ED. This residual probably resulted from incomplete bleaching during reworking upstream of the sampling site. For Pleistocene deposits, the residual ED will be less significant because of higher total EDs, and TL dates will be correspondingly more accurate.

  15. Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1992-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a living document'' that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.

  16. Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1992-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a ``living document`` that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.

  17. Mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagoe, C.H.; Arnold-Hill, B.; Yanochko, G.M.; Winger, P.V.; Brisbin, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    Mercury methylation may be enhanced in wetlands and humic-rich, blackwater systems that crocodiles and alligators typically inhabit. Given their high trophic level and long life-spans, crocodilians could accumulate significant burdens of Hg. Our objectives were to survey Hg concentrations in alligators from several areas in the southeastern United States to test their utility as sentinels of Hg contamination, to examine relationships among Hg concentrations in various tissues and to look for any differences in tissue Hg concentrations among locations. We measured total Hg concentrations in alligators collected in the Florida Everglades (n = 18), the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia (n = 9), the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina (n = 49) and various locations in central Florida ( n = 21), sampling tissues including blood, brain, liver, kidney, muscle, bone, fat, spleen, claws and dermal scutes. Alligators from the Everglades were mostly juvenile, but Hg concentrations in tissues were high (means: liver 41.0, kidney 36.4, muscle 5.6 mg Hg/kg dry wt.). Concentrations in alligators from other locations in Florida were lower (means: liver 14.6, kidney 12.6, muscle 1.8 mg Hg/kg dry wt.), although they tended to be larger adults. Alligators from the Okefenokee were smallest and had the lowest Hg concentrations (means: liver 4.3, kidney 4.8, muscle 0.8 mg Hg/kg dry wt.). At some locations, alligator length was correlated with Hg concentrations in some internal organs. However, at three of the four locations, muscle Hg was not related to length. Tissue Hg concentrations were correlated at most locations; however, claw or dermal scute Hg explained less than 74% of the variation of Hg in muscle or organs, suggesting readily-obtained tissues, such as scutes or claws, have limited value for nondestructive screening of Hg in alligator populations.

  18. Uranium deposits in Fall River County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Henry; Bales, W.E.

    1954-01-01

    In 1951 uranium deposits contained carnotite were discovered in the southern Black Hills near Edgemont, Fall River County, S. Dak. Numerous carnotite deposits have since been found in sandstones in the Inyan Kara group of early Cretaceous age, and uranium-bearing material has been discovered in the Pennsylvania Minnelusa sandstone of Pennsylvanian age and the Deadwood formation of Cambrian age in the southern Black Hills. Ore has been produced only from the Inyan Kara group, mostly within an area of about 30 square miles along the southwest flank of the Black Hills uplift between Dewey and Hot Springs in Custer and Fall River Counties. In addition, occurrences of uranium in other parts of the Black Hills and the surrounding area are known or reported from sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks of pre-Cambrian to Tertiary age. The upper and lowermost formations of the Inyan Kara group - the Fall River and Lakota sandstones - contain the productive uranium deposits. These terrestrial formations are composed predominantly of massive sandstone lenses within units of thinly bedded sandstone and mudstone, but locally these formations contain abundant mudstone and thinly bedded sandstone. Massive sandstone lenses in the Lakota sandstone commonly overlap and truncate underlying lenses. The lenses are separated by thin units of thinly bedded sandstone and mudstone. Iron stain, carbonaceous material, thin seams of gypsum, ripple marks, concretions, and fossil roots are common in the mudstone and thinly bedded portions of these formations. Some high angle normal faults of small displacement are found in the area containing the largest number of uranium occurrences in the Inyan Kara group. Although no ore deposits seen were cut by faults, high-angle fractures parallel and at right angles to the faults contain carnotite for short distances. The productive uranium deposits are most common where the Fall River and Lakota sandstones locally contain a large proportion of

  19. A thermal history of the Proterozoic East Alligator River Terrain, N.T., Australia: a fission track study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koul, Sohan L.; Wilde, A. R.; Tickoo, Awtar K.

    1988-01-01

    Radiometric data indicate a major thermal event in Proterozoic rocks of the East Alligator River Terrain, at 1870 Ma. These data, together with metamorphic mineral assemblages, demonstrate peak temperatures in excess of 600 ° C, close to the melting temperature of more deeply buried rocks. A cooling rate following peak metamorphism of 3°C/Ma is suggested. Fission-track dates of peak metamorphic phases, however, reveal a thermal event (or events), after 1650 Ma, rather than the peak metamorphic event. This rise in temperature was the result of thermal blanketing of the metamorphic basement by Carpentarian sediments and anomalous radiogenic heat flow from underlying granitoid gneiss. The temperatures so generated (≥ 175 ° C) were insufficient to reset Rb-Sr and K-Ar systems, but are clearly in excess of F.T. annealing temperatures for all the phases investigated. A cooling history, extending over 1000 m.y. and reflecting gradual erosion of the sedimentary cover, is revealed. This history is consistent with the extraordinary tectonic stability of the region. The importance of F.T. studies in establishing a thermal history is underscored, particularly when maximum temperatures experienced were less than those required to reset Rb-Sr and K-Ar systems.

  20. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene-Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Penelope L; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Jones, Tristen

    2017-02-01

    This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the "Northern Running Figures" for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017) [1]). This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  1. The impact of a disused mine on uranium transport in the River Fal, South West England.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Martinez, Yolanda; Campíns-Falcó, Pilar; Worsfold, Paul J; Keith-Roach, Miranda J

    2004-11-01

    Unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.2 microm) water samples and sediment samples (sieved to <180 microm and 180-1000 microm) were collected along an approximately 15 km transect of the River Fal, Cornwall, UK, to examine the impact of the disused South Terras uranium mine on the uranium concentrations of the river water and underlying sediments. The uranium concentration of the water samples fluctuated along the river, with the 0.45 microm filtered water showing the largest, seven-fold, difference between minimum (0.19 microg L(-1)) and maximum (1.34 microg L(-1)) concentrations. The historical uranium mine and spoil heaps were not a significant source of uranium to the river water, as water concentrations were low next to the site, but a highly elevated uranium concentration (1000 mg kg(-1)) was found in sediment below an outflow pipe from this mine. Operationally defined "colloidal" (0.2-0.45 microm) and "dissolved" (<0.2 microm) uranium were the predominant forms of the element in the river water (35 and 45% respectively). The uranium concentration in the dissolved phase showed a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (n= 9) with the total cation concentration, suggesting that the uranium concentration in this fraction is directly linked to weathering of rocks and minerals. The observation that weathering is the dominant mechanism delivering uranium to the river water explains the low uranium concentrations in the river water close to South Terras mine, despite the proximity of the spoil heaps, and the maximum uranium concentrations close to a china clay mining area.

  2. Effect of Rapidly Changing River Stage on Uranium Flux through the Hyporheic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-01

    At the Hanford Site, the flux of uranium contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River varies according to the dynamic changes in hydraulic gradient caused by fluctuating river stage. The river stage changes in response to operations of dams on the Columbia River. Piezometers were installed in the hyporheic zone to facilitate long term, high frequency measurement of water and uranium fluxes into the Columbia River in response to fluctuating river stage. In addition, measurement of the water level in the near shore unconfined aquifer enhanced the understanding of the relationship between fluctuating river stage and uranium flux. The changing river stage caused head fluctuations in the unconfined aquifer, and resulted in fluctuating hydraulic gradient in the hyporheic zone. Further, influx of river water into the unconfined aquifer caused reduced uranium concentration in near shore groundwater as a result of dilution. Calculated water flux through the hyporheic zone ranged between 0.3 and -0.5 L/min/m2. The flux of uranium through the hyporheic zone exceeded 30 ug/min/m2 during some time periods, but was generally on the order of 3 to 5 ug/min/m2 over the course of this study. It was also found that at this location, the top 20 cm of the hyporheic zone constituted the most restrictive portion of the aquifer, and controlled the flux of water through the hyporheic zone.

  3. Importance of Organic Matter-Uranium Biogeochemistry to Uranium Plume Persistence in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, J.; Janot, N.; Jones, M. E.; Bone, S. E.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that biologically driven redox reactions, fueled by sedimentary lenses enriched in detrital organic matter, play major roles in maintaining the persistent uranium groundwater plume in the subsurface at the U.S. Department of Enery's Rifle, CO field research site. Biogeochemical cycling of C, N, Fe, and S is highly active in these organic-rich naturally reduced zones (NRZs), and uranium is present as U(IV). The speciation of these elements profoundly influences the susceptibility of uranium to be reoxidized and remobiliized and contribute to plume persistence. However, uranim speciation in particular is poorly constrained in these sytems. To better evaluate the importance of NRZs to uranium mobility and plume persistence at the Rifle site, the DOE-BER-funded SLAC SFA team has characterized vertical concentration profiles and speciation of uranium, iron, sulfur, and NOM in well bores at high spatial resolution (4 inch intervals). Up to 95% of the sedimentary uranium pool was found to be concentrated in NRZs, where it occurs dominantly as non-crystalline forms of U(IV). Uranium accumulation and the presence of the short-lived sulfide mackinawite (FeS) at NRZ-aquifer interfaces indicate that NRZs actively exchange solutes with the surrounding aquifer. Moreover, sediment textures indicate that NRZs are likely to be abundant in riparian zones throughout the upper Colorado River basin (U.S.A.), which contains most of the contaminated DOE legacy uranium ore processing sites in the U.S. These results suggest that NRZ-uranium interactions may be important to plume persistence regionally and emphasize the importance of understanding molecular-scale processes.

  4. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable (226)Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of (226)Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that (228)Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits.

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  6. The importance of colloids and mires for the transport of uranium isotopes through the Kalix River watershed and Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Porcelli, D.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Andersson, P.S.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of colloids and organic deposits for the transport of uranium isotopes from continental source regions and through the estuarine environment was investigated in the mire-rich Kalix River drainage basin in northern Sweden and the Baltic Sea. Ultrafiltration techniques were used to separate uranium and other elements associated with colloids > 10 kD and >3 kD from {open_quotes}solute{close_quotes} uranium and provided consistent results and high recovery rates for uranium as well as for other elements from large volume samples. Uranium concentrations in 0.45 {mu}m-filtered Kalix River water samples increased by a factor of 3 from near the headwaters in the Caledonides to the river mouth while major cation concentrations were relatively constant. {sup 234}U {sup 238}U ratios were high ({delta}{sup 234}U = 770-1500) throughout the basin, without showing any simple pattern, and required a supply of {sup 234}U-rich water. Throughout the Kalix River, a large fraction (30-90%) of the uranium is carried by >10 kD colloids, which is compatible with uranium complexation with humic acids. No isotopic differences were found between colloid-associated and solute uranium. Within the Baltic Sea, about half of the uranium is removed at low salinities. The proportion that is lost is equivalent to that of river-derived colloid-bound uranium, suggesting that while solute uranium behaves conservatively during estuarine mixing, colloid-bound uranium is lost due to rapid flocculation of colloidal material. The association of uranium with colloids therefore may be an important parameter in determining uranium estuarine behavior. Mire peats in the Kalix River highly concentrate uranium and are potentially a significant source of recoil {sup 234}U to the mirewaters and river waters. However, mirewater data clearly demonstrate that only small {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U shifts are generated relative to inflowing groundwater. 63 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. The importance of colloids and mires for the transport of uranium isotopes through the Kalix River watershed and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcelli, D.; Andersson, P. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ingri, J.; Baskaran, M.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of colloids and organic deposits for the transport of uranium isotopes from continental source regions and through the estuarine environment was investigated in the mire-rich Kalix River drainage basin in northern Sweden and the Baltic Sea. Ultrafiltration techniques were used to separate uranium and other elements associated with colloids > 10 kD and >3 kD from "solute" uranium and provided consistent results and high recovery rates for uranium as well as for other elements from large volume samples. Uranium concentrations in 0.45 μm-filtered Kalix River water samples increased by a factor of 3 from near the headwaters in the Caledonides to the river mouth while major cation concentrations were relatively constant. 234U/238U ratios were high ( δ234U = 770-1500) throughout the basin, without showing any simple pattern, and required a supply of 234U-rich water. Throughout the Kalix River, a large fraction (30-90%) of the uranium is carried by >10 kD colloids, which is compatible with uranium complexation with humic acids. No isotopic differences were found between colloid-associated and solute uranium. Within the Baltic Sea, about half of the uranium is removed at low salinities. The proportion that is lost is equivalent to that of river-derived colloid-bound uranium, suggesting that while solute uranium behaves conservatively during estuarine mixing, colloid-bound uranium is lost due to rapid flocculation of colloidal material. The association of uranium with colloids therefore may be an important parameter in determining uranium estuarine behavior. Mire peats in the Kalix River highly concentrate uranium and are potentially a significant source of recoil 234U to the mirewaters and river waters. However, mirewater data clearly demonstrate that only small 234U/238U shifts are generated relative to inflowing groundwater. A simple box model of uranium accumulation in peat and transport through the mire that is compatible with the mire data

  8. Uranium Measurement Improvements at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shick, C. Jr.

    2002-02-13

    Uranium isotope ratio and isotope dilution methods by mass spectrometry are used to achieve sensitivity, precision and accuracy for various applications. This report presents recent progress made at SRTC in the analysis of minor isotopes of uranium. Comparison of routine measurements of NBL certified uranium (U005a) using the SRTC Three Stage Mass Spectrometer (3SMS) and the SRTC Single Stage Mass Spectrometer (SSMS). As expected, the three stage mass spectrometer yielded superior sensitivity, precision, and accuracy for this application.

  9. Uranium and diagenesis in evaporitic lacustrine mudstone of the Oligocene White River Group, Dawes County, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the uranium mineralization and diagenesis of an evaporitic lacustrine mudstone and related fluvial and colluvial facies in the White River Group in Dawes county, Nebraska, are described. Diagenetic minerals and textures are identified using a variety of petrologic methods, including x-ray diffraction, thin-section study, and scanning electron micrography. R-mode factor analysis was performed on a data base containing chemical and mineralogical data. Uranium distribution in the depositional and diagenetic environments is also analyzed.

  10. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland.

  11. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN PLASMA THYROXINE (T4) CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS COLLECTED FROM LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND THE NORTHERN EVERGLADES, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined variation in plasma thyroxine (T4) in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected from three sites within the Kissimmee River drainage basin (FL, USA). Based on historical sediment data, Moonshine Bay served as the low contaminant exposure site...

  12. Effects of uranium mining discharges on water quality in the Puerco River basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Gray, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    From 1967 until 1986, uranium mine dewatering increased dissolved gross alpha, gross beta, uranium and radium activities and dissolved selenium and molybdenum concentrations in the Puerco River as indicated by time trends, areal patterns involving distance from the mines and stream discharge. Additionally, increased dissolved uranium concentrations were identified in groundwater under the Puerco River from where mine discharges entered the river to approximately the Arizona-New Mexico State line about 65 km downstream. Total mass of uranium and gross alpha activity released to the Puerco River by mine dewatering were estimated as 560 Mg (560 × 106 g) and 260 Ci, respectively. In comparison, a uranium mill tailings pond spill on 16 July 1979, released an estimated 1.5 Mg of uranium and 46 Ci of gross alpha activity. Mass balance calculations for alluvial ground water indicate that most of the uranium released did not remain in solution. Sorption of uranium on sediments and uptake of uranium by plants probably removed the uranium from solution.

  13. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  14. Uranium-bearing sandstone in the White River badlands, Pennington County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, George William; Levish, Murray

    1955-01-01

    The uranium mineral uranocircite, a barium uranyl phosphate, occurs in a channel sandstone in the Chadron formation of Oligocene age in the White River badlands, Pennington County, S. Dak. A vertical section of the basal l-foot of the channel contains 0.25 percent uranium. Small amounts of metatyuyamunite (?) occur in the upper part of a freshwater limestone bed in the Chadron formation, and carnotite occurs in chalcedony veins in the overlying Brule formation, also of Oligocene age. The source of the uranium is thought to have been volcanic ash in the Brule formation and the overlying rocks of Miocene age. Downward moving ground water may have leached this uranium and deposited it in the rocks below.

  15. Distribution and isotopic composition of uranium in lower Nueces River, Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Charles W.; Slade, Elizabeth Ann

    1972-01-01

    The uranium concentration and isotopic composition of water and suspended sediment from the Nueces River, Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay were determined by alpha-spectroscopy. The average dissolved uranium concentration and radioactivity ratio (U234/U238) of Nueces River water were determined to be 2.44 µg/1 and 1.15 respectively. Water from a tributary of the Nueces River, Cayamon Creek, was found to contain an average dissolved uranium concentration of 42.8 µg/1 with an isotopic radioactivity ratio of 1.56. Close inspection of the lateral concentration and isotopic activity ratio of uranium revealed an increase below the confluence of Cayamon Creek with the Nueces River. A model was derived based on equations used in isotopic dilution analysis, which predicts these increases within analytical error. This model may be useful in future studies to locate anomalous uranium within the hydrologic environment.

  16. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wirt, Laurie; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Shallow ground water beneath the Puerco River of Arizona and New Mexico was studied to determine the effects of uranium-mining releases on water quality. Ground-water samples collected from 1989 to 1991 indicate that concentrations of dissolved uranium have decreased. Most samples from the alluvial aquifer downstream from Gallup, New Mexico, met with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha, gross beta, and radium and the proposed maximum contaminant level for uranium.

  17. Uranium*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenthe, Ingmar; Drożdżyński, Janusz; Fujino, Takeo; Buck, Edgar C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wolf, Stephen F.

    Uranium compounds have been used as colorants since Roman times (Caley, 1948). Uranium was discovered as a chemical element in a pitchblende specimen by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who published the results of his work in 1789. Pitchblende is an impure uranium oxide, consisting partly of the most reduced oxide uraninite (UO2) and partly of U3O8. Earlier mineralogists had considered this mineral to be a complex oxide of iron and tungsten or of iron and zinc, but Klaproth showed by dissolving it partially in strong acid that the solutions yielded precipitates that were different from those of known elements. Therefore he concluded that it contained a new element (Mellor, 1932); he named it after the planet Uranus, which had been discovered in 1781 by William Herschel, who named it after the ancient Greek deity of the Heavens.

  18. SOLUBILITY OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN ALKALINE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, T.

    2010-03-10

    Five actual Savannah River Site tank waste samples and three chemically-modified samples were tested to determine solubility limits for uranium and plutonium over a one year time period. Observed final uranium concentrations ranged from 7 mg U/L to 4.5 g U/L. Final plutonium concentrations ranged from 4 {micro}g Pu/L to 12 mg Pu/L. Actinide carbonate complexation is believed to result in the dramatic solubility increases observed for one sample over long time periods. Clarkeite, NaUO{sub 2}(O)OH {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, was found to be the dominant uranium solid phase in equilibrium with the waste supernate in most cases.

  19. Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-10-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream’s sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

  20. Audit of the Uranium Solidification Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    In the late 1980s, DOE decided to construct a Uranium Solidification Facility at the Savannah River Site to process liquid uranyl nitrate into powder. Since the need for weapons materials has been reduced, an audit was conducted to assess the need for this facility. The audit disclosed that DOE continued to construct the facility, because DOE`s procedures did not ensure that projects of this type were periodically reassessed when significant program changes occurred. The audit identified more economical alternatives for processing existing quantities of liquid uranyl nitrate at the Savannah River Site.

  1. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; Hammond, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    A well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trends for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in Uaq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized Uaq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While Uaq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.

  2. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    DOE PAGES

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; ...

    2016-03-04

    A well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. As a result of water tablemore » elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions, time series trends for Uaq and SpC were found to be complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in Uaq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized Uaq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. Moreover, while Uaq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  3. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; Hammond, Glenn

    2016-03-04

    A well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. As a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions, time series trends for Uaq and SpC were found to be complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in Uaq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized Uaq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. Moreover, while Uaq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.

  4. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  5. Seasonal uranium distributions in the coastal waters off the Amazon and Mississippi Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; McKee, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of uranium was investigated across estuarine gradients from two of the world's largest river systems: the Amazon and Mississippi. Concentrations of dissolved (<0.45 ??m) uranium (U) were measured in surface waters of the Amazon shelf during rising (March 1990), flood (June 1990) and low (November 1991) discharge regimes. The dissolved U content was also examined in surface waters collected across estuarine gradients of the Mississippi outflow region during April 1992, August 1993, and November (1993). All water samples were analyzed for U by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In Amazon shelf surface waters uranium increased nonconservatively from about 0.01 ??g l-1 at the river's mouth to over 3 ??g l-1 at the distal site, irrespective of river discharge stage. Observed large-scale U removal at salinities generally less than 15 implies a) that riverine dissolved U was extensively adsorbed by freshly-precipitated hydrous metal oxides (e.g., FeOOH, MnO2) as a result of flocculation and aggregation, and b) that energetic resuspension and reworking of shelf sediments and fluid muds on the Amazon shelf released a chemically reactive particle/colloid to the water column which can further scavenge dissolved U across much of the estuarine gradient. In contrast, the estuarine chemistry of U is inconclusive within surface waters of the Mississippi shelf-break region. U behavior is most likely controlled less by traditional sorption and/or desorption reactions involving metal oxides or colloids than by the river's variable discharge regime (e.g., water parcel residence time during estuarine mixing, nature of particulates, sediment storage and resuspension in the confined lower river), and plume dispersal. Mixing of the thin freshwater lens into ambient seawater is largely defined by wind-driven rather than physical processes. As a consequence, in the Mississippi outflow region uranium predominantly displays Conser

  6. Uranium and radon in ground water in the lower Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium and radon are present in ground water throughout the United States, along with other naturally occurring radionuclides. The occurrence and distribution of uranium and radon are of concern because these radionuclides are carcinogens that can be ingested through drinking water. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, water samples were collected and analyzed for uranium and radon from 117 wells in four aquifers in the lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) from 1996 to 1997. The aquifers were the shallow glacial drift deposits of the Bloomington Ridged Plain (BRP) not overlying a buried bedrock valley (BRP N/O BV), shallow glacial drift deposits of the BRP overlying the Mahomet Buried Bedrock Valley (BRP O/L MBBV), shallow glacial drift deposits of the Galesburg/Springfield Plain not overlying a buried bedrock valley (GSP N/O BV), and the deep glacial drift deposits of the Mahomet Buried Bedrock Valley (MBBV). Uranium was detected in water samples from all aquifers except the MBBV and ranged in concentration from less than 1 microgram per liter ( ? g/L) to 17 ? g/L. Uranium concentrations did not exceed 20 ? g/L, the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) at the time of sampling (1996?97). The current (2001) promulgated MCL is 30 ? g/L (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). The highest median uranium concentration (2.0 ? g/L) among the four aquifers was in the BRP N/O BV. Uranium most often occurred in oxidizing and sulfate-rich water. Radon was detected in water samples from all aquifers in the LIRB. Radon concentrations in all aquifers ranged from less than 80 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) to 1,300 pCi/L. Of 117 samples, radon concentrations exceeded 300 pCi/L (the proposed USEPA MCL) in 34 percent of the samples. Radon concentrations exceeded 300 pCi/L in more than one-half of the samples from the GSP N/O BV and the BRP O/L MBBV. No sample exceeded the

  7. Distributions of selenium, iodine, lead, thorium and uranium in Japanese river waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2007-07-01

    Long-lived radionuclides released from nuclear facilities, such as deep underground disposal facilities, could reach humans through several transfer paths in the environment. Uses of ground water and river water for agricultural field irrigation and for drinking water are important paths. In order to understand behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial water environment, we carried out a natural analogue study, that is, measurement of selenium (Se), iodine (I), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) concentrations in 45 Japanese rivers at 10 sampling points from the upper stream to the river mouth for each river. Geometric mean concentrations for Se, I, Pb, Th and U were 0.057, 1.4, 0.039, 0.0055, 0.0109 ng/mL, respectively. Distribution patterns from upper stream to river mouth were different by elements, for instance, the concentrations of I, Th and U increased when the sampling points were nearer the river mouth, while that of Se were almost constant. For Pb, the highest value was observed in the middle part of each river in many cases. (authors)

  8. Spatial and temporal variability in estuary habitat use by American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Estuarine habitat occupied by Alligator mississippiensis, a primarily freshwater species, is spatially and temporally heterogeneous largely due to a salinity gradient that fluctuates. Using long-term night light survey data, we examined seasonal patterns in alligators’ habitat use by size classes in midstream and downstream estuary zones of Shark River, Everglades National Park, in southern Florida. We observed predominantly large-sized alligators (total length ≥ 1.75 m); observations of alligators in the small size classes (0.5 m ≤ total length < 1.25 m) were rare especially in the higher-salinity downstream zone. The density of alligators in the downstream zone was lower than that of the midstream zone during the dry season when salinity increases due to reduced precipitation. Conversely, the density of the large size alligators was higher in the downstream zone than in the midstream zone during the wet season, likely because of reduced salinity. We also found a significant declining trend over time in the number of alligators in the dry season, which coincides with the reported decline in alligator relative density in southern Florida freshwater wetlands. Our results indicated high adaptability of alligators to the fluctuating habitat conditions. Use of estuaries by alligators is likely driven in part by physiology and possibly by reproductive cycle, and our results supported their opportunistic use of estuary habitat and ontogenetic niche shifts.

  9. Element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Australia: biotic and geographic effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R A; Markich, S J; Twining, J R

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U, and Ti were determined in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments of Kakadu National Park, within the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia. This study provides, for the first-time, baseline concentrations of elements in both flesh and osteoderms of wild crocodiles. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of total crocodile length, estimated age, gender, inferred reproductive status, physical condition, and catchment of capture on element concentrations in both tissues. The Mg concentration (log10) in the flesh and osteoderms of C. porosus significantly (p < or = 0.001) decreased with increasing length (1.7-5.0 m) and estimated age (5-40 years). Similarly, the Ti concentration (log10) in flesh significantly (p < or = 0.01) decreased with increasing length. In contrast, Zn and Se concentration (log10) in flesh significantly (p < or = 0.001) increased with increasing length and/or age, suggesting that these relationships are mediated by biological rather than environmental chemical factors. In flesh, Fe and Na concentrations (log10) significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased as the physical condition of C. porosus deteriorated. No significant (p > 0.05) effects of gender or inferred reproductive status on element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms were found. The mean concentrations (log10) of Al, Ba, Cr, Ni, and Pb in flesh and Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, and U in the osteoderms were significantly (p < or = 0.01) different between catchments. The significant (p < or = 0.05) effects of catchment on the concentrations of various elements indicate that C. porosus reflects the chemistry of its environmental milieu and therefore has a certain degree of catchment fidelity, even though the catchments are adjacent to one another. Such catchment-specific signals may be useful in the

  10. Research on uranium deposits as analogies of radioactive waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of highly radioactive waste deep underground in suitable geological formations is proposed by many countries to protect public health and safety. The study of natural analogies of nuclear waste repositories is one method of validating mathematical models and assuring that a proposed repository site and design will be safe. Since 1981, the AAEC has studied the major uranium deposits in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory of Australia as natural analogues of radioactive waste repositories. Results have been obtained on the following: (1) the migration of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes, (2) the behavior of naturally occurring levels of selected fission products and transuranium nuclides, e.g. technetium-99, iodine-129 and plutonium-239; (3) the role of specific minerals in retarding migration, and (4) the importance of colloidal material, in the migration of thorium. The AAEC has initiated a wider international project entitled The Alligator Rivers Analogue Project which will enable participating organizations to obtain additional results and to apply them in modeling, planning and regulating waste repositories.

  11. Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved uranium in the Yellow River estuary: seasonal variation and anthropogenic (Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme) impact.

    PubMed

    Juanjuan, Sui; Zhigang, Yu; Bochao, Xu; Wenhua, Dong; Dong, Xia; Xueyan, Jiang

    2014-02-01

    The Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) of the Yellow River is a procedure implemented annually from June to July to expel sediments deposited in Xiaolangdi and other large middle-reach reservoirs and to scour the lower reaches of the river, by controlling water and sediment discharges. Dissolved uranium isotopes were measured in river waters collected monthly as well as daily during the 2010 WSRS (June 19-July 16) from Station Lijin (a hydrologic station nearest to the Yellow River estuary). The monthly samples showed dissolved uranium concentrations of 3.85-7.57 μg l(-1) and (234)U/(238)U activity ratios of 1.24-1.53. The concentrations were much higher than those reported for other global major rivers, and showed seasonal variability. Laboratory simulation experiments showed significant uranium release from bottom and suspended sediment. The uranium concentrations and activity ratios differed during the two stages of the WSRS, which may reflect desorption/dissolution of uranium from suspended river sediments of different origins. An annual flux of dissolved uranium of 1.04 × 10(8) g y(-1) was estimated based on the monthly average water discharge and dissolved uranium concentration in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The amount of dissolved uranium (2.65 × 10(7) g) transported from the Yellow River to the sea during the WSRS constituted about 1/4 of the annual flux.

  12. Uranium and Its Decay Products in Floodplain Sediments from the River Fal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, G. E.; Blake, W. H.; Little, R.; Couldrick, L.

    2012-04-01

    European river basins are subject to longer-term storage of legacy contaminants in sedimentary sinks and their potential release presents a credible risk to achieving water quality targets required by the EU Water Framework Directive. The catchment of the River Fal, south west England, is extensively mineralised and has been greatly impacted by heavy metal mining. Uranium and radium were extracted and processed between 1870 and 1930 and spoil tips along the channel banks are assumed to have been a source of radionuclides into the river. Radionuclides were determined in five cores obtained from the river floodplain, including a reference core positioned upstream of the uranium mine enabling evaluation of its impact on past and contemporary sediment quality. The core was sectioned into 1 cm thick slices and they were analysed by gamma spectrometry for products of the U-238 decay series, i.e. Th-234 (a surrogate for U-238), Pb-214 (a surrogate for Ra-226), Pb-210 and fallout Am-241 and Cs-137. Peak Cs-137 concentrations at mid-depth were associated with fallout after atmospheric nuclear tests in 1963 and were used to estimate sedimentation rates. However, the activity concentrations of Pb-210 were elevated at all depths and the result indicated a significant input of unsupported Pb-210 (linked to processed spoil material) throughout the period of deposition. At some sites, peak activity concentrations of Th-234 suggested inputs from mining activity during major release and/or flood events. The cores downstream of the mine all had higher radionuclide inventories, of the order 105 Bq m-2, compared to the reference core due to the presences of products from the U-238 decay series. In addition, the inventories did not decrease systematically downstream indicating storage regions within the river channel. Storage of such legacy contaminants at levels in excess of contemporary environmental quality guidelines raises important questions and challenges for floodplain use and

  13. Acoustic signals of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis): social communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyan; Wang, Ding; Wu, Xiaobing; Wang, Renping; Wang, Chaolin

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the first systematic study of acoustic signals during social interactions of the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). Sound pressure level (SPL) measurements revealed that Chinese alligators have an elaborate acoustic communication system with both long-distance signal-bellowing-and short-distance signals that include tooting, bubble blowing, hissing, mooing, head slapping and whining. Bellows have high SPL and appear to play an important role in the alligator's long range intercommunion. Sounds characterized by low SPL are short-distance signals used when alligators are in close spatial proximity to one another. The signal spectrographic analysis showed that the acoustic signals of Chinese alligators have a very low dominant frequency, less than 500 Hz. These frequencies are consistent with adaptation to a habitat with high density vegetation. Low dominant frequency sound attenuates less and could therefore cover a larger spatial range by diffraction in a densely vegetated environment relative to a higher dominant frequency sound.

  14. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2014-05-01

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanisms onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction, U L3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, fluorescence mapping and μ-XANES. Under oxidized conditions, U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH < 4 and pH > 8. Sequential extraction indicated that the U species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and organic fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3-edge XANES spectra of the U-bound sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. Based on fluorescence mapping, U and Fe distributions in the sediment were poorly correlated, U was distributed throughout the sample and did not appear as isolated U mineral phases. The primary oxidation state of U in these oxidized sediments was U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species or to secondary mineral formation. Collectively, this study suggests that U may be strongly bound to wetland sediments, not only under reducing conditions by reductive precipitation, but also under oxidizing conditions through NOM-uranium bonding.

  15. Protactinium-231 measurement and application to a uranium series transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golian, C.; Nightingale, T.; Airey, P. L.

    1984-06-01

    Precise measurements of small deviations of 230Th/ 234U and 231Pa/ 235U contribute to the modelling of the geochemical transport of uranium series nuclides. The use of alpha-spectrometry to measure the second-order daughter product 227Th was the analytical technique chosen. It was thereby assumed that the intermediate 227Ac is immobile. Complete methematical expressions for the count rate in various regions of the spectrum have been developed. They allow calculation of the initial yield from the cumulative counts of 227Th and the interfering 223Ra. 224Ra and 212Bi for extended time periods. The resulting increase in precision is particularly useful at low levels. The approach to modelling the transport of uranium series nuclides down-gradient of deposits within the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province of the Northern Territory of Australia is outlined. Some preliminary data are presented which call into question the assumption of the immobility of the 227Ac.

  16. A big alligator snacks on a smaller alligator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A large alligator attacks and eats a smaller one in a natural display of cannibalism. Although this event has been observed infrequently by Kennedy Space Center's staff photographers, it is common feeding behavior among the wild alligator population on the space center. Alligators are carnivorous and will eat any living thing that crosses their paths and is small enough for them to kill. For this reason, it is dangerous to feed wild alligators, and in Florida, it is also illegal. Kennedy Space Center is located on the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge which is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Uranium Bio-accumulation and Cycling as revealed by Uranium Isotopes in Naturally Reduced Sediments from the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Noël, Vincent; Jemison, Noah; Weaver, Karrie; Bargar, John; Maher, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Uranium (U) groundwater contamination following oxidized U(VI) releases from weathering of mine tailings is a major concern at numerous sites across the Upper Colorado River Basin (CRB), USA. Uranium(IV)-bearing solids accumulated within naturally reduced zones (NRZs) characterized by elevated organic carbon and iron sulfide compounds. Subsequent re-oxidation of U(IV)solid to U(VI)aqueous then controls the release to groundwater and surface water, resulting in plume persistence and raising public health concerns. Thus, understanding the extent of uranium oxidation and reduction within NRZs is critical for assessing the persistence of the groundwater contamination. In this study, we measured solid-phase uranium isotope fractionation (δ238/235U) of sedimentary core samples from four study sites (Shiprock, NM, Grand Junction, Rifle and Naturita, CO) using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). We observe a strong correlation between U accumulation and the extent of isotopic fractionation, with Δ238U up to +1.8 ‰ between uranium-enriched and low concentration zones. The enrichment in the heavy isotopes within the NRZs appears to be especially important in the vadose zone, which is subject to variations in water table depth. According to previous studies, this isotopic signature is consistent with biotic reduction processes associated with metal-reducing bacteria. Positive correlations between the amount of iron sulfides and the accumulation of reduced uranium underline the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions for U(IV) retention. Furthermore, the positive fractionation associated with U reduction observed across all sites despite some variations in magnitude due to site characteristics, shows a regional trend across the Colorado River Basin. The maximum extent of 238U enrichment observed in the NRZ proximal to the water table further suggests that the redox cycling of uranium, with net release of U(VI) to the groundwater by

  18. Physiological thermoregulation of mature alligators.

    PubMed

    Smith, E N; Standora, E A; Robertson, S L

    1984-01-01

    A 67.1 kg alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), tested in air, heated twice as fast as it cooled. The cooling thermal time constant was 425 min while alive. Warming and cooling thermal time constants were 421 min after death. The thermal time constant was not appropriate in describing warming in air of mature alligators. Surface and subdermal heat flow measurements of the 67.1 kg animal indicate greater blood flow in the skin during warming compared to cooling. Two mature alligators, 49.9 and 103 kg, were heated and cooled in water. Warming time constants were 67 and 110 min respectively. Cooling time constants were 180 and 246 min. Data from this study were combined with previously published thermal time constants for alligators providing regression equations for alligators ranging from 37 g to 103 kg. Regression equations for alligators tested in water are: tau w = 8.81 M050 tau c = 12.6 M0.62. Time constants (tau) are in minutes (w = warming, c = cooling) with all measurements in stirred water; mass, M, is in kg. Thermal conductance and metabolism data are combined to provide an estimate of the amount the body temperature of theoretical alligators ranging from 50 g to 1000 kg would be elevated by metabolism. A body temperature of 34.2 degrees C is predicted for a 1000 kg theoretical alligator in 30 degrees C water.

  19. Alligator physiology and life history: the importance of temperature.

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A

    2003-07-01

    Alligators are the most northerly distributed of the extant Crocodilia. Reproducing populations are found as far north as 35 degrees latitude in the freshwater marshes and rivers of coastal North Carolina, and as far south as 25 degrees latitude in the Florida Keys. Thus different populations are exposed to very different annual thermal cycles. Alligators stop eating when ambient temperature drops below 16 degrees C. This anorexia lasts at least 6 months at 35 degrees latitude. In southwest Louisiana alligators stop feeding in October and do not resume feeding until late March or early April. It is only during the warmer months when actively feeding that growth occurs. Even with this restricted growing season Louisiana alligators grow about 30 cm a year for the first 6 years. When alligators reach sexual maturity at about 1.85 m total length growth slows in both sexes, but is significantly slower in females than males. As a result of differences in thermal regime sexual maturity is estimated at around 18 years in North Carolina and about 10 years in Louisiana. Females lay one clutch of around 40 eggs in June, but the time of nesting is also tightly linked to temperature. In a cool spring nesting can occur as late as July 5th, and in a warm spring as early as June 5th. Immature male alligators undergo a seasonal hormonal cycle similar to fully mature breeding males, but testosterone levels differ by an order of magnitude. The number of mature females reproducing each year is rarely greater than 50%, but data on internest interval is lacking. Immature female alligators show no seasonal hormonal cycle.

  20. The 'Angry Alligator'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) as seen from the Gemini 9 spacecraft during one of their three rendezvous in space. The ATDA and Gemini 9 spacecraft are 66.5 ft. apart. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover to fully separate on the ATDA prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini 9 crew as an 'angry alligator.'

  1. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2014-05-01

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  2. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah, are relatively low in /sup 226/Ra content and concentration (20 Ci and 140 pCi/g, respectively) because the mill was used to upgrade the uranium ore by separating the sand and slime fractions; most of the radium was transported along with the slimes to another mill site. Spread of tailings was observed in all directions, but near-background gamma exposure rates were reached at distances of 40 to 90 m from the edge of the pile. Water erosion of the tailings is evident and, since a significant fraction of the tailings pile lies in Brown's Wash, the potential exists for repetition of the loss of a large quantity of tailings such as occurred during a flood in 1959. In general, the level of surface contamination was low at this site, but some areas in the mill site, which were being used for nonuranium work, have gamma-ray exposure rates up to 143 ..mu..R/hr.

  3. Comment and response document for the ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) responses to comments from both the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Utah are provided in this document. The Proposed Ground Water Protection Strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah, presents the proposed (modified) ground water protection strategy for the disposal cell at the Green River disposal site for compliance with Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192. Before the disposal cell was constructed, site characterization was conducted at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to determine an acceptable compliance strategy. Results of the investigation are reported in detail in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a). The NRC and the state of Utah have accepted the final RAP. The changes in this document relate only to a modification of the compliance strategy for ground water protection.

  4. Age of uranium mineralization at the Jabiluka and Ranger deposits, Northern Territory, Australia: New U- Pb isotope evidence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Nash, J.T.; Frishman, D.; Simmons, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers uranium field, which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 b.y.-old Kombolgie Formation. This study has used U-Pb isotope data from a large number of whole-rock drill core samples with a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Both Ranger and Jabiluka reflect a common, profound isotopic disturbance at about 400 to 600 m.y. This disturbance, which was especially pronounced at Jabiluka, may correspond to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW.-from Authors

  5. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01) implied the uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations.

  6. Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Klenk, Kaci; Snow, Jamie; Morgan, Katrina; Bowen, Richard; Stephens, Michael; Foster, Falicia; Gordy, Paul; Beckett, Susan; Komar, Nicholas; Gubler, Duane; Bunning, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) may be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) to other alligators. We experimentally exposed 24 juvenile alligators to WNV parenterally or orally. All became infected, and all but three sustained viremia titers >5.0 log10 PFU/mL (a threshold considered infectious for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes) for 1 to 8 days. Noninoculated tankmates also became infected. The viremia profiles and multiple routes of infection suggest alligators may play an important role in WNV transmission in areas with high population densities of juvenile alligators.

  7. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  8. Uranium and plutonium in anoxic marine sediments of the Santiago River mouth (Eastern Pacific, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Almazán-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ordóñez-Regil, Eduardo; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina

    2016-11-01

    The uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) content with depth in a sediment core collected in the continental shelf off the mouth of the Santiago River in the Mexican Pacific was studied to evaluate the contamination effects of the effluent of the Santiago-Lerma River as it moves into the sea. The large mass of terrestrial detritus delivered by the river influences the physicochemical and geochemical processes in the seafloor. Abnormal concentrations of U and Pu in sediments were examined as indicative of the effects of anoxic conditions. One of the indicators of pollution of seawater is the bacterial activity of the shallow seabed layer; and among the prevailing bacteria, the magnetotactic ones induce the formation of euhedral and framboidal shapes (pyrite). These pyrite entities are by-products of anoxic environments loaded with decomposing detrital material and are very abundant in the surface layers of the sediment core analyzed. The pyrite formation is the result of a biochemical reaction between iron and organic sulphur reduced by bacteria, and the pyrite entities precipitate to the seafloor. In the same upper zone of the profile, (238)U is readily immobilized, while (234)U is oxidized and dissolved in seawater by the effect of hot atom chemistry. This may cause the activity ratio (AR) (234)U/(238)U disequilibrium (near 0.41). Furthermore, in the shallow layer of the sediment core, an abnormally high concentration of (239+240)Pu was detected. In this upper layer, the activity concentrations found were 3.19 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 1.32 kg(-1) for (234)U and 2.78 Bq kg(-1) for (239+240)Pu. In the lower fractions of the sediment core, normal values of AR (234)U/(238)U (≈1) were found, with traces of (239+240)Pu.

  9. Subsurface Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities at Uranium Contaminated Sites in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, E.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Dam, W. L.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River Basin (CRB), uranium (U) persists as a relic contaminant of former ore processing activities. Elevated solid-phase U levels exist in fine-grained, naturally-reduced zone (NRZ) sediments intermittently found within the subsurface floodplain alluvium of the following Department of Energy-Legacy Management sites: Rifle, CO; Naturita, CO; and Grand Junction, CO. Coupled with groundwater fluctuations that alter the subsurface redox conditions, previous evidence from Rifle, CO suggests this resupply of U may be controlled by microbially-produced nitrite and nitrate. Nitrification, the two-step process of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidation followed by bacterial nitrite oxidation, generates nitrate under oxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that when elevated groundwater levels recede and the subsurface system becomes anoxic, the nitrate diffuses into the reduced interiors of the NRZ and stimulates denitrification, the stepwise anaerobic reduction of nitrate/nitrite to dinitrogen gas. Denitrification may then be coupled to the oxidation of sediment-bound U(IV) forming mobile U(VI), allowing it to resupply U into local groundwater supplies. A key step in substantiating this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of nitrogen-cycling organisms in U-contaminated, NRZ sediments from the upper CRB. Here we investigate how the diversity and abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations change throughout the NRZs of the subsurface by using functional gene markers for ammonia-oxidation (amoA, encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, encoding nitrite reductase). Microbial diversity has been assessed via clone libraries, while abundances have been determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), elucidating how relative numbers of nitrifiers (amoA) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS) vary with depth, vary with location, and relate to uranium release within NRZs in sediment

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  11. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.

  12. Assessment of bacterial community composition in response to uranium levels in sediment samples of sacred Cauvery River.

    PubMed

    Suriya, Jayaraman; Chandra Shekar, Mootapally; Nathani, Neelam Mustakali; Suganya, Thangaiyan; Bharathiraja, Subramanian; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2017-01-01

    Global industrialization is a major cause of effluent discharge from industries up to alarming concentrations. Especially, uranium concentrations in water bodies are of great concern, as its radioactivity significantly affects the persistent diversity of microbiota. Recently, continuous application of pesticides in the agricultural lands and accumulation of quartz that enter the Cauvery River has significantly increased the concentration of uranium (U) and other heavy metals. To perceive the impact of uranium on bacterial diversity in Cauvery River, sediment samples collected from polluted (UP) site with 32.4 Bq/K of U concentration and control (UNP) site were scrutinized for bacterial diversity through metagenomic analysis of the V3 region of 16S rDNA by Illumina sequencing. Taxonomic assignment revealed that the unpolluted sample was dominated by Bacteroidetes (27.7 %), and Firmicutes (25.9 %), while sediment sample from the highly polluted site revealed abundance of Proteobacteria (47.5 %) followed by Bacteroidetes (22.4 %) and Firmicutes (14.6 %). Among Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria was the most prevalent group followed by alpha, delta, epsilon, and beta in the uranium-polluted sample. Rare and abundant species analysis revealed that species like Idiomarina loihiensis was abundant in the pollutant sample; however, it was rare (<0.1 %) in the sample from pristine environment. Similarly, the species distribution in both the samples varied, with the bacteria potentially active in redox activity and biosorption potential dominating in the polluted sample. Outcomes of the present study demonstrated the impact of uranium and metal accumulation on the bacterial communities and further confirmed the promising candidature of specific bacterial species as bioindicators of contamination.

  13. Developmental morphology of the neonatal alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Uribe-Aranzábal, Mari Carmen; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-03-01

    American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) ovary development is incomplete at hatching. During the months following hatching, the cortical processes of oogenesis started in ovo continues and folliculogenesis is initiated. Additionally, the medullary region of the gonad undergoes dramatic restructuring. We describe alligator ovarian histology at hatching, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age in order to characterize the timing of morphological development and compare these findings to chicken ovary development. At hatching, the ovarian cortex presents a germinal epithelium containing oogonia and a few primary oocytes irregularly scattered between somatic epithelial cells. The hatchling medulla shows fragmentation indicative of the formation of lacunae. By 1 week of age, oocytes form growing nests and show increased interactions with somatic cells, indicative of the initiation of folliculogenesis. Medullary lacunae increase in diameter and contain secretory material in their lumen. At 1 month, nest sizes and lacunar diameters continue to enlarge. Pachytene oocytes surrounded by somatic cells are more frequent. Trabeculae composed of dense irregular connective tissue divide cortical nests. Three months after hatching oocytes in meiotic stages of prophase I up to diplotene are present. The ovary displays many enlarged follicles with oocytes in diplotene arrest, thecal layers, lampbrush chromosomes, and complete layers of follicular cells. The medulla is an elaborated complex of vascularized lacunae underlying the cortex and often containing discrete lymphoid aggregates. While the general morphology of the alligator ovary is similar to that of the chicken ovary, the progression of oogenesis and folliculogenesis around hatching is notably slower in alligators. Diplotene oocytes are observed at hatching in chickens, but not until 3 months in alligators. Folliculogenesis is completed at 3 weeks in chickens whereas it is still progressing at 3 months in alligators.

  14. Groundwater uranium origin and fate control in a river valley aquifer.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Demmel, Thomas; Rüde, Thomas R; Wrobel, Michael

    2013-12-17

    Groundwater in a Quaternary gravel aquifer partly exhibits uranium (U) concentrations exceeding the new German drinking water limitation (22% of the samples >10 μg L(-1)). This study assesses relevant U reservoirs and hydrogeochemical processes responsible for U transfer between them. A large data set of solid materials (sediments and soils, 164 samples total) and groundwater (114 samples total) characteristics was created in terms of geo- and hydrochemistry, mineralogy, U microdistribution, and mobilization potential. Results show that U primarily derived from lignitic inclusions in Tertiary sediments is transported to and accumulated (complexation to organic substance and UO2 precipitation) in lowland moor peats of the river valley grown on the aquifer gravels. The alkaline character of the system predefines a hydrogeochemical framework fostering U mobility. Elevated concentrations (up to 96 μg L(-1) U) occur downstream of the moor areas and under Mn/NO3-reducing groundwater conditions. Oxic and stronger reduced settings are rather little affected. Supporting previous laboratory studies, this suggests enhanced U mobility in the presence of nitrate also in the field scale. While no anthropogenic U input was detected in the study area, agricultural usage of the moor areas triggers geogenic U release via nitrate fertilization, surface peat degradation, and erosion.

  15. Developmental plasticity of mitochondrial function in American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Janna; Elsey, Ruth M.; Dzialowski, Edward M.; Shiels, Holly A.; Crossley, Dane A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hypoxia on cellular metabolism is well documented in adult vertebrates, but information is entirely lacking for embryonic organisms. The effect of hypoxia on embryonic physiology is particularly interesting, as metabolic responses during development may have life-long consequences, due to developmental plasticity. To this end, we investigated the effects of chronic developmental hypoxia on cardiac mitochondrial function in embryonic and juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Alligator eggs were incubated in 21% or 10% oxygen from 20 to 90% of embryonic development. Embryos were either harvested at 90% development or allowed to hatch and then reared in 21% oxygen for 3 yr. Ventricular mitochondria were isolated from embryonic/juvenile alligator hearts. Mitochondrial respiration and enzymatic activities of electron transport chain complexes were measured with a microrespirometer and spectrophotometer, respectively. Developmental hypoxia induced growth restriction and increased relative heart mass, and this phenotype persisted into juvenile life. Embryonic mitochondrial function was not affected by developmental hypoxia, but at the juvenile life stage, animals from hypoxic incubations had lower levels of Leak respiration and higher respiratory control ratios, which is indicative of enhanced mitochondrial efficiency. Our results suggest developmental hypoxia can have life-long consequences for alligator morphology and metabolic function. Further investigations are necessary to reveal the adaptive significance of the enhanced mitochondrial efficiency in the hypoxic phenotype. PMID:27707718

  16. Growth rates of Chinese and American alligators.

    PubMed

    Herbert, J D; Coulson, T D; Coulson, R A

    2002-04-01

    Growth rates in two closely related species, Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. When hatched, Chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of American alligator hatchlings. At the end of 1 year of growth in captivity in heated chambers, the Chinese alligators were approximately 1/2 as long and weighed approximately 1/10 as much as American alligator yearlings. When the animals were maintained at 31 degrees C, Chinese alligator food consumption and length gain rates dropped to near zero during autumn and winter and body weights decreased slightly, apparently in response to the change in day length. At constant temperature (31 degrees C), food consumption by American alligators remained high throughout the year. Length gain rates in American alligators decreased slowly as size increased, but were not affected by photoperiod. Daily weight gains in American alligators increased steadily throughout the year. In autumn, provision of artificial light for 18 h a day initially stimulated both length and weight gain in Chinese alligators, but did not affect growth in American alligators. Continuation of the artificial light regimen seemed to cause deleterious effects in the Chinese alligators after several months, however, so that animals exposed to the normal light cycle caught up to and then surpassed the extra-light group in size. Even after removal of the artificial light, it was several months before these extra-light animals reverted to a normal growth pattern. These findings may be of interest to those institutions engaged in captive growth programs intended to provide animals for reintroduction to the wild or to protected habitat.

  17. Alligator diet in relation to alligator mortality on Lake Griffin, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.

  18. Description of drill-hole VIIIV core from the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit is one of four large unconformity-type deposits in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field in the eastern part of the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. These unconformity-type uranium deposits occur as veins, disseminations, and breccia matrix in metasedimentary rocks of the Lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation and are near a regional unconformity that separates the Cahill from the sedimentary rocks of the Middle Proterozoic Kombolgie Formation. The study of unconformity-type deposits - a new type of uranium deposit typified by deposits discovered in the past 15 years in Australia and Canada - is part of the US Geological Survey uranium program; funding was also provided by the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Pancontinental Mining Limited kindly gave us access to Jabiluka core and made their geological and geophysical data available for inclusion in our reports. Data and interpretations from the mineralogy and stratigraphy of Jabiluka should aid in defining characteristics and setting of these world class deposits and guide exploration for similar deposits in the United States. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Detailed geochemical study of the Dan River-Danville Triassic Basin, North Carolina and Virginia. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P. A.; Cook, J. R.

    1982-08-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of surface geochemical reconnaissance in the Dan River-Danville Triassic Basin of north-central North Carolina and south-central Virginia. Unweathered rock samples were collected at 380 sites within the basin at a nominal sampling density of one site per square mile. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site; analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. A detailed four-channel spectrometric survey was conducted, and the results are presented as a series of symbol plot maps for eU, eTh, and eU/eTh. Data from rock sample sites (on microfiche in pocket) include rock type and color and elemental analyses for U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti, V, and Yb. Elemental uranium in 362 sedimentary rock samples from the Dan River-Danville Basin ranges from a low of 0.1 to a maximum of 13.3 parts per million (ppM). The log mean uranium concentration for these same samples is 0.37 ppM, and the log standard deviation is 0.24 ppM. Elemental uranium in 10 diabase dike samples from within the basin is in the range 0.1 to 0.7 ppM. The log mean uranium concentration for diabase samples is -.65 ppM, and the log standard deviation is 0.27. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  20. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma alligatoris among free-ranging alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida--2003.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel R; Zacher, Laurie A; Carbonneau, Dwayne A

    2005-06-01

    Mycoplasma alligatoris causes acute lethal infection of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The objective of this study was to assess the current seroprevalence of M. alligatoris among free-ranging, juvenile and subadult alligators in Florida. Thirty-two of 592 (5.4%) plasma samples from alligators at 12 of 20 sites (60%) in April and October 2003 were tested seropositive (titer 1: > or = 32) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-M. alligatoris antibodies. These results show that alligators throughout Florida have a recent history of exposure to M. alligatoris and suggest that contact with free-ranging alligators may constitute a risk of lethal infection of susceptible crocodilians.

  1. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  2. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco J.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  3. Uranium potential of precambrian rocks in the Raft River area of northwestern Utah and south-central Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.A.

    1980-09-01

    A total of 1214 geochemical samples were collected and analyzed. The sampling media included 334 waters, 616 stream sediments, and 264 rocks. In addition, some stratigraphic sections of Elba and Yost Quartzites and Archean metasedimentary rock were measured and sampled and numerous radiation determinations made of the various target units. Statistical evaluation of the geochemical data permitted recognition of 156 uranium anomalies, 52 in water, 79 in stream sediment, and 25 in rock. Geographically, 68 are located in the Grouse Creek Mountains, 43 in the Raft River Mountains, and 41 in the Albion Range. Interpretation of the various data leads to the conclusion that uranium anomalies relate to sparingly and moderately soluble uraniferous heavy minerals, which occur as sparse but widely distributed magmatic, detrital, and/or metamorphically segregated components in the target lithostratigraphic units. The uraniferous minerals known to occur and believed to account for the geochemical anomalies include allanite, monazite, zircon, and apatite. In some instances samarskite may be important. These heavy minerals contain uranium and geochemically related elements, such as Th, Ce, Y, and Zr, in sufficient quantities to account for both the conspicuous lithologic preference and the generally observed low amplitude of the anomalies. The various data generated in connection with this study, as well as those available in the published literature, collectively support the conclusion that the various Precambrian W and X lithostratigraphic units pre-selected for evaluation probably lack potential to host important Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits. Moreover it is also doubted that they possess any potential to host Proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits.

  4. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  5. Uranium in the surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River environment (Chihuahua, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  6. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  7. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan E.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influence plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences between

  8. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and that are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 µg/L or 0.126 µmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influences plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences

  9. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone.

    PubMed

    Zachara, John M; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John; Davis, James A; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K; Freshley, Mark D; Konopka, Allan E; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P; Rockhold, Mark L; Williams, Kenneth H; Yabusaki, Steve B

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (

  10. Pathology of experimental mycoplasmosis in American alligators.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Nogueira, M F; Schoeb, T R; Vliet, K A; Bennett, R A; Pye, G W; Jacobson, E R

    2001-10-01

    Mycoplasma alligatoris was the suspected etiology of an epidemic of acute multisystemic inflammatory disease which emerged in captive American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida (USA) in 1995. In an experimental inoculation study conducted from April through October 1999, 18 alligators were inoculated with 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) of M. alligatoris by instillation into the glottis. As early as 1 wk post-inoculation (PI), mycoplasma were cultured from blood of three of six alligators inoculated with 10(6) CFU. Two of those died and the third was euthanatized within 4 wk PI. Necropsy gross findings included fibrinous polyserositis and polyarthritis. Histopathologic changes in affected individuals included pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia, pericarditis, myocarditis, meningitis, and synovitis. Mycoplasma were cultured quantitatively in high numbers from trachea, lung, coelomic cavity, liver, spleen, interior of pericardial sac, heart, blood, brain, and limb joints. In alligators inoculated with 10(6) CFU, heterophilia and moderate hyperglycemia peaked about 4 wk PI, and seroconversion occurred by 6 to 8 wk PI. Necropsy gross and histologic findings were generally unremarkable for the surviving alligators inoculated with 10(6) CFU, alligators inoculated with 10(2) or 10(4) CFU, and four uninoculated control alligators. Mycoplasma were not cultured at any time point from those alligators. The findings confirm that M. alligatoris can cause fulminant inflammatory disease and rapid death of alligators.

  11. Structural design and mechanical behavior of alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang-Yu; Chen, Po-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Alligator is a well-adapted living fossil covered with dorsal armor. This dermal shield consists of bony plates, called osteoderms, interconnected by sutures and non-mineralized collagen fibers, providing a dual function of protection and flexibility. Osteoderm features a sandwich structure, combining an inner porous core and an outer dense cortex, to offer enhancements for stiffness and energy absorbance. In this study, we investigated the multi-scale structure and mechanical behaviors of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) osteoderm. Microcomputed tomography was applied to reveal the complex neurovascular network. Through the observation under optical and scanning electron microscopes, the osteoderm was found to consist of woven bone in the dorsal region and lamellar-zonal bone in the ventral region. Nanoindentation and compressive tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of osteoderms. The varying mineral contents and porosity result in a graded mechanical property: a hard and stiff dorsal cortex gradually transform to a more compliant ventral base. Three protective mechanisms optimized for alligator osteoderms were proposed and elucidated.

  12. Morphology and histochemistry of juvenile American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nephrons.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Hyndman, Kelly A; Cox, Ashley; Lawler, Ashley; Mathavan, Ketan; Guillette, Louis J

    2009-10-01

    Here we present a detailed morphological description of the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) kidney and nephron. We present a series of histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical markers that clearly define the seven regions of the alligator nephron. The alligator kidney is composed of many paired (mirrored) lobules on each kidney (lobe). Single nephrons span the width of lobules three times. The fine structure of glomeruli, lying in rows spanning the height of the lobule, is resolved by periodic acid methionine silver (PAMS) and periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) histochemistry. Glomeruli are connected to the proximal tubule (PT) via a neck segment. The PT is alcian blue-negative, making it distinct from the distal tubule (DT), connecting segment (CS), and collecting duct (CD). The PT is clearly identifiable by a PAS-positive brush border membrane. The PT is connected to the DT via an intermediate segment (IS) that makes a 180 degrees turn to connect these tubules. PAMS-positive material is found in the lumens of the PT, IS, and DT. Also, PAMS-positive granules are found in the DT, CS, and CD. Immunolocalization of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase to the basolateral membrane of the DT, CS, and CD suggests a role of this enzyme in driving primary and secondary transport processes in these segments, including bicarbonate transport into the lumen of the DT (leading to an alkaline urine). Through the techniques described here, we have identified a series of distinct markers to be used by pathologists, veterinarians, and researchers to easily identify alligator nephron segments. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Alligators in the Sewers? Really?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2009-01-01

    A large number of alligators, flushed down toilets as babies, have grown up and proliferated in the bowels of New York City. Over the years, they have grown in number and size and frequently terrorize those foolish enough to visit the subways. This tale has been making its way around the Internet ever since there's been an Internet. It's wild…

  14. Trace elements in native and transplanted Fontinalis antipyretica and Platyhypnidium riparioides from rivers polluted by uranium mining.

    PubMed

    Kosior, Grzegorz; Steinnes, Eiliv; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Lierhagen, Syverin; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew

    2017-03-01

    The past uranium/polymetallic mining activities in the Sudety (SW Poland) left abandoned mines, pits, and dumps of waste rocks with trace elements and radionuclides which may erode or leach out and create a potential risk for the aquatic ecosystem, among others. In the present work four rivers affected by effluents from such mines were selected to evaluate the application of aquatic mosses for the bioindication of 56 elements. Naturally growing F. antipyretica and P. riparioides were compared with transplanted samples of the same species. The results demonstrate serious pollution of the examined rivers, especially with As, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, U and Zn, reaching extremely high concentrations in native moss samples. In the most polluted rivers native F. antipyretica and P. riparioides samples showed significantly higher concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Fe, La, Nd, Ni, Pb, U and Zn than corresponding transplanted samples, whereas at less polluted sites a reverse situation was sometimes observed. Transplanted moss moved from clean to extremely polluted rivers probably protects itself against the accumulation of toxic elements by reducing their uptake. Selection of native or transplanted F. antipyretica and P. riparioides depended on the pollution load.

  15. Occurrence of decabromodiphenyl ethane in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bing; Wu, Ting; Zhao, Guangchao; Sun, Yuxin; Wang, Xinming; Zhao, Juan; Yi, Zhigang; Wu, Xiaobing; Mai, Bixian

    2015-01-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), was investigated in captive Chinese alligators from China. DBDPE was detected in adult tissues, neonates and eggs of Chinese alligators with concentrations ranging from 4.74-192, 0.24-1.94, and 0.01-0.51 ng g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Compared to PBDEs and PCBs, DBDPE contamination was limited in Chinese alligators. Additionally, DBDPE concentrations in adult muscles were one to three orders of magnitude higher than those in neonates and eggs, suggesting the limited maternal transfer potential of DBDPE in Chinese alligators. This is the first study to report the occurrence of DBDPE in Chinese alligators.

  16. Assessing potential risk to alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, from nutria control with zinc phosphide rodenticide baits.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Gary W; Eisemann, John D; Primus, Thomas M; O'Hare, Jeanette R; Perry, Kelly R; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2010-06-01

    Nutria, Myocastor coypus, populations must be reduced when they cause substantial wetland damage. Control can include the rodenticide zinc phosphide, but the potential impacts to American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, must be assessed. The mean amount of zinc phosphide per nutria found in nutria carcasses was 50 mg. Risk assessment determined that a conservative estimate for maximum exposure would be 173 mg zinc phosphide for a 28 kg alligator, or 6.2 mg/kg. Probit analysis found an LD(50) for alligators of 28 mg/kg. Our studies suggest that the use of zinc phosphide to manage nutria populations would pose only a small risk to alligators.

  17. Uranium-bearing lignite and its relation to the White River and Arikaree formations in northwestern South Dakota and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denson, N.M.; Bachman, G.O.; Zeller, H.D.

    1954-01-01

    the original White River and Arikaree sediments. Individual maps showing the extent, thickness, and variations in mineral content of the important deposits in the Table Mountain, Cave Hills, Slim Buttes, Lodgepole, and Medicine Pole areas are included. Conditions controlling the concentration of uranium are described and their application as guides to finding additional reserves by the presently held concepts are explained and illustrated.

  18. Distribution of ventilation in American alligator Alligator mississippiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Bickler, P.E.; Spragg, R.G.; Hartman, M.T.; White, F.N.

    1985-10-01

    The regional distribution of ventilation in the multicameral lung of spontaneously ventilating alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) was studied with TTXe scintigraphy. Frequent gamma camera images of TTXe washin and washout were obtained and processed to allow evaluation of regional ventilation. Washin of TTXe to equilibrium occurred in three to four breaths in anterior, central, and posterior compartments. Washin was most rapid in the posterior compartment and slowest in the anterior. The structure of the lungs and distribution of ventilation of inspired gas is consistent with the rapid radial spread of gas through a parallel arrangement of lung units surrounding the central intrapulmonary bronchus. Washout to equilibrium of TTXe from all compartments occurred within three to four breaths. This rapid washin and washout of gas to all parts of the lung stands in contrast to the lungs of turtles and snakes, in which the caudal air sacs are relatively poorly ventilated.

  19. Uranium isotopes (U-234/U-238) in rivers of the Yukon Basin (Alaska and Canada) as an aid in identifying water sources, with implications for monitoring hydrologic change in arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect hydrologic variation in large arctic river systems is of major importance in understanding and predicting effects of climate change in high-latitude environments. Monitoring uranium isotopes (234U and 238U) in river water of the Yukon River Basin of Alaska and northwestern Canada (2001–2005) has enhanced the ability to identify water sources to rivers, as well as detect flow changes that have occurred over the 5-year study. Uranium isotopic data for the Yukon River and major tributaries (the Porcupine and Tanana rivers) identify several sources that contribute to river flow, including: deep groundwater, seasonally frozen river-valley alluvium groundwater, and high-elevation glacial melt water. The main-stem Yukon River exhibits patterns of uranium isotopic variation at several locations that reflect input from ice melt and shallow groundwater in the spring, as well as a multi-year pattern of increased variability in timing and relative amount of water supplied from higher elevations within the basin. Results of this study demonstrate both the utility of uranium isotopes in revealing sources of water in large river systems and of incorporating uranium isotope analysis in long-term monitoring of arctic river systems that attempt to assess the effects of climate change.

  20. Biophysics of directional hearing in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Hilary S.; Thornton, Jennifer L.; Jones, Heath G.; Koka, Kanthaiah; Young, Bruce A.; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological and anatomical studies have suggested that alligators have unique adaptations for spatial hearing. Sound localization cues are primarily generated by the filtering of sound waves by the head. Different vertebrate lineages have evolved external and/or internal anatomical adaptations to enhance these cues, such as pinnae and interaural canals. It has been hypothesized that in alligators, directionality may be enhanced via the acoustic coupling of middle ear cavities, resulting in a pressure difference receiver (PDR) mechanism. The experiments reported here support a role for a PDR mechanism in alligator sound localization by demonstrating that (1) acoustic space cues generated by the external morphology of the animal are not sufficient to generate location cues that match physiological sensitivity, (2) continuous pathways between the middle ears are present to provide an anatomical basis for coupling, (3) the auditory brainstem response shows some directionality, and (4) eardrum movement is directionally sensitive. Together, these data support the role of a PDR mechanism in crocodilians and further suggest this mechanism is a shared archosaur trait, most likely found also in the extinct dinosaurs. PMID:24671963

  1. Environmental influence on yolk steroids in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Albergotti, Lori C; McCoy, Michael W; Mutz, Jessica; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-11-01

    The egg yolk serves as a significant source of maternally derived steroids that are available to the embryo during early development. Altered deposition of yolk steroids can change the developmental trajectory of the embryo and have long lasting or permanent consequences. Alligators from contaminated environments have shown significant reproductive and developmental dysfunction, and it is unclear if altered deposition of yolk steroids could be a contributing factor. Alligator eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff (a reference lake), Lake Apopka (a site of known agricultural contamination), and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) (home of the Kennedy Space Center and a site of heavy metal contamination). The yolks of eggs at embryonic stages 12 (prior to sex determination) and 24 (post-sex determination) were evaluated for concentrations of progesterone, 17-beta estradiol, and testosterone. Yolk concentrations of progesterone were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from Lake Apopka and MINWR when compared to eggs from Lake Woodruff. Yolk concentrations of 17-beta estradiol were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from MINWR when compared to the other two sites. Reductions in yolk 17-beta estradiol concentrations from embryonic stage 12 to 24 were significantly attenuated in eggs from MINWR versus that of Lakes Woodruff and Apopka. This study suggests that altered deposition of yolk steroids, and possibly differential utilization by the embryo, could be a contributory mechanism in the reproductive and developmental abnormalities seen in alligators from contaminated locales.

  2. Biophysics of directional hearing in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Thornton, Jennifer L; Jones, Heath G; Koka, Kanthaiah; Young, Bruce A; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E; Tollin, Daniel J

    2014-04-01

    Physiological and anatomical studies have suggested that alligators have unique adaptations for spatial hearing. Sound localization cues are primarily generated by the filtering of sound waves by the head. Different vertebrate lineages have evolved external and/or internal anatomical adaptations to enhance these cues, such as pinnae and interaural canals. It has been hypothesized that in alligators, directionality may be enhanced via the acoustic coupling of middle ear cavities, resulting in a pressure difference receiver (PDR) mechanism. The experiments reported here support a role for a PDR mechanism in alligator sound localization by demonstrating that (1) acoustic space cues generated by the external morphology of the animal are not sufficient to generate location cues that match physiological sensitivity, (2) continuous pathways between the middle ears are present to provide an anatomical basis for coupling, (3) the auditory brainstem response shows some directionality, and (4) eardrum movement is directionally sensitive. Together, these data support the role of a PDR mechanism in crocodilians and further suggest this mechanism is a shared archosaur trait, most likely found also in the extinct dinosaurs.

  3. Bioprospecting the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) host defense peptidome.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Barney M; Juba, Melanie L; Devine, Megan C; Barksdale, Stephanie M; Rodriguez, Carlos Alberto; Chung, Myung C; Russo, Paul S; Vliet, Kent A; Schnur, Joel M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2015-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides and their therapeutic potential have garnered growing interest because of the proliferation of bacterial resistance. However, the discovery of new antimicrobial peptides from animals has proven challenging due to the limitations associated with conventional biochemical purification and difficulties in predicting active peptides from genomic sequences, if known. As an example, no antimicrobial peptides have been identified from the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, although their serum is antimicrobial. We have developed a novel approach for the discovery of new antimicrobial peptides from these animals, one that capitalizes on their fundamental and conserved physico-chemical properties. This sample-agnostic process employs custom-made functionalized hydrogel microparticles to harvest cationic peptides from biological samples, followed by de novo sequencing of captured peptides, eliminating the need to isolate individual peptides. After evaluation of the peptide sequences using a combination of rational and web-based bioinformatic analyses, forty-five potential antimicrobial peptides were identified, and eight of these peptides were selected to be chemically synthesized and evaluated. The successful identification of multiple novel peptides, exhibiting antibacterial properties, from Alligator mississippiensis plasma demonstrates the potential of this innovative discovery process in identifying potential new host defense peptides.

  4. Jumping the Alligators in the Ditch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Rims

    Poor black young people in rural Mississippi contemplate their schooling with the same feelings as their friends who dare to jump the local ditches filled with alligators: the odds are against escaping the alligators, and the advantages of getting to the far side are not very apparent. Living in conditions of extreme poverty, these young people…

  5. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III.

    1992-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  6. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III

    1992-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  7. Very long hillslope transport timescales determined from uranium-series isotopes in river sediments from a large, tectonically stable catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, P. O.; Dosseto, A.; Hesse, P. P.; Handley, H. K.

    2014-10-01

    The uranium-series isotopic compositions of soils and sediments evolve in response to time and weathering conditions. Therefore, these isotopes can be used to constrain the timescales of river sediment transport. Catchment evolution depends on the sediment dynamic timescales, on which erosion imparts a major control. Erosion rates in tectonically stable catchments are expected to be lower than those in tectonically active catchments, implying longer sediment residence times in tectonically stable catchments. Mineralogical, elemental and isotopic data are presented for modern channel sediments, alluvial and colluvial deposits from the Murrumbidgee River, a large catchment in the passive margin highlands of south-eastern Australia and three of its tributaries from the headwaters to the alluvial plain. Low variability in Si-based Weathering Index indicates that there is little chemical weathering occurring in the Murrumbidgee River during sediment transport. However, quartz content increases and plagioclase content decreases downstream, indicating progressive mineralogical sorting and/or physical comminution with increasing transport distance. U-series isotopic ratios in the Murrumbidgee River trunk stream sediments show no systematic downstream variation. The weathering ages of sediments within the catchment were determined using a loss-gain model of U-series isotopes. Modern sediments from a headwater tributary, the Bredbo River at Frogs Hollow, have a weathering age of 76 ± 30 kyr but all other modern channel sediments from the length of the Murrumbidgee River and its main tributaries have weathering ages ∼400 ± 180 kyr. The two headwater colluvial deposits have weathering ages of 57 ± 13 and 47 ± 11 kyr, respectively. All the alluvial deposits have weathering ages similar to those of modern sediments. No downstream trend in weathering age is observed. Together with the soil residence time of up to 30 kyr for ridge-top soils at Frogs Hollow in the upper

  8. Distribution of selenium, molybdenum and uranium in sediment cores from the Colorado River delta, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Durán, A; Daesslé, L W; Gutiérrez-Galindo, E A; Muñoz-Barbosa, A

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of selenium, molybdenum and uranium was studied in ~1.5 m sediment cores from the Colorado River delta, at the Colorado (CR) and Hardy (HR) riverbeds. Core HR2 showed highest Se, Mo and U concentrations at its bottom (2.3, 0.95 and 1.8 μg g(-1)) within a sandy-silt layer deposited prior to dam construction. In CR5 the highest concentrations of these elements (0.9, 1.4 and 1.7 μg g(-1) respectively) were located at the top of the core within a surface layer enriched in organic carbon. A few samples from HR2 had Se above the probable toxic effect level guidelines.

  9. Assessment of the quality of groundwater and the Little Wind River in the area of a former uranium processing facility on the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, 1987 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Naftz, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission (WREQC), began an assessment of the effectiveness of the existing monitoring network at the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. The USGS used existing data supplied by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study was to determine (1) seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow in the area of the former uranium processing facility toward the Little Wind River, (2) the extent of contaminated groundwater among the aquifers and between the aquifers and the Little Wind River, (3) whether current monitoring is adequate to establish the effectiveness of natural attenuation for the contaminants of concern, and (4) the influence of groundwater discharged from the sulfuric-acid plant on water quality in the Little Wind River.

  10. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone: U TRANSPORT IN A GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER TRANSITION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; Hammond, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    A tightly spaced well-field within a groundwater uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a three year period for groundwater elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from mountain snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trends for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal well-to well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common temporal behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Concentration hot spots were observed in groundwater that varied in location with increasing water table elevation. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While uranium time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year to year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of the river water intrusion event.

  11. Carbon Characteristics and Biogeochemical Processes of Uranium Accumulating Organic Matter Rich Sediments in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boye, K.; Noel, V.; Tfaily, M. M.; Dam, W. L.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Uranium plume persistence in groundwater aquifers is a problem on several former ore processing sites on floodplains in the upper Colorado River Basin. Earlier observations by our group and others at the Old Rifle Site, CO, have noted that U concentrations are highest in organic rich, fine-grained, and, therefore, diffusion limited sediment material. Due to the constantly evolving depositional environments of floodplains, surficial organic matter may become buried at various stages of decomposition, through sudden events such as overbank flooding and through the slower progression of river meandering. This creates a discontinuous subsurface distribution of organic-rich sediments, which are hotspots for microbial activity and thereby central to the subsurface cycling of contaminants (e.g. U) and biologically relevant elements (e.g. C, N, P, Fe). However, the organic matter itself is poorly characterized. Consequently, little is known about its relevance in driving biogeochemical processes that control U fate and transport in the subsurface. In an investigation of soil/sediment cores from five former uranium ore processing sites on floodplains distributed across the Upper Colorado River Basin we confirmed consistent co-enrichment of U with organic-rich layers in all profiles. However, using C K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with Fourier-Transformed Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Mass-Spectroscopy (FT-ICR-MS) on bulk sediments and density-separated organic matter fractions, we did not detect any chemical difference in the organic rich sediments compared to the surrounding coarser-grained aquifer material within the same profile, even though there were differences in organic matter composition between the 5 sites. This suggests that U retention and reduction to U(IV) is independent of C chemical composition on the bulk scale. Instead it appears to be the abundance of organic matter in combination with a limited O2 supply in the fine-grained material that

  12. Initial antibiotic therapy for alligator bites: characterization of the oral flora of Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Flandry, F; Lisecki, E J; Domingue, G J; Nichols, R L; Greer, D L; Haddad, R J

    1989-02-01

    An open thumb fracture resulting from an alligator bite became infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Citrobacter diversus. The patient was treated by surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. We obtained cultures from the mouth of ten alligators to characterize their oral flora. Initial empiric therapy after alligator bites should be directed at gram-negative species, in particular, Aeromonas hydrophila and anaerobic species including Clostridium. Of the numerous fungi that were isolated, none has been reported to result in wound infection after alligator bites.

  13. On the variability of alligator sex ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Chabreck, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of alligators from wild and 'farm' populations exhibited disproportionate sex ratios. Males predominated among young alligators from wild populations, whereas females were much more abundant than males in the farm population, where resources were superabundant. These results and other considerations lead us to hypothesize that environmental factors influence sex determination in alligators. During favorable environmental conditions natural selection is expected to favor a preponderance of the sex whose individuals exhibit the greater environmentally associated variation in relative fitness. We hypothesize that environmentally associated variation in age at sexual maturity of females produces sufficient variation in relative fitness of females to result in selection for low sex ratios during periods of resource abundance.

  14. Uranium(VI) adsorption and surface complexation modeling onto background sediments from the F-Area Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Davis, James A; Wan, Jiamin

    2012-02-07

    The mobility of an acidic uranium waste plume in the F-Area of Savannah River Site is of great concern. In order to understand and predict uranium mobility, U(VI) adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH using background F-Area aquifer sediments and reference goethite and kaolinite (major reactive phases of F-Area sediments), and a component-additivity (CA) based surface complexation model (SCM) was developed. Our experimental results indicate that the fine fractions (≤45 μm) in sediments control U(VI) adsorption due to their large surface area, although the quartz sands show a stronger adsorption ability per unit surface area than the fine fractions at pH < 5.0. Kaolinite is a more important sorbent for U(VI) at pH < 4.0, while goethite plays a major role at pH > 4.0. Our CA model combines an existing U(VI) SCM for goethite and a modified U(VI) SCM for kaolinite along with estimated relative surface area abundances of these component minerals. The modeling approach successfully predicts U(VI) adsorption behavior by the background F-Area sediments. The model suggests that exchange sites on kaolinite dominate U(VI) adsorption at pH < 4.0, goethite and kaolinite edge sites cocontribute to U(VI) adsorption at pH 4.0-6.0, and goethite dominates U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.0.

  15. Methyltestosterone alters sex determination in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher M; Easter, Michael; Merchant, Mark; Rheubert, Justin L; Wilson, Kelly A; Cooper, Amos; Mendonça, Mary; Wibbels, Thane; Marin, Mahmood Sasa; Guyer, Craig

    2016-09-15

    Effects of xenobiotics can be organizational, permanently affecting anatomy during embryonic development, and/or activational, influencing transitory actions during adulthood. The organizational influence of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDC's) produces a wide variety of reproductive abnormalities among vertebrates that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Typically, such influences result in subsequent activational malfunction, some of which are beneficial in aquaculture. For example, 17-αmethyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is utilized in tilapia farming to bias sex ratio towards males because they are more profitable. A heavily male-biased hatchling sex ratio is reported from a crocodile population near one such tilapia operation in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. In this study we test the effects of MT on sexual differentiation in American alligators, which we used as a surrogate for all crocodilians. Experimentally, alligators were exposed to MT in ovo at standard ecotoxicological concentrations. Sexual differentiation was determined by examination of primary and secondary sex organs post hatching. We find that MT is capable of producing male embryos at temperatures known to produce females and demonstrate a dose-dependent gradient of masculinization. Embryonic exposure to MT results in hermaphroditic primary sex organs, delayed renal development and masculinization of the clitero-penis (CTP).

  16. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure.

  17. Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2014-01-23

    Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

  18. Chronic incidental lead ingestion in a group of captive-reared alligators (Alligator mississippiensis): possible contribution to reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A; Horn, Thomas R; Elsey, Ruth M; de Peyster, Ann

    2006-01-01

    An American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) breeding facility using male and female alligators raised from artificially incubated eggs was established in 1975. These alligators first reproduced at 6 years of age as compared to 10-12 years in wild alligators, but the eggs produced showed a lower hatching rate than those collected from the wild. By age 21 reproduction had failed almost completely. The alligators were sacrificed and tissues collected at necropsy from 44 captive and 15 wild animals and assayed for metals. Results showed that captive alligators had significantly higher tissue levels of lead than wild alligators. Cadmium did not differ between wild and captive and selenium was 50% higher in wild than captive alligator kidneys. Bone lead in captive alligators was 252,443 +/- 20,462 ng/g. High yolk lead was suggested as a probable cause for early embryonic death in alligator eggs. The high tissue lead levels in captive alligators was attributed to long-term consumption of nutria (Myocastor coypus) meat contaminated with lead shot. Liver, ovary, and testis were assayed for lipid peroxidation using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Captive alligators had 3.6 fold increased TBA-reactive materials in the liver tissue compared to wild. Lipid peroxidation was strongly suspected as having been enhanced by consumption of rancid nutria meat containing lead.

  19. Why do Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) form bellowing choruses: a playback approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyan; Wang, Ding; Zhang, Song; Wang, Chaolin; Wang, Renping; Wu, Xiaobing

    2009-10-01

    Crocodilians are quite vocal relative to other reptile groups, and the alligators are among the most vocal of the crocodilians. The Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is usually solitary but engages in bellowing choruses in certain waters during the mating season. This paper reports the organization of Chinese alligator's bellowing choruses based upon field observations and playback experiments. Alligators of both genders engaged in the choruses, remaining immobile throughout and inclining toward bellowing synchronously (i.e., starting and finishing at about the same time). The choruses lasted about 10 min with abrupt onset and offset. Moreover, playback experiments revealed that both male and female alligators responded equally to bellowing stimuli from the same and opposite sexes and that none of the tested alligators approached the loudspeaker in spite of playback of male or female stimuli. These suggest that Chinese alligators may not bellow to compete for or attract mates during the choruses. Instead, when their ecological behaviors, namely, dispersed inhabitation, multi-copulation, restricted mating season, etc., are considered, we hypothesize that they may synchronize bellows to enhance group detectability for assembling individuals into certain waters for subsequent copulations.

  20. POPS IN ALLIGATOR LIVERS FROM LAKE APOPKA, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  1. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  2. THYROID STATUS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE SITES ON LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been shown to alter normal thyroid function in various wildlife species, including the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Abnormalities in circulating levels of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) have been reported in juven...

  3. Distribution of long-lived radionuclides of the 238U series in the sediments of a small river in a uranium mineralized region of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2002-01-01

    A study is presented on the distribution and mobilization of the natural U isotopes (238U and 234U), 230Th, and 226Ra in the sediments of a small river crossing an uranium mineralized zone where a disused uranium mine is located. Due to the preferential directions for surface run-off waters and to the mine's situation, one sampling point along the river bed was identified as a point of accumulation of radionuclides. The average values of the activity concentrations (Bq/kg) in this sediment sample were 5,025, 5,055, 5,915 and 1,694 for 238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra, respectively, while the respective average values of the activity concentrations (Bq/kg) for the sediment sample considered to give the background level were 125, 124, 131 and 370. Isotopic ratios between the descendants of 238U served to clarify some paths of distribution, involving the soils nearest to the sampling points and the location of these points with respect to the disused mine. The differences in behaviour found between the uranium, thorium and radium isotopes were associated to the mobility of these radionuclides in the fluvial system studied. Correlations between the radionuclide activity concentration ratios and stable element concentrations in the sediment samples were also investigated.

  4. Uranium-bearing minerals in placer deposits of the Red River Valley, Elk City district, Idaho County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, F.C.; Weis, P.L.

    1955-01-01

    The nonmagnetic, non-radioactive fractions of the samples assayed 0.2 percent niobium, but no columbite was recognized in the samples. The uranium-bearing placer mineals are brannerite. euxenitte, davidite. betafite, and also contain niobium; ilmenite in the gravels may also contain some niobium. Pegmatites are believed to be the somce of the uranium- and niobium-bearing minerals, but the possibility of finding a pegmatite in the area ,that can be mined economically for uranium or niobium is remote.

  5. Estimating spawning times of Alligator Gar (Atractosteus spatula) in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, juvenile Alligator Gar were sampled in the reservoir-river interface of the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. The Red River, which flows 860 km along Oklahoma’s border with Texas, is the primary in-flow source of Lake Texoma, and is impounded by Denison Dam. Minifyke nets were deployed using an adaptive random cluster sampling design, which has been used to effectively sample rare species. Lapilli otoliths (one of the three pair of ear stones found within the inner ear of fish) were removed from juvenile Alligator Gar collected in July of 2013. Daily ages were estimated by counting the number of rings present, and spawn dates were back-calculated from date of capture and subtracting 8 days (3 days from spawn to hatch and 5 days from hatch to swimup when the first ring forms). Alligator Gar daily age estimation ranged from 50 to 63 days old since swim-up. Spawn dates corresponded to rising pool elevations of Lake Texoma and water pulses of tributaries.

  6. Uranium-thorium levels in the sediments of the Kubanni River in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dim, L A; Ewa, I O; Ikpokonte, A E

    2000-04-01

    U-Th levels of the Kubanni River sediments in the Nigerian Basement Complex have been determined and shown to be enriched with mean values of 9.06+/-2.66 and 21.44+/-4.12 (ppm) respectively. The probable contributory factors are either phosphate fertilisers used on the neighbouring farms or low aeolian depositions from the NE trade winds blowing from the Sahara desert across the Northern Nigeria Savannah region. The other major contributing factor is the annual weathering of the basement granites. This work revealed more clustering of our data sets below the igneous line as proposed by other authors.

  7. Seasonal variation in plasma thyroxine concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligators mississippiensis) from three Florida Lakes.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Milnes, Matthew R; Bryan, Teresa A; Gunderson, Mark P; Tubbs, Christopher; Woodward, Allan R; Guillette, Louis J

    2005-05-01

    Circulating concentrations of thyroxine (T(4)) vary seasonally in many vertebrates. This study examined the seasonal variation in plasma concentrations of T(4) in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from three populations in central Florida, USA. One site, Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, is considered a reference site whereas the other two lakes, Lake Apopka and Orange Lake, are significantly impacted by human activity. Juvenile American alligators ranging from 75-150 cm in total length were hand-captured at night from November 2000-April 2002. Plasma thyroxine concentrations were analyzed using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) previously validated for alligator plasma. Juvenile American alligators display seasonal variation in circulating T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) concentrations decrease from August/September to November and then begin a slow rise until April, at which point they plateau. Sex of juveniles influenced plasma concentrations of T(4) in some months but did not appear to alter the pattern in seasonal variation. The pattern we observed in plasma T(4) concentrations is not directly related to an environmental factor such as ambient temperature but is similar to that seen in plasma sex steroid concentrations during the reproductive cycle of adult alligators. Although the pattern and plasma concentration of T(4) exhibits significant variation among the three lakes studied, the pattern in seasonal variation appears similar. Comparing the seasonal pattern in plasma T(4) with plasma concentrations of sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol-17beta) or corticosterone could provide important information on the peripubescent life stage of the American alligator.

  8. An indoor air quality study of an alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) holding facility.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S C; Holder, H W; Martin, J M; Brasel, T L; Andriychuk, L A; Wu, C; Straus, D C; Aguilar, R

    2006-06-01

    An environmental microbiologic investigation was conducted in an alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) holding facility in a zoo in the southeastern U.S. The facility had housed five alligators between March 1999 and February 2005. In the exhibit, one alligator died and all experienced poor health. It was hypothesized that environmental microbial contamination was associated with these issues. Samples were collected for fungal identification and quantification, microcystin analysis, and airborne mycotoxins. Analyses of air and water were conducted and an examination of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system (HVAC) for design, maintenance, and operating issues was made. Two control sites, a facility for false gharials (Tomistoma schlegelii) and an off-site alligator breeding facility, were also tested. Morbidity and mortality records were examined for all sites. Results showed that, compared to the control sites, the test alligator facility and its HVAC system were extensively contaminated with a range of fungi. Nearly all sampled surfaces featured fungal growth. There were also significantly higher counts of Penicillium/Aspergillus-like and Chrysosporium-like spores in the air (P < 0.004). The design, maintenance, and operation of the HVAC system were all inadequate, resulting in poorly conditioned and mold-contaminated air being introduced to the facility. Morbidity records revealed solitary pulmonary disorders over time in three alligators, with one dying as a result. The other two alligators suffered from general malaise and a range of nonspecific symptoms. The control facilities had no morbidity or mortality issues. In conclusion, although no causal links could be demonstrated because of the nature of the morbidity data, environmental mold contamination appeared to be associated with the history of morbidity and mortality in the alligator exhibit.

  9. Endogenous and exogenous estrogens during embryonic development affect timing of hatch and growth in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Cruze, Lori; Roark, Alison M; Rolland, Gabrielle; Younas, Mona; Stacy, Nicole; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect length of gestation and body mass and size of offspring. However, the dose, timing, and duration of exposure as well as sex and strain of the experimental animals determine the direction and magnitude of these effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a one-time embryonic exposure to either 17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1.4 days earlier than vehicle-treated (control) alligators, suggesting that estrogenic chemicals hasten hatching in these animals. We assessed growth rates, growth allometry, and body condition for 21 weeks after hatching and found that BPA-treated alligators grew more quickly shortly after hatching but more slowly thereafter compared to control alligators. Conversely, E2-treated alligators grew more slowly shortly after hatching but more quickly thereafter compared to control alligators. As a result of differences in growth rate, BPA-treated alligators were heavier, longer, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were similar in size and leaner than control alligators at age 21 weeks. Biochemical analytes were examined at the end of the 21-week study to assess overall metabolic condition. We found that E2-treated alligators had significantly higher circulating plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides than control alligators while BPA-treated alligators had blood profiles comparable to control alligators. Our results provide important insights into the effects of exogenous estrogens on morphology and metabolism in an oviparous, semi-aquatic reptile.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in groundwater and surface water in the Arkansas River Basin from the headwaters to Coolidge, Kansas, 1970-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Watts, Kenneth R.; Ortiz, Roderick F.; ,

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with City of Aurora, Colorado Springs Utilities, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, Pueblo Board of Water Works, Southeastern Colorado Water Activity Enterprise, Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District began a retrospective evaluation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of dissolved-solids (DS), selenium, and uranium concentrations in groundwater and surface water in the Arkansas River Basin based on available water-quality data collected by several agencies. This report summarizes and characterizes available DS, dissolved-selenium, and dissolved-uranium concentrations in groundwater and surface water for 1970-2009 and describes DS, dissolved-selenium, and dissolved-uranium loads in surface water along the main-stem Arkansas River and selected tributary and diversion sites from the headwaters near Leadville, Colorado, to the USGS 07137500 Arkansas River near Coolidge, Kansas (Ark Coolidge), streamgage, a drainage area of 25,410 square miles. Dissolved-solids concentrations varied spatially in groundwater and surface water in the Arkansas River Basin. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater from Quaternary alluvial, glacial drift, and wind-laid deposits (HSU 1) increased downgradient with median values of about 220 mg/L in the Upper Arkansas subbasin (Arkansas River Basin from the headwaters to Pueblo Reservoir) to about 3,400 mg/L in the Lower Arkansas subbasin (Arkansas River Basin from John Martin Reservoir to Ark Coolidge). Dissolved-solids concentrations in the Arkansas River also increased substantially in the downstream direction between the USGS 07086000 Arkansas River at Granite, Colorado (Ark Granite), and Ark Coolidge streamgages. Based on periodic data collected from 1976-2007, median DS concentrations in the Arkansas River ranged from about 64 mg/L at Ark Granite to about

  11. Nematodes collected by gastric lavage from live American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, in Florida.

    PubMed

    Waddle, Amanda Rice; Kinsella, John M; Ross, J Perran; Rojas-Flores, Edith; Percival, H Franklin; Forrester, Donald J

    2009-10-01

    Stomach nematodes were collected from 151 live American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, from 3 lakes (Apopka, Griffin, and Woodruff) in north-central Florida using a gastric lavage technique. Four species were identified: Dujardinascaris waltoni, Ortleppascaris antipini, Brevimulticaecum tenuicolle, and larvae of Contracaecum sp. Of these, D. waltoni was the most prevalent species in all 3 lakes and was more prevalent in Lake Apopka than in the other 2 lakes. This is the first record of Contracaecum larvae in the American alligator and the second record of O. antipini.

  12. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  13. A mother alligator protects her young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the water near Kennedy Space Center, a mother alligator gathers her six offspring. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  14. METALS AND METALLOIDS IN TISSUES OF AMERICAN ALLIGATORS IN THREE FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of metals and selenium were examined in tissues of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from three lakes in central Florida, in one of which alligators have exhibited reproductive or developmental defects. Our overall objective was to determine whether ...

  15. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-05-27

    For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

  16. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement.

  17. Low cost of ventilation in the vagotomised alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Nini; Wang, Tobias

    2007-10-15

    Pulmonary ventilation requires energy, but the estimated costs of breathing in reptiles vary from 1 to 30% of resting metabolic rate. The low values have been estimated from changes in oxygen uptake during hypoxia or hypercapnia, but it remains possible that these treatments affected metabolism. We equipped alligators with masks for simultaneous measurements of ventilation and oxygen uptake during hypercapnia, hypoxia and bilateral vagotomy. Hypercapnia and hypoxia caused a marked increase in total ventilation, but oxygen uptake remained unchanged indicating a very low energetic cost of breathing. Upon vagotomy, breathing pattern changed to occasional and exceedingly deep breaths (76.1+/-11.1 ml kg(-1)) followed by buccal oscillations and shallower breaths (22.2+/-2.3 ml kg(-1)) interspersed between long non-ventilatory periods. This change in breathing pattern did not affect oxygen uptake. The duration of inspiration increased substantially upon vagotomy, so that inspiratory flow rate did not increase proportionally to tidal volume. These prolonged inspiratory times leads to less flow resistance and may explain that tidal volume could be increased substantially without a measurable energetic cost.

  18. Lymphoid follicular cloacal inflammation associated with a novel herpesvirus in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Govett, Pamela D; Harms, Craig A; Johnson, April J; Latimer, Kenneth S; Wellehan, James F X; Fatzinger, Michael H; Christian, L Shane; Kelly, Terra R; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2005-09-01

    Multifocal hyperemic nodules and plaques associated with the cloacal mucosa of juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at a public aquarium were investigated. Grossly, pale pink to dark red multifocal, circular lesions of varying degrees of severity were identified on the cloacal and, in males, phallus mucosa. Cloacal mucosa biopsies were obtained from 2 of the alligators. These samples were examined histologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers targeting a conserved region of the herpesvirus polymerase gene. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized as submucosal lymphoid follicles with hyperemia and hemorrhage. No inclusion bodies were observed. Minimal to no anisokaryosis was present, and no etiologic agents were identified. Through PCR, a band consistent in size with herpesvirus was observed. Tissues showing similar clinical, histopathologic, and PCR findings were collected from animals at an alligator farm several months later. Sequencing of the PCR amplicon resulted in a 180-base pair sequence that shared 85% sequence identity with tortoise herpesvirus-1.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN HATCHLING AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM THREE FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological variation of 508 hatchling alligators from three lakes in north central Florida (Lakes Woodruff, Apopka, and Orange) was analyzed using multivariate statistics. Morphological variation was found among clutches as well as among lakes. Principal components analysis wa...

  20. ALTERATIONS IN SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TESTOSTERONE IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatic biotransformation of testosterone is normally sexually dimorphic in juvenile alligators and whether living in a contaminated environment affects hepatic dimorphism. Lake Woodruff served as our reference site. Moonshine Bay, ...

  1. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period.

  2. Home range and movements of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in an estuary habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Denton, Mathew J.

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals consistent use of estuary habitat by American alligators. The alligators showed variations in their movement pattern and seasonal habitat, with movement attributable to environmental factors. Although satellite-derived locations were more dispersed compared to locations collected using VHF radio-tags, data collected from VHF tracking omitted some habitat used for a short period of time, indicating the effectiveness of satellite telemetry to continuously track animals for ecosystem-scale studies.

  3. Alligators, contaminants and steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C

    2007-01-01

    Steroids are essential for successful reproduction in all vertebrate species. Over the last several decades, extensive research has indicated that exposure to various environmental pollutants can disrupt steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. Although steroidogenesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, it is also modified by various paracrine and autocrine factors. Furthermore, the classical two-cell model of steroidogenesis in the developing ovarian follicle, involving the granulosa and theca cells in mammals, may not be universal. Instead, birds and probably reptiles use the two thecal compartments (theca interna and theca externa) as sites of steroid production. We have documented that embryonic or juvenile exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants from agricultural and storm water runoff leads to altered steroid hormone profiles in American alligators. Our observations suggest that alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations are due in part to altered gene expression, modified hepatic biotransformation and altered gonadal steroidogenesis. Future studies must examine the interplay between endocrine and paracrine regulation in the development and expression of gonadal steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants at various life stages if we are to fully understand potential detrimental outcomes.

  4. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Selected Florida Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Brock, John W; Bell, Jane Margaret; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in laboratory animals and are associated with altered development of the reproductive system in humans. Further, human have significant exposure to phthalates. However, little is known concerning the exposure of wildlife to phthalates. We report urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations from fifty juvenile alligators from three Florida lakes and a site in the Everglades. Urinary phthalate monoester concentrations varied widely among alligators from the different sites but also among alligators from the same site. Mono-2-ethylhexy phthalate and monobutyl phthalate were found in most samples of alligator urine with maximums of 35,700 ng/mL and 193 ng/mL, respectively. Monobenzyl phthalate was found in 5 alligators with a maximum of 66.7 ng/mL. Other monoesters were found in only one or two alligator urine samples. The wide variation within and among sites, in addition to the high levels of mEHP, mBP and mBzP, is consistent with exposure arising from the intermittent spraying of herbicide formulations to control invasive aquatic plants in Florida freshwater sites. Phthalate diesters are used as adjuvants in many of these formulations.

  5. Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Uriel; Metzger, Keith; Wang, Qian; Elsey, Ruth M; Ross, Callum F; Dechow, Paul C

    2010-03-01

    This study reports the elastic material properties of cortical bone in the mandible of juvenile Alligator mississippiensis obtained by using an ultrasonic wave technique. The elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were measured on 42 cylindrical Alligator bone specimens obtained from the lingual and facial surfaces of 4 fresh Alligator mandibles. The data suggest that the elastic properties of alligator mandibular cortical bone are similar to those found in mammals and are orthotropic. The properties most resemble those found in the cortex of mammalian postcranial long bones where the bone is most stiff in one direction and much less stiff in the two remaining orthogonal directions. This is different from cortical bone found in the mandibles of humans and some monkeys, where the bone has greatest stiffness in one direction, much less stiffness in another direction, and an intermediate amount in the third orthogonal direction. This difference suggests a relationship between levels of orthotropy and bending stress. The comparability of these elastic moduli to those of other vertebrates suggest that the high bone strain magnitudes recorded from the alligator mandible in vivo are not attributable to a lower stiffness of alligator mandibular bone.

  6. Survival and growth of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) hatchlings after artificial incubation and repatriation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Temsiripong, Y.; Woodward, A.R.; Ross, J.P.; Kubilis, P.S.; Percival, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Hatchling American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) produced from artificially incubated wild eggs were returned to their natal areas (repatriated). We compared artificially incubated and repatriated hatchlings released within and outside the maternal alligator's home range with naturally incubated hatchlings captured and released within the maternal alligator's home range on Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Orange Lake in Florida. We used probability of recapture and total length at approximately nine months after hatching as indices of survival and growth rates. Artificially incubated hatchlings released outside of the maternal alligator's home range had lower recapture probabilities than either naturally incubated hatchlings or artificially incubated hatchlings released near the original nest site. Recapture probabilities of other treatments did not differ significantly. Artificially incubated hatchlings were approximately 6% shorter than naturally incubated hatchlings at approximately nine months after hatching. We concluded that repatriation of hatchlings probably would not have long-term effects on populations because of the resiliency of alligator populations to alterations of early age-class survival and growth rates of the magnitude that we observed. Repatriation of hatchlings may be an economical alternative to repatriation of older juveniles for population restoration. However, the location of release may affect subsequent survival and growth. Copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  7. Characterization of phospholipase A(2) activity in serum of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Merchant, Mark; Heard, Raphiel; Monroe, Caleb

    2009-11-01

    PLA(2) is a diverse class of enzymes with a broad spectrum of physiological functions. Secretory PLA(2) isoforms have been reported to exhibit important innate immune function in higher vertebrates. This study was conducted to characterize PLA(2) activity in the serum of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We used a glycerophospholipid with a fatty acid in the sn-2 position labeled with a fluorescent probe (BODIPY) to detect and quantify alligator serum PLA(2) activity. Incubation of BODIPY-labeled bacteria with different concentrations of alligator serum resulted in a concentration-dependent detection of PLA(2) activity. Kinetic studies showed that product formation was rapid, with substantial activity within 5 min, and maximal activity at approximately 20 min. The alligator PLA(2) activity was temperature-dependent, with activity at lower temperatures (5-10 degrees C) approximately half of that observed at temperatures of 30-40 degrees C. In addition, the generation of fluorescent product was reduced by a specific inhibitor (p-bromophenacyl bromide) of secretory PLA(2) in a concentration-dependent manner, enforcing the idea that the observed activities are due to a secretory PLA(2) enzyme in alligator serum.

  8. The isolation of parvalbumin isoforms from the tail muscle of the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis).

    PubMed

    Laney, E L; Shabanowitz, J; King, G; Hunt, D F; Nelson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Multiple parvalbumin isoforms have been detected in the tail (skeletal) muscle of the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis). One of these isoforms (APV-1) has been highly purified and partially characterized. Protein purification involved mainly gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography, and characterization included gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition analysis, metal ion analysis, MALDI-TOF and ESI mass spectrometry, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy, and one- and two-dimensional 500 MHz proton NMR spectroscopy. The alligator isoforms are rich in phenylalanine and deficient in the other aromatic residues as is typical for parvalbumins. In fact, the one highly purified isoform that forms the basis of this study has only phenyl-alanine as an aromatic residue. Ion exchange chromatography further indicates that this isoform has a relatively high isoelectric point (pl approximately 5.0), indicating that it is an alpha-lineage parvalbumin. This alligator parvalbumin isoform is unusual in that it has an atypically high Ca2+ content (almost 3.0 mole of Ca2+ per mole of protein) following purification, a fact supported by terbium fluorescence titration experiments. Preliminary comparative analysis of the highly purified alligator parvalbumin isoform (in the Ca2-loaded state) by two-dimensional 1H-NMR (2D 1H TOCSY and 2D 1H NOESY) indicates that there is considerable similarity in structure between the alligator protein and a homologous protein obtained from the silver hake (a saltwater fish species).

  9. Sr-Nd and Uranium-series isotopic constraints on weathering and erosion using suspended and overbank river sediments from recent floodwaters in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S.; Handley, H. K.; Dosseto, A.; Schaefer, B.; Turner, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    Suspended sediments carried by high magnitude floodwaters within major river catchments provide a representative sample of the lithological and chemical variety of the Earth's surface and permit estimation of the average geochemical and isotopic composition of the Earth's upper crust. Uranium-series disequilibria in suspended sediments and their deposits can also be used to constrain the timescales of sediment residence within major catchments. New trace element, Sr-Nd radiogenic isotope and Uranium-series isotope data are presented for suspended particulate river sediments and overbank sediment deposits collected from the Cooper Creek and Darling River during the 2009 and 2010 widespread flooding events in Australia. A mud drape deposited by waning floodwater after a localised and rare (average recurrence interval between 200-500 years) 2007 flood event at Hookina Creek, South Australia was also analysed. PAAS normalised rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns for all samples are generally flat, but show a slight enrichment in the mid- to heavy-REEs relative to light-REEs and a positive Eu anomaly. The Darling River and Hookina Creek samples contain higher overall abundances of trace elements compared to the Cooper Creek samples. The Sr-Nd isotope data form a negative linear array. The Cooper Creek samples display the highest ɛNd values (-2.1 to 3.5) and lowest 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios (0.707506-0.707907). The Hookina Creek sample displays a significantly lower ɛNd value and higher 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio (more similar to average upper continental crust). These differences are attributed to variations in the composition and age of source rocks. U concentrations (ppm) range from 0.32-0.95 in the Cooper Creek samples, 1.32-2.31 in the Darling river sediments and 2.73 was measured in the Hookina Creek sample. All sediments show the expected activity ratio pattern (for residual products of weathering) of (234U/238U) < 1 and (230Th/234U) >1, apart from an

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  11. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Parker, Kyle R.; Waichler, Scott R.; Williams, Mark D.

    2013-10-01

    This report represents a synthesis and integration of basic and applied research into a system-scale model of the Hanford 300 Area groundwater uranium plume, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations (DOE-RL) office. The report integrates research findings and data from DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC), Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and DOE-RL projects, and from the site remediation and closure contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH). The three-dimensional, system-scale model addresses water flow and reactive transport of uranium for the coupled vadose zone, unconfined aquifer, and Columbia River shoreline of the Hanford 300 Area. The system-scale model of the 300 Area was developed to be a decision-support tool to evaluate processes of the total system affecting the groundwater uranium plume. The model can also be used to address “what if” questions regarding different remediation endpoints, and to assist in design and evaluation of field remediation efforts. For example, the proposed cleanup plan for the Hanford 300 Area includes removal, treatment, and disposal of contaminated sediments from known waste sites, enhanced attenuation of uranium hot spots in the vadose and periodically rewetted zone, and continued monitoring of groundwater with institutional controls. Illustrative simulations of polyphosphate infiltration were performed to demonstrate the ability of the system-scale model to address these types of questions. The use of this model in conjunction with continued field monitoring is expected to provide a rigorous basis for developing operational strategies for field remediation and for defining defensible remediation endpoints.

  12. Crocodiles and Alligators. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farre, Marie

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes the physical characteristics, behavior, and peculiar habits of crocodiles, including how to distinguish them from close relatives such as alligators, cayman, and gharials. (YP)

  13. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  14. Alternathera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach - alligator weed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, began when George Vogt, USDA, conducted several surveys by public transport in South America during the 1960s. Three agents were released in USA and two of them, the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila and the moth Arcola malloi were re...

  15. The calculated solubility of platinum and gold in oxygen-saturated fluids and the genesis of platinum-palladium and gold mineralization in the unconformity-related uranium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaireth, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations on the solubility of platinum and gold indicate that saline (1 m NaCl), fluids saturated with atmospheric oxygen can transport geologically realistic concentrations of platinum-group-elements (PGE), gold, and uranium as chloro-complexes. A number of calculations involving fluid-rock interaction suggest that the oxygen-saturated fluids flowing through rocks containing quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, magnetite and hematite, initially oxidize any magnetite to hematite, allowing subsequent batches of ore fluids to retain their high oxidation state. During their migration through the aquifer, the oxidizing fluids would move the oxidation-reduction interface deeper into the aquifer, leaching and redepositing platinum and gold. The redissolution of earlier precipitated platinum and gold depends on the fluid/ rock ratio and the associated increase in the oxidation state. Therefore, lowering of fluid/rock ratios and/or mixing of the oxidized fluids with a large amount of reduced fluid will precipitate uranium, PGE, and gold. It is suggested that this model can explain the genesis of gold and PGE mineralization in the unconformity-related uranium deposits of the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field in the Northern Territory, Australia.

  16. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    SciTech Connect

    Kuharik, J.C.; Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Ross, J.P.

    2003-08-26

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  17. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  18. Intraocular pressure variation associated with body length in young American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Whittaker, C J; Heaton-Jones, T G; Kubilis, P S; Smith, P J; Brooks, D E; Kosarek, C; Mackay, E O; Gelatt, K N

    1995-10-01

    Using an applanation tonometer, 5 replicate intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were obtained from each eye of 12 young clinically normal, American alligators. Alligator length ranged from 46 to 117 cm, measured from snout to tail tip. All IOP were recorded by a single observer at an ambient temperature of approximately 25 C, and ranged from 5 to 35 mm of Hg. Observer reliability was excellent (intraclass r = 0.93), and IOP did not change over the ordered sequence of 5 replicate measurements/eye. Replicate IOP) measurements were, therefore, averaged in each eye for comparison between eyes of the same alligator. Left and right eve IOP were highly correlated within individual alligators (r = 0.92), whereas the mean within animal difference between left and right eye IOP was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval [CI] for the left eye-right eye mean difference, - 1.9 to 1.3 min of Hg). Mean IOP determined for 5 confirmed females and 3 confirmed males did not differ significantly between the sexes (95% CI for the male-female difference in means, -2.1 to 3.7 mm of Hg). Mean +/- SEM IOP of 23.7 + 2.1 mm of Hg determined for 4 alligators < -50 cm long was significantly (P = 0.009) greater than mean IOP of 11.6 + 0.5 mm of Hg determined for 8 alligators > 50 cm long (95% CI for the difference in means, 8.5 to 15.7 mm of Hg). In young alligators, the relation between body length and IOP appears to be nonlinear, possibly with a negative exponent.

  19. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, D G; Fink, L E; Laine, K A; Niemczyk, S L; Chandrasekhar, T; Wankel, S D; Kendall, C

    2002-10-07

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While delta15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994.

  20. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumbold, D.G.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Niemczyk, S.L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While ??15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular cloning of anti-Müllerian hormone from the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Urushitani, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Kohno, Satomi; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2011-02-20

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays an important role in male sex differentiation in vertebrates. AMH produced by Sertoli cells of the fetal testis induces regression of the Müllerian duct in mammalian species. In alligators, sexual differentiation is controlled by the temperature during egg incubation, termed temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The TSD mechanism inducing sex differentiation is thought to be unique and different from that of genetic sex determination as no gene such as the SRY of mammals has been identified. However, many of the genes associated with gonadal differentiation in mammals also are expressed in the developing gonads of species exhibiting TSD. To clarify the molecular mechanisms associated with gonad formation during the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), we have cloned the full length AMH gene in the alligator, and quantitatively compared mRNA expression patterns in the gonad-adrenal-mesonephros (GAM) complex isolated from alligator embryos incubated at male and female producing temperatures. The deduced amino acid sequence of the alligator AMH cDNA showed high identity (59-53%) to avian AMH genes. AMH mRNA expression was high in the GAM of male alligator embryos at stage 24 (immediately after sex determination) and hatchlings, but suppressed in the GAM of estrogen-exposed hatchlings incubated at the male-producing temperature. In the alligator AMH proximal promoter, a number of transcriptional factors (for SF-1. GATA, WT-1 and SOX9) binding elements were also identified and they exhibit a conserved pattern seen in other species. SOX9 up-regulates transcriptional activity through the amAMH promoter region. These results suggested that AMH and SOX9 play important roles in TSD of the American alligator.

  2. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  3. Combining U speciation and U isotope fractionation to evaluate the importance of naturally reduced sediments in controlling the mobility of uranium in the upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, V.; Lefebvre, P.; Boye, K.; Bargar, J.; Maher, K.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Cardarelli, E.; Bone, S.; Dam, W. L.; Johnson, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term persistence of uranium (U) in groundwater at legacy ore-processing sites in the upper Colorado River Basin (CRB) is a major concern for DOE, stakeholders, and local property owners. In the past year, we have investigated U distributions in contaminated floodplains at Grand Junction, Naturita, and Rifle (CO), Riverton (WY), and Shiprock (NM). We find that U is retained at all locations in fine-grained, organic-rich sulfidic sediments, referred to as naturally reduced zones (NRZs). The retention mechanisms (e.g., complexation, precipitation or adsorption) and the processes responsible for U accumulation in NRZs will directly determine the capacity of the sediments to prevent U mobilization. However, these processes remain poorly understood at local and regional scales yet they are critical to management and remediation of these sites. We have used U LIII/II-edge XANES to systematically characterize U oxidation states, and EXAFS and bicarbonate extractions to characterize U local structure and reactivity in order to distinguish the forms of U. We are measuring U isotopic signatures (δ238/235U) to better understand uranium sources and processes of accumulation in NRZs. We have found that high U concentrations correspond to reduced and relatively insoluble U forms, mainly non-crystalline U(IV), and co-occur with ferrous iron and sulfides. This suggests that reduction processes, fueled by the high organic matter content and constrained to the diffusion-limited environment in the fine-grained NRZs, are important for the retention of U in these sediments. We also observe a strong correlation between the U concentrations in the NRZs and the extent of isotopic fractionation, with up to +1.8 ‰ difference between uranium-enriched and low concentration zones. In some locations the δ238/235U values are within the range of values typical of the mine tailings, whereas at other sites the more positive δ238/235U values suggest that redox cycling and/or partial

  4. Gizzard shad thiaminase activity and its effect on the thiamine status of captive American alligators Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Ross, J Perran; Honeyfield, Dale C; Brown, Scott B; Brown, Lisa R; Waddle, Amanda Rice; Welker, Michael E; Schoeb, Trenton R

    2009-12-01

    Adult mortality and low egg hatch rate were observed among American alligators Alligator mississippiensis in Lake Griffin, Florida, between 1998 and 2003. Previous studies show that the alligator mortality is due to neurological impairment associated with thiamine (vitamin Bt) deficiency. This study determined the rate of thiaminase activity in gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, a fish often eaten by alligators, and examined the thiamine status of captive adult alligators fed only gizzard shad. We found that the thiaminase activity of gizzard shad in Lake Griffin is 16,409 +/- 2,121 pmol/g/min (mean +/- 2SEs). This high rate of thiaminase activity was present in most months and across a wide range of shad sizes. Seven alligators were captured in the wild from Lake Griffin and Lake Woodruff, held in captivity, and fed gizzard shad. We monitored blood and muscle thiamine levels throughout the experiment and liver thiamine at the end. Over a period of 6-12 months, all of the alligators maintained weight but blood and muscle thiamine levels decreased to 25-50% of the original (healthy) values. Three animals with the greatest reduction in thiamine died, demonstrating mobility impairment and neural histopathology similar to those seen in wild alligators in Lake Griffin. Two alligators were fed shad for 10 months but then treated with thiamine. These animals showed a reduction in thiamine while eating shad, but treatment restored their thiamine levels to the initial values, which were comparable to those of normal wild Lake Griffin alligators. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency can be induced by a diet of gizzard shad and cause neurological signs and death in alligators in captivity. We conclude that the thiaminase activity in gizzard shad is high enough to cause thiamine deficiency in wild alligators when shad are a major part of their diet.

  5. Environmental risk assessment of compost prepared from salvinia, egeria densa, and alligator weed.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, C G; Pirie, A D; McMaster, I; Muirhead, L; Pengelly, P; Chan, K Y; Jackson, M; Barchia, I M

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 70,000 m(3) of salvinia (Salvinia molesta) was removed from the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during 2004. This study assessed the risks associated with applying compost prepared from aquatic weeds (AWC) to land, namely, survival and spread of aquatic and terrestrial weeds, eutrophication of waterways, accumulation of heavy metals and phytotoxicity. The results demonstrate composting is an effective method of reducing the viability of aquatic and terrestrial weeds. However, mortality of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), which was used as an indicator plant, was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with the temperature within the windrows and the length of time the material was subjected to composting. Conditions within the central core of the windrow were sufficient to kill the alligator weed, although not all of the aquatic weed material was exposed to the windrows' central core. This resulted in alligator weed continuing to grow at the base of the windrow. To reduce the risk of weeds surviving and spreading in aquatic and terrestrial environments it is suggested compost windrows should be located on an appropriate hard pad to enable complete mixing of the material and ensure all material is exposed to temperatures >55 degrees C for greater than three consecutive days. The likelihood of other risks associated with the AWC was low. If composting is selected as the preferred method for managing organic material harvested from waterways, then ongoing monitoring and evaluation is required to validate the composting process and ensure consumer confidence in the final product.

  6. Analysis of the landsat remote sensing images of the types of habitats of Yangtze alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhujian; Lin, Hengzhang; Zhang, Shengkai

    1986-12-01

    The Chinese “Yangtze” alligator is a rare reptile that has been listed as an “endangered species” by the United Nations, so its preservation has become an urgent task. A study of its habitats through analysis of their Landsat images will provide a scientific basis for the government departments concerned to select the best locations for its breeding. The Chinese alligator is a subtropical reptile of freshwater rivers, lakes and ponds. Found only in China, it is now distributed only in the border region between the three provinces of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu. On the basis of previous investigations by Chinese scientists, and from an analysis and interpretation of their Landsat images, we made a special study, review, and classification of the natural environment of the alligator’s present habitats (and the modern changes in the natural background of these hatitats) so that the government departments concerned with the preservation of the reptiles may have a scientific basis for determining the best locations for the breeding and propagation of the alligator.

  7. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  8. Identification and Characterization of the Androgen Receptor From the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Kohno, Satomi; Doheny, Brenna M.; Ogino, Yukiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development, reproduction, and health throughout the life span of vertebrates, particularly during the initiation and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Androgen signaling is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors, such as exogenous hormones or contaminants that mimic hormones, can disrupt endocrine signaling and function. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a unique model for ecological research in that it exhibits environment-dependent sex determination, is oviparous and long lived. Alligators from a contaminated environment exhibit low reproductive success and morphological disorders of the testis and phallus in neonates and juveniles, both associated with androgen signaling; thus, the alterations are hypothesized to be related to disrupted androgen signaling. However, this line of research has been limited because of a lack of information on the alligator AR gene. Here, we isolated A mississippiensis AR homologs (AmAR) and evaluated receptor-hormone/chemical interactions using a transactivation assay. We showed that AmAR responded to all natural androgens and their effects were inhibited by cotreatment with antiandrogens, such as flutamide, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and vinclozolin. Intriguingly, we found a spliced form of the AR from alligator cDNA, which lacks seven amino acids within the ligand-binding domain that shows no response to androgens. Finally, we have initial data on a possible dominant-negative function of the spliced form of the AR against androgen-induced AmAR. PMID:25974402

  9. Exhaustive exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M; Rourke, Bryan C; Hicks, James W

    2009-11-01

    The oxygen transport system in mammals is extensively remodelled in response to repeated bouts of activity, but many reptiles appear to be 'metabolically inflexible' in response to exercise training. A recent report showed that estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) increase their maximum metabolic rate in response to exhaustive treadmill training, and in the present study, we confirm this response in another crocodilian, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We further specify the nature of the crocodilian training response by analysing effects of training on aerobic [citrate synthase (CS)] and anaerobic [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] enzyme activities in selected skeletal muscles, ventricular and skeletal muscle masses and haematocrit. Compared to sedentary control animals, alligators regularly trained for 15 months on a treadmill (run group) or in a flume (swim group) exhibited peak oxygen consumption rates higher by 27 and 16%, respectively. Run and swim exercise training significantly increased ventricular mass (~11%) and haematocrit (~11%), but not the mass of skeletal muscles. However, exercise training did not alter CS or LDH activities of skeletal muscles. Similar to mammals, alligators respond to exercise training by increasing convective oxygen transport mechanisms, specifically heart size (potentially greater stroke volume) and haematocrit (increased oxygen carrying-capacity of the blood). Unlike mammals, but similar to squamate reptiles, alligators do not also increase citrate synthase activity of the skeletal muscles in response to exercise.

  10. Identification and Characterization of the Androgen Receptor From the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Kohno, Satomi; Doheny, Brenna M; Ogino, Yukiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-08-01

    Androgens are essential for the development, reproduction, and health throughout the life span of vertebrates, particularly during the initiation and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Androgen signaling is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors, such as exogenous hormones or contaminants that mimic hormones, can disrupt endocrine signaling and function. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a unique model for ecological research in that it exhibits environment-dependent sex determination, is oviparous and long lived. Alligators from a contaminated environment exhibit low reproductive success and morphological disorders of the testis and phallus in neonates and juveniles, both associated with androgen signaling; thus, the alterations are hypothesized to be related to disrupted androgen signaling. However, this line of research has been limited because of a lack of information on the alligator AR gene. Here, we isolated A mississippiensis AR homologs (AmAR) and evaluated receptor-hormone/chemical interactions using a transactivation assay. We showed that AmAR responded to all natural androgens and their effects were inhibited by cotreatment with antiandrogens, such as flutamide, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and vinclozolin. Intriguingly, we found a spliced form of the AR from alligator cDNA, which lacks seven amino acids within the ligand-binding domain that shows no response to androgens. Finally, we have initial data on a possible dominant-negative function of the spliced form of the AR against androgen-induced AmAR.

  11. Hypoxic alligator embryos: chronic hypoxia, catecholamine levels and autonomic responses of in ovo alligators.

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Altimiras, Jordi; Hicks, James W; Crossley, Dane A

    2011-11-01

    Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic reptiles, and this is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on the in ovo development of autonomic cardiovascular regulation and circulating catecholamine levels in a reptile. We measured heart rate (f(H)) and chorioallantoic arterial blood pressure (MAP) in normoxic ('N21') and hypoxic-incubated ('H10'; 10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis) at 70, 80 and 90% of development. Embryonic alligator responses to adrenergic blockade with propranolol and phentolamine were very similar to previously reported responses of embryonic chicken, and demonstrated that embryonic alligator has α and β-adrenergic tone over the final third of development. However, adrenergic tone originates entirely from circulating catecholamines and is not altered by chronic hypoxic incubation, as neither cholinergic blockade with atropine nor ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium altered baseline cardiovascular variables in N21 or H10 embryos. In addition, both atropine and hexamethonium injection did not alter the generally depressive effects of acute hypoxia - bradycardia and hypotension. However, H10 embryos showed significantly higher levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline at 70% of development, as well as higher noradrenaline at 80% of development, suggesting that circulating catecholamines reach maximal levels earlier in incubation for H10 embryos, compared to N21 embryos. Chronically elevated levels of catecholamines may alter the normal balance between α and β-adrenoreceptors in H10 alligator embryos, causing chronic bradycardia and hypotension of H10 embryos measured in normoxia.

  12. Production of superoxide ions by leukocytes of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Merchant, Mark; Williams, Stetson; Hardy, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the production of superoxide ions by leukocytes in whole blood of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We used WST-1, a tetrazolium salt which can be reduced to a water-soluble formazan compound with high molar absorptivity at 438 nm, to probe the production of superoxide by alligator leukocytes. Incubation of alligator whole blood with WST-1 resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase in absorbance of the plasma at 438 nm. The reduction of WST-1 was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of superoxide to peroxide, confirming that the reduction of WST-1 was due to the presence of superoxide. Treatment of whole blood with nitrotetrazolium blue (NBT) resulted in the staining of heterophils and monocytes, enforcing the idea that that the production of superoxide is due to the presence of leukocytes, and not other blood cell components. It is interesting to note that the production of superoxide by the alligator leukocytes required no external stimulation while human leukocytes must be stimulated with an immunological challenge before producing superoxide. This is the first report of the production of superoxide as an innate immune mechanism in crocodilians.

  13. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Fang; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamazaki, Eriko; Wang, Renping; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

    2013-08-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.

  14. Microsatellite DNA analyses support an east-west phylogeographic split of American alligator populations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa M; Glenn, Travis C; Strickland, Denise C; Guillette, Louis J; Elsey, Ruth M; Rhodes, Walter E; Dessauer, Herbert C; Sawyer, Roger H

    2002-12-15

    We examined the population genetic structure of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) sampled from 12 localities across the southeastern United States. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent of population differentiation among alligators from four Florida lakes using eight microsatellite loci and compare the results to additional sites located at varying distances from them. Analyses of population structure revealed little differentiation (F(ST)=0.039; Rho=0.012) among the four Florida lakes, Apopka, Griffin, Orange and Woodruff, which are all located in the St. John&'s River watershed in north-central Florida. Further, there was little differentiation among these samples and samples collected from the Everglades National Park (F(ST)=0.044; Rho=0.009) and south Georgia (F(ST)=0.045; Rho=0.032). Therefore, these six samples were pooled together as a "FL/sGA group." Similarly, samples collected in the western extent of the range, Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge in Texas and Salvador Wildlife Management Area, Marsh Island Wildlife Refuge and Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in Louisiana, also lacked population structure (F(ST)=0.024; R(ST)=0.040). These four populations were pooled into the "TX/LA group." Comparisons of these two groups with samples taken from the Santee Coastal Reserve in South Carolina and Mobile, Alabama yielded three to four times more differentiation among groups (F(ST)=0.131; Rho=0.187). These and other analyses support the hypothesis of an east-west phylogeographic split in American alligator populations and are consistent with studies of many freshwater fish and aquatic and terrestrial turtles distributed throughout this same geographic region.

  15. Low cost of pulmonary ventilation in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) stimulated with doxapram.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Nini; Crossley, Dane A; Wang, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    To determine the costs of pulmonary ventilation without imposing severe oxygen limitations or acidosis that normally accompany exposures to hypoxia or hypercapnia, we opted to pharmacologically stimulate ventilation with doxapram (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) in alligators. Doxapram is used clinically to alleviate ventilatory depression in response to anaesthesia and acts primarily on the peripheral oxygen-sensitive chemoreceptors. Using this approach, we investigated the hypothesis that pulmonary ventilation is relatively modest in comparison to resting metabolic rate in crocodilians and equipped seven juvenile alligators with masks for concurrent determination of ventilation and oxygen uptake. Doxapram elicited a dose-dependent and up to fourfold rise in ventilation, primarily by increasing ventilatory frequency. The accompanying rise in oxygen uptake was very small; ventilation in resting animals constitutes no more than 5% of resting metabolic rate. The conclusion that pulmonary ventilation is energetically cheap is consistent with earlier studies on alligators where ventilation was stimulated by hypoxia or hypercapnia.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline after single-dose oral administration in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Sam; Nevarez, Javier G; Maxwell, Lara K; Barker, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of tetracycline administered orally to fasted and nonfasted American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at 50 mg/kg. Plasma levels of tetracycline were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The concentration versus time curve was analyzed using a compartmental modeling technique. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination, as well as a lag time to absorption, best described the data. The area under the curve and mean residence time values differed significantly between the fasted and nonfasted groups. Based on the results of this study, tetracycline suspension administered once orally at 50 mg/kg to American alligators is not expected to reach plasma concentrations above the breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 microg/ml for susceptible organisms.

  17. Salmonella Enterica Serovar Pomona Infection in Farmed Juvenile American Alligators ( Alligator Mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, K; Nevarez, J G; Del Piero, F

    2017-03-01

    A fatal epizootic of salmonellosis occurred in farmed juvenile American alligators in Louisiana. Six animals were examined. Gross lesions included severe fibrinonecrotizing enterocolitis, necrotizing splenitis, coelomic effusion, and perivisceral and pulmonary edema. Microscopic examination revealed severe necrotizing enterocolitis and splenitis with intralesional bacteria and pneumocyte necrosis with fibrin thrombi. Salmonella enterica serovar Pomona was isolated from intestine and lung. Clinical salmonellosis is a rare finding in reptiles and salmonellosis caused by S. Pomona is not previously reported in American alligators. Since S. Pomona is a commonly isolated Salmonella serotype from patients with reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States, and since alligator meat is consumed and the skin is exported to numerous countries, risk of human and animal infection should be considered.

  18. Developmental effects of embryonic exposure to toxaphene in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Milnes, Matthew R; Allen, Davina; Bryan, Teresa A; Sedacca, Cassidy D; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-05-01

    A variety of organochlorine pesticides have been shown to adversely affect embryonic development. A number of abnormalities have been documented in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from highly-contaminated Lake Apopka, FL, USA that are similar to the results of experimental studies exposing embryos to pesticides. In the current study, we exposed developing alligator embryos to varying concentrations of toxaphene, a broad-spectrum pesticide found in relatively high concentration in Lake Apopka alligator egg yolk. The toxaphene, dissolved in 50 microl of ethanol, was applied topically to the eggshell just prior to the sex-determining period of development. Shortly after hatching, we examined a number of morphological and physiological endpoints to determine the consequences of sub-lethal embryonic exposure to toxaphene. Our results indicate that toxaphene had little or no effect on the morphological endpoints examined including body mass (BM) and size, liver, thyroid, and gonad development. In addition, toxaphene failed to affect sexual differentiation, or in vitro thyroxin, testosterone (T), and estradiol production. However, male plasma T concentration was higher in animals treated with 10 and 0.01 microg toxaphene/kg (based on mean egg mass) than control males. Because in vitro T production was not different among control groups, we suggest the difference in plasma T could be due to differences in hypothalamic-pituitary stimulation of the gonad or hepatic steroid degradation. This study indicates that technical grade toxaphene, at the applied doses, does not induce the same developmental abnormalities associated with alligators living in Lake Apopka. Future studies should consider the effects of embryonic exposure to a mixture of chemicals, including toxaphene metabolites, on development in alligators to better evaluate the consequences of environmental contamination.

  19. In ovo and in vitro susceptibility of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to avian influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Temple, Bradley L; Finger, John W; Jones, Cheryl A; Gabbard, Jon D; Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Hogan, Robert J; Glenn, Travis C; Tompkins, S Mark

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the most ubiquitous viruses within our biosphere. Wild aquatic birds are believed to be the primary reservoir of all influenza viruses; however, the spillover of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and the recent swine-origin pandemic H1N1 viruses have sparked increased interest in identifying and understanding which and how many species can be infected. Moreover, novel influenza virus sequences were recently isolated from New World bats. Crocodilians have a slow rate of molecular evolution and are the sister group to birds; thus they are a logical reptilian group to explore susceptibility to influenza virus infection and they provide a link between birds and mammals. A primary American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) cell line, and embryos, were infected with four, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to assess susceptibility to infection. Embryonated alligator eggs supported virus replication, as evidenced by the influenza virus M gene and infectious virus detected in allantoic fluid and by virus antigen staining in embryo tissues. Primary alligator cells were also inoculated with the LPAI viruses and showed susceptibility based upon antigen staining; however, the requirement for trypsin to support replication in cell culture limited replication. To assess influenza virus replication in culture, primary alligator cells were inoculated with H1N1 human influenza or H5N1 HPAI viruses that replicate independent of trypsin. Both viruses replicated efficiently in culture, even at the 30 C temperature preferred by the alligator cells. This research demonstrates the ability of wild-type influenza viruses to infect and replicate within two crocodilian substrates and suggests the need for further research to assess crocodilians as a species potentially susceptible to influenza virus infection.

  20. A mother alligator protects her young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-09-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach.

  2. In vitro drug susceptibility pattern of Mycoplasma alligatoris isolated from symptomatic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Brown, Daniel R; Jacobson, Elliott R; Brown, Mary B

    2002-06-01

    A recently described mycoplasma, Mycoplasma alligatoris, was isolated from dead American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) that had demonstrated clinical signs of lethargy, anorexia, bilateral ocular discharge, edema. paraparesis, and polyarthritis. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration for nine antibacterial agents was determined through serial dilution in broth and plate culture for M. alligatoris isolates. The inhibitory concentration obtained for doxycycline, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and tylosin (< 1 microg/ml) was lower than that of clindamycin (1-8 microg/ml), chloramphenicol (8-16 microg/ml), and erythromycin (32-138 microg/ml).

  3. Age of uranium ores at Ranger and Jabiluka unconformity vein deposits, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, K.R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Frishman, D.; Nash, J.T.; Simmons, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 Ga Kombolgie Formation. This study uses U-Pb isotope data from over 60 whole-rock drill core samples that contained a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Data for Ranger samples indicate a well-defined age of 1.74 +/-.02 Ga. This 1.74 Ga age is distinctly pre-Kombolgie, so the Ranger deposit cannot have been formed by processes requiring its presence. This Ranger age is consistent, however, with mineralization related to heating associated with either the emplacement of early post-metamorphic granites, or possibly with intrusion of the nearby Oenpelli Dolerite. In contrast, data for the least-altered Jabiluka ores yield a concordia-intercept age of 1.44 +/-.02 Ga--significantly younger than the Ranger age, and also younger than the Komobolgie. This age may correspond to a regional thermal event, as indicated both by mafic dikes of roughly this age and a zircon lower-intercept age from a nearby granite-gneiss. Thus, together with the well-defined approx.900 Ma age of ores at the Nabarlek deposit, there are at least 3 distinct periods of major U-mineralization in the ARUF. Data for both Ranger and Jabiluka indicate the same, profound isotopic disturbance at some time in the interval of 0.4-0.6 Ga. Possibly this time corresponds to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW, a suggested by Crick et. al. (1980).

  4. Gonadotropin-induced testosterone response in peripubertal male alligators.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thea M; Gunderson, Mark P; Milnes, Matthew R; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-02-01

    Based on the response to three different gonadotropin challenges, we evaluated seasonal production of testosterone in a group of captive-raised four-year-old male alligators that varied in size. To stimulate gonadal steroidogenesis, we injected each alligator with ovine FSH (150 ng/ml plasma). Plasma testosterone concentrations were measured in repeated blood samples taken between 0 and 72 h after FSH injection. To determine if there was seasonal variation in response, we repeated the experiment on the same alligators three times during the breeding season (March, May, and July, 2000). All alligators responded to exogenous FSH by exhibiting increased plasma concentrations of testosterone (p < 0.0001 for all months). However, the degree of the response depended on body size. Thus, larger alligators produced more testosterone and were more affected by changes in season compared to smaller alligators. We have previously observed that juvenile male alligators display seasonal changes in plasma testosterone concentrations that mimic the cycle observed in adult males. Our present data suggest that seasonal changes in plasma testosterone appear to be associated not only with changes in gonadotropin release but in gonadal responsiveness as well. We propose, given these observations, that alligators experience an extended period of puberty, during which the gonads synthesize gradually increasing steroid hormone concentrations. These peripubertal animals are not juveniles but sub-adults capable of responding to the seasonal signals associated with reproductive timing in adults.

  5. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The Administration and the Congress, through policy statements and passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), have signaled that they hope that proactive actions by agency Inspectors General will help ensure that Federal Recovery Act activities are transparent, effective and efficient. In that context, the purpose of this management alert is to share with you concerns that have been raised to the Office of Inspector General regarding the planned disposition of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) inventory of Depleted Uranium (DU) oxides. This inventory, generated as a by-product of the nuclear weapons production process and amounting to approximately 15,600 drums of DU oxides, has been stored at SRS for decades. A Department source we deem reliable and credible recently came to the Office of Inspector General expressing concern that imminent actions are planned that may not provide for the most cost effective disposition of these materials. During April 2009, the Department chose to use funds provided under the Recovery Act to accelerate final disposition of the SRS inventory of DU oxides. After coordination with State of Utah regulators, elected officials and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department initiated a campaign to ship the material to a facility operated by EnergySolutions in Clive, Utah. Although one shipment of a portion of the material has already been sent to the EnergySolutions facility, the majority of the product remains at SRS. As had been planned, both for the shipment already made and those planned in the near term, the EnergySolutions facility was to have been the final disposal location for the material. Recently, a member of Congress and various Utah State officials raised questions regarding the radioactive and other constituents present in the DU oxides to be disposed of at the Clive, Utah, facility. These concerns revolved around the characterization of the material and its acceptability under

  6. Characterization of microsatellite DNA markers for the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii: Primer note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackler, J.C.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Leslie, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Two trinucleotide and seven tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from an alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii. To assess the degree of variability in these nine microsatellite loci, we genotyped 174 individuals collected from eight river drainage basins in the southeastern USA. These markers revealed a moderate degree of allelic diversity (six to 16 alleles per locus) and observed heterozygosity (0.166-0.686). These polymorphic microsatellite loci provide powerful tools for population genetic studies for a species that is afforded some level of conservation protection in every state in which it occurs. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  7. Hexavalent Chromium Is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to American Alligator Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, Catherine; Xie, Hong; Guillette, Louis J.; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-01-01

    Metals are a common pollutant in the aquatic ecosystem. With global climate change, these levels are anticipated to rise as lower pH levels allow sediment bound metals to be released. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator in the aquatic ecosystem and is considered a keystone species; as such it serves as a suitable monitor for localized pollution. One metal of increasing concern is hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It is present in the aquatic environment and is a known human carcinogen and reproductive toxicant. We measured the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Cr(VI) in American alligator cells derived from scute tissue. We found that particulate and soluble Cr(VI) are both cytotoxic and genotoxic to alligator cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that alligators may be used as a model for assessing the effects of environmental Cr(VI) contamination as well as for other metals of concern. PMID:26730726

  8. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to American alligator cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Wise, Catherine; Xie, Hong; Guillette, Louis J; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-02-01

    Metals are a common pollutant in the aquatic ecosystem. With global climate change, these levels are anticipated to rise as lower pH levels allow sediment bound metals to be released. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator in the aquatic ecosystem and is considered a keystone species; as such it serves as a suitable monitor for localized pollution. One metal of increasing concern is hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It is present in the aquatic environment and is a known human carcinogen and reproductive toxicant. We measured the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Cr(VI) in American alligator cells derived from scute tissue. We found that particulate and soluble Cr(VI) are both cytotoxic and genotoxic to alligator cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that alligators may be used as a model for assessing the effects of environmental Cr(VI) contamination as well as for other metals of concern.

  9. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  10. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Ross, J Perran; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Terrell, Scott P; Woodward, Allan R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Perceval, H Franklin; Hinterkopf, Joy P

    2008-04-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities.

  11. Heavy metal and selenium concentrations in liver tissue from wild American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) livers near Charleston, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua W; Waters, Matthew N; Tarter, Anna; Jackson, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Liver samples from 33 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) livers from the Charleston, South Carolina, area were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) concentrations. Alligators are top predators and are considered a good biomonitoring species for various toxins, including heavy metals. Alligators from other areas in the US have shown high concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals, but the Charleston area, which is highly industrialized, has not been investigated. We found wide variation in hepatic heavy metal and selenium concentrations among alligators. Length and sex did not show a strong relationship with any metal based on statistical analysis. However, cluster analysis revealed three groupings of alligators based on liver metal concentrations. Alligators with low Se:Hg ratios also had high concentrations of Hg. Due to the wide variation in metal concentrations among individual alligators, we postulate that individual diet and microhabitat usage could be the cause for this variation.

  12. URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, F.T.; Cruikshank, A.J.

    1958-10-28

    A process for recovering uranium from a solution of a diethyl dithiocarbaruate of uranium in an orgakic solvent substantially immiscible with water is presented. The process comprises brlnging the organic solutlon into intimate contact wlth an aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate, whereby the uranium passes to the aqueous carbonate solution as a soluble uranyl carbonate.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D.; O`Quinn, M.

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  14. West Nile virus infection in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Ginn, Pamela E; Troutman, J Mitchell; Farina, Lisa; Stark, Lillian; Klenk, Kaci; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    In September and October 2002, an epizootic of neurologic disease occurred at an alligator farm in Florida (USA). Three affected American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were euthanatized and necropsied, and results confirmed infection with West Nile virus (WNV). The most significant microscopic lesions were a moderate heterophilic to lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalomyelitis, necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis, pancreatic necrosis, myocardial degeneration with necrosis, mild interstitial pneumonia, heterophilic necrotizing stomatitis, and glossitis. Immunohistochemistry identified WNV antigen, with the most intense staining in liver, pancreas, spleen, and brain. Virus isolation and RNA detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed WNV infection in plasma and tissue samples. Of the tissues, liver had the highest viral loads (maximum 10(8.9) plaque-forming units [PFU]/0.5 cm3), whereas brain and spinal cord had the lowest viral loads (maximum 10(6.6) PFU/0.5 cm3 each). Virus titers in plasma ranged from 10(3.6) to 10(6.5) PFU/ml, exceeding the threshold needed to infect Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (10(5) PFU/ml). Thus, alligators may serve as a vertebrate amplifying host for WNV.

  15. Gene expression patterns in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed to environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Satomi; Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-06-23

    Reproductive and developmental abnormalities have been reported in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) population from Lake Apopka, FL, that is chronically exposed to a complex mixture of environmental contaminants. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms that could lead to the observed abnormalities of the reproductive and endocrine system, we quantified concentrations of the steroid hormones testosterone (T) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and expression of steroid hormone receptors and genes relating to steroidogenesis in gonadal tissue from juvenile alligators from three lakes in Florida using enzyme immunoassay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Alterations of ESR2 (estrogen receptor beta) and SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) mRNA expression in male gonadal tissue, without an observed difference in plasma concentrations of T, from the different lakes, begin to provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying the alterations of the reproductive system previously observed. Likewise, alterations in P450 aromatase and DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1) mRNA expression, with elevated plasma E(2) concentrations in females, provide leads to the potential mechanisms modifying folliculogenesis and ovarian development. The investigation of these genes also helps clarify normal endocrine and reproductive system function in the American alligator.

  16. Morphogenesis and patterning of the phallus and cloaca in the American alligator, alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Gredler, Marissa L; Seifert, Ashley W; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    In most animals, reproduction by internal fertilization is facilitated by an intromittent organ, such as the penis in amniote vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to uncover the mechanisms of mammalian external genital development; however, comparatively little is known about the development of the reptilian penis and clitoris. Here, we describe the development of the phallus and cloaca in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. The embryonic precursor of the penis and clitoris is the genital tubercle, which forms by the budding of genital mesenchyme beneath the ventral body wall ectoderm, adjacent to the cloacal membrane. The cloacal lips develop from another pair of outgrowths, the lateral swellings. Early development of the alligator phallus, cloaca, and urogenital ducts generally resembles that of other reptiles, suggesting that differences in adult reptilian phallus and cloacal anatomy arise at later stages. The phallic sulcus is derived from the cloacal endoderm, indicating that the crocodilian sulcus is functionally and developmentally homologous to the mammalian urethra. Initial external genital outgrowth and patterning occur prior to temperature-dependent sex determination. Our analysis of alligator phallus and cloaca development suggests that modifications of an ancestral program of urogenital development could have generated the morphological diversity found in the external genitalia of modern amniotes.

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of BAFF from the Yangtze alligator (Alligator sinensis, Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Xin; Song, Ren; Sang, Ming; Sun, Si-Qing; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Shuang-Quan

    2015-10-01

    B-cell activating factor (BAFF) from the TNF family is critical for B-cell survival and maturation. In this study, we identified a Yangtze alligator (Alligator sinensis, Alligatoridae) BAFF cDNA, designated as asBAFF, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of this cDNA encodes a 287-amino acid protein containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian and avian BAFF. The amino acid identity between biologically soluble asBAFF (assBAFF) and csBAFF, hsBAFF, and msBAFF is 94, 76, and 71%, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the asBAFF gene is strongly expressed in the spleen. Since BAFF is always expressed as inclusion bodies in bacteria, it is difficult to purify. To enhance the soluble expression of assBAFF in Escherichia coli, we fused the extracellular region of the asBAFF gene to a small ubiquitin-related modifier gene (SUMO). Purified assBAFF was able to promote the survival of splenic lymphocytes and co-stimulate the proliferation of mouse B cells with anti-mouse IgM. These findings suggest that asBAFF plays an important role in the survival and proliferation of Yangtze alligator B cells, and because it is evolutionarily highly conserved, functional cross-reactivity exists between mammalian and Yangtze alligator BAFF.

  18. Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

    2014-09-01

    While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and ΣDDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ΣDDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians.

  19. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics.

  20. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Parrott, Benjamin B.; Bowden, John A.; Kassim, Brittany L.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Bryan, Teresa A.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Lange, Ted R.; Delaney, J. Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M.; Long, Stephen E.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida’s north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different “treatments” of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  1. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  2. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  3. Rapid suppression of testosterone secretion after capture in male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M; Butterstein, George; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2004-01-15

    All reptiles studied to date show an increase in circulating corticosterone following capture. This rise in corticosterone has also been shown in a number of instances to result in a decline in reproductive steroids within hours after capture. As a result of these observations it has been considered imperative to collect blood samples as soon as possible after capture to get reliable measures of reproductive hormones. It has been claimed, however, that there is no effect of capture stress on reproductive steroids in juvenile alligators held for 2 h following capture. As we generally reject blood samples that are not collected within 15 min of capture we decided to reinvestigate the effect of short-term capture (2 h) on corticosterone and testosterone in male alligators. Four groups of alligators, ranging in size from 74 to 212 cm total length were captured in a 2-week period in May, the time of year when testosterone levels are highest. Two groups were captured during the day (eight bled at capture and again at 2 h, eight bled at 2 h only) and two at night (10 bled at capture and again at 2 h, 10 bled at 2 h only). Testosterone and corticosterone in alligators bled immediately on capture and at 2 h were not significantly different in the AM and PM samples so the results were combined (Initial bleed: corticosterone, 0.95 +/- 0.09 ng/ml, n=18; testosterone, 6.06 +/- 2.09 ng/ml, n=18. Two-hour bleed: corticosterone 15.68 +/- 1.91, n=18; testosterone, 2.75 +/- 0.79, n=18). Both the increase in corticosterone and the decline in testosterone at 2 h were significant (p<0.05). Corticosterone and testosterone in the alligators sampled only once at 2 h were not significantly different from the 2-h values in alligators sampled twice (corticosterone 15.04 +/- 1.29, n=18; testosterone, 1.85 +/- 0.62, n=18). These results clearly demonstrate that short-term capture stress results in a significant decline in testosterone in male alligators.

  4. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. American Alligator Research on the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowers, Russell H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research conducted at the Kennedy Space Center on the American Alligator. The objectives of the research were to establish life history baseline at the Kennedy Space Center and at the Merit Island National Wildlife Reserve (MINWR). Some of the factors that were examined are: nesting success, movement patterns, and population structure. Another objective was to determine the overall health of the alligator population, by analyzing blood and tissue chemistry, and urine analysis. A third objective was to compare alligators at KSC/MINWR to the statewide population. Some of the results are shown in charts and graphs.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsom, John D.; Joanen, Ted; Howard, Rebecca J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating American alligator habitat quality. The model is applicable in marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is scaled to produce an index between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  7. WILDLIFE - ALLIGATOR BEGINS TO CROSS KENNEDY PARKWAY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Harold O'Connor, manager of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, watches a 10-foot-long alligator inch its way toward a busy highway at the Kennedy Space Center. O'Connor, aided by assistant Jerome Carroll, not shown, guided the large gator to safety in a nearby pond, several miles south of the Vehicle Assembly Building, in background. The Apollo 12 astronauts will be launched no earlier than November 14, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center on the Nation's second manned lunar landing mission.

  8. Fixation of radionuclides in the 238U decay series in the vicinity of mineralized zones: 1. The Austatom Uranium Prospect, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvington, P. J.

    1983-03-01

    The minimum age of a zone of secondary uranium mineralization, located at the Austatom Prospect in the Alligator Rivers region of Australia, is estimated to be 3.6 × 10 5y. This is derived from a geochronological model based on retarded leaching of 234U with respect to 238U and on ratios within the ore of these members of the 238U decay series. Although kaolinite is a dominant mineral in the weathered schist-host-rocks, retarded dissolution of 234U occurs only in the presence of the clay minerals illite and montmorillonite. In their absence the reverse occurs. A model is proposed to explain the results. Ratios of 230Th to 238U indicate that the mineralization has probably remained stationary within the weathered schist for at least 1 to 2 × 10 5y. Future use of clay minerals as buffers in radioactive waste repositories is supported by the excellent long-term retention obtained for oxidized uranium, probably due in part to isomorphic substitution into the clay crystal lattice.

  9. An alligator basks in the sun at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the bank of a levee near Schwartz Rd. at Kennedy Space Center, an alligator suns itself with a wary eye out for trespassers. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds, and waterways throughout the Center and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with the Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  10. 109. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of alligator back and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of alligator back and the parkway seen from bluff mountain. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  11. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND ALLIGATOR EMBRYOS: A LESSON FROM WILDLIFE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity adversely affect wildlife. A number of these contaminants have been hypothesized to induce non lethal, multigenerational effects by acting as endocrine disrupting agents. One case is that of the alligator...

  12. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

  13. Influence of collection time on hematologic and immune markers in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Williams, Robert J; Hamilton, Matthew T; Elsey, Ruth M; Oppenheimer, Victor A; Holladay, Steven D; Gogal, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Crocodilians are important keystone species and indicators of environmental health. Much remains unknown, however regarding utility of field-collected crocodilian blood samples for ecologic assessments. Field sampling sites are also often distant to analysis centers, necessitating development of new techniques and panels of assays that will yield environmentally relevant data. Stability and viability of hematological and immunological indices have been of particular interest for linking ecosystem health to biomarkers in resident species. In this study, we investigated the effect of time at analysis post-blood sampling at 4 and 24 hr on a panel of potential biomarkers in alligator blood. Our results suggest alligator blood samples can be reliably evaluated for both hematologic and immunologic profile 24 hr after sampling.

  14. Morphology and histochemistry of juvenile male American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) phallus.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Mathavan, Ketan; Guillette, Louis J

    2012-02-01

    Phalli of male crocodilians transfer sperm to female cloaca during sexual intercourse, resulting in internal fertilization. For over a century there have been scientific descriptions of crocodilian phallus morphologies; however, little work has presented detailed cellular-level analyses of these structures. Here we present a histological investigation of the complex functional anatomy of the juvenile male American alligator phallus, including fibrous and vascular erectile structures, a variety of secretory epithelium morphologies, and observed immune cells. Using 3D reconstruction software, we show the shape and location of vascular erectile tissues within the phallus. Histochemical staining detected mucin-rich secretory cells in glandular epithelial cells of the phallic shaft and also of the semen-conducting ventral sulcus. Lymphoid aggregates, lymphocytes, and epithelial mucin coats suggest an active immune system in the phallus defending from both the external and intracloacal environments. These results better characterize the complexity of the alligator phallus and predict later reproductive functions during adulthood.

  15. Development of sympathetic cardiovascular control in embryonic, hatchling, and yearling female American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Elsey, Ruth M; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-06-01

    We used arterial tyramine injections to study development of sympathetic actions on in vivo heart rate and blood pressure in embryonic, hatching and yearling female American alligators. Tyramine is a pharmacological tool for understanding comparative and developmental sympathetic regulation of cardiovascular function, and this indirect sympathomimetic agent causes endogenous neuronal catecholamine release, increasing blood pressure and heart rate. Arterial tyramine injection in hatchling and yearling alligators caused the typical vertebrate response - rise in heart rate and blood pressure. However, in embryonic alligators, tyramine caused a substantial and immediate bradycardia at both 70% and 90% of embryonic development. This embryonic bradycardia was accompanied by hypotension, followed by a sustained hypertension similar to the hatchling and juvenile responses. Pretreatment with atropine injection (cholinergic receptor blocker) eliminated the embryonic hypotensive bradycardia, and phentolamine pretreatment (α-adrenergic receptor blocker) eliminated the embryonic hypotensive and hypertensive responses but not the bradycardia. In addition, hexamethonium pretreatment (nicotinic receptor blocker) significantly blunted embryos' bradycardic tyramine response. However, pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine, a neurotoxin that destroys catecholaminergic terminals, did not eliminate the embryonic bradycardia. Tyramine likely stimulated a unique embryonic response - neurotransmitter release from preganglionic nerve terminals (blocked with hexamethonium) and an acetylcholine mediated bradycardia with a secondary norepinephrine-dependent sustained hypertension. In addition, tyramine appears to stimulate sympathetic nerve terminals directly, which contributed to the overall hypertension in the embryonic, hatchling and yearling animals. Data demonstrated that humoral catecholamine control of cardiovascular function was dominant over the immature parasympathetic nervous system

  16. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts a cardiovascular reflex loop in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Hicks, James W; Crossley, Dane A

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic non-avian reptiles, and this study is the first to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on a possible chemoreflex loop in a developing non-avian reptile. We measured heart rate and blood pressure in normoxic and hypoxic-incubated (10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis) at 70 and 90/95% of development. We hypothesized that hypoxic incubation would blunt embryonic alligators' response to a reflex loop stimulated by phenylbiguanide (PBG), a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist that stimulates vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents. PBG injection caused a hypotensive bradycardia in 70 and 95% of development embryos (paired t tests, P < 0.05), a response similar to mammals breathing inspired air (all injections made through occlusive catheter in tertiary chorioallantoic membrane artery). Hypoxic incubation blunted the bradycardic response to PBG in embryos at 95% of development (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01). We also demonstrated that the vagally mediated afferent limb of this reflex can be partially or completely blocked in ovo with a 5-HT(3) receptor blockade using ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (OHD), with a ganglionic blockade using hexamethonium, or with a cholinergic blockade using atropine. Atropine eliminated the hypotensive and bradycardic responses to PBG, and OHD and hexamethonium significantly blunted these responses. This cardiovascular reflex mediated by the vagus was affected by hypoxic incubation, suggesting that reptilian sympathetic and parasympathetic reflex loops have the potential for developmental plasticity in response to hypoxia. We suggest that the American alligator, with an extended length of time between each developmental stage relative to avian species, may provide an excellent model to test the cardiorespiratory effects of prolonged exposure to changes in atmospheric gases. This extended period allows for lengthy studies at each stage without the

  17. Effects of dehydration on cardiovascular development in the embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis).

    PubMed

    Tate, Kevin B; Eme, John; Swart, Justin; Conlon, J Michael; Crossley, Dane A

    2012-07-01

    Effects of dehydration on reptilian embryonic cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we present the first morphological and physiological data quantifying the cumulative effects of four acute dehydration events on the embryonic American alligator, Alligator mississipiensis. We hypothesized that dehydration would alter embryonic morphology, reduce blood volume and augment the response to angiotensin II (Ang II), a key osmotic and blood volume regulatory response element in adult vertebrates. Drying events at 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of embryonic incubation reduced total egg water content by 14.43 ± 0.37 g, a 3.4 fold increase relative to controls. However, embyronic blood volume was greater in the dehydration group at 70% of embryonic incubation compared to controls (0.39 ± 0.044 mLg(-1) and 0.22 ± 0.03 mLg(-1), respectively), however, both groups were similar at 90% of incubation (0.18 ± 0.02 mLg(-1) in the controls and 0.23 ± 0.03 mLg(-1) in the dehydrated group). Dehydration altered the morphological phenotype and resulted in an overall reduction in embryonic mass at both incubation time points measured. Dehydration also altered the physiological phenotype, resulting in embryonic alligators that were relatively bradycardic at 90% of incubation. Arterial Ang II injections resulted in a dose dependent hypertension, which increased in intensity over the span of incubation studied. While progressive incubation altered the Ang II response, dehydration had no impact on the cardiovascular responses to the peptide. Quantification of Ang II type-1 receptor protein using western blot analysis illustrated that dehydration condition and incubation time point did not alter protein quantity. Collectively, our results show that dehydration during embryonic development of the American alligator alters embryonic morphology and baseline heart rate without altering arterial pressure and response to Ang II.

  18. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  19. Uranium immobilization in an iron-rich rhizosphere of a native wetland plant from the Savannah River Site under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-shik; Buettner, Shea W; Seaman, John C; Jaffé, Peter R; van Groos, Paul G Koster; Li, Dien; Peacock, Aaron D; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2014-08-19

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaques formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted using native plants (Sparganium americanum) from a wetland located on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. After iron plaques were established during a 73-day period by using an anoxic Fe(II)-rich nutrient solution, a U(VI) amended nutrient solution was added to the system for an additional two months. Compared to plant-free control microcosms, microcosms containing iron plaques successfully stimulated the growth of targeted iron reducing bacteria, Geobacter spp. Their population continuously increased after the introduction of the U(VI) nutrient solution. The reduction of some of the U(VI) to U(IV) by iron reducing bacteria was deduced based on the observations that the aqueous Fe(II) concentrations increased while the U(VI) concentrations decreased. The Fe(II) produced by the iron reducing bacteria was assumed to be reoxidized by the oxygen released from the roots. Advanced spectroscopic analyses revealed that a significant fraction of the U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV) and they were commonly deposited in association with phosphorus on the iron plaque.

  20. Seasonal androgen cycles in adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of two primary plasma androgens, testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), were assessed in adult male alligators from the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Samples were collected monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2007 and 2010. Plasma T concentrations peaked in April, coincident with breeding and courtship, and declined rapidly throughout the summer. Seasonal plasma T patterns in smaller though reproductively active adult males differed from those in their larger counterparts during the breeding season. Both size classes showed significant increases in plasma T concentration from February to March, at the beginning of the breeding season. However, smaller adults did not experience the peak in plasma T concentrations in April that were observed in larger adults, and their concentrations were significantly lower than those of larger males for the remainder of the breeding season. Plasma DHEA concentrations peaked in May and were significantly reduced by June. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of DHEA in a crocodilian, and the high plasma DHEA concentrations that paralleled the animals' reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role in adult male alligators. Similar to androgen variations in some birds, plasma DHEA concentrations in the alligators were considerably higher than T concentrations during the nonbreeding season, suggesting a potential role in maintaining nonbreeding seasonal aggression.

  1. Molecular characterization of dental development in a toothed archosaur, the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Olivia; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-01-01

    Few skeletal structures are as informative of the adaptive natural history of vertebrate animals as their teeth. Understanding principles of tooth development is key to understanding evolution of the vertebrate dentition in general and emergence of multiple specialized tooth types in particular. Morphological and phylogenetic considerations suggest that crocodilians have the most primitive mode of dentition within extant tetrapods, displaying simple, conical, socketed, and continuously replaced teeth. Previous histological studies revealed several dental fates, including functional and non-functional teeth (rudiments) in the developing alligator embryos. We analyze expression of key odontogenic regulators and markers to better characterize the molecular patterning of crocodilian dentition. Importantly, we demonstrate that the morphologically distinct tooth types in Alligator mississippiensis are distinguishable by differences in their developmental programs. We also present evidence showing that tooth maturation is accompanied by dynamic gene expression in the epithelial and mesenchymal cells involved in tooth development. Our data reveal a significant morphological and genetic variation in early dental fates. We believe that this underlying developmental variation reflects modularity, or the ability of teeth to develop semi-autonomously along the alligator jaw. We propose that such modularity may have been a crucial for adaptive evolution within Amniota, allowing for the progressive modifications to tooth replacement, number, and shape.

  2. Variation in perfluoroalkyl acids in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    PubMed

    Bangma, Jacqueline T; Reiner, Jessica L; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H; Nilsen, Frances; Rainwater, Thomas R; Somerville, Stephen; Guillette, Louis J; Bowden, John A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting wetlands surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, USA located at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). Approximately 10 male and 10 female alligators (ntotal = 229) were sampled each month during 2008 and 2009 to determine if seasonal or spatial trends existed with PFAA burden. PFOS represented the highest plasma burden (median 185 ng/g) and PFHxS the second highest (median 7.96 ng/g). While no significant seasonal trends were observed, unique spatial trends emerged. Many of the measured PFAAs co-varied strongly together and similar trends were observed for PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA, and PFDoA, as well as for PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFTriA, and PFTA, suggesting more than one source of PFAAs at MINWR. Higher concentrations of PFOS and the PFAAs that co-varied with PFOS were collected from animals around sites that included the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) fire house and the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout (O&C) retention pond, while higher concentrations of PFOA and the PFAA that co-varied with PFOA were sampled from animals near the gun range and the old fire training facility. Sex-based differences and snout-vent length (SVL) correlations with PFAA burden were also investigated.

  3. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis (Reptilia: Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Siegel, Dustin S; Venable, Katherine J; Hester, Georgia L; Elsey, Ruth M

    2011-11-01

    This study details the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. American Alligator spermatozoa are filiform and slightly curved. The acrosome is tapered at its anterior end and surrounded by the acrosome vesicle and an underlying subacrosomal cone, which rests just cephalic to the nuclear rostrum. One endonuclear canal extends from the subacrosomal cone through the rostral nucleus and deep into the nuclear body. The neck region separates the nucleus and midpiece and houses the proximal centriole and pericentriolar material. The distal centriole extends through the midpiece and has 9 × 3 sets of peripheral microtubules with a central doublet pair within the axoneme that is surrounded by a dense sheath. The midpiece is composed of seven to nine rings of mitochondria, which have combinations of concentrically and septate cristae. The principal piece has a dense fibrous sheath that surrounds an axoneme with a 9 + 2 microtubule arrangement. The sheath becomes significantly reduced in size caudally within the principal piece and is completely missing from the endpiece. Dense peripheral fibers, especially those associated with microtubule doublets 3 and 8, penetrate into the anterior portion of the principal piece axoneme. The data reported here hypothesize that sperm morphology is highly conserved in Crocodylia; however, specific morphological differences can exist between species.

  4. Proteome analysis of the leukocytes from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Darville, Lancia N F; Merchant, Mark E; Hasan, Azeem; Murray, Kermit K

    2010-12-01

    Mass spectrometry was used in conjunction with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography, to determine peptide sequences from American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) leukocytes and to identify similar proteins based on homology. The goal of the study was to generate an initial database of proteins related to the alligator immune system. We have adopted a typical proteomics approach for this study. Proteins from leukocyte extracts were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the major bands were excised, digested and analyzed by on-line nano-LC MS/MS to generate peptide sequences. The sequences generated were used to identify proteins and characterize their functions. The protein identity and characterization of the protein function were based on matching two or more peptides to the same protein by searching against the NCBI database using MASCOT and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). For those proteins with only one peptide matching, the phylum of the matched protein was considered. Forty-three proteins were identified that exhibit sequence similarities to proteins from other vertebrates. Proteins related to the cytoskeletal system were the most abundant proteins identified. These proteins are known to regulate cell mobility and phagocytosis. Several other peptides were matched to proteins that potentially have immune-related function.

  5. URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

    1959-05-12

    This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

  6. Thorium-uranium disequilibrium dating of Late Quaternary ferruginous concretions and rinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Stephen A.; Lowson, Richard T.; Ems, John; Price, David M.

    1989-06-01

    Radioactive ferruginous nodules from the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province, Northern Territory, Australia, were systematically examined by optical microscopy, XRD, alpha- and fission-track autoradiography, and analysed for U, Th, Ra and major stable elements. Correlation of autoradiographs with microscopic structure and analyses of selective extractions confirmed that U and Th were strongly associated with Fe oxides. Fission-track autoradiography showed no concentration gradient evidence for postdepositional leaching of uranium. Strong acid leaching studies showed that irreversibly adsorbed U, and authigenic 234U and 230Th, but not 226Ra, are quantitatively retained by accumulated oxide/oxyhydroxide. Correlation of the groundwater activity ratio with oxidic 234U/ 238U activity ratios indicated the latter was radiogenically consistent with oxidic 230Th/ 234U activity ratios < 1. Dense, accumulated Fe/Mn oxide matrices are apparently capable of forming radiogenic closed systems in respect of the 230U → 234U → 230Th decay set. 234U/ 238U and 230Th/ 234U activity ratios were used to derive similar mean ages of rinds for four nodules in the same horizon. Th/U ages were also determined, using a Th-index detrital correction method previously used for impure carbonates, of pedogenic Fe/Mn accumulations having background concentrations of U and Th from other locations in Australia. These ages were compared with TL and 14C ages of the-host sediments. The comparisions suggest that Th/U dating could be used to age indurated layers of Fe/Mn oxides in soil horizons < 350 ka old.

  7. Role of the left aortic arch and blood flows in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Crossley, Dane A; Hicks, James W

    2011-04-01

    All embryonic and fetal amniotes possess a ductus(i) arteriosus(i) that allows blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation and the non-functional lungs. The central hemodynamic of embryonic reptiles are unique, given the additional systemic aorta that allows pulmonary circulatory bypass, the left aorta (LAo). The LAo exits in the right ventricle or 'pulmonary side' of reptilian hearts in both embryos and adults, but its functional significance in ovo is unknown. This study investigated the role of the LAo in embryonic American alligators by surgically occluding the LAo and measuring oxygen consumption and, in addition, measured hemodynamic responses to hypoxia in embryonic alligators. We measured systemic cardiac output and primary chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) artery blood flow for normoxic and hypoxic-incubated (10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis). Chronic blood flow (1-124 h) in the primary CAM artery for hypoxic-incubated embryos (92 ± 26 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) was elevated when compared with normoxic-incubated embryos (29 ± 14 ml min(-1) kg(-1), N = 6; P = 0.039). For hypoxic-incubated embryos, acute LAo blood flow (49.6 ± 24.4 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) was equivalent to the combined flow of the three systemic great vessels that arise from the left ventricle, the right aorta, common carotid and subclavian arteries (43.6 ± 21.5 ml min(-1) kg(-1), N = 5). Similarly, for normoxic-incubated embryos, LAo blood flow (27.3 ± 6.6 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) did not statistically differ from the other three vessels (18.4 ± 4.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1), N = 5). This study contains the first direct test of LAo function and the first measurements of blood flow in an embryonic reptile. These data support the hypotheses that embryonic alligators utilize the LAo to divert a significant amount of right ventricular blood into the systemic circulation, and that CAM blood flow increases following chronic hypoxic conditions. However, surgical occlusion of the LAo did not

  8. Low mitochondrial DNA variation among American alligators and a novel non-coding region in crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; Staton, Joseph L; Vu, Alex T; Davis, Lisa M; Bremer, Jaime R Alvarado; Rhodes, Walter E; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sawyer, Roger H

    2002-12-15

    We analyzed 1317-1823 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA sequence beginning in the 5' end of cytochrome b (cyt b) and ending in the central domain of the control region for 25 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and compared these to a homologous sequence from a Chinese alligator (A. sinensis). Both species share a non-coding spacer between cyt b and tRNA(Thr). Chinese alligator cyt b differs from that of the American alligator by 17.5% at the nucleotide level and 13.8% for inferred amino acids, which is consistent with their presumed ancient divergence. Only two cyt b haplotypes were detected among the 25 American alligators (693-1199 bp surveyed), with one haplotype shared among 24 individuals. One alligator from Mississippi differed from all other alligators by a single silent substitution. The control region contained only slightly more variation among the 25 American alligators, with two variable positions (624 bp surveyed), yielding three haplotypes with 22, two, and one individuals in each of these groups. Previous genetic studies examining allozymes and the proportion of variable microsatellite DNA loci also found low levels of genetic diversity in American alligators. However, in contrast with allozymes, microsatellites, and morphology, the mtDNA data shows no evidence of differentiation among populations from the extremes of the species range. These results suggest that American alligators underwent a severe population bottleneck in the late Pleistocene, resulting in nearly homogenous mtDNA among all American alligators today.

  9. Clinical and necropsy findings associated with increased mortality among American alligators of Lake Griffin, Florida.

    PubMed

    Schoeb, Trenton R; Heaton-Jones, Terrell G; Clemmons, Roger M; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Woodward, Allan R; Shelton, Diane; Poppenga, Robert H

    2002-04-01

    From December, 1997, through November, 2000, 306 deaths were documented among adult and subadult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) of Lake Griffin, Florida (USA). Some live alligators were lethargic and unresponsive to approach. To determine the cause, we examined ten alligators captured from Lake Griffin between December 1997 and June 1999. Initially, four alligators, three of which were clinically unresponsive, were sacrificed for routine diagnostic necropsy. The other six Lake Griffin alligators, and five control alligators captured from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, where mortality was negligible, were studied extensively by clinical neurologic examination, electromyography, hematology, serum chemical analyses, and blood culture, then sacrificed and necropsied. Samples of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, skeletal muscle, and major internal organs were examined by light microscopy for abnormalities. Samples of nervous tissue also were examined by electron microscopy, and samples of various tissues were collected for toxicologic analyses. Clinical signs included swimming in circles, inability to submerge, lethargy, weakness, unresponsiveness, slow reflexes, dragging the dorsal surfaces of the hind feet, head tilt, and anisocoria. Lake Griffin alligators had significantly lower distal sciatic nerve conduction velocities than Lake Woodruff alligators, and the most severely affected alligators had the lowest velocities; but morphologic abnormalities in peripheral nerves were not evident in most cases. Three severely affected alligators had acute focal necrosis of the torus semicircularis in the midbrain, two had skeletal myofiber atrophy, another had diffuse nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, and one mildly affected alligator had skeletal myodegeneration. The cause or causes have not yet been identified.

  10. 78 FR 57480 - Safety Zone; 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator Lighthouse, Atlantic Ocean; Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator... Islamorada, Florida, during the 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator Lighthouse on September 21, 2013.... is hosting the 1st Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator Lighthouse. The event will be held on...

  11. Episodic breathing in alligators: role of sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Douse, M A; Mitchell, G S

    1992-01-01

    The episodic breathing pattern in many reptiles consists of two or more clustered breaths separated by variable non-ventilatory periods. This pattern is commonly postulated to result from oscillations in lung and/or blood PO2 or PCO2 via chemoreceptor feedback. We tested this hypothesis by monitoring breathing pattern in: (1) awake, undisturbed alligators and (2) sedated alligators (approx. 25 mg/kg pentobarbital, i.p.; 3 days prior to data collection). In sedated alligators, measurements were made: (1) before and after bilateral cervical vagotomy, a procedure that removes peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, CO2-sensitive intrapulmonary chemoreceptors and pulmonary stretch receptors (n = 6); and (2) during unidirectional ventilation (UDV) at high flow rates (greater than 2 L/min), thereby minimizing oscillations in lung and blood PO2 and PCO2 (n = 6). Measurements on sedated alligators were made at 30 and 20 degrees C in each of these conditions. In awake, undisturbed alligators, breathing was typically episodic with 2-7 breaths/cluster, although the pattern was easily altered (increased breaths/cluster) by even seemingly minor disturbances. In sedated alligators, episodic breathing was still evident after vagotomy, but only at increased inspired CO2; at 5% CO2 four of six alligators exhibited episodic breathing consisting of 2-3 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths. An episodic breathing pattern was also evident during UDV; at low levels of CO2, 2-4 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths were evident in four alligators, while two had 6-8 breaths/cluster. Increasing CO2 in the UDV gas stream generally increased the number of breaths/cluster. After vagotomy, all six alligators could manifest an episodic breathing pattern during UDV in at least one CO2 condition (greater than 2 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths). The episodic breathing pattern was very labile, sometimes changing to single breaths

  12. Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C G; Sanders, Kent

    2010-01-15

    The lungs of birds move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi), whereas in the lungs of mammals and presumably other vertebrates, air moves tidally into and out of terminal gas-exchange structures, which are cul-de-sacs. Unidirectional flow purportedly depends on bellowslike ventilation by air sacs and may have evolved to meet the high aerobic demands of sustained flight. Here, we show that air flows unidirectionally through parabronchi in the lungs of the American alligator, an amphibious ectotherm without air sacs, which suggests that this pattern dates back to the basal archosaurs of the Triassic and may have been present in their nondinosaur descendants (phytosaurs, aetosaurs, rauisuchians, crocodylomorphs, and pterosaurs) as well as in dinosaurs.

  13. Ontogenetic development of otoliths in Alligator Gar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Snow, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The Alligator Gar Atractosteus spatula is a species of conservation concern throughout its range, and better definition of otoliths during early development would aid understanding its life history and ecology. We conducted X-ray computed tomography scans, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy to examine the three pairs of otoliths and how they developed over time in relation to fish size and age. The sagittae are the largest, possessing distinct dorsal and ventral lobes covered with small otoconia concentrated in the sulcul region. The sagittae exhibited allometric growth, increasing more rapidly in the ventral lobe than in the dorsal. The asterisci were smaller and also exhibited small otoconia on their surface, but much less than the sagittae. The lapilli were oriented laterally, in contrast to the sagittae and asterisci, which were oriented vertically, with a hump on the dorsum and very large otoconia on the lateral surface that appeared to fuse into the main otolith as the fish grew. Based on size measurements and ring counts in all three pairs of otoliths from 101 known-age Alligator Gar sampled weekly through 91 d after hatch, we developed regression models to examine otolith growth and predict age. All relationships were significant and highly explanatory, but the strongest relationships were between otolith and fish size (for measurements from sagittae) and for age predictions from the lapillus. Age prediction models all resulted in a slope near unity, indicating that ring deposition occurred approximately daily. The first ring in sagittae and lapilli corresponded to swim-up, whereas the first ring formed in asterisci approximately 8 d after swim-up. These results fill a gap in knowledge and can aid understanding of evolutionary processes as well as provide useful information for management and conservation.

  14. Engineered In-Situ Precipitation of Technetium and Uranium in Groundwater at the Savannah River Site: Treatment Targeting Long-Term Stability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillow, J. B.; Lutes, C. C.; Frizzell, A.; Clark, B.; Horst, J.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapons facility that is undergoing clean-up of groundwater and soil contamination. Alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat are being evaluated through DOE’s Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) program as part of the EM-22 Groundwater and Soil Remediation program. A pilot project is underway to evaluate an emerging approach to remediation through the in-situ precipitation of insoluble forms of technetium and uranium. The demonstration involves the injection of organic carbon into the aquifer to stimulate biogeochemical processes leading to the transformation of soluble radionuclides to insoluble forms. However, once carbon addition is ceased and geochemical conditions return to oxidizing, the insoluble radionuclides may re-dissolve. The pilot project will target long term stability by enhancing the creation of reduced mineral forms in and around the precipitated radionuclides to act as both a redox buffer for oxidizing groundwater and as a sorptive medium for any dissolved uranium and technetium. Successful treatment with respect to in situ radionuclide precipitation extends beyond numeric cleanup goals and invokes a standard of care that considers not only short-term solubility achieved during active remediation, but the range of factors that might erode/compromise the stability of the precipitated solids over the long-term. Long-term stability may be achieved by incorporating the targeted radionuclide in a matrix of other precipitates formed through the treatment process. In the short term, this can include the precipitates of other more abundant metals (e.g., iron) that can preferentially scavenge oxygen. Longer term, this is expected to transition to passivation within a matrix of more stable mineral phases, such that rates of rebound dissolution are sufficiently suppressed to maintain dissolved concentrations below remedial targets. The in situ reactive zone (IRZ

  15. Contribution of Uranium-Bearing Evaporites to Plume Persistence Issues at a Former Uranium Mill Site Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Raymond; Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Campbell, James; Morris, Sarah; Tigar, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    • Evaporites occur in an unsaturated silt layer, which is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. • These evaporites are rich in chloride across the site. • Uranium concentrations are higher in the evaporites that overlie the uranium contaminant plume. • Flooding can solubilize the evaporites in the silt layer and release chloride, sulfate (not shown), and uranium into the underlyingsand and gravel aquifer. • The uranium-rich evaporites can delay natural flushing, creating plume persistence near the Little Wind River.

  16. Body temperature null distributions in reptiles with nonzero heat capacity: seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of body temperature may increase fitness of animals by ensuring that biochemical and physiological processes proceed at an optimal rate. The validity of current methods of testing whether or not thermoregulation in reptiles occurs is often limited to very small species that have near zero heat capacity. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows estimation of body temperature null distributions of large reptiles and to investigate seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Continuous body temperature records of wild alligators were obtained from implanted dataloggers in winter (n=7, mass range: 1.6-53.6 kg) and summer (n=7, mass range: 1.9-54.5 kg). Body temperature null distributions were calculated by randomising behavioural postures, thereby randomly altering relative animal surface areas exposed to different avenues of heat transfer. Core body temperatures were predicted by calculations of transient heat transfer by conduction and blood flow. Alligator body temperatures follow regular oscillations during the day. Occasionally, body temperature steadied during the day to fall within a relatively narrow range. Rather than indicating shuttling thermoregulation, however, this pattern could be predicted from random movements. Average daily body temperature increases with body mass in winter but not in summer. Daily amplitudes of body temperature decrease with increasing body mass in summer but not in winter. These patterns result from differential exposure to heat transfer mechanisms at different seasons. In summer, alligators are significantly cooler than predictions for a randomly moving animal, and the reverse is the case in winter. Theoretical predictions show, however, that alligators can be warmer in winter if they maximised their sun exposure. We concluded that alligators may not rely exclusively on regulation of body temperature but that they may also acclimatise biochemically to seasonally

  17. Effects of prolonged lung inflation or deflation on pulmonary stretch receptor discharge in the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Marschand, Rachel E; Wilson, Jenna L; Burleson, Mark L; Crossley, Dane A; Hedrick, Michael S

    2014-08-15

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is a semi-aquatic diving reptile that has a periodic breathing pattern. Previous work identified pulmonary stretch receptors, that are rapidly and slowly adapting, as well as intrapulmonary chemoreceptors (IPC), sensitive to CO2, that modulate breathing patterns in alligators. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of prolonged lung inflation and deflation (simulated dives) on pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR) and/or IPC discharge characteristics. The effects of airway pressure (0-20 cm H2O), hypercapnia (7% CO2), and hypoxia (5% O2) on dynamic and static responses of PSR were studied in juvenile alligators (mean mass=246 g) at 24°C. Alligators were initially anesthetized with isoflurane, cranially pithed, tracheotomized and artificially ventilated. Vagal afferent tonic and phasic activity was recorded with platinum hook electrodes. Receptor activity was a mixture of slowly adapting PSR (SAR) and rapidly adapting PSR (RAR) with varying thresholds and degrees of adaptation, without CO2 sensitivity. Receptor activity before, during and after 1 min periods of lung inflation and deflation was quantified to examine the effect of simulated breath-hold dives. Some PSR showed a change in dynamic response, exhibiting inhibition for several breaths after prolonged lung inflation. Following 1 min deflation, RAR, but not SAR, exhibited a significant potentiation of burst frequency relative to control. For SAR, the post-inflation receptor inhibition was blocked by CO2 and hypoxia; for RAR, the post-inflation inhibition was potentiated by CO2 and blocked by hypoxia. These results suggest that changes in PSR firing following prolonged inflation and deflation may promote post-dive ventilation in alligators. We hypothesize that PSR in alligators may be involved in recovery of breathing patterns and lung volume during pre- and post-diving behavior and apneic periods in diving reptiles.

  18. Association of West Nile virus with lymphohistiocytic proliferative cutaneous lesions in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) detected by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Nevarez, Javier G; Mitchell, Mark A; Morgan, Timothy; Roy, Alma; Johnson, April

    2008-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is known to affect captive populations of alligators and, in some instances, cause significant mortalities. Alligators have been shown to amplify the virus, serve as a reservoir host, and even represent a source of infection for humans. This study describes a cutaneous manifestation of WNV in captive-reared American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), previously described as lymphohistiocytic proliferative syndrome of alligators (LPSA), based on the findings of gross examination, histopathologic evaluation, WNV antibody testing, and WNV reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty alligators with LPSA and 41 controls were examined. There was a significant difference (P = 0.01(-21)) in the WNV serostatus between the treatment group (100%) and the control group (0%, 95% CI: 0-7.3%). In the treatment group, 97.5% (39/40) (95% CI: 92.7-102.3%) of the LPSA skin lesions were positive for WNV via RT-PCR. Of the skin sections within the treatment group that had no LPSA lesions, 7.5% (3/40) (95% CI: 0-15.7%) were positive for WNV. In the control group, all of the skin samples were negative for WNV (41/41) (0%; 95% CI: 0-7.3%). The LPSA skin lesions were significantly more likely to be WNV positive by RT-PCR when compared to control animals (P = 0.07(-20)) and normal skin sections from affected animals (P = 0.08(-16)). There was no significant difference in the WNV RT-PCR results between control animals and normal skin sections from affected animals (P = 0.24). These findings suggest that LPSA is a cutaneous manifestation of WNV in alligators.

  19. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  20. The alligator gut microbiome and implications for archosaur symbioses.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sarah W; Engel, Annette Summers; Elsey, Ruth M

    2013-10-07

    Among vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiome studies, complete representation of taxa is limited, particularly among reptiles. Here, we provide evidence for previously unrecognized host-microbiome associations along the gastrointestinal tract from the American alligator, a crown archosaur with shared ancestry to extinct taxa, including dinosaurs. Microbiome compositional variations reveal that the digestive system consists of multiple, longitudinally heterogeneous microbiomes that strongly correlate to specific gastrointestinal tract organs, regardless of rearing histories or feeding status. A core alligator gut microbiome comprised of Fusobacteria, but depleted in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria common to mammalians, is compositionally unique from other vertebrate gut microbiomes, including other reptiles, fish, and herbivorous and carnivorous mammals. As such, modern alligator gut microbiomes advance our understanding of archosaur gut microbiome evolution, particularly if conserved host ecology has retained archosaur-specific symbioses over geologic time.

  1. Estimating sighting proportions of American alligator nests during helicopter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin; Woodward, Allan R.

    2000-01-01

    Proportions of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nests sighted during aerial survey in Florida were estimated based upon multiple surveys by different observers. We compared sighting proportions across habitats, nesting seasons, and observer experience levels. The mean sighting proportion across all habitats and years was 0.736 (SE=0.024). Survey counts corrected by the mean sighting proportion reliably predicted total nest counts (7?2=0.933). Sighting proportions did not differ by habitat type (P=0.668) or year P=0.328). Experienced observers detected a greater proportion of nests (P<0.0001) than did either less experienced or inexperienced observers. Reliable estimates of nest abundance can be derived from aerial counts of alligator nests when corrected by the appropriate sighting proportion.

  2. The alligator gut microbiome and implications for archosaur symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sarah W.; Engel, Annette Summers; Elsey, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Among vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiome studies, complete representation of taxa is limited, particularly among reptiles. Here, we provide evidence for previously unrecognized host-microbiome associations along the gastrointestinal tract from the American alligator, a crown archosaur with shared ancestry to extinct taxa, including dinosaurs. Microbiome compositional variations reveal that the digestive system consists of multiple, longitudinally heterogeneous microbiomes that strongly correlate to specific gastrointestinal tract organs, regardless of rearing histories or feeding status. A core alligator gut microbiome comprised of Fusobacteria, but depleted in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria common to mammalians, is compositionally unique from other vertebrate gut microbiomes, including other reptiles, fish, and herbivorous and carnivorous mammals. As such, modern alligator gut microbiomes advance our understanding of archosaur gut microbiome evolution, particularly if conserved host ecology has retained archosaur-specific symbioses over geologic time. PMID:24096888

  3. Wave reflection effects in the central circulation of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis): what the heart sees.

    PubMed

    Syme, Douglas A; Gamperl, A Kurt; Braun, Marvin H; Jones, David R

    2006-10-01

    A large central compliance is thought to dominate the hemodynamics of all vertebrates except birds and mammals. Yet large crocodilians may adumbrate the avian and mammalian condition and set the stage for significant wave transmission (reflection) effects, with potentially detrimental impacts on cardiac performance. To investigate whether crocodilians exhibit wave reflection effects, pressures and flows were recorded from the right aorta, carotid artery, and femoral artery of six adult, anesthetized American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during control conditions and after experimentally induced vasodilation and constriction. Hallmarks of wave reflection phenomena were observed, including marked differences between the measured profiles for flow and pressure, peaking of the femoral pressure pulse, and a diastolic wave in the right aortic pressure profile. Pulse wave velocity and peripheral input impedance increased with progressive constriction, and thus changes in both the timing and magnitude of reflections accounted for the altered reflection effects. Resolution of pressure and flow waves into incident and reflected components showed substantial reflection effects within the right aorta, with reflection coefficients at the first harmonic approaching 0.3 when constricted. Material properties measured from isolated segments of blood vessels revealed a major reflection site at the periphery and, surprisingly, at the junction of the truncus and right aorta. Thus, while our results clearly show that significant wave reflection phenomena are not restricted to birds and mammals, they also suggest that rather than cope with potential negative impacts of reflections, the crocodilian heart simply avoids them because of a large impedance mismatch at the truncus.

  4. An examination of the sensory structures in the oral cavity of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Duffy, Michael; Zacherl, Janelle R; Anand, Kusuma; Elsey, Ruth M; Smith, Timothy S

    2014-11-01

    The location and distribution of mucosal sensory structures of the crocodilian oral cavity are poorly understood. Although there are several descriptions of these structures in adults, nothing is known about their development. The purpose of this study was to document location, morphology, and relative abundance of these mucosal sensory structures in both hatchling and subadult alligators. Numerous mucosal sensory structures and pale staining dome-shaped papillae were observed only in the upper palate and tongue. In hatchlings, these papillae, which house either mechanoreceptive or chemosensory (taste buds) structures, were larger and more prevalent on the tongue than the upper palate. In the subadult, however, these papillae housed primarily mechanoreceptive structures and possibly degenerate taste buds. Although the presence of the mechanoreceptive structures in the palates of the suabadult alligator are to be expected, the loss of most taste buds is hitherto undocumented. Thus, there is morphological support for an ontogenetic shift in the role of the sensory palate, from a prey detection gustatory sensory system in hatchlings to a prey-manipulative mechanoreceptive system in subadults.

  5. Evaluation of an 18-micron filter for use in reptile blood transfusions using blood from American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Nevarez, Javier G; Cockburn, Jennifer; Kearney, Michael T; Mayer, Joerg

    2011-06-01

    Blood transfusions are a common therapeutic procedure in small animal medicine and have been investigated in some exotic species but little information is available about their safety and efficacy in reptiles. In human pediatrics and small animal practice, the Hemo-Nate18-micro filter is used to prevent embolic clots and particulate waste from entering the recipient during a transfusion. The goal of this study was to determine the hemolytic effect of an 18-micro Hemo-Nate filter for whole blood cell transfusions in reptiles using the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) as a reptilian model. Results revealed no significant difference in free plasma hemoglobin between the unfiltered and filtered samples (P = 0.21). There was no difference in the prefiltration and postfiltration packed cell volume (PCV) (P = 0.41). Results suggest that an 18-micro Hemo-Nate filter does not cause hemolysis or decrease the PCV of small quantities of alligator blood.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

  7. Ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final, Revision 2, Version 5: Appendix E to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide a ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Green River, Utah. Compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards will be achieved by applying supplemental standards (40 CFR {section} 192.22(a); 60 FR 2854) based on the limited use ground water present in the uppermost aquifer that is associated with widespread natural ambient contamination (40 CFR {section} 192.11(e); 60 FR 2854). The strategy is based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The strategy will result in compliance with Subparts A and C of the EPA final ground water protection standards (60 FR 2854). The document contains sufficient information to support the proposed ground water protection strategy, with monitor well information and ground water quality data included as a supplement. Additional information is available in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a), the final completion report (DOE, 1991b), and the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) (DOE, 1994a).

  8. Atmospheric oxygen level affects growth trajectory, cardiopulmonary allometry and metabolic rate in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Elsey, Ruth M; Hicks, James W

    2009-05-01

    Recent palaeoatmospheric models suggest large-scale fluctuations in ambient oxygen level over the past 550 million years. To better understand how global hypoxia and hyperoxia might have affected the growth and physiology of contemporary vertebrates, we incubated eggs and raised hatchlings of the American alligator. Crocodilians are one of few vertebrate taxa that survived these global changes with distinctly conservative morphology. We maintained animals at 30 degrees C under chronic hypoxia (12% O(2)), normoxia (21% O(2)) or hyperoxia (30% O(2)). At hatching, hypoxic animals were significantly smaller than their normoxic and hyperoxic siblings. Over the course of 3 months, post-hatching growth was fastest under hyperoxia and slowest under hypoxia. Hypoxia, but not hyperoxia, caused distinct scaling of major visceral organs-reduction of liver mass, enlargement of the heart and accelerated growth of lungs. When absorptive and post-absorptive metabolic rates were measured in juvenile alligators, the increase in oxygen consumption rate due to digestion/absorption of food was greatest in hyperoxic alligators and smallest in hypoxic ones. Hyperoxic alligators exhibited the lowest breathing rate and highest oxygen consumption per breath. We suggest that, despite compensatory cardiopulmonary remodelling, growth of hypoxic alligators is constrained by low atmospheric oxygen supply, which may limit their food utilisation capacity. Conversely, the combination of elevated metabolism and low cost of breathing in hyperoxic alligators allows for a greater proportion of metabolised energy to be available for growth. This suggests that growth and metabolic patterns of extinct vertebrates would have been significantly affected by changes in the atmospheric oxygen level.

  9. Seasonal Variation of Total Mercury Burden in the American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Dorsey, Jonathan E.; Long, Stephen E.; Schock, Tracey B.; Bowden, John A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation of mercury (Hg) is not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations with great accuracy and correlates to environment impact. However, monitoring these trends in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, bacterial composition) that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms. Here, we utilized an abundant and healthy population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, and assessed Hg burden in whole blood samples over a span of 7 years (2007 2014; n 174) in an effort to assess seasonal variation of total [Hg]. While the majority of this population is assumed healthy, 18 individuals with low body mass indices (BMI, defined in this study) were captured throughout the 7 year sampling period. These individual alligators exhibited [Hg] that were not consistent with the observed overall seasonal [Hg] variation, and were statistically different from the healthy population of alligators. The alligators with low BMI had elevated concentrations of Hg compared to their age/sex/season matched counterparts with normal BMI. Statistically significant differences were found between the winter and spring seasons for animals with normal BMI. The data in this report supports the conclusion that organismal total [Hg] do fluctuate directly with seasonal deposition rates as well as other seasonal environmental parameters, such as average rainfall and prevailing wind direction. This study highlights the unique environment of MINWR to permit annual assessment of apex predators, such as the American alligator, to determine detailed environmental impact of contaminants of concern.

  10. Alligator osteoderms: mechanical behavior and hierarchical structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Irene H; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A

    2014-02-01

    Osteoderms are bony scutes embedded underneath the dermal layers of the skin acting as a protection of the alligator (Archosauria: Crocodylia) internal organs and tissues. Additionally, these scutes function as an aid in temperature regulation. The scutes are inter-linked by fibrous connective tissue. They have properties similar to bone and thus have the necessary toughness to provide protection against predators. The scutes consist of hydroxyapatite and have a porosity of approximately 12%. They have a disc-like morphology with a ridge along the middle of the plate, called the keel; the outer perimeter of the disc has depressions, grooves, and jagged edges which anchor the collagen and act as sutures. Computerized tomography reveals the pattern of elongated pores, which emanate from the keel in a radial pattern. Micro-indentation measurements along the cross-section show a zigzag behavior due to the porosity. Compression results indicate that the axial direction is the strongest (UTS ~67 MPa) and toughest (11 MJ/m(3)); this is the orientation in which they undergo the largest external compression forces from predator teeth. Toughening mechanisms are identified through observation of the damage progression and interpreted in mechanistic terms. They are: flattening of pores, microcrack opening, and microcrack growth and coalescence. Collagen plays an essential role in toughening and plasticity by providing bridges that impede the opening of the cracks and prevent their growth.

  11. Potential molecular wires and molecular alligator clips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, Jeffry S.; Pearson, Darren L.; Jones, LeRoy, II; Hara, Ryuichiro; Tour, James M.

    1996-12-01

    The synthesis of oligo(2-ethylphenylene-ethynylene)s, oligo(2-(0957-4484/7/4/023/img1-ethylheptyl)phenylene-ethynylene)s, and oligo(3-ethylthiophene-ethynylene)s is described via an iterative divergent convergent approach. Synthesized were the monomer, dimer, tetramer, octamer and 16-mer of the oligo(3-ethylthiophene-ethynylene)s and oligo(2-0957-4484/7/4/023/img1-ethylheptyl)phenylene-ethynylene)s. The 16-mers are 100 Å and 128 Å long, respectively. At each stage in the iteration, the length of the framework doubles. Only three sets of reaction conditions are needed for the entire iterative synthetic sequence; an iodination, a protodesilylation, and a Pd/Cu-catalyzed cross coupling. The oligomers were characterized spectroscopically and by mass spectrometry. The optical properties are presented which show the stage of optical absorbance saturation. The size exclusion chromatography values for the number average weights, relative to polystyrene, illustrate the tremendous differences in the hydrodynamic volume of these rigid rod oligomers versus the random coils of polystyrene. These differences become quite apparent at the octamer stage. The preparation of thiol-protected end groups is described. These may serve as molecular alligator clips for adhesion to gold surfaces. These oligomers may act as molecular wires in molecular electronic devices and they also serve as useful models for understanding related bulk polymers.

  12. An urban Northeastern United States alligator bite.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Suzanne Moore; Shoff, William H

    2014-05-01

    Individuals who live and work in the Southeastern coastal range of the 3 US crocodilian carnivores, American alligators, American crocodiles, and caiman, understand the risks of reptile-human encounters. Individuals who live in other parts of the country maybe exposed through contact with exotic pets at private homes, small menageries, or petting zoos or from escaped or abandoned animals. During these encounters, individuals may be severely injured.Emergency medical services, law enforcement, and animal welfare workers in nonhabitat areas are usually not trained in the handling and safe removal of injured individuals from the scene when the reptile is present. The emergency management of large crocodilian injuries is similar to that of other major trauma; however, providers also must take into consideration the significant crush component potentially inflicted by the tremendous bite power and shaking inflicting during attacks by these large reptiles, appropriate antibiotic coverage for less common organisms that inhabit their mouths, and management of possible psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder produced by such an unusual attack. Emergency physicians should support the development of a readily available national database of scientifically collect information on attacks to inform appropriate care and support efforts to explore responsible measures that the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other appropriate local, state, and federal agencies can take to ensure ethical and biologically sustainable management of our large reptiles, which also helps to ensure the safety of the public.

  13. Uranium bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    Enrico Fermi was a brilliant physicist, but he did occasionally get things wrong. In 1934 he famously bombarded a sample of uranium with neutrons. The result was astounding: the experiment had, Fermi concluded, produced element 93, later called neptunium. The German physicist Ida Noddack, however, came to an even more spectacular conclusion, namely that Fermi had split the uranium nucleus to produce lighter elements. Noddack's friend Otto Hahn judged that idea preposterous and advised her to keep quiet, since ridicule could ruin a female physicist. She ignored that advice, and was, indeed, scorned.

  14. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  15. 75 FR 34365 - Safety Zone, Alligator River, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... to public interest, since immediate action is needed to ensure the safety of human life and property... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule...

  16. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  17. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  18. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001–2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations.

  19. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, F.J.; Dorazio, R.M.; Rice, K.G.; Cherkiss, M.; Jeffery, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001-2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations. ?? 2011 US Government.

  20. Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Brandt, Laura A.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2009-01-01

    Alligators and crocodiles integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations, affecting them at all life stages through three key aspects of Everglades ecology: (1) food webs, (2) diversity and productivity, and (3) freshwater flow. Responses of crocodilians are directly related to suitability of environmental conditions and hydrologic change. Correlations between biological responses and environmental conditions contribute to an understanding of species' status and trends over time. Positive or negative trends of crocodilian populations relative to hydrologic changes permit assessment of positive or negative trends in restoration. The crocodilian indicator uses monitoring parameters (performance measures) that have been shown to be both effective and efficient in tracking trends. The alligator component uses relative density (reported as an encounter rate), body condition, and occupancy rates of alligator holes; the crocodile component uses juvenile growth and hatchling survival. We hypothesize that these parameters are correlated with hydrologic conditions including depth, duration, timing, spatial extent and water quality. Salinity is a critical parameter in estuarine habitats. Assessments of parameters defined for crocodilian performance measures support these hypotheses. Alligators and crocodiles are the charismatic megafauna of the Everglades. They are both keystone and flagship species to which the public can relate. In addition, the parameters used to track trends are easy to understand. They provide answers to the following questions: How has the number of alligators or crocodiles changed? Are the animals fatter or thinner than they should be? Are the animals in the places (in terms of habitat and geography) where they should be? As surely as there is no other Everglades, no other single species defines the Everglades as does the American alligator. The Everglades is the only place in the world where both alligators and crocodiles exist. Crocodilians

  1. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis (Reptilia, Crocodylia, Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Siegel, Dustin S; Anzalone, Marla L; Jackson, Daniel P; Venable, Katherine J; Rheubert, Justin L; Elsey, Ruth M

    2010-10-01

    Testicular samples were collected to describe the ultrastructure of spermiogenisis in Alligator mississipiensis (American Alligator). Spermiogenesis commences with an acrosome vesicle forming from Golgi transport vesicles. An acrosome granule forms during vesicle contact with the nucleus, and remains posterior until mid to late elongation when it diffuses uniformly throughout the acrosomal lumen. The nucleus has uniform diffuse chromatin with small indices of heterochromatin, and the condensation of DNA is granular. The subacrosome space develops early, enlarges during elongation, and accumulates a thick layer of dark staining granules. Once the acrosome has completed its development, the nucleus of the early elongating spermatid becomes associated with the cell membrane flattening the acrosome vesicle on the apical surface of the nucleus, which aids in the migration of the acrosomal shoulders laterally. One endonuclear canal is present where the perforatorium resides. A prominent longitudinal manchette is associated with the nuclei of late elongating spermatids, and less numerous circular microtubules are observed close to the acrosome complex. The microtubule doublets of the midpiece axoneme are surrounded by a layer of dense staining granular material. The mitochondria of the midpiece abut the proximal centriole resulting in a very short neck region, and possess tubular cristae internally and concentric layers of cristae superficially. A fibrous sheath surrounds only the axoneme of the principal piece. Characters not previously described during spermiogenesis in any other amniote are observed and include (1) an endoplasmic reticulum cap during early acrosome development, (2) a concentric ring of endoplasmic reticulum around the nucleus of early to middle elongating spermatids, (3) a band of endoplasmic reticulum around the acrosome complex of late developing elongate spermatids, and (4) midpiece mitochondria that have both tubular and concentric layers of

  3. Concentrations of trace elements in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Horai, Sawako; Itai, Takaaki; Noguchi, Takako; Yasuda, Yusuke; Adachi, Haruki; Hyobu, Yuika; Riyadi, Adi S; Boggs, Ashley S P; Lowers, Russell; Guillette, Louis J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Concentrations of 28 trace elements (Li, Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl, Hg, Pb, and Bi) in the livers of juvenile and adult American alligators inhabiting two central Florida lakes, Lake Apopka (LA), and Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (LW) and one lagoon population located in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR; NASA), were determined. In juveniles from MINWR, concentrations of nine elements (Li, Fe, Ni, Sr, In, Sb, Hg, Pb and Bi) were significantly higher, whereas six elements (V, Fe, As, Sr, Hg and Bi) were elevated in adults (p<0.05) obtained from MINWR. Significant enrichment of some trace elements in adults, relative to juveniles, was observed at all three sampling areas. Specifically, Fe, Pb and Hg were significantly elevated in adults when compared to juveniles, suggesting age-dependent accumulation of these elements. Further, As, Se and Sn showed the same trend but only in animals collected from MINWR. Mean Fe concentrations in the livers of adults from LA, LW and MINWR were 1770 μg g(-1) DW, 3690 μg g(-1) DW and 5250 μg g(-1) DW, respectively. More than half of the adult specimens from LW and MINWR exhibited elevated hepatic Fe concentrations that exceed the threshold value for toxic effects in donkey, red deer and human. These results prompted us to express our concern on possible exposure and health effects in American alligators by some trace elements derived from NASA activities.

  4. Chronic hypercapnic incubation increases relative organ growth and reduces blood pressure of embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-04-01

    Reptilian nests can experience natural hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. We incubated alligator eggs at a female-only producing temperature (30°C) in three conditions: 21% O2/0.04% CO2, 21% O2/3.5% CO2 and 21% O2/7% CO2. Alligator embryos chronically incubated in high CO2 were markedly hypotensive (blood pressure reduced by 46%) and had relatively (mass-specific) enlarged hearts (dry mass increased by 20%), lungs (dry mass increased by 17%), and kidneys (dry mass increased by 14%). This study is the first to chronically incubate reptilian eggs in hypercapnia and suggests that high CO2 alters the cardiovascular phenotype of alligator embryos (low blood pressure, relatively enlarged hearts), as well as the relative size of the organs primarily responsible for acid base balance, lungs and kidneys. The lungs and kidneys are largely non-functional during embryonic development, and the embryonic phenotype of increased relative mass may be a predictive-adaptation to metabolic or respiratory acidosis, such as during exercise or high respiratory CO2. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity of alligator embryos incubated in high CO2 may result in either preferential organ growth, or maintenance of organ growth with reduced somatic growth.

  5. Penile anatomy and hypotheses of erectile function in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): muscular eversion and elastic retraction.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D A

    2013-03-01

    The intromittent organs of most amniotes contain variable-volume hydrostatic skeletons that are stored in a flexible state and inflate with fluid before or during copulation. However, the penis in male crocodilians is notable because its shaft does not seem to change either its shape or bending stiffness as blood enters its vascular spaces before copulation. Here I report that crocodilians may have evolved a mechanism for penile shaft erection that does not require inflation and detumescence. Dissections of the cloaca in sexually mature male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) show that the cross section of the proximal shaft of the alligator penis contains dense collagenous tissues that do not significantly change shape when fluid is added to the central vascular space. The large amount of collagen in the wall and central space of the alligator penis stiffen the structure so it can be simply everted for copulation and rapidly retracted at its completion. Because no muscles insert directly onto the penis, eversion and retraction must be produced indirectly. My results suggest that the contraction of paired levator cloacae muscles around the anterior end of the cloaca rotates the penis out of the cloacal opening and strains the ligamentum rami that connect the base of the penis to the ischia. When the cloacal muscles relax, the elastic recoil of the ligamentum rami can return the penis to its original position inside the cloaca.

  6. Computed tomography of granulomatous pneumonia with oxalosis in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) associated with Metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Hall, Natalie H; Conley, Kenneth; Berry, Clifford; Farina, Lisa; Sigler, Lynne; Wellehan, James F X; Roehrl, Michael H A; Heard, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    An 18-yr-old, male, albino, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was evaluated for decreased appetite and abnormal buoyancy. Computed tomography (CT) of the coelomic cavity showed multifocal mineral and soft tissue attenuating pulmonary masses consistent with pulmonary fungal granulomas. Additionally, multifocal areas of generalized, severe emphysema and pulmonary and pleural thickening were identified. The alligator was euthanized and necropsy revealed severe fungal pneumonia associated with oxalosis. Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae was cultured from lung tissue and exhibited oxalate crystal formation in vitro. Crystals were identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate by X-ray powder defractometry. Fungal identification was based on morphology, including tissue sporulation, and DNA sequence analysis. This organism is typically thought of as an entomopathogen. Clinical signs of fungal pneumonia in nonavian reptiles are often inapparent until the disease is at an advanced stage, making antemortem diagnosis challenging. This case demonstrates the value of CT for pulmonary assessment and diagnosis of fungal pneumonia in the American alligator. Fungal infection with associated oxalosis should not be presumed to be aspergillosis.

  7. Ultrasonography of reproductive structures and hormonal correlates of follicular development in female American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, in southwest Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A; Rostal, David C; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasonography has been used effectively to study reproduction in a variety of reptile species, but its application to crocodilians has been relatively limited. We present results from a study testing the efficacy of using ultrasonography to monitor reproduction in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Ultrasound results were then compared with plasma hormone levels. A total of 124 females were examined during March, April, May, and early June (2001-2003). Ultrasound results were validated on a series of reproductive females (n=14) necropsied for other studies. Previtellogenic follicles, vitellogenic follicles, recently shelled eggs, fully developed well-calcified eggs, and atretic follicles were readily discernible with ultrasound in mature females. Reproductive structures were observed in 57 females of which 43 were actively reproductive, while 14 were non-reproductive, but contained large atretic follicles from prior years. Oviducts were discernible in females with eggs. Ovarian state was also correlated with hormone levels. These results are in agreement with previous studies that showed that 50% or less of the adult female alligator population is reproductively active in a given year. Ultrasonography can be used to make an accurate assessment of reproductive condition in wild alligator populations.

  8. Contribution of the diaphragmaticus muscle to vital capacity in fasting and post-prandial American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Uriona, T J; Farmer, C G

    2006-11-01

    The importance of the diaphragmaticus muscle to vital capacity was investigated in juvenile American alligators by transection of this muscle. In both fasting and post-prandial animals a pneumotach was used to study vital capacity that was stimulated by either a hypercapnic-anoxic gas mixture or a hypercapnic-normoxic gas mixture in two types of control groups of animals (a shamoperated group and a group receiving no treatment) and in the experimental (transected) group. Transection did not significantly reduce vital capacity or affect time of inspiration or expiration in fasted animals. For both the experimental and control groups vital capacity was greatly reduced in post-prandial animals compared to the fasting state. Furthermore, alligators with a transected diaphragmaticus muscle showed a 16-18% greater drop in vital capacity in the post-prandial state than did alligators with an intact diaphragmaticus muscle. The post-prandial decrease in vital capacity for alligators with a transected diaphragmaticus occurred concomitantly with a significant increase in time to inspire and a decrease in maximum rate of inspiration when compared to control animals. The results from this study suggest that the diaphragmaticus muscle plays an important role in enabling large volumes of oxygen to be taken into the lungs in the post-prandial state.

  9. Isolation and determination of the primary structure of a lectin protein from the serum of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Darville, Lancia N F; Merchant, Mark E; Maccha, Venkata; Siddavarapu, Vivekananda Reddy; Hasan, Azeem; Murray, Kermit K

    2012-02-01

    Mass spectrometry in conjunction with de novo sequencing was used to determine the amino acid sequence of a 35kDa lectin protein isolated from the serum of the American alligator that exhibits binding to mannose. The protein N-terminal sequence was determined using Edman degradation and enzymatic digestion with different proteases was used to generate peptide fragments for analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). Separate analysis of the protein digests with multiple enzymes enhanced the protein sequence coverage. De novo sequencing was accomplished using MASCOT Distiller and PEAKS software and the sequences were searched against the NCBI database using MASCOT and BLAST to identify homologous peptides. MS analysis of the intact protein indicated that it is present primarily as monomer and dimer in vitro. The isolated 35kDa protein was ~98% sequenced and found to have 313 amino acids and nine cysteine residues and was identified as an alligator lectin. The alligator lectin sequence was aligned with other lectin sequences using DIALIGN and ClustalW software and was found to exhibit 58% and 59% similarity to both human and mouse intelectin-1. The alligator lectin exhibited strong binding affinities toward mannan and mannose as compared to other tested carbohydrates.

  10. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory) or the Vth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents) or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish). In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory) epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:17683564

  11. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  12. Increased posthatching mortality and loss of sexually dimorphic gene expression in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from a contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Milnes, Matthew R; Bryan, Teresa A; Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Moore, Brandon C; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-05-01

    A previous study from our laboratory examining development in neonatal alligators from polluted Lake Apopka, Florida, found numerous differences relative to neonates from a reference site, Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge. We postulated that the differences were the result of organizational changes derived from embryonic exposure to environmental contaminants and are related to the poor reproductive success reported in alligators from Lake Apopka. In this study we examine differences in alligators collected as eggs from these two populations and raised under similar conditions for 1 yr. Egg hatch rates did not differ between lake populations; however, posthatching mortality was much higher among Lake Apopka hatchlings. Snout-vent length and body mass were greater in Lake Apopka hatchlings, but no differences were detected between lake populations in thyroid, liver, and spleen mass corrected for body size or in plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol. Males from Lake Woodruff exhibited greater relative expression of gonadal mRNA for steroidogenic factor 1 (Nr5a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) than males from Lake Apopka. Alligators from Lake Woodruff also expressed all genes examined in a sexually dimorphic pattern. In contrast, mRNA expression did not differ between males and females from Lake Apopka for Nr5a1, Star, cytochrome P450 11A1 (Cyp11a1), and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (Hsd3b1). Our results document persistent differences in development, survivorship, and gene expression in alligators from a contaminated environment. Because these animals were raised under similar laboratory conditions, the differences are most likely of embryonic origin and organizational in nature.

  13. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  14. Evaluation of the Incorporation of Uranium into Sodium Aluminosilicate Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-03-26

    This report describes batch laboratory experiments performed to determine the relative amounts of uranium incorporated in aluminosilicate structures during synthesis. The findings summarized here are based on laboratory experiments, which involved the synthesis of sodium aluminosilicates (NAS) structures, amorphous, zeolites A and sodalite phases in the presence of depleted uranium and the analytical search for incorporated uranium in NAS internal structures after synthesis. These studies will support the basis for continued operation of evaporators at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  16. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  17. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  18. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  19. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  20. Detection of antibodies to a pathogenic mycoplasma in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), broad-nosed Caimans (Caiman latirostris), and Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Schumacher, I M; Nogueira, M F; Richey, L J; Zacher, L A; Schoeb, T R; Vliet, K A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R; Brown, M B

    2001-01-01

    An epidemic of pneumonia with fibrinous polyserositis and multifocal arthritis emerged in captive American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida, United States, in 1995. Mycoplasma alligatoris sp. nov. was cultured from multiple organs, peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid of affected alligators. In a subsequent experimental inoculation study, the Henle-Koch-Evans postulates were fulfilled for M. alligatoris as the etiological agent of fatal mycoplasmosis of alligators. That finding was remarkable because mycoplasmal disease is rarely fatal in animals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies produced by alligators in response to M. alligatoris exposure was developed by using plasma obtained from naturally infected alligators during the original epidemic. The assay was validated by using plasma obtained during an experimental dose-response study and applied to analyze plasma obtained from captive and wild crocodilian species. The ELISA reliably detected alligator seroconversion (P < 0.05) beginning 6 weeks after inoculation. The ELISA also detected seroconversion (P < 0.05) in the relatively closely related broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris and the relatively distantly related Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis following experimental inoculation with M. alligatoris. The ELISA may be used to monitor exposure to the lethal pathogen M. alligatoris among captive, repatriated, and wild crocodilian species.

  1. Validation and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to West Nile virus in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Johnson, April J; Hernandez, Jorge A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dupuis, Alan P; Stevens, Robert; Carbonneau, Dwayne; Stark, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    In October 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) was identified in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida showing clinical signs and having microscopic lesions indicative of central nervous system disease. To perform seroepidemiologic studies, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to determine exposure of captive and wild alligators to WNV. To validate the test, a group of WNV-seropositive and -seronegative alligators were identified at the affected farm using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The indirect ELISA utilized a rabbit anti-alligator immunoglobulins polyclonal antibody as the secondary antibody, and inactivated WNV-infected Vero cells were used as the coating antigen. For all samples (n=58), the results of the ELISA were consistent with the HAI and PRNT findings. Plasma was collected from 669 free-ranging alligators from 21 sites across Florida in April and October 2003. Four samples collected in April and six in October were positive for WNV antibodies using HAI, PRNT, and the indirect ELISA. This indicated that wild alligators in Florida have been exposed to WNV. These findings can be used as a baseline for future surveys.

  2. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  3. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  4. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

  5. Uranium and Aluminosilicate Surface Precipitation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.Z.

    2002-11-27

    The 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site has been used to treat an aluminum-rich waste stream from canyon operations and a silicon-rich waste stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The formation of aluminosilicate scale in the evaporator has caused significant operational problems. Because uranium has been found to accumulate in the aluminosilicate solids, the scale deposition has introduced criticality concerns as well. The objective of the tests described in this report is to determine possible causes of the uranium incorporation in the evaporator scale materials. The scope of this task is to perform laboratory experiments with simulant solutions to determine if (1) uranium can be deposited on the surfaces of various sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) forms and (2) aluminosilicates can form on the surfaces of uranium-containing solids. Batch experiments with simulant solutions of three types were conducted: (1) contact of uranium solutions/sols with NAS coatings on stainless steel surfaces, (2) contact of uranium solutions with NAS particles, and (3) contact of precipitated uranium-containing particles with solutions containing aluminum and silicon. The results show that uranium can be incorporated in NAS solids through encapsulation in bulk agglomerated NAS particles of different phases (amorphous, zeolite A, sodalite, and cancrinite) as well as through heterogeneous deposition on the surfaces of NAS coatings (amorphous and cancrinite) grown on stainless steel. The results also indicate that NAS particles can grow on the surfaces of precipitated uranium solids. Particularly notable for evaporator operations is the finding that uranium solids can form on existing NAS scale, including cancrinite solids. If NAS scale is present, and uranium is in sufficient concentration in solution to precipitate, a portion of the uranium can be expected to become associated with the scale. The data obtained to date on uranium-NAS affinity are qualitative. A necessary

  6. Community Involvement Plan: Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Factsheets related to the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region, generally located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, and are in the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters.

  7. Survival of young American alligators on a Florida lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, A.R.; Hines, T.C.; Abercrombie, C.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A capture-recapture study was conducted on Orange Lake, Florida, from 1979 through 1984 to estimate survival rates of young in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) populations. Hatchlings remained together in sibling groups (pods) for at least their 1st year and then began to disperse during their 2nd spring and summer. Mortality through mid-November of their 1st year was negligible. Jolly-Seber (JS) survival estimates of hatchlings for 6 and 12 months were 76 and 41%, respectively. The 2-year JS estimate for the 1980 cohort was 8%. Minimum-Known-Alive (MKA) survival values were 72 and 46% of JS estimates for 6 months and 1 year of age. Survival during the 2nd 6 months of life (spring-summer) tended to be lower than survival during the 1st 6 months (fall-winter).

  8. A new alligator-clip compound for molecular electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Timo; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William A.

    2004-06-01

    We used the B3LYP flavor of density functional calculations to study new alligator-clip compounds for molecular electronics with platinum electrodes. First, with commonly used S-based linkage molecule 3-methyl-1,2-dithiolane (MDTL) we find that after chemisorption on Pt(1 1 1) the most stable structure is ring-opened with a binding energy of 32.44 kcal/mol. Among several alternative alligator-clip compounds we find that P-based molecules lead to much higher binding energies. For the ring-closed structure of 3-methyl-1,2-diphospholane (MDPL) a binding energy of 47.72 kcal/mol was calculated and even 54.88 kcal/mol for the ring-opened molecule. Thus, MDPL provides a more stable link to the metal surface and might increase the conductance.

  9. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  10. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Marisa; Merchant, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment. PMID:26555363

  11. Parental exposure to pesticides and poor clutch viability in American alligators.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Wiebe, Jon J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Scarborough, Janet E; Gross, Timothy S

    2007-08-01

    In central Florida, alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) produce eggs that have high OCP concentrations and low clutch viability (proportion of eggs in a clutch that yield a live hatchling) compared to those from less contaminated lakes (reference lakes). However, a clear dose-response relationship has not been established between OCPs and poor clutch viability. In order to better elucidate a cause and effect relationship between OCP exposure and clutch viability, we conducted concurrent field and laboratory studies. Our field study reaffirmed that eggs of wild alligators from OCP-contaminated lakes and wetlands continue to have lower clutch viability and higher OCP burdens than eggs from reference lakes. Our field study also demonstrated that OCP egg burdens were strongly correlated with clutch viability for some of the OCP-contaminated sites, but not all. To better test causal relationships, a parental exposure study was conducted using captive adult alligators. Our laboratory study demonstrated that dietary exposure of captive alligators to an ecologically relevant OCP mixture caused alligators to produce eggs with higher OCP burdens and reduced clutch viability, as compared to the captive-control population. The experimentally induced egg burdens and clutch viability reductions were similar to those of wild alligators from OCP-contaminated sites. Our field and laboratory results suggest parental OCP exposure may be contributing to low clutch viability in wild alligators inhabiting OCP-contaminated habitats, raising some concern for endangered crocodilians living in OCP-contaminated habitats.

  12. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  13. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Marisa; Merchant, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  14. WILDLIFE - ALLIGATOR STROLLS FROM TURN BASIN TO LC 39 PRESS SITE GRANDSTAND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A 12-foot alligator worked his way up from the turn basin at Press Site 39 to the grandstand seats. The toothy reptile was later wrangled by wildlife trappers who relocated him to a less populated area on KSC. The alligator is one of approximately 4,000 on KSC/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  15. Similarity of osmoregulatory capacity in coastal and inland alligator gar.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter J; Haukenes, Alf; Lochmann, Steve E

    2017-04-08

    The alligator gar Atractosteus spatula is a primitive fish species, occupying a wide range of temperature and salinity habitats. Long-distance movements are limited, leading to genetic differentiation between inland and coastal populations. Unknown is whether physiological capacity differs between geographically separated populations, particularly for traits important to osmoregulation in saline environments. Alligator gar from inland and coastal populations were reared in a similar environment and exposed to temperature (10, 30 °C) and salinity (0, 20 ppt) extremes to determine whether iono- and osmoregulatory ability differed between populations. There were few differences in osmoregulatory ability between populations, with similar gill, blood and gastrointestinal tract osmoregulatory parameters. Blood plasma osmolality, ion concentrations, intestinal pH and bicarbonate base concentrations, intestinal fluid osmolality, ion concentrations and gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity were similar between populations. Notably, gar from both populations did not osmoregulate well at low temperature and high salinity, with elevated plasma osmolality and ion concentrations, low gill NKA, and little evidence of gastrointestinal tract contribution to ionic and base regulation based on a lack of intestinal fluid and low base content. Therefore, the hypothesis that coastal gar would have improved hypo-osmotic regulatory ability as compared to inland alligator gar was not supported, suggesting physiological capacity may be retained in primitive species possibly due to its importance to their persistence through time.

  16. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  17. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Powers, R.M.

    1962-07-24

    A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

  18. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  19. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  20. Mathematical models for growth in alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryos developing at different incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, W G; Ackerman, R A; Bukhari, N A; Deeming, D C; Ferguson, M W

    1995-08-01

    A variety of model-based (growth models) and model-free (cubic splines, exponentials) equations were fitted using weighted-nonlinear least squares regression to embryonic growth data from Alligator mississippiensis eggs incubated at 30 and 33 degrees C. Goodness of fit was estimated using a chi 2 on the sum of squared, weighted residuals, and run and sign tests on the residuals. One of the growth models used (Preece & Baines, 1978) was found to be superior to the classical growth models (exponential, monomolecular, logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy) and gave an adequate fit to all longitudinal measures taken from the embryonic body and embryonic mass. However, measurements taken from the head could not be fitted by growth models but were adequately fitted by weighted least squares cubic splines. Data for the stage of development were best fitted by a sum of 2 exponentials with a transition point. Comparison of the maximum growth rates and parameter values, indicated that the growth data at 30 degrees C could be scaled to 33 degrees C to multiplying the time by a scaling factor of 1.2. This is equivalent to a Q10 of about 1.86 or, after solving the Arrhenius equation, an E++ of 46.9 kJmol-1. This may be interpreted as indicating a common rate-limiting step in development at the 2 temperatures.

  1. Hox expression in the American alligator and evolution of archosaurian axial patterning.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Jennifer H; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2010-12-15

    The avian body plan has undergone many modifications, most associated with adaptation to flight and bipedal walking. Some of these modifications may be owing to avian-specific changes in the embryonic Hox expression code. Here, we have examined Hox expression in alligator, the closest living relative of birds, and an archosaur with a more conservative body plan. Two differences in Hox expression between chick, alligator, and other tetrapods correlate with aspects of alligator or bird-specific skeletal morphology. First, absence of a thoracic subdomain of Hoxc-8 expression in alligator correlates with morphological adaptations in crocodilian thoracic segments. Second, Hoxa-5, a gene required to pattern the cervical-thoracic transition, shows unique patterns of expression in chick, alligator, and mouse, correlating with species-specific morphological patterning of this region. Given that cervical vertebral morphologies evolved independently in the bird and mammalian lineages, the underlying developmental mechanisms, including refinement of Hox expression domains, may be distinct.

  2. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

  3. Sex-biased expression of sex-differentiating genes FOXL2 and FGF9 in American alligators, alligator Mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Janes, D E; Elsey, R M; Langan, E M; Valenzuela, N; Edwards, S V

    2013-01-01

    Across amniotes, sex-determining mechanisms exhibit great variation, yet the genes that govern sexual differentiation are largely conserved. Studies of evolution of sex-determining and sex-differentiating genes require an exhaustive characterization of functions of those genes such as FOXL2 and FGF9. FOXL2 is associated with ovarian development, and FGF9 is known to play a role in testicular organogenesis in mammals and other amniotes. As a step toward characterization of the evolutionary history of sexual development, we measured expression of FOXL2 and FGF9 across 3 developmental stages and 8 juvenile tissue types in male and female American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis. We report surprisingly high expression of FOXL2 before the stage of embryonic development when sex is determined in response to temperature, and sustained and variable expression of FGF9 in juvenile male, but not female tissue types. Novel characterization of gene expression in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination such as American alligators may inform the evolution of sex-determining and sex-differentiating gene networks, as they suggest alternative functions from which the genes may have been exapted. Future functional profiling of sex-differentiating genes should similarly follow other genes and other species to enable a broad comparison across sex-determining mechanisms.

  4. Sex steroid and thyroid hormone receptor expressions in the thyroid of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) during different life stages.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Skotko, Jeremy P; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Boggs, Ashley S P; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-06-01

    The expression of estrogen receptors, ESR1 (ERα) and ESR2 (ERβ), and androgen receptors (AR) in the thyroid gland has been reported in few vertebrate species other than a few mammals. This study reports the presence of sex steroid hormone receptors and thyroid receptors (ERα, ERβ, AR, TRα, and TRβ) in the thyroid gland of the American alligator at several life stages. It provides a semiquantification and distribution of ERα in the thyroid follicle cells using an immunohistochemical approach as well as reports quantitative differences in mRNA expression of ERα, ERβ, TRα, TRβ, and AR in the same tissue using quantitative real time-PCR (Q-PCR) with primers designed specifically for alligators. The thyroid tissue of the American alligator expresses ERα, ERβ, and AR at all of the life stages examined here although no statistically significant differences were observed between male and female in thyroid mRNA expression for any of the genes analyzed. No sexual dimorphism was observed in ERα immunostaining. No statistical analysis across life stages were performed due to confounding factor of season.

  5. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  6. Gastric nematode diversity between estuarine and inland freshwater populations of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, daudin 1802), and the prediction of intermediate hosts

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Marisa; Nifong, James

    2014-01-01

    We examined the variation of stomach nematode intensity and species richness of Alligator mississippiensis from coastal estuarine and inland freshwater habitats in Florida and Georgia, and integrated prey content data to predict possible intermediate hosts. Nematode parasitism within inland freshwater inhabiting populations was found to have a higher intensity and species richness than those inhabiting coastal estuarine systems. This pattern potentially correlates with the difference and diversity of prey available between inland freshwater and coastal estuarine habitats. Increased consumption of a diverse array of prey was also correlated with increased nematode intensity in larger alligators. Parasitic nematodes Dujardinascaris waltoni, Brevimulticaecum tenuicolle, Ortleppascaris antipini, Goezia sp., and Contracaecum sp. were present in alligators from both habitat types. Dujardinascaris waltoni, B. tenuicolle, and O. antipini had a significantly higher abundance among inland inhabiting alligators than hosts from estuarine populations. Our findings also suggest that host specific nematode parasites of alligators may have evolved to infect multiple intermediate hosts, particularly fishes, crabs, and turtles, perhaps in response to the opportunistic predatory behaviors of alligators. PMID:25426417

  7. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  9. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  10. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  11. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  12. Influence of tissue, age, and environmental quality on DNA methylation in Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kohno, Satomi; Cloy-McCoy, Jessica A; Hale, Matthew D; Bangma, Jacqueline T; Rainwater, Thomas R; Wilkinson, Phillip M; Kucklick, John R; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are key mediators of the interactions between the environment and an organism's genome. DNA methylation represents the best-studied epigenetic modification to date and is known to play key roles in regulating transcriptional activity and promoting chromosome stability. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the utility of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) as a sentinel species to investigate the persistent effects of environmental contaminant exposure on reproductive health. Here, we incorporate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to directly measure the total (global) proportion of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) in ovarian and whole blood DNA from alligators. Global DNA methylation in ovaries was significantly elevated in comparison with that of whole blood. However, DNA methylation appeared similar in juvenile alligators reared under controlled laboratory conditions but originating from three sites with dissimilar environmental qualities, indicating an absence of detectable site-of-origin effects on persistent levels of global 5mdC content. Analyses of tissues across individuals revealed a surprising lack of correlation between global methylation levels in blood and ovary. In addition, global DNA methylation in blood samples from juvenile alligators was elevated compared with those from adults, suggesting that age, as observed in mammals, may negatively influence global DNA methylation levels in alligators. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining global levels of DNA methylation in the American alligator and provides a reference point for future studies examining the interplay of epigenetics and environmental factors in a long-lived sentinel species.

  13. Growth plate formation and development in alligator and mouse metapodials: evolutionary and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Reno, Philip L; Horton, Walter E; Elsey, Ruth M; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2007-05-15

    Mammalian metapodials (metacarpals and metatarsals), unlike most long bones, form a single growth plate, and undergo longitudinal growth at only one end. The growth dynamics of non-mammalian tetrapod metapodials have not been systematically examined in order to determine if unidirectional growth is unique to mammals. Here we compare murine metapodial ossification in growth stages that parallel those of embryonic, juvenile and subadult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Safranin O staining was used for qualitative histology, and chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation were assessed via immunohistochemistry for type X collagen and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We establish that growth plates form at both ends of alligator metapodials and are maintained in the subadult. PCNA results show that alligators and mice share common patterns of chondrocyte proliferation during growth plate formation. In addition, while alligators and mice differ initially in the degree of organization and pace of chondrocyte differentiation, these parameters are largely similar in established growth plates. However, the replacement of cartilage by bone is highly irregular throughout growth in the alligator, in contrast to the more uniform process in the mouse. These results indicate that while alligators and mammals share common mechanisms of chondrocyte regulation, they differ substantially in their processes of ossification. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the direct ossification of one epiphysis and reliance on a single growth plate is a derived character (synapomorphy) in therian mammals and likely indicates an adaptation for erect quadrupedal gait.

  14. Dry years decrease abundance of American alligators in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J. Hardin; Brandt, Laura A.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades has been greatly reduced and is threatened by land use change and altered hydrology. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan calls for monitoring and assessment of key ecosystem attributes, one of which is abundance of American alligators. We examined 10 years of alligator night spotlight counts from Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge along two canals and in the interior marsh to determine trends and how dry years affect alligator abundance. Alligators showed population response to hydrologic conditions. In particular, there were declines in abundance after dry years followed by an apparent recovery in abundance in subsequent years. Increases in abundance were lower in the marsh than L-40 Canal. In addition, there was evidence that intensity of dry events affected population dynamics with greater declines observed in years with drier conditions. Results revealed that overall population of alligators increased from 2004 to 2013, but that increases varied by survey route. These results demonstrate that dry years cause a decline in alligator abundance proportional to the intensity of the dry event, and that it is important to make a distinction between canals and marsh when measuring alligator response to hydrology.

  15. Comparison of metabolic substrates in alligators and several birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Sweazea, Karen L; McMurtry, John P; Elsey, Ruth M; Redig, Patrick; Braun, Eldon J

    2014-08-01

    On average, avian blood glucose concentrations are 1.5-2 times those of mammals of similar mass and high concentrations of insulin are required to lower blood glucose. Whereas considerable data exist for granivorous species, few data are available for plasma metabolic substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations for carnivorous birds and alligators. Birds and mammals with carnivorous diets have higher metabolic rates than animals consuming diets with less protein whereas alligators have low metabolic rates. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations in several birds of prey and a phylogenetically close relative of birds, the alligator. The hypothesis was that the combination of carnivorous diets and high metabolic rates favored the evolution of greater protein and fatty acid utilization leading to insulin resistance and high plasma glucose concentrations in carnivorous birds. In contrast, it was hypothesized that alligators would have low substrate utilization attributable to a low metabolic rate. Fasting plasma substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations were compared for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Avian species had high circulating β-hydroxybutyrate (10-21 mg/dl) compared to alligators (2.81 ± 0.16 mg/dl). In mammals high concentrations of this byproduct of fatty acid utilization are correlated with insulin resistance. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were positively correlated in eagles whereas no relationship was found between these variables for owls, hawks or alligators. Additionally, β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were low in alligators. Similar to carnivorous mammals, ingestion of a high protein diet may have favored the utilization of fatty acids and protein for energy thereby promoting the development of insulin

  16. Possible generational effects of habitat degradation on alligator reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, K.G.; Woodward, A.R.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Population decline of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was observed in Lake Apopka in central Florida, USA, in the early 1980s. This decline was thought to result from adult mortality and nest failure caused by anthropogenic increases in sediment loads, nutrients, and contaminants. Reproductive impairment also was reported. Extensive restoration of marshes associated with Lake Apopka has been conducted, as well as some limited restoration measures on the lake. Monitoring by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC) has indicated that the adult alligator population began increasing in the early 1990s. We expected that the previously reported high proportion of complete nest failure (??0) during the 1980s may have decreased. We collected clutches from alligator nests in Lake Apopka from 1983 to 2003 and from 5 reference areas from 1988 to 1991, and we artificially incubated them. We used a Bayesian framework with Gibbs sampler of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to analyze ??0. Estimated ??0was consistently higher in Lake Apopka compared with reference areas, and the difference in ??0 ranged from 0.19 to 0.56. We conducted change point analysis to identify and test the significance of the change point in ??0in Lake Apopka between 1983 and 2003, indicating the point of reproductive recovery. The estimated Bayes factor strongly supported the single change point hypothesis against the no change point hypothesis. The major downward shift in ??0 probably occurred in the mid-1990s, approximately a generation after the major population decline in the 1980s. Furthermore, estimated ??0 values after the change point (0.21) were comparable with those of reference areas (0.07-0.31). These results combined with the monitoring by FFWCC seem to suggest that anthropogenic habitat degradation caused reproductive impairment of adult females and decreases in ??0 occurred with the sexual maturity of a new generation of breeding females. Long

  17. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  18. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  19. Characterization of streamflow, water quality, and instantaneous dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium loads in selected reaches of the Arkansas River, southeastern Colorado, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Stogner, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of continued water-quality concerns in the Arkansas River, including metal contamination from historical mining practices, potential effects associated with storage and movement of water, point- and nonpoint-source contamination, population growth, storm-water flows, and future changes in land and water use, the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group (RRPG) developed a strategy to address these issues. As such, a cooperative strategic approach to address the multiple water-quality concerns within selected reaches of the Arkansas River was developed to (1) identify stream reaches where stream-aquifer interactions have a pronounced effect on water quality and (or) where reactive transport, and physical and (or) chemical alteration of flow during conveyance, is occurring, (2) quantify loading from point sources, and (3) determine source areas and mass loading for selected constituents. (To see the complete abstract, open Report PDF.)

  20. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  1. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  2. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, W.E.; Spenceley, R.M.; Teetzel, F.M.

    1959-08-01

    A method is presented for producing uranium tetrafluoride from the gaseous hexafluoride by feeding the hexafluoride into a high temperature zone obtained by the recombination of molecularly dissociated hydrogen. The molal ratio of hydrogen to uranium hexnfluoride is preferably about 3 to 1. Uranium tetrafluoride is obtained in a finely divided, anhydrous state.

  3. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts thermally dependent cholinergic tone on the cardiovascular system in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Marks, Chris; Eme, John; Elsey, Ruth M; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions play a major role in shaping reptilian embryonic development, but studies addressing the impact of interactions between chronic and acute environmental stressors on embryonic systems are lacking. In the present study, we investigated thermal dependence of cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular tone in embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and assessed possible phenotypic plasticity in a chronic hypoxic incubation treatment. We compared changes in heart rate (f H) and mean arterial blood pressure (P M) for chronically hypoxic and normoxic-incubated embryos after cholinergic and adrenergic blockade following three different acute temperature treatments: (1) 30 °C (control incubation temperature), (2) acute, progressive decrease 30-24 °C then held at 24 °C, and (3) acute, progressive increase 30-36 °C then held at 36 °C. f H progressively fell in response to decreasing temperature and rose in response to increasing temperature. P M did not significantly change with decreasing temperature, but was lowered significantly with increasing acute temperature in the normoxic group at 90 % of development only. Propranolol administration (β adrenergic antagonist) produced a significant f H decrease at 24, 30, and 36 °C that was similar at all temperatures for all groups. For normoxic-incubated embryos at 90 % of development, atropine administration (cholinergic antagonist) significantly increased f H in both 24 and 36 °C treatments, but not in the 30 °C control treatment. This atropine response at 24 and 36 °C demonstrated acute thermally dependent cholinergic tone on f H late in development for normoxic-incubated, but not chronically hypoxic-incubated embryos. Collectively, data indicated that cardiovascular control mechanisms in embryonic alligators may be activated by thermal extremes, and the maturation of control mechanisms was delayed by chronic hypoxia.

  4. Fine structure of the developing epidermis in the embryo of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Crocodilia, Reptilia)

    PubMed Central

    ALIBARDI, LORENZO; THOMPSON, MICHAEL B.

    2001-01-01

    The morphological transition from the simple epidermis that contacts the amniotic fluid of embryonic crocodilians to the adult epidermis required in a terrestrial environment has never been described. We used light and electron microscopy to study the development, differentiation and keratinisation of the epidermis of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, between early and late stages of embryonic skin formation. In early embryonic development, the epidermis consists of a flat bilayer. As it develops, the bilayered epidermis comes to lie beneath the peridermis. Glycogen is almost absent from the bilayered epidermis but increases in basal and suprabasal cells when scales form. Glycogen disappears from suprabasal cells that accumulate keratin. The peridermis and 1 or 2 subperidermal layers form an embryonic epidermis that is partially or totally lost before hatching. These cells accumulate coarse filaments and form reticulate bodies. Mucous and lamellate granules are produced in the Golgi apparatus and are partly secreted extracellularly. The embryonic cells darken with the formation of larger reticulate bodies that aggregate with intermediate filaments and other cell organelles, as their nuclear chromatin condenses. Thin β-cells resembling those of scutate scales of birds develop beneath the embryonic epidermis and form a stratified β-layer that varies in thickness in different body regions. The epidermis differentiates first in the back, tail and belly. At the beginning of β-cell differentiation, the cytoplasm contains sparse bundles of α-keratin filaments, glycogen and lipid droplets or vacuoles apparently derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. These organelles disappear rapidly as irregular bundles of electron-dense β-keratin filaments accumulate and form larger bundles. The larger bundles consist of 3 nm thick electron-pale keratin microfibrils and are derived from the assemblage of β-keratin molecules produced by

  5. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    stronger for the mesocosms with the higher Fe(II) load. Analysis via XANES showed that a fraction (up to ~1/3) of uranium was reduced to U(IV), for mesocosms operated under low iron loading, indicating that iron cycling in the rhizosphere also results in uranium reduction and immobilization. For mesocosms operating under the higher iron loading, the fraction of uranium immobilized as U(IV) was much lower, indicating that uranium co-precipitation with iron might have been the dominant immobilization process. In parallel to these mesocosm experiments, dialysis samplers have been deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory near a creek with uranium contamination, to determine dissolved species, including Fe(II) and U(VI) in these wetland soils and their seasonal variability. The results show that there is a strong seasonal variability in dissolved iron and uranium, indicating a strong immobilization during the growing season, which is consistent with the mesocosm experimental results that the rhizosphere iron and uranium cycling are closely linked.

  6. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  7. Concentrations of contaminants in muscle of the American alligator in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Delany, M.F.; Bell, J.U.; Sundlof, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of tail muscle from 32 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida were analyzed for contaminant concentrations to provide preliminary information on the potential public health hazard of meat consumption. Detectable levels were found for eight metals; copper, zinc, iron, chromium, mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic. Mean residue was highest for mercury (geometric mean = 0.61 ppm). DDE, DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, and PCB's were found. Mean residue concentrations were compared by lake. Alligators appeared to be suitable monitors of environmental pollution. Concentrations of contaminants found in these animals probably pose little threat to public health. However, recommendations must await analysis of larger sample sizes and information on amount and frequency of meat consumption. Alligators killed for human consumption should continue to be monitored for contaminant residues.

  8. Seasonal variation in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in coastal versus inland populations of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis): influence of plasma iodide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Ashley S P; Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid hormones, essential for normal growth and health, are associated with changes in temperature, photoperiod, and reproduction. Iodide, a necessary element for thyroid hormone production, varies in diet, and is more abundant in estuarine environments, which could alter thyroid hormone variation. However, associations between thyroid hormone concentrations in animals from marine versus freshwater environments, which could become more pertinent with rising sea levels associated with global climate change, are not well studied. To determine the importance of dietary iodide in seasonal variation of plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, we analyzed seasonal variation of plasma thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations in juvenile alligators from an estuarine habitat (Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge; MI) and a freshwater habitat (Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge; LW) and compared these results to plasma inorganic iodide (PII) concentrations. Alligators from MI did not display seasonal variation in plasma T(4), but exhibited a seasonal pattern in plasma T(3) concentrations similar to alligators from LW. Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations were consistently higher at MI than at LW. PII concentrations were correlated with plasma T(4) and T(3) concentrations in juvenile alligators from LW but not MI. The data on plasma T(4) and T(3) concentrations suggest altered iodide metabolism in estuarine alligators. Differences in thyroid hormone concentrations between the populations could be due to differences in dietary iodide, which need to be further evaluated.

  9. Interaction between temperature and hypoxia in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Branco, L G; Pörtner, H O; Wood, S C

    1993-12-01

    Hypoxia elicits behavioral hypothermia in alligators. Under normoxic conditions, the selected body temperature is 27.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C. However, when inspired O2 is lowered to 4%, selected body temperature decreases to 15.4 +/- 1.0 degrees C. The threshold for the behavioral hypothermia is between 4 and 5% inspired O2, the lowest threshold measured so far in terrestrial vertebrates. This study assessed the physiological significance of the behavioral hypothermia. The body temperature was clamped at 15, 25, and 35 degrees C for measurements of ventilation, blood gases, metabolic rate, plasma lactate, and acid-base status. Hypoxia-induced changes in ventilation, acid-base status, oxygen consumption, and lactate were proportional to body temperature, being pronounced at 35 degrees C, less at 25 degrees C, and absent at 15 degrees C. The correlation between selected body temperature under severe hypoxia and the measured parameters show that behavioral hypothermia is a beneficial response to hypoxia in alligators.

  10. Pulmonary gas exchange during intermittent ventilation in the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Hicks, J W; White, F N

    1992-01-01

    The present study characterized pulmonary gas exchange in the American alligator, Alligator mississipiensis during ventilation and apnea at a body temperature (Tb) of 25 degrees C. Pulmonary gas exchange parameters were measured on a breath-by-breath basis utilizing a computer-assisted data acquisition system. In addition, paired blood samples were analyzed from left and right atrium during ventilation and voluntary apneas (1, 2, 5 and 10 min). Measurements of lung PO2 and PCO2 indicated that as apnea progressed, CO2 flux into the lung decreased rapidly while O2 was continuously removed at a constant and steady rate. The reduction in VCO2 resulted in a decrease in R (less than 0.4). Blood gas measurements indicated that the pulmonary arterial-pulmonary venous PCO2 difference, (Ppa-Ppv)CO2 was 4.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg during ventilation, decreased and became negative within 2 min of apnea, reaching -3.9 +/- 0.6 mmHg after 10 min. It is postulated that during apnea the Haldane effect accounts for both the blood gas behavior across the lung and insures a continued CO2 flux into the lung during apnea.

  11. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-08-01

    Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as 'bellows' year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians.

  12. Specialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Elsey, Ruth M; Temple, Bradley L; Divers, Stephen J; Glenn, Travis C; Yuan, Kuo; Chen, Min-Huey; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2013-05-28

    Reptiles and fish have robust regenerative powers for tooth renewal. However, extant mammals can either renew their teeth one time (diphyodont dentition) or not at all (monophyodont dentition). Humans replace their milk teeth with permanent teeth and then lose their ability for tooth renewal. Here, we study tooth renewal in a crocodilian model, the American alligator, which has well-organized teeth similar to mammals but can still undergo life-long renewal. Each alligator tooth is a complex family unit composed of the functional tooth, successional tooth, and dental lamina. Using multiple mitotic labeling, we map putative stem cells to the distal enlarged bulge of the dental lamina that contains quiescent odontogenic progenitors that can be activated during physiological exfoliation or artificial extraction. Tooth cycle initiation correlates with β-catenin activation and soluble frizzled-related protein 1 disappearance in the bulge. The dermal niche adjacent to the dermal lamina dynamically expresses neural cell adhesion molecule, tenascin-C, and other molecules. Furthermore, in development, asymmetric β-catenin localization leads to the formation of a heterochronous and complex tooth family unit configuration. Understanding how these signaling molecules interact in tooth development in this model may help us to learn how to stimulate growth of adult teeth in mammals.

  13. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  14. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  15. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  16. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

  17. Altered histology of the thymus and spleen in contaminant-exposed juvenile American alligators.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Andrew A; Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Guillette, Louis J

    2003-06-01

    Morphological differences in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference sites in Florida, USA: Orange Lake and a National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Woodruff, as well as from a contaminated lake, Lake Apopka. Lake Apopka has been extensively polluted with agricultural pesticides. Tissues were prepared for histological analysis to determine if previously detected endocrine abnormalities associated with contaminant exposure might also be reflected in morphological differences in splenic and thymic structures important for immunological response. Similar tissues were taken from captive-raised juvenile female alligators (3 years old) that were hatched from eggs collected on Lake Woodruff and Lake Apopka. Differences in thymic ratios (medulla/cortex) were found among alligators collected from the two lakes (P = 0.0051). Alligators from Lake Apopka had smaller thymic ratios than animals from either reference lake. Males from Lake Woodruff had significantly smaller lymphocyte sheaths in the spleen than females (P = 0.0009), indicative of a normal sexual dimorphism. Lymphocyte sheath width differed among females obtained from the three lakes, with females from Lake Apopka having the smallest sheath width and those from Orange Lake having the largest. Malpighian body area was largest in alligators from Orange Lake, intermediate in Lake Woodruff, and smallest in Lake Apopka. In contrast to that observed for wild-caught animals, no difference was found in the thymic medulla/cortex ratio of captive-raised female alligators (P = 0.378). Captive-raised female alligators from Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff displayed lake-associated differences in lymphocyte sheath width as observed in wild animals; Lake Apopka alligators had smaller lymphocyte sheath width compared to Woodruff

  18. Maternal investment and nutrient use affect phenotype of American alligator and domestic chicken hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas C; Groth, Kevin D; Sotherland, Paul R

    2010-09-01

    Maternal investment by oviparous amniotes, in the form of yolk and albumen, and the mechanisms by which embryos use available energy and nutrients have a profound effect on embryo and, consequently, hatchling phenotype. Nutrient provisioning and uptake vary within and among oviparous taxa, avian and non-avian reptiles, due to differences and similarities in environment, behavior, and phylogeny. Eggs of crocodilians, the closest extant relatives to modern birds, are ideal models for examining modes of embryonic development, especially with regard to nutrient uptake, in non-avian reptiles and comparing them with those of birds. In this study, we investigated egg composition, embryo growth, and nutrient use in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We explored egg composition by separating and weighing components of fresh eggs. We measured embryo growth and nutrient usage by dissecting embryos and by obtaining samples of liquid from the amnion, digestive tract, and yolk sac throughout the last half of incubation. Variation in albumen mass contributed most to egg mass variation in chicken eggs, whereas alligator eggs were composed almost equally of yolk and albumen, although larger eggs contained proportionally more albumen and less yolk than smaller eggs. Both chicken and alligator albumen were mostly water (87% and 96%, respectively) although chicken albumen contained over three times more solid mass per gram than alligator albumen. In both species, yolk contained a high proportion of solids. Larger eggs produced larger hatchlings in both chickens and alligators, but albumen solids contributed to embryo mass only in chicken embryos. However, intact albumen proteins appeared in the stomach in embryos of both species. While the final disposition of albumen in alligators is unclear, variation in maternal investment of yolk at oviposition was responsible for nearly all of the variation in alligator hatchling phenotype

  19. Does variation in movement tactics and trophic interactions among American alligators create habitat linkages?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Heithaus, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    1. Highly mobile top predators are hypothesized to spatially and/or temporally link disparate habitats through the combination of their movement and feeding patterns, but recent studies suggest that individual specialization in habitat use and feeding could keep habitats compartmentalized. 2. We used passive acoustic telemetry and stable isotope analysis to investigate whether specialization in movement and feeding patterns of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in an oligotrophic subtropical estuary created habitat linkages between marine and estuarine/freshwater food webs. 3. Individual alligators adopted one of the three relatively distinct movement tactics that were linked to variation in diets. Fifty-six per cent of alligators regularly travelled from the upstream (freshwater/mid-estuary) areas into the downstream (marine-influenced) areas where salinities exceed those typically tolerated by alligators. Thirty-one per cent of the alligators made regular trips from the mid-estuarine habitat into the upstream habitat; 13% remained in the mid-estuary zone year-round. 4. Stable isotopic analysis indicated that, unlike individuals remaining in the mid-estuary and upstream zones, alligators that used the downstream zone fed at least partially from marine food webs and likely moved to access higher prey abundance at the expense of salt stress. Therefore, 'commuting' alligators may link marine food webs with those of the estuary and marshes in the coastal Everglades and create an upstream vector for allochthonous nutrient inputs into the estuary. 5. This study lends further support to the hypothesis that large-bodied highly mobile predators faced with trade-offs are likely to exhibit individual specialization leading to habitat linkages, rather than compartmentalization. However, the conditions under which this scenario occurs require further investigation.

  20. WILDLIFE - ALLIGATOR STRADDLES TWO PARKING SPACES IN FRONT OF OFFICE TRAILER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Double-parked, an angry alligator straddles two parking spaces outside an office trailer at NASA's Launch Complex 17. Hank Curtin of Pan Am watches from a safe perch as John Tanner gets ready to wrap a rope around the snout of the 10-foot, 9-inch beast. It's all in a day's work for Tanner, who has a contract with the state of Florida to remove nuisance alligators.

  1. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  2. Use of alligator hole abundance and occupancy rate as indicators for restoration of a human-altered wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Ogurcak, Danielle; Rochford, Michael; Jeffery, Brian M.; Brandt, Laura A.; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Use of indicator species as a measure of ecosystem conditions is an established science application in environmental management. Because of its role in shaping wetland systems, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is one of the ecological indicators for wetland restoration in south Florida, USA. We conducted landscape-level aerial surveys of alligator holes in two different habitats in a wetland where anthropogenic modification of surface hydrology has altered the natural system. Alligator holes were scarcer in an area where modified hydrology caused draining and frequent dry-downs compared to another area that maintains a functional wetland system. Lower abundance of alligator holes indicates lack of alligator activities, lower overall species diversity, and lack of dry-season aquatic refugia for other organisms. The occupancy rate of alligator holes was lower than the current restoration target for the Everglades, and was variable by size class with large size-class alligators predominantly occupying alligator holes. This may indicate unequal size-class distribution, different habitat selection by size classes, or possibly a lack of recruitment. Our study provides pre-restoration baseline information about one indicator species for the Everglades. Success of the restoration can be assessed via effective synthesis of information derived by collective research efforts on the entire suite of selected ecological indicators.

  3. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of mosquito blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms.

  4. Modifications to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Modifications to the water resources protection strategy detailed in the remedial action plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site are presented. The modifications are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The modifications will result in compliance with the U.S. EPA proposed ground water standards (52 FR 36000 (1987)).

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  6. Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations in juvenile American alligators.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Andrew A; Crain, D Andrew; Woodward, Allan R; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make a limited comparison of these seasonal patterns on two different lakes in Florida. Male juvenile alligators from a reference lake, Lake Woodruff, displayed temporal patterns in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations that appear to be seasonal. A similar pattern in plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)) was observed in juvenile females from Lake Woodruff. Males had significantly elevated T concentrations during the spring and late summer, whereas females had elevated E(2) in the spring and late summer and significantly depressed E(2) concentrations during the winter. A limited 4-month survey of animals from contaminated Lake Apopka found a lack of such seasonality. These results suggest that: (1) healthy wild populations of juvenile alligators have a prolonged peripubescent period that is marked by seasonal hormonal cycles, (2) juvenile alligators exposed to environmental contaminants can lack such seasonal cyclicity, and (3) future studies of juvenile alligators should incorporate such seasonality into the experimental design.

  7. The tale of the tail: limb function and locomotor mechanics in Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Willey, Jeffrey S; Biknevicius, Audrone R; Reilly, Stephen M; Earls, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    Crocodilians tow their large muscular tail behind them during terrestrial bouts when they high walk (a walking trot). Analysis of ground reaction forces in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) revealed the consequences of tail-dragging. Individual limb and tail ground reaction force records show that the hindlimbs of Alligator take on a substantial role in body mass support consistent with the more caudal location of its center of mass due to the presence of a particularly heavy tail (representing nearly 28% of total body mass). Furthermore, because the constant drag imposed by the tail is substantial, both fore- and hindlimbs in Alligator have a heightened propulsive role as a means of countering the net braking effect of the tail. Ground reaction forces of the whole body were used to assess how well Alligator was able to utilize mechanical energy-saving mechanisms (inverse pendulum or mass-spring). A high-walking Alligator recovers, on average, about 20% of its mechanical energy by inverse pendulum mechanics. These modest energy recovery levels are likely to be due to a combination of factors that may include low locomotor speed, imprecise coordination of contralateral limbs in the trot, frequent dragging of feet of protracting limbs during swing phase and, possibly, tail dragging.

  8. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  9. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  10. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  11. Welding of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, G.L.; Murphy, J.L.

    1982-03-26

    The major reported work on joining uranium comes from the USA, Great Britain, France and the USSR. The driving force for producing this technology base stems from the uses of uranium as a nuclear fuel for energy production, compact structures requiring high density, projectiles, radiation shielding, and nuclear weapons. This review examines the state-of-the-art of this technology and presents current welding process and parameter information. The welding metallurgy of uranium and the influence of microstructure on mechanical properties is developed for a number of the more commonly used welding processes.

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  13. Uranium hexafluoride public risk

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

  14. Bioremediation of uranium contamination with enzymatic uranium reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic uranium reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans readily removed uranium from solution in a batch system or when D. desulfuricans was separated from the bulk of the uranium-containing water by a semipermeable membrane. Uranium reduction continued at concentrations as high as 24 mM. Of a variety of potentially inhibiting anions and metals evaluated, only high concentrations of copper inhibited uranium reduction. Freeze-dried cells, stored aerobically, reduced uranium as fast as fresh cells. D. desulfuricans reduced uranium in pH 4 and pH 7.4 mine drainage waters and in uraniumcontaining groundwaters from a contaminated Department of Energy site. Enzymatic uranium reduction has several potential advantages over other bioprocessing techniques for uranium removal, the most important of which are as follows: the ability to precipitate uranium that is in the form of a uranyl carbonate complex; high capacity for uranium removal per cell; the formation of a compact, relatively pure, uranium precipitate.

  15. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  16. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  17. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  18. Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

  19. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  20. Metals fact sheet - uranium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    About 147 million pounds of this radioactive element are consumed annually by the worldwide nuclear power and weapons industries, as well as in the manufacture of ceramics and metal products. The heaviest naturally occurring element, uranium is typically found in intrusive granites, igneous and metamorphic veins, tabular sedimentary deposits, and unconformity-related structures. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, market, and applications of uranium and uranium ores.

  1. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Stephan A.; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as ‘bellows’ year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians. PMID:26246611

  2. Posthatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Hamlin, Heather J; Botteri, Nicole L; Lawler, Ashley N; Mathavan, Ketan K; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-05-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first 5 months posthatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we used histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in 1-week, 1-month, 3-month, and 5-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff's (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS reactivity. We observed putative intersex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed "medullary rests" resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared with previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological

  3. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  4. Biochemical composition of the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaye, Sushant Vilas; Pawar, Ashwini Pandurang; Rivonker, Chandrasheker Umanath; Sreepada, Rayadurga Anantha; Ansari, Zakir Ali; Ram, Anirudh

    2016-12-01

    Considering the economic importance in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and lack of baseline information, we evaluated the proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, trace element content and C:N ratio in the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus. Amongst proximate principals, a crude protein formed the major biochemical component ((58.9±2.2)% dry weight). Mean percent concentrations (dry weight) of other components such as a total lipid (TL), ash and nitrogen-free extract measured were, (1.8±0.2)%, (19.2±2.2)% and (20.1±0.45)%, respectively. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27 saturated fatty acids (SFA) with 13 straight-chained and 14 branched-chained, 28 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with 14 monounsaturated and 14 polyunsaturated and nine other minor fatty acids. Mean percent contributions of total SFAs and UFAs to TL were found to be (55.41±0.24)% and (44.05±0.25)%, respectively. Altogether, 16 different amino acids with an equal number of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NAA) ones were identified. Percent contributions by EAA and NAA to the total amino acid content were 38.11% and 61.89%, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in S. biaculeatus were generally low and their distribution followed the order, Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Hg>Co. The C:N ratio was (4.37±0.04)%. The profile of major biochemical constituents in alligator pipefish, S. biaculeatus revealed its potential use in TCM as well as a nutritional diet for human consumption. The results of the study would also form the basis for formulation and optimization of diets for the culture of S. biaculeatus.

  5. Thermal acclimation, mitochondrial capacities and organ metabolic profiles in a reptile (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Seebacher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles thermoregulate behaviourally, but change their preferred temperature and the optimal temperature for performance seasonally. We evaluated whether the digestive and locomotor systems of the alligator show parallel metabolic adjustments during thermal acclimation. To this end, we allowed juvenile alligators to grow under thermal conditions typical of winter and summer, providing them with seasonally appropriate basking opportunities. Although mean body temperatures of alligators in these groups differed by approximately 10°C, their growth and final anatomic status was equivalent. While hepatic mitochondria isolated from cold-acclimated alligators had higher oxidative capacities at 30°C than those from warm-acclimated alligators, the capacities did not differ at 20°C. Cold acclimation decreased maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. For mitochondria from both organs and acclimation groups, palmitate increased oligomycin-inhibited respiration. GDP addition reduced palmitate-uncoupled rates more in liver mitochondria from warm- than cold-acclimated alligators. In muscle mitochondria, carboxyatractyloside significantly reduced palmitate-uncoupled rates. This effect was not changed by thermal acclimation. The aerobic capacity of liver, skeletal muscle and duodenum, as estimated by activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), increased with cold acclimation. At acclimation temperatures, the activities of COX and citrate synthase (CS) in these organs were equivalent. By measuring COX and CS in isolated mitochondria and tissue extracts, we estimated that cold acclimation did not change the mitochondrial content in liver, but increased that of muscle. The thermal compensation of growth rates and of the aerobic capacity of the locomotor and digestive systems suggests that alligators optimised metabolic processes for the seasonally altered, preferred body temperature. The precision of this compensatory response exceeds that typically shown by aquatic

  6. Free body analysis, beam mechanics, and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Porro, Laura B; Holliday, Casey M; Anapol, Fred; Ontiveros, Lupita C; Ontiveros, Lolita T; Ross, Callum F

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical behavior of mammalian mandibles is well-studied, but a comprehensive biomechanical analysis (incorporating detailed muscle architecture, accurate material properties, and three-dimensional mechanical behavior) of an extant archosaur mandible has never been carried out. This makes it unclear how closely models of extant and extinct archosaur mandibles reflect reality and prevents comparisons of structure-function relationships in mammalian and archosaur mandibles. We tested hypotheses regarding the mechanical behavior of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis by analyzing reaction forces and bending, shear, and torsional stress regimes in six models of varying complexity. Models included free body analysis using basic lever arm mechanics, 2D and 3D beam models, and three high-resolution finite element models of the Alligator mandible, incorporating, respectively, isotropic bone without sutures, anisotropic bone with sutures, and anisotropic bone with sutures and contact between the mandible and the pterygoid flange. Compared with the beam models, the Alligator finite element models exhibited less spatial variability in dorsoventral bending and sagittal shear stress, as well as lower peak values for these stresses, suggesting that Alligator mandibular morphology is in part designed to reduce these stresses during biting. However, the Alligator models exhibited greater variability in the distribution of mediolateral and torsional stresses than the beam models. Incorporating anisotropic bone material properties and sutures into the model reduced dorsoventral and torsional stresses within the mandible, but led to elevated mediolateral stresses. These mediolateral stresses were mitigated by the addition of a pterygoid-mandibular contact, suggesting important contributions from, and trade-offs between, material properties and external constraints in Alligator mandible design. Our results suggest that beam modeling does not accurately represent the

  7. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  8. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ruehle, A.E.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1957-11-12

    An improved process is described for the magnesium reduction of UF/sub 4/ to produce uranium metal. In the past, there have been undesirable premature reactions between the Mg and the bomb liner or the UF/sub 4/ before the actual ignition of the bomb reaction. Since these premature reactions impair the yield of uranium metal, they have been inhibited by forming a protective film upon the particles of Mg by reacting it with hydrated uranium tetrafluoride, sodium bifluoride, uranyl fluoride, or uranium trioxide. This may be accomplished by adding about 0.5 to 2% of the additive to the bomb charge.

  9. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  10. COATING URANIUM FROM CARBONYLS

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Storrs, S.S.

    1959-07-14

    Methods are described for making adherent corrosion resistant coatings on uranium metal. According to the invention, the uranium metal is heated in the presence of an organometallic compound such as the carbonyls of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, niobium, and tungsten at a temperature sufficient to decompose the metal carbonyl and dry plate the resultant free metal on the surface of the uranium metal body. The metal coated body is then further heated at a higher temperature to thermally diffuse the coating metal within the uranium bcdy.

  11. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  12. Forensic analysis of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    As more and more offers for illicit {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} radioactive materials are found, the forensic information contained within the radioactive material itself becomes more important. Many {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} offers are for uranium in various forms and enrichments. Although most are scams, some countries have actually interdicted enriched uranium. We will discuss the forensic information that can be obtained from materials containing uranium along with examples of data that has been determined from analysis of uranium samples obtained from legitimate sources.

  13. Chemical Equilibrium of the Dissolved Uranium in Groundwaters From a Spanish Uranium-Ore Deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Garralon, Antonio; Gomez, Paloma; Turrero, Maria Jesus; Buil, Belen; Sanchez, Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    The main objectives of this work are to determine the hydrogeochemical evolution of an uranium ore and identify the main water/rock interaction processes that control the dissolved uranium content. The Mina Fe uranium-ore deposit is the most important and biggest mine worked in Spain. Sageras area is located at the north part of the Mina Fe, over the same ore deposit. The uranium deposit was not mined in Sageras and was only perturbed by the exploration activities performed 20 years ago. The studied area is located 10 Km northeast of Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca) at an altitude over 650 m.a.s.l. The uranium mineralization is related to faults affecting the metasediments of the Upper Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian schist-graywacke complex (CEG), located in the Centro-Iberian Zone of the Hesperian Massif . The primary uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite but numerous secondary uranium minerals have been formed as a result of the weathering processes: yellow gummite, autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, saleeite, uranotile, ianthinite and uranopilite. The water flow at regional scale is controlled by the topography. Recharge takes place mainly in the surrounding mountains (Sierra Pena de Francia) and discharge at fluvial courses, mainly Agueda and Yeltes rivers, boundaries S-NW and NE of the area, respectively. Deep flows (lower than 100 m depth) should be upwards due to the river vicinity, with flow directions towards the W, NW or N. In Sageras-Mina Fe there are more than 100 boreholes drilled to investigate the mineral resources of the deposit. 35 boreholes were selected in order to analyze the chemical composition of groundwaters based on their depth and situation around the uranium ore. Groundwater samples come from 50 to 150 m depth. The waters are classified as calcium-bicarbonate type waters, with a redox potential that indicates they are slightly reduced (values vary between 50 to -350 mV). The TOC varies between <0.1 and 4.0 mgC/L and the dissolved

  14. URANIUM LEACHING AND RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McClaine, L.A.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for recovering uranium from carbonate leach solutions by precipitating uranium as a mixed oxidation state compound. Uranium is recovered by adding a quadrivalent uranium carbon;te solution to the carbonate solution, adjusting the pH to 13 or greater, and precipitating the uranium as a filterable mixed oxidation state compound. In the event vanadium occurs with the uranium, the vanadium is unaffected by the uranium precipitation step and remains in the carbonate solution. The uranium-free solution is electrolyzed in the cathode compartment of a mercury cathode diaphragm cell to reduce and precipitate the vanadium.

  15. Conservation genetics of the alligator snapping turtle: cytonuclear evidence of range-wide bottleneck effects and unusually pronounced geographic structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echelle, A.A.; Hackler, J.C.; Lack, Justin B.; Ballard, S. R.; Roman, J.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie,, David M.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    A previous mtDNA study indicated that female-mediated gene flow was extremely rare among alligator snapping turtle populations in different drainages of the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we used variation at seven microsatellite DNA loci to assess the possibility of male-mediated gene flow, we augmented the mtDNA survey with additional sampling of the large Mississippi River System, and we evaluated the hypothesis that the consistently low within-population mtDNA diversity reflects past population bottlenecks. The results show that dispersal between drainages of the Gulf of Mexico is rare (F STmsat  = 0.43, ΦSTmtDNA = 0.98). Past range-wide bottlenecks are indicated by several genetic signals, including low diversity for microsatellites (1.1–3.9 alleles/locus; H e = 0.06–0.53) and mtDNA (h = 0.00 for most drainages; π = 0.000–0.001). Microsatellite data reinforce the conclusion from mtDNA that the Suwannee River population might eventually be recognized as a distinct taxonomic unit. It was the only population showing fixation or near fixation for otherwise rare microsatellite alleles. Six evolutionarily significant units are recommended on the basis of reciprocal mtDNA monophyly and high levels of microsatellite DNA divergence.

  16. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Crocodilian parts means body parts with or without skin attached (including tails, throats, feet, meat, skulls... serial number. (e) Meat and skulls. Except for American alligator, you may import, export, or re-export crocodilian meat and skulls without tags or markings. American alligator meat and skulls may be...

  17. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Crocodilian parts means body parts with or without skin attached (including tails, throats, feet, meat, skulls... serial number. (e) Meat and skulls. Except for American alligator, you may import, export, or re-export crocodilian meat and skulls without tags or markings. American alligator meat and skulls may be...

  18. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Crocodilian parts means body parts with or without skin attached (including tails, throats, feet, meat, skulls... serial number. (e) Meat and skulls. Except for American alligator, you may import, export, or re-export crocodilian meat and skulls without tags or markings. American alligator meat and skulls may be...

  19. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Crocodilian parts means body parts with or without skin attached (including tails, throats, feet, meat, skulls... serial number. (e) Meat and skulls. Except for American alligator, you may import, export, or re-export crocodilian meat and skulls without tags or markings. American alligator meat and skulls may be...

  20. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Crocodilian parts means body parts with or without skin attached (including tails, throats, feet, meat, skulls... serial number. (e) Meat and skulls. Except for American alligator, you may import, export, or re-export crocodilian meat and skulls without tags or markings. American alligator meat and skulls may be...

  1. Reconnaissance for uranium-bearing lignite in the Ekalaka Lignite Field, Carter County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, James R.

    1954-01-01

    Uranium-bearing lignite beds 1.5 to 8 feet thick occur in the Fort Union formation of the southern part of the Ekalaka Hills, Carter County, Mont. Data from surface outcrops indicate that an area of about 1,400 acres is underlain by 16,500,000 tons of uranium-bearing lignite containing 700 tons of uranium. The uranium content of the lignite beds ranges from 0.001 to 0.034 percent. Ironstone concretions in the massive coarse-grained sandstones in the upper part of the Fort Union formation contain 0.005 percent uranium in the northern and eastern parts of the area. These sandstones are good potential host rocks for uranium mineralization and are lithologically similar to the massive coarse-grained uranium-bearing sandstones of the Wasatch formation in the Pumpkin Buttes area of the Powder River Basin.

  2. Investigating Freshwater Periphyton Community Response to Uranium with Phospholipid Fatty Acid and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Jack A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Peacock, A. D.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2008-04-01

    Periphyton communities can be used as monitors of ecosystem health and as indicators of contamination in lotic systems. Measures of biomass, community structure and genetic diversity were used to investigate impacts of uranium exposure on periphyton. Laboratory exposures of periphyton in river water amended with uranium were performed for 5 days, followed by 2 days of uranium depuration in unamended river water. Productivity as measured by biomass was not affected by concentrations up to 100 µg L-1 uranium. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns found no changes in community or genetic structure related to uranium exposure. We suggest that the periphyton community as a whole is not impacted by exposures of uranium up to a dose of 100 µg L-1. These findings have significance for the assessment and prediction of uranium impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Uranium industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  4. Phase I and II liver enzyme activities in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected from three sites in the Kissimmee-Everglades drainage, Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Gunderson, M P; Oberdörster, E; Guillette, L J

    2004-10-01

    We examined CYP1A (measured using hepatic EROD and MROD activities) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected from three sites with varying contamination in the Kissimmee-Everglades drainage in south Florida. We hypothesized that contaminants present in areas with intermediate or higher contaminant concentrations would alter hepatic enzyme activities in juvenile alligators from those sites when compared to hepatic enzyme activity in animals from the area with the least contamination. EROD activity was found to be higher in animals from the site with lower reported levels of contamination relative to those from the site with the highest reported contamination suggesting an inhibition of CYP1A expression or activity. No differences among animals from the three sites were observed for hepatic MROD and GST activities. A significant negative relationship between EROD, MROD, and GST activities and body size was exhibited in alligators from the site with the lowest contamination. No relationship between body size and hepatic enzyme activity was found in animals from the sites with intermediate and higher contamination, suggesting that contaminants present at these sites act to alter this relationship. No correlation was observed in this study between plasma steroid concentrations (estradiol-17 beta or testosterone) and hepatic EROD, MROD, or GST activities.

  5. Chronic Ingestion of Coal Fly-Ash Contaminated Prey and Its Effects on Health and Immune Parameters in Juvenile American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Hamilton, Matthew T; Metts, Brian S; Glenn, Travis C; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-10-01

    Coal-burning power plants supply approximately 37 % of the electricity in the United States. However, incomplete combustion produces ash wastes enriched with toxic trace elements that have historically been disposed of in aquatic basins. Organisms inhabiting such habitats may accumulate these trace elements; however, studies investigating the effects on biota have been primarily restricted to shorter-lived, lower-trophic organisms. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a long-lived, top-trophic carnivore, has been observed inhabiting these basins, yet the health or immune effects of chronic exposure and possible accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated how chronic dietary ingestion of prey contaminated with coal combustion wastes (CCWs) for 25 months, and subsequent accumulation of trace elements present in CCWs, affected juvenile alligator immune function and health. Alligators were assigned to one of four dietary-treatment groups including controls and those fed prey contaminated with CCWs for one, two, or three times a week. However, no effect of Dietary Treatment (p > 0.05) was observed on any immune parameter or hematological or plasma analyte we tested. Our results suggest that neither exposure to nor accumulation of low doses of CCWs had a negative effect on certain aspects of the immune and hematological system. However, future studies are required to elucidate this further.

  6. Temporal profile of nerve growth factor expression in the partial central nervous system of the Yangtze alligator Alligator sinensis (Reptilia,Crocodylia) during early postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanrong; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Renping; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2013-05-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in structures of the partial central nervous system of the Yangtze alligator, Alligator sinensis (Reptilia, Crocodylia) was examined during early postnatal growth using immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. In animals 0-2 years of age NGF-positive cells in the cerebral cortex increased gradually in number and size, and were predominantly distributed in the molecular layer. NGF-positive cells in the midbrain showed similar increases but with predominant distribution in the ependymal layer. NGF-positive cells increased in the cerebellum between 0 and 1 years of age, with increased NGF expression being seen during the first 2 years of life mostly in the ependymal layer. NGF-positive cells were mainly found in the gray matter of the spinal cord with decreasing cell numbers, NGF expression levels being seen from 0 to 2 years and small processes without synaptic connection from 1 to 2 years. These results suggest that NGF is involved in the early postnatal growth of several structures of Yangtze alligator partial central nervous system, suggesting a possible role of NGF in the Yangtze alligator partial central nervous system.

  7. Modification No. 2 to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah: Final

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Portions of the final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) for the Green River site, Volumes 1 and 2, Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-81AL16257, March 1991 (DOE, 1991) have been modified. The changes to the RAP are designated as RAP Modification No. 2. These changes have been placed in a three-ring binder that will supplement the original RAP (DOE, 1991), and include the following: addendum to the Executive Summary; Section 3.5 (Ground Water part of the Site Characterization Summary); Section 4.0 (Site Design); Section5.0 (Water Resources Protection Strategy Summary); Appendix D.5 (Ground Water Hydrology); and Appendix E (Ground Water Protection Strategy). In addition to these revisions, there have been editorial changes that clarify the text, but do not change the meaning. Also, certain sections of the document, which are included in the submittal for ease of review and continuity, have been updated to reflect the final ground water protection standards and the current UMTRA Project format and content of RAPs.

  8. The influence of regional hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected regional nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.

  9. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  10. Effects of egg and hatchling harvest on American alligators in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.G.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Harvest of crocodilian eggs and young for captive rearing (ranching) has been used worldwide as an option for producing crocodilian skins and meat from wild stock. The long-term effects of harvesting a certain proportion of early age class, wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) without repatriation is unknown. We removed an estimated 50% of annual production of alligators on Lakes Griffin and Jesup in central Florida over an 11-year period and monitored population levels via night-light counts. Densities of the total alligator population increased (P 0.117), and subadult (122-182 cm TL) alligators increased (P < 0.011) on harvest areas. The density of juveniles on the control area increased (P = 0.006), and the density of subadults showed some evidence of increasing (P = 0.088). No changes were detected in size distributions on the treatment areas. Nest production, as observed from aerial helicopter surveys, increased (P < 0.039) on Lake Woodruff NWR and Lake Jesup and showed some evidence of an increase on Lake Griffin (P = 0.098) during 1983-91. A 50% harvest rate of eggs or hatchlings did not adversely affect recruitment into the subadult or adult size classes.

  11. Body temperatures and behavior of American alligators during cold winter weather

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, I.L., Jr.; Standora, E.A.; Vargo, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Data from two large (188 and 135 kg) male alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) indicated that 4-5 C seemed to be the lowest body temperatures that they could endure with subsequent recovery. Although one animal in shallow water managed to keep a breathing hole open for several days, in ice that was 1.5 cm thick, it later died following a decrease of its body temperature to 4.0 C. The second alligator which was located in a deeper portion of the reservoir used both terrestrial and aquatic basking behavior to raise its body temperature and level of activity. Except in the case of basking events, there was not clear evidence of significant evaluations of the body temperatures of either the live or dead alligators above those of their adjacent water. When located side-by-side, diurnal cycles of deep body temperatures exceeding adjacent water temperatures to a maximum extent near dawn and usually falling below water temperatures during the afternoon and early evening hours. The physical properties and thermal inertia of the bodies of such large alligators, when placed in appropriate microclimates, may be sufficient in themselves to explain the general patterns and levels of body temperature changes observed at these low temperatures.

  12. Morphology of the embryonic and hatchling American alligator ductus arteriosi and implications for embryonic cardiovascular shunting.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kimberley; Goy, Sarah K; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    The ductus arteriosi (DA) are embryonic blood vessels found in amniotic vertebrates that shunt blood away from the pulmonary artery and lungs and toward the aorta. Here, we examine changes in morphology of the right and left DA (LDA), and right and left aorta (LAo) from embryonic and hatchling alligators. The developing alligator has two-patent DA that join the right and LAo. Both DA exhibit a muscular phenotype composed of an internal smooth muscle layer (2-4 cells thick). At hatching, the lumen diameter of both DA decreases as the vessels begin to close within the first 12 h of posthatch life. Between day 1 and day 12 posthatching, the vessel becomes fully occluded with endothelial and smooth muscle cells filling the lumen. A number of DA from hatchlings contained blood clots along their length. The lumen of the full term alligator DA is reduced in comparison with the full term chicken DA. The developing alligator embryo has an additional right-to-left shunt pathway in the LAo arising from the right ventricle. The embryonic LAo diameter is twice the diameter of either the right DA or LDA, providing a lower resistance pathway for blood leaving the right ventricle. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the paired DA of the embryonic alligator have a reduced role in the embryonic right-to-left shunt of blood from the right ventricle when compared with the avian DA.

  13. The effects of hurricane Rita and subsequent drought on alligators in southwest Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M; Butterstein, George; Trosclair, Phillip L; Merchant, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Hurricane Rita struck the coast of southwest Louisiana in September 2005. The storm generated an enormous tidal surge of approximately four meters in height that inundated many thousands of acres of the coastal marsh with full strength seawater. The initial surge resulted in the deaths of a number of alligators and severely stressed those who survived. In addition, a prolonged drought (the lowest rainfall in 111 years of recorded weather data) following the hurricane resulted in highly saline conditions that persisted in the marsh for several months. We had the opportunity to collect 11 blood samples from alligators located on Holly Beach less than a month after the hurricane, but were unable to collect samples from alligators on Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge until February 2006. Conditions at Rockefeller Refuge did not permit systematic sampling, but a total of 201 samples were collected on the refuge up through August 2006. The blood samples were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolality, and corticosterone. Blood samples from alligators sampled on Holly Beach in October 2005, showed a marked elevation in plasma osmolality, sodium, chloride, potassium, corticosterone, and an elevated heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Blood samples from alligators on Rockefeller Refuge showed increasing levels of corticosterone as the drought persisted and elevated osmolality and electrolytes. After substantial rainfall in July and August, these indices of osmotic stress returned to within normal limits.

  14. Improved genome assembly of American alligator genome reveals conserved architecture of estrogen signaling.

    PubMed

    Rice, Edward S; Kohno, Satomi; John, John St; Pham, Son; Howard, Jonathan; Lareau, Liana F; O'Connell, Brendan L; Hickey, Glenn; Armstrong, Joel; Deran, Alden; Fiddes, Ian; Platt, Roy N; Gresham, Cathy; McCarthy, Fiona; Kern, Colin; Haan, David; Phan, Tan; Schmidt, Carl; Sanford, Jeremy R; Ray, David A; Paten, Benedict; Guillette, Louis J; Green, Richard E

    2017-01-30

    The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, like all crocodilians, has temperature-dependent sex determination, in which the sex of an embryo is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg during a critical period of development. The lack of genetic differences between male and female alligators leaves open the question of how the genes responsible for sex determination and differentiation are regulated. Insight into this question comes from the fact that exposing an embryo incubated at male-producing temperature to estrogen causes it to develop ovaries. Because estrogen response elements are known to regulate genes over long distances, a contiguous genome assembly is crucial for predicting and understanding their impact. We present an improved assembly of the American alligator genome, scaffolded with in vitro proximity ligation (Chicago) data. We use this assembly to scaffold two other crocodilian genomes based on synteny. We perform RNA sequencing of tissues from American alligator embryos to find genes that are differentially expressed between embryos incubated at male- versus female-producing temperature. Finally, we use the improved contiguity of our assembly along with the current model of CTCF-mediated chromatin looping to predict regions of the genome likely to contain estrogen-responsive genes. We find that these regions are significantly enriched for genes with female-biased expression in developing gonads after the critical period during which sex is determined by incubation temperature. We thus conclude that estrogen signaling is a major driver of female-biased gene expression in the post-temperature sensitive period gonads.

  15. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08

    evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

  16. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.

    1962-05-15

    A process is given for separating fission products from uranium by extracting the former into molten aluminum. Phase isolation can be accomplished by selectively hydriding the uranium at between 200 and 300 deg C and separating the hydride powder from coarse particles of fissionproduct-containing aluminum. (AEC)

  17. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

  18. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Toor, R. S. S.; Brar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% – 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion). PMID:24478959

  19. Uranium and Thorium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Warren I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruidong; Hu, Yuehong; Wang, Huan; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Rong; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to China. Little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in Chinese alligator. Estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. Here, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) was cloned and sequenced from Chinese alligator for the first time, which comprises 1764bp nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 587 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of ESR1 showed that crocodilians and turtles were the sister-group of birds. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the ESR1 mRNA was widely expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In the brain and pituitary gland, ESR1 was most highly transcribed in the cerebellum. But in other peripheral tissues, ESR1 mRNA expression level was the highest in the ovary. Compared with hibernation period, ESR1 mRNA expression levels were increased significantly in the reproductive period (P<0.05) in cerebellum, pituitary gland, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and ovary, while no significant change in other examined tissues (P>0.05). The ESR1 mRNA expression levels changes during the two periods of different tissues suggested that ESR1 might play an important role in mediation of estrogenic multiple reproductive effects in Chinese alligator. Furthermore, it was the first time to quantify ESR1 mRNA level in the brain of crocodilians, and the distribution and expression of ESR1 mRNA in the midbrain, cerebellum and medulla oblongata was also reported for the first time in reptiles.

  1. Influences of sex, incubation temperature, and environmental quality on gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor messenger RNA expression in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Milnes, Matthew R; Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone receptors play a vital role in transforming ligand signals into gene expression. We have shown previously that gonads from wild-caught juvenile alligators express greater levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) than estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2). Furthermore, sexually dimorphic ESR2 mRNA expression (female > male) observed in animals from the reference site (Lake Woodruff, FL, USA) was lost in alligators from the contaminated Lake Apopka (FL, USA). We postulated that environmental contaminant exposure could influence gonadal steroid hormone receptor expression. Here, we address questions regarding gonadal estrogen and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in 1-yr-old, laboratory-raised alligators. What are relative expression levels within gonads? Do these levels vary between sexes or incubation temperatures? Can contaminant exposure change these levels? We observed a similar pattern of expression (ESR1 > AR > ESR2) in ovary and testis. However, both incubation temperature and environment modulated expression. Males incubated at 33.5 degrees C expressed greater AR levels than females incubated at 30 degrees C; dimorphic expression was not observed in animals incubated at 32 degrees C. Compared to Lake Woodruff alligators, Lake Apopka animals of both sexes showed lesser ESR2 mRNA expression levels. Employing cluster analyses, we integrated these receptor expression patterns with those of steroidogenic factors. Elevated ESR2 and CYP19A1 expressions were diagnostic of alligator ovary, whereas elevated HSD3B1, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 expressions were indicative of testis. In contrast, AR, ESR1, and NR5A1 showed variable expressions that were not entirely associated with sex. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA expression of receptors required for steroid hormone signaling are modified by exposure to environmental factors, including temperature and contaminants.

  2. Animal-borne imaging reveals novel insights into the foraging behaviors and Diel activity of a large-bodied apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Nifong, James C; Nifong, Rachel L; Silliman, Brian R; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J; Ferguson, Jake M; Welsh, Matthew; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales) can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here we use animal-borne imaging systems (Crittercam) to study the foraging behavior and activity patterns of a cryptic, large-bodied predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in two estuaries of coastal Florida, USA. Using retrieved video data we examine the variation in foraging behaviors and activity patterns due to abiotic factors. We found the frequency of prey-attacks (mean = 0.49 prey attacks/hour) as well as the probability of prey-capture success (mean = 0.52 per attack) were significantly affected by time of day. Alligators attempted to capture prey most frequently during the night. Probability of prey-capture success per attack was highest during morning hours and sequentially lower during day, night, and sunset, respectively. Position in the water column also significantly affected prey-capture success, as individuals' experienced two-fold greater success when attacking prey while submerged. These estimates are the first for wild adult American alligators and one of the few examples for any crocodilian species worldwide. More broadly, these results reveal that our understandings of crocodilian foraging behaviors are biased due to previous studies containing limited observations of cryptic and nocturnal foraging interactions. Our results can be used to inform greater understanding regarding the top-down effects of American alligators in estuarine food webs. Additionally, our results highlight the importance and power of using animal-borne imaging when

  3. Animal-Borne Imaging Reveals Novel Insights into the Foraging Behaviors and Diel Activity of a Large-Bodied Apex Predator, the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nifong, James C.; Nifong, Rachel L.; Silliman, Brian R.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Welsh, Matthew; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales) can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here we use animal-borne imaging systems (Crittercam) to study the foraging behavior and activity patterns of a cryptic, large-bodied predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in two estuaries of coastal Florida, USA. Using retrieved video data we examine the variation in foraging behaviors and activity patterns due to abiotic factors. We found the frequency of prey-attacks (mean = 0.49 prey attacks/hour) as well as the probability of prey-capture success (mean = 0.52 per attack) were significantly affected by time of day. Alligators attempted to capture prey most frequently during the night. Probability of prey-capture success per attack was highest during morning hours and sequentially lower during day, night, and sunset, respectively. Position in the water column also significantly affected prey-capture success, as individuals’ experienced two-fold greater success when attacking prey while submerged. These estimates are the first for wild adult American alligators and one of the few examples for any crocodilian species worldwide. More broadly, these results reveal that our understandings of crocodilian foraging behaviors are biased due to previous studies containing limited observations of cryptic and nocturnal foraging interactions. Our results can be used to inform greater understanding regarding the top-down effects of American alligators in estuarine food webs. Additionally, our results highlight the importance and power of using animal

  4. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Sacramento quadrangle, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-15

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1890 sediment samples from the Sacramento Quadrangle, California. The samples were collected by Savannah River Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  6. National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Fresno quadrangle, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-15

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1038 sediment samples from the Fresno Quadrangle, California. The samples were collected by Savannah River Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were perfomed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  7. On Line Spectrophotometric Measurement of Uranium and Nitrate in H Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R.J.

    2002-10-15

    This report describes the on-line instrumentation developed by the Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center in support of Highly Enriched Uranium Blend Down processing in H Canyon.

  8. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  9. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-07

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  10. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  11. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.W.; Segre, E.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for obtaining a compound of uranium in an extremely pure state and in such a condition that it can be used in determinations of the isotopic composition of uranium. Uranium deposited in calutron receivers is removed therefrom by washing with cold nitric acid and the resulting solution, coataining uranium and trace amounts of various impurities, such as Fe, Ag, Zn, Pb, and Ni, is then subjected to various analytical manipulations to obtain an impurity-free uranium containing solution. This solution is then evaporated on a platinum disk and the residue is ignited converting it to U2/sub 3//sub 8/. The platinum disk having such a thin film of pure U/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is suitable for use with isotopic determination techaiques.

  12. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  13. Coplanar PCB distribution between chorioallantoic membranes and eggs of alligators and Loggerhead sea turtles

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, T.A.; Cobb, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The relative distribution of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between chorioallantoic membranes (CAMS) and eggs was investigated in inviable American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretra) eggs. Cam and egg extracts were fractionated by HPLC using a porous graphitic column (PGC) and an in line switching valve to separate coplanar from non-coplanar PCBs. The fractions were collected, concentrated by nitrogen evaporation, and injected on GC-ECD (60M DB-5 capillary column) for quantification. Alligator and Loggerhead sea turtle eggs contain toxicologically significant coplanar PCBs. Mono-ortho substituted PCBs were present with greater frequency relative to non-ortho substituted PCBs in both eggs and CAMS. The presence of coplanar PCBs in eggs appears to be correlated to coplanar PCB presence in CAMS. The chorioallantoic membrane could serve as a biomarker of embryo exposure to coplanar PCBs.

  14. Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, MI; Akanji, MA; Hafizur, Rahman M; Choudhary, MI

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and antiglycation potential of polyphenols from three spices; alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg. Methods Polyphenol extracts of these spices were subjected to brine-shrimp lethality assay, phytotoxicity test, DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging as well as BSA-glucose antiglycation assay. Results Results obtained showed that polyphenol extract of ginger has the highest antioxidant potential with IC50 0.075 and 0.070 mg/mL for DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay while alligator pepper displayed highest antiglycation activity with IC50 0.125 mg/mL. However, nutmeg extract exhibited weakest cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential with LD50 4359.70 and 1490 µg/mL respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential and are safe for consumption. PMID:23570003

  15. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator.

  16. The pulmonary anatomy of Alligator mississippiensis and its similarity to the avian respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Sanders, R Kent; Farmer, C G

    2012-04-01

    Using gross dissections and computed tomography we studied the lungs of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our findings indicate that both the external and internal morphology of the lungs is strikingly similar to the embryonic avian respiratory system (lungs + air sacs). We identified bronchi that we propose are homologous to the avian ventrobronchi (entobronchi), laterobronchi, dorsobronchi (ectobronchi), as well as regions of the lung hypothesized to be homologous to the cervical, interclavicular, anterior thoracic, posterior thoracic, and abdominal air sacs. Furthermore, we suggest that many of the features that alligators and birds share are homologous and that some of these features are important to the aerodynamic valve mechanism and are likely plesiomorphic for Archosauria.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  18. An Investigation into the Transportation of Irradiated Uranium/Aluminum Targets from a Foreign Nuclear Reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories Site in Ontario, Canada - 12249

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Malcolm; Jackson, Austin

    2012-07-01

    This investigation required the selection of a suitable cask and development of a device to hold and transport irradiated targets from a foreign nuclear reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The main challenge was to design and validate a target holder to protect the irradiated HEU-Al target pencils during transit. Each of the targets was estimated to have an initial decay heat of 118 W prior to transit. As the targets have little thermal mass the potential for high temperature damage and possibly melting was high. Thus, the primary design objective was to conceive a target holder to dissipate heat from the targets. Other design requirements included securing the targets during transportation and providing a simple means to load and unload the targets while submerged five metres under water. A unique target holder (patent pending) was designed and manufactured together with special purpose experimental apparatus including a representative cask. Aluminum dummy targets were fabricated to accept cartridge heaters, to simulate decay heat. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature of the test targets and selected areas within the target holder and test cask. After obtaining test results, calculations were performed to compensate for differences between experimental and real life conditions. Taking compensation into consideration the maximum target temperature reached was 231 deg. C which was below the designated maximum of 250 deg. C. The design of the aluminum target holder also allowed generous clearance to insert and unload the targets. This clearance was designed to close up as the target holder is placed into the cavity of the transport cask. Springs served to retain and restrain the targets from movement during transportation as well as to facilitate conductive heat transfer. The target holder met the design requirements and as such provided data supporting the feasibility of transporting targets over a relatively long period of time

  19. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  20. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  1. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2).

  2. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of silver, cobalt, and strontium from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths and alligator weeds demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from an aqueous system by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.439 mg of silver, 0.568 mg of cobalt, and 0.544 mg of strontium in an ionized form per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. Alligator weeds removed a maximum of 0.439 mg of silver, 0.130 mg of cobalt, and 0.161 mg of strontium per gram of dry plant material per day.

  3. Dietary Selenomethionine Administration in the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): Hepatic and Renal Se Accumulation and Its Effects on Growth and Body Condition.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Hamilton, Matthew T; Glenn, Travis C; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2017-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient, but in excess, it can induce toxicity. Incomplete combustion of coal produces coal combustion wastes, which are enriched in Se and often disposed of in aquatic basins. While a multitude of studies have investigated Se accumulation in vertebrates, few studies have examined its effects on longer-lived top trophic carnivores, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). In this study, alligators were fed one of three Dietary Treatments: mice injected with water (controls) or water supplemented with 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet). Dietary Treatment significantly affected Se levels in both the liver (p < 0.0001; raw mean ± SE: 1000 ppm group, 35.20 ± 6.32 ppm; 2000 ppm group, 49.97 ± 4.00 ppm) and kidney (p < 0.0001; raw mean ± SE: 1000 ppm group, 101.60 ± 8.64 ppm; 2000 ppm, 96.38 ± 5.81 ppm), which were significantly higher in alligators fed SeMet than in controls. Post-treatment head length, used to control for size variation, was negatively related to both kidney (p = 0.0142) and liver (p = 0.0010) Se concentrations. Dietary treatment with SeMet significantly reduced body condition (1000 ppm, p < 0.0029; 2000 ppm, p = 0.0075), but it significantly increased growth (1000 ppm, p < 0.0001; 2000 ppm, p = 0.0316). Body condition and growth remained unchanged in control alligators (p > 0.05). Our results demonstrate alligators are capable of accumulating high levels of Se through trophic transfer. The positive effects of accumulation on growth may demonstrate Se essentiality, whereas the negative effects on condition may demonstrate toxicity. Accumulation also was associated with mortality, further demonstrating toxicity. Future studies should further investigate the physiological effects of Se accumulation in long-lived, top-trophic carnivores.

  4. RECENT STUDIES OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM CHEMISTRY IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    King, W; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D; Tommy Edwards, T

    2006-06-13

    Solubility studies of uranium and plutonium in a caustic, radioactive Savannah River Site tank waste solution revealed the existence of uranium supersaturation in the as-received sample. Comparison of the results to predictions generated from previously published models for solubility in these waste types revealed that the U model poorly predicts solubility while Pu model predictions are quite consistent with experimental observations. Separate studies using simulated Savannah River Site evaporator feed solution revealed that the known formation of sodium aluminosilicate solids in waste evaporators can promote rapid precipitation of uranium from supersaturated solutions.

  5. Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous rocks in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, James D.; Moore, George Winfred

    1952-01-01

    Uraniferous coal, carbonaceous shale, and carbonaceous limestone occur in the Bear River formation of Early Cretaceous age at the Fall Creek prospect, in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho. The uranium compounds are believed to have been derived from mildly radioactive silicic volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that rest unconformably on all older rocks and once overlay the Bear River formation and its coal. Meteoric water, percolating downward through the silicic volcanic rocks and into the older rocks along joints and faults, is believed to have brought the uranium compounds into contact with the coal and carbonaceous rocks in which the uranium was absorbed.

  6. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  7. Uranium concentrations in asparagus

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-05-01

    Concentrations of uranium were determined in asparagus collected from eight locations near and ten locations on the Hanford Site southcentral Washington State. Only one location (Sagemoor) had samples with elevated concentrations. The presence of elevated uranium in asparagus at Sagemoor may be explained by the elevated levels in irrigation water. These levels of uranium are comparable to levels previously reported upstream and downstream of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site (0.0008 {mu}g/g), but were below the 0.020-{mu}g/g level reported for brush collected at Sagemoor in a 1982 study. Concentrations at all other onsite and offsite sample locations were considerably lower than concentrations reported immediately upstream and downstream of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Using an earlier analysis of the uranium concentrations in asparagus collected from the Hanford Site constitutes a very small fraction of the US Department of Energy effective dose equivalent limit of 100 mrem.

  8. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Niedrach, L.W.; Glamm, A.C.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process of refining or decontaminating uranium is presented. The impure uranium is made the anode of an electrolytic cell. The molten salt electrolyte of this cell comprises a uranium halide such as UF/sub 4/ or UCl/sub 3/ and an alkaline earth metal halide such as CaCl/sub 2/, BaF/sub 2/, or BaCl/sub 2/. The cathode of the cell is a metal such as Mn, Cr, Co, Fe, or Ni which forms a low melting eutectic with U. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting point of U. In operation the electrodeposited uranium becomes alloyed with the metal of the cathode, and the low melting alloy thus formed drips from the cathode.

  9. Uranium Location Database Compilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.

  10. Depleted Uranium: Technical Brief

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical brief provides accepted data and references to additional sources for radiological and chemical characteristics, health risks and references for both the monitoring and measurement, and applicable treatment techniques for depleted uranium.

  11. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  12. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  13. Uranium purchases report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs.

  14. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  15. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  16. Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Exposure to Uranium Hexafluoride NUREG /CR- 5566, PNL-7328, Prepared for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1990. 27. Thun MJ, Baker DB... NUREG /CR-495 1, Prepared for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1987. 31. Morrow PE, Leach LJ, Smith FA, Goloin RM, Scott JB, Belter HD...of Uranium Hexafluoride, NUREG /CR- 2268, RH, Prepared for Division of Health Siting and Waste Management, Washington, DC, 1982. 32. Eidson AF, Damon

  17. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  18. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

  19. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  20. Evaluating the effect of sample type on American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) analyte values in a point-of-care blood analyser

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Matthew T.; Finger, John W.; Winzeler, Megan E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of wildlife health has been enhanced by the ability of point-of-care (POC) blood analysers to provide biochemical analyses of non-domesticated animals in the field. However, environmental limitations (e.g. temperature, atmospheric humidity and rain) and lack of reference values may inhibit researchers from using such a device with certain wildlife species. Evaluating the use of alternative sample types, such as plasma, in a POC device may afford researchers the opportunity to delay sample analysis and the ability to use banked samples. In this study, we examined fresh whole blood, fresh plasma and frozen plasma (sample type) pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3₋), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), oxygen saturation (sO2) and lactate concentrations in 23 juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) using an i-STAT CG4+ cartridge. Our results indicate that sample type had no effect on lactate concentration values (F2,65 = 0.37, P = 0.963), suggesting that the i-STAT analyser can be used reliably to quantify lactate concentrations in fresh and frozen plasma samples. In contrast, the other seven blood parameters measured by the CG4+ cartridge were significantly affected by sample type. In conclusion, we were able to collect blood samples from all alligators within 2 min of capture to establish preliminary reference ranges for juvenile alligators based on values obtained using fresh whole blood.

  1. Evaluating the effect of sample type on American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) analyte values in a point-of-care blood analyser

    DOE PAGES

    Hamilton, Matthew T.; Finger, John W.; Winzeler, Megan E.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of wildlife health has been enhanced by the ability of point-of-care (POC) blood analysers to provide biochemical analyses of non-domesticated animals in the field. However, environmental limitations (e.g. temperature, atmospheric humidity and rain) and lack of reference values may inhibit researchers from using such a device with certain wildlife species. Evaluating the use of alternative sample types, such as plasma, in a POC device may afford researchers the opportunity to delay sample analysis and the ability to use banked samples. In this study, we examined fresh whole blood, fresh plasma and frozen plasma (sample type) pH, partial pressuremore » of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3₋), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), oxygen saturation (sO2) and lactate concentrations in 23 juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) using an i-STAT CG4+ cartridge. Our results indicate that sample type had no effect on lactate concentration values (F2,65 = 0.37, P = 0.963), suggesting that the i-STAT analyser can be used reliably to quantify lactate concentrations in fresh and frozen plasma samples. In contrast, the other seven blood parameters measured by the CG4+ cartridge were significantly affected by sample type. In conclusion, we were able to collect blood samples from all alligators within 2 min of capture to establish preliminary reference ranges for juvenile alligators based on values obtained using fresh whole blood.« less

  2. Surgical removal of right-to-left cardiac shunt in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) causes ventricular enlargement but does not alter apnoea or metabolism during diving.

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Barron, Gildardo; Hicks, James W

    2009-11-01

    Crocodilians have complete anatomical separation between the ventricles, similar to birds and mammals, but retain the dual aortic arch system found in all non-avian reptiles. This cardiac anatomy allows surgical modification that prevents right-to-left (R-L) cardiac shunt. A R-L shunt is a bypass of the pulmonary circulation and recirculation of oxygen-poor blood back to the systemic circulation and has often been observed during the frequent apnoeic periods of non-avian reptiles, particularly during diving in aquatic species. We eliminated R-L shunt in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) by surgically occluding the left aorta (LAo; arising from right ventricle) upstream and downstream of the foramen of Panizza (FoP), and we tested the hypotheses that this removal of R-L shunt would cause afterload-induced cardiac remodelling and adversely affect diving performance. Occlusion of the LAo both upstream and downstream of the FoP for approximately 21 months caused a doubling of RV pressure and significant ventricular enlargement (average approximately 65%) compared with age-matched, sham-operated animals. In a separate group of recovered, surgically altered alligators allowed to dive freely in a dive chamber at 23 degrees C, occlusion of the LAo did not alter oxygen consumption or voluntary apnoeic periods relative to sham animals. While surgical removal of R-L shunt causes considerable changes in cardiac morphology similar to aortic banding in mammals, its removal does not affect the respiratory pattern or metabolism of alligators. It appears probable that the low metabolic rate of reptiles, rather than pulmonary circulatory bypass, allows for normal aerobic dives.

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis: molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the female reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in vertebrate reproduction, with the actions of FSH mediated by FSH receptors (FSHRs) on the granulosa cells of the ovary. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of FSHR in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis (caFSHR), and its tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the reproductive cycle. The mature protein of caFSHR displays typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, but also contains some remarkable differences when compared with other vertebrate FSHRs. The deduced amino acid sequence of the caFSHR shares identity of 85% with Chinese softshell turtle, 84-87% with birds, 77-78% with mammals, 67-73% with amphibians and 51-58% with fishes. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSHR amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue expression analysis showed that caFSHR was not only expressed in the ovary, but also in the stomach, intestine, pancreas liver and oviduct at similar levels, while it was not detectable in heart, thymus or thyroid. Expression of caFSHR in the ovary is high in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July during the breeding period, where it is maintained at high levels through September (breeding anaphase). Expression decreases significantly in November (hibernating period) and then remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes in FSHR expression suggest that it plays an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle of Chinese alligator.

  4. Surgical removal of right-to-left cardiac shunt in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) causes ventricular enlargement but does not alter apnoea or metabolism during diving

    PubMed Central

    Eme, John; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M.; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Barron, Gildardo; Hicks, James W.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Crocodilians have complete anatomical separation between the ventricles, similar to birds and mammals, but retain the dual aortic arch system found in all non-avian reptiles. This cardiac anatomy allows surgical modification that prevents right-to-left (R–L) cardiac shunt. A R–L shunt is a bypass of the pulmonary circulation and recirculation of oxygen-poor blood back to the systemic circulation and has often been observed during the frequent apnoeic periods of non-avian reptiles, particularly during diving in aquatic species. We eliminated R–L shunt in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) by surgically occluding the left aorta (LAo; arising from right ventricle) upstream and downstream of the foramen of Panizza (FoP), and we tested the hypotheses that this removal of R–L shunt would cause afterload-induced cardiac remodelling and adversely affect diving performance. Occlusion of the LAo both upstream and downstream of the FoP for ∼21 months caused a doubling of RV pressure and significant ventricular enlargement (average ∼65%) compared with age-matched, sham-operated animals. In a separate group of recovered, surgically altered alligators allowed to dive freely in a dive chamber at 23°C, occlusion of the LAo did not alter oxygen consumption or voluntary apnoeic periods relative to sham animals. While surgical removal of R–L shunt causes considerable changes in cardiac morphology similar to aortic banding in mammals, its removal does not affect the respiratory pattern or metabolism of alligators. It appears probable that the low metabolic rate of reptiles, rather than pulmonary circulatory bypass, allows for normal aerobic dives. PMID:19837897

  5. Evaluating the effect of sample type on American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) analyte values in a point-of-care blood analyser

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Matthew T.; Finger, John W.; Winzeler, Megan E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of wildlife health has been enhanced by the ability of point-of-care (POC) blood analysers to provide biochemical analyses of non-domesticated animals in the field. However, environmental limitations (e.g. temperature, atmospheric humidity and rain) and lack of reference values may inhibit researchers from using such a device with certain wildlife species. Evaluating the use of alternative sample types, such as plasma, in a POC device may afford researchers the opportunity to delay sample analysis and the ability to use banked samples. In this study, we examined fresh whole blood, fresh plasma and frozen plasma (sample type) pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3−), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), oxygen saturation (sO2) and lactate concentrations in 23 juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) using an i-STAT CG4+ cartridge. Our results indicate that sample type had no effect on lactate concentration values (F2,65 = 0.37, P = 0.963), suggesting that the i-STAT analyser can be used reliably to quantify lactate concentrations in fresh and frozen plasma samples. In contrast, the other seven blood parameters measured by the CG4+ cartridge were significantly affected by sample type. Lastly, we were able to collect blood samples from all alligators within 2 min of capture to establish preliminary reference ranges for juvenile alligators based on values obtained using fresh whole blood. PMID:27382469

  6. TRPV4 associates environmental temperature and sex determination in the American alligator

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Kohno, Satomi; Saito, Shigeru; Lowers, Russell H.; Ogino, Yukiko; Fukuta, Naomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Guillette Jr, Louis J.; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), commonly found among reptiles, is a sex determination mode in which the incubation temperature during a critical temperature sensitive period (TSP) determines sexual fate of the individual rather than the individual’s genotypic background. In the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), eggs incubated during the TSP at 33 °C (male producing temperature: MPT) yields male offspring, whereas incubation temperatures below 30 °C (female producing temperature: FPT) lead to female offspring. However, many of the details of the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive, and the molecular link between environmental temperature and sex determination pathway is yet to be elucidated. Here we show the alligator TRPV4 ortholog (AmTRPV4) to be activated at temperatures proximate to the TSD-related temperature in alligators, and using pharmacological exposure, we show that AmTRPV4 channel activity affects gene expression patterns associated with male differentiation. This is the first experimental demonstration of a link between a well-described thermo-sensory mechanism, TRPV4 channel, and its potential role in regulation of TSD in vertebrates, shedding unique new light on the elusive TSD molecular mechanism. PMID:26677944

  7. Achieving environmentally relevant organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eggs through maternal exposure in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wiebe, J.J.; Buckland, J.E.; Smith, Joe T.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis eggs from organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminated sites in Florida exhibit high rates of embryonic mortality compared to reference sites (p<0.05). The objective of the present study was to use captive adult alligators to test the hypotheses that maternal exposure to OCPs results in increased OCP concentrations in eggs, and that increased exposure is associated with increased embryonic mortality. A total of 24 adult alligators (8 males and 16 females) were housed in eight pens. Eight females in four pens were dosed with a mixture of p,p'-DDE, toxaphene, dieldrin, and chlordane at a rate of 0.2 ? 0.01 mg/kg/day for 274 ? 8 days. Treated females produced eggs containing higher OCP concentrations (12,814 ? 813 ng/g yolk) than controls (38 ? 4 ng/g yolk). Eggs of treated females exhibited decreased viability (13 ? 22%) as compared to controls (45 ? 20%). Results indicated that 0.6% of administered OCPs were maternally transferred to the eggs of American alligators, and that maternal exposure is associated with decreased egg/embryo viability in this species.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of the corticoid receptors from the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Oka, Kaori; Kohno, Satomi; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Guillette, Louis J; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Taisen; Katsu, Yoshinao

    2013-01-30

    Steroid hormones are essential for health in vertebrates. Corticosteroids, for example, have a regulatory role in many physiological functions, such as osmoregulation, respiration, immune responses, stress responses, reproduction, growth, and metabolism. Although extensively studied in mammals and some non-mammalian species, the molecular mechanisms of corticosteroid hormone (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) action are poorly understood in reptiles. Here, we have evaluated hormone receptor-ligand interactions in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), following the isolation of cDNAs encoding a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The full-length alligator GR (aGR) and aMR cDNAs were obtained using 5' and 3' rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited high identity to the chicken orthologs (aGR: 83%; aMR: 90%). Using transient transfection assays of mammalian cells, both aGR and aMR proteins displayed corticosteroid-dependent activation of transcription from keto-steroid hormone responsive, murine mammary tumor virus promoters. We further compared the ligand-specifity of human, chicken, Xenopus, and zebrafish GR and MR. We found that the alligator and chicken GR/MR have very similar amino acid sequences, and this translates to very similar ligand specificity. This is the first report of the full-coding regions of a reptilian GR and MR, and the examination of their transactivation by steroid hormones.

  9. TRPV4 associates environmental temperature and sex determination in the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Kohno, Satomi; Saito, Shigeru; Lowers, Russell H; Ogino, Yukiko; Fukuta, Naomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-12-18

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), commonly found among reptiles, is a sex determination mode in which the incubation temperature during a critical temperature sensitive period (TSP) determines sexual fate of the individual rather than the individual's genotypic background. In the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), eggs incubated during the TSP at 33 °C (male producing temperature: MPT) yields male offspring, whereas incubation temperatures below 30 °C (female producing temperature: FPT) lead to female offspring. However, many of the details of the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive, and the molecular link between environmental temperature and sex determination pathway is yet to be elucidated. Here we show the alligator TRPV4 ortholog (AmTRPV4) to be activated at temperatures proximate to the TSD-related temperature in alligators, and using pharmacological exposure, we show that AmTRPV4 channel activity affects gene expression patterns associated with male differentiation. This is the first experimental demonstration of a link between a well-described thermo-sensory mechanism, TRPV4 channel, and its potential role in regulation of TSD in vertebrates, shedding unique new light on the elusive TSD molecular mechanism.

  10. A group of alligators basks in the sun and rest in the water at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This pond near Schwartz Rd. at Kennedy Space Center is host to a least the nine alligators shown on the banks and in the water. Nearly 5,000 alligators can be found in canals, ponds, and waterways throughout the Center and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with the Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Wildlife Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  11. Effects of salinity on growth and ion regulation of juvenile alligator gar Atractosteus spatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) is a primitive euryhaline fish, found primarily in estuaries and freshwater drainages associated with the northern Gulf of Mexico. The extent of its hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities is not well understood. In order to determine how salinity affects growth ra...

  12. The evolutionary history of an invasive species: alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eco-evolutionary mechanisms of biological invasions are still not thoroughly understood. Alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Gisebach (Amaranthaceae), is a plant native to South America and a weed in Australia and other countries. To better understand its success as an invader,...

  13. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  14. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-08-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  15. Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

    2005-11-01

    The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite ± quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200°C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have δ18Ofluid and δ D fluid values of 4.0±3.7 and -27±17‰, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by

  16. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  17. Simple solar technology saves money for alligator farms

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, a high-volume solar thermal water-heating system in Florida was installed in Okeechobee County by Solar Development, Inc. (SDI). The system is designed to provide large quantities of hot water for commercial use and heat water to as high as 140[degrees]F. The design in Florida is known as a Shallow Solar Pond (SSP). It was completed with the help of the Florida Alligator Farmers Association, the Florida Energy Office, Foster Farms, and SDI. The SSP is a modular system built on site and modified to meet the specific needs of each application. The tank and the collector are the same unit, which keeps the system cost very low. The typical SSP module is 16 feet wide and up to 200 feet long. The module contains one or two reinforced-rubber flat water bags similar to a water bed. The bags rest on a layer of insulation or sand inside concrete or fiberglass curbs. In the Foster Farms SSP, the insulation was omitted and the water bags are placed on sand. The bag is protected against damage and heat loss by greenhouse-type glazing. At Foster Farms there are 3 SSPs, set in approximately 8,000 square feet, with two 5,000-gallon bags per unit. In addition, there is a pressurizing pump/tank system. Every morning, the heated water from the bags drains into a sump tank. While the bags are emptied into the backup system, well water is pumped in and the solar heating process starts all over again.

  18. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  19. The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown: Microbial Symbioses of the American Alligator.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sarah W; Elsey, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Vertebrates coexist with microorganisms in diverse symbiotic associations that range from beneficial to detrimental to the host. Most research has aimed at deciphering the nature of the composite microbial assemblage's genome, or microbiome, from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and skin of mammals (i.e., humans). In mammals, the GI tract's microbiome aids digestion, enhances uptake of nutrients, and prevents the establishment of pathogenic microorganisms. However, because the GI tract microbiome of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is distinct from that of all other vertebrates studied to date, being comprised of Fusobacteria in the lower GI tract with lesser abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, the function of these assemblages is largely unknown. This review provides a synthesis of our current understanding of the composition of alligators' microbiomes, highlights the potential role of microbiome members in alligators' health (the good), and presents a brief summary of microorganisms detrimental to alligators' health (the bad) including Salmonella spp. and others. Microbial assemblages of the GI tract have co-evolved with their vertebrate host over geologic time, which means that evolutionary hypotheses can be tested using information about the microbiome. For reptiles and amphibians, the number of taxa studied at present is limited, thereby restricting evolutionary insights. Nevertheless, we present a compilation of our current understanding of reptiles' and amphibians' microbiomes, and highlight future avenues of research (the unknown). As in humans, composition of microbiome assemblages provides a promising tool for assessing hosts' health or disease. By further exploring present-day associations between symbiotic microorganisms in the microbiomes of reptiles and amphibians, we can better identify good (beneficial) and bad (detrimental) microorganisms, and unravel the evolutionary history of the acquisition of

  20. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Kai; Hu, Li; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Peng-Wei; Xia, Jin-Quan; Chen, Hui; He, Gen-Yun; He, Jing; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Hao-Long; Liao, Sheng-Guang; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Chen, Ying; Gao, Shu-Kun; Ge, Yun-Fa; Cao, Chang-Chang; Li, Peng-Fei; Fang, Li-Ming; Liao, Li; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Meng-Zhen; Dong, Wei; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted.

  1. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Kai; Hu, Li; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Peng-Wei; Xia, Jin-Quan; Chen, Hui; He, Gen-Yun; He, Jing; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Hao-Long; Liao, Sheng-Guang; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Chen, Ying; Gao, Shu-Kun; Ge, Yun-Fa; Cao, Chang-Chang; Li, Peng-Fei; Fang, Li-Ming; Liao, Li; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Meng-Zhen; Dong, Wei; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted. PMID:23917531

  2. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  3. Taxonomic assessment of Alligator Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae: Macrochelys), with the description of two new species from the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Travis M; Granatosky, Michael C; Bourque, Jason R; Krysko, Kenneth L; Moler, Paul E; Gamble, Tony; Suarez, Eric; Leone, Erin; Roman, Joe

    2014-04-09

    The Alligator Snapping Turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, is a large, aquatic turtle limited to river systems that drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Previous molecular analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA suggested that Macrochelys exhibits significant genetic variation across its range that includes three distinct genetic assemblages (western, central, and eastern = Suwannee). However, no taxonomic revision or morphological analyses have been conducted previously. In this study, we test previous hypotheses of distinct geographic assemblages by examining morphology, reanalyzing phylogeographic genetic structure, and estimating divergence dating among lineages in a coalescent framework using Bayesian inference. We reviewed the fossil record and discuss phylogeographic and taxonomic implications of the existence of three distinct evolutionary lineages. We measured cranial (n=145) and post-cranial (n=104) material on field-captured individuals and museum specimens. We analyzed 420 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA sequence data for 158 Macrochelys. We examined fossil Macrochelys from ca. 15-16 million years ago (Ma) to the present to better assess historical distributions and evaluate named fossil taxa. The morphological and molecular data both indicate significant geographical variation and suggest three species-level breaks among genetic lineages that correspond to previously hypothesized genetic assemblages. The holotype of Macrochelys temminckii is from the western lineage. Therefore, we describe two new species as Macrochelys apalachicolae sp. nov. from the central lineage and Macrochelys suwanniensis sp. nov. from the eastern lineage (Suwannee River drainage). Our estimates of divergence times suggest that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of M. temminckii (western) and M. apalachicolae (central) existed 3.2-8.9 Ma during the late Miocene to late Pliocene, whereas M. temminckii-M. apalachicolae and M. suwanniensis last shared a MRCA 5.5-13.4 Ma

  4. Microbial reduction of uranium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Gorby, Y.A.; Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION of the soluble, oxidized form of uranium, U(VI), to insoluble U(IV) is an important mechanism for the immobilization of uranium in aquatic sediments and for the formation of some uranium ores1-10. U(VI) reduction has generally been regarded as an abiological reaction in which sulphide, molecular hydrogen or organic compounds function as the reductant1,2,5,11. Microbial involvement in U(VI) reduction has been considered to be limited to indirect effects, such as microbial metabolism providing the reduced compounds for abiological U(VI) reduction and microbial cell walls providing a surface to stimulate abiological U(VI) reduction1,12,13. We report here, however, that dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can obtain energy for growth by electron transport to U(VI). This novel form of microbial metabolism can be much faster than commonly cited abiological mechanisms for U(VI) reduction. Not only do these findings expand the known potential terminal electron acceptors for microbial energy transduction, they offer a likely explanation for the deposition of uranium in aquatic sediments and aquifers, and suggest a method for biological remediation of environments contaminated with uranium.

  5. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  6. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  8. Updated Conceptual Model for the 300 Area Uranium Groundwater Plume

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Last, George V.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2012-11-01

    The 300 Area uranium groundwater plume in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit is residual from past discharge of nuclear fuel fabrication wastes to a number of liquid (and solid) disposal sites. The source zones in the disposal sites were remediated by excavation and backfilled to grade, but sorbed uranium remains in deeper, unexcavated vadose zone sediments. In spite of source term removal, the groundwater plume has shown remarkable persistence, with concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard over an area of approximately 1 km2. The plume resides within a coupled vadose zone, groundwater, river zone system of immense complexity and scale. Interactions between geologic structure, the hydrologic system driven by the Columbia River, groundwater-river exchange points, and the geochemistry of uranium contribute to persistence of the plume. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to document characterization of the 300 Area uranium plume and plan for beginning to implement proposed remedial actions. As part of the RI/FS document, a conceptual model was developed that integrates knowledge of the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the 300 Area and controlling processes to yield an understanding of how the system behaves and the variables that control it. Recent results from the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge site and the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Scientific Focus Area Project funded by the DOE Office of Science were used to update the conceptual model and provide an assessment of key factors controlling plume persistence.

  9. PROCESS OF PREPARING URANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Stethers, H.L.; Johnson, T.R.

    1964-03-24

    A process of preparing uranium monocarbide is de scribed. Uranium metal is dissolved in cadmium, zinc, cadmium-- zinc, or magnesium-- zinc alloy and a small quantity of alkali metal is added. Addition of stoichiometric amounts of carbon at 500 to 820 deg C then precipitates uranium monocarbide. (AEC)

  10. Magnesium reduction of uranium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.B.

    1985-08-13

    A method and apparatus are provided for reducing uranium oxide with magnesium to form uranium metal. The reduction is carried out in a molten-salt solution of density greater than 3.4 grams per cubic centimeter, thereby allowing the uranium product to sink and the magnesium oxide byproduct to float, consequently allowing separation of product and byproduct.

  11. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  12. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  13. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kesler, R.D.; Rabb, D.D.

    1959-07-28

    An improved process is presented for recovering uranium from a carnotite ore. In the improved process U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is added to the comminuted ore along with the usual amount of NaCl prior to roasting. The amount of U/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is dependent on the amount of free calcium oxide and the uranium in the ore. Specifically, the desirable amount of U/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is 3.2% for each 1% of CaO, and 5 to 6% for each 1% of uranium. The mixture is roasted at about 1560 deg C for about 30 min and then leached with a 3 to 9% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate.

  15. Solubility characterization of airborne uranium from a uranium recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Robert; Cole, Leslie

    2004-07-01

    Solubility profiles of uranium dusts in a uranium recycling plant were determined by performing in vitro solubility tests on breathing zone air samples conducted in all process areas of the processing plant. The recycling plant produces high density shields, closed end tubes that are punched and formed from uranium sheet metal, and high-fired uranium oxide, which is used as a catalyst. The recycled uranium is cut and melted in a vacuum furnace, and part of the molten uranium is poured into molds for further processing. Air samples were taken in process areas under normal working conditions. The dissolution rate of the uranium in a simulant solution of extracellular airway lining fluid (Gamble's solution) was then determined over the next 28 d. Airborne uranium in the oxide section of the plant was found to be highly insoluble with 99% of the uranium having a dissolution half time in excess of 100 d. The solubility of the airborne uranium in other areas of the facility was only slightly more soluble with over 90% of the airborne uranium having dissolution half times in excess of 90 d.

  16. PREPARATION OF URANIUM TRIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.

    1959-09-01

    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  17. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  18. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  19. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  20. TREATMENT OF URANIUM SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Slunder, C.J.

    1959-02-01

    An improved process is presented for prcparation of uranium surfaces prior to electroplating. The surfacc of the uranium to be electroplated is anodized in a bath comprising a solution of approximately 20 to 602 by weight of phosphoric acid which contains about 20 cc per liter of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Anodization is carried out for approximately 20 minutes at a current density of about 0.5 amperes per square inch at a temperature of about 35 to 45 C. The oxidic film produced by anodization is removed by dipping in strong nitric acid, followed by rinsing with water just prior to electroplating.

  1. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

    1958-06-17

    An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

  2. METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1959-07-14

    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  3. National uranium resource evaluation: Mesa quaddrangle, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Luning, R.H.; Thiede, D.S.; O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; White, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mesa Quadrangle (2/sup 0/), Arizona, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 meters to identify geologic environments and delineate surface and subsurface areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The criteria used to define uranium favorability were developed during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaisance studies. The results of the investigations identified three favorable areas: older Precambrian quartz monzonite near Horseshoe Dam; the gray unit of the Dripping Spring quartzite of Precambrian age in the Sierra Ancha, Salt River Canyon, and Mescal Mountain regions; and Tertiary lake beds near Cave Creek, Horseshoe Dam, and northeastern Tonto Basin. Unfavorable environments include nearly all older Precambrian crystalline and metamorphic rocks, most younger Precambrian igneous and sedimentary rocks, parts of the Paleozoic section, igneous intrusives of Laramide age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, and late Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The eastern third of the quadrangle remains unevaluated because access was prohibited or could not be obtained in time. Environments were unevaluated in older Precambrian volcanic, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; the Naco and Supai Formations; Cretaceous sedimentary rocks; and many Tertiary sedimentary rocks in intermontane basins and within the southwestern portion of the quadrangle because of time constraints, land access restrictions, and sparsity of subsurface data.

  4. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PITCHBLENDE

    DOEpatents

    Ruehle, A.E.

    1958-06-24

    The decontamination of uranium from molybdenum is described. When acid solutions containing uranyl nitrate are contacted with ether for the purpose of extracting the uranium values, complex molybdenum compounds are coextracted with the uranium and also again back-extracted from the ether with the uranium. This invention provides a process for extracting uranium in which coextraction of molybdenum is avoided. It has been found that polyhydric alcohols form complexes with molybdenum which are preferentially water-soluble are taken up by the ether extractant to only a very minor degree. The preferred embodiment of the process uses mannitol, sorbitol or a mixture of the two as the complexing agent.

  5. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  6. STRIPPING OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Crouse, D.J. Jr.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from uranium-containing solutions. Uranium is removed from a uranium-containing organic solution by contacting said organic solution with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution substantially saturated in uranium values. A uranium- containing precipitate is thereby formed which is separated from the organic and aqueous phases. Uranium values are recovered from this separated precipitate. (AE C)

  7. EAARL coastal topography--Alligator Point, Louisiana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Barras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of Alligator Point, Louisiana, acquired on March 5 and 6, 2010. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have

  8. Summary of investigations of uranium deposits in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Johnson and Campbell Counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troyer, Max L.; McKay, Edward J.; Soister, Paul E.; Wallace, Stewart R.

    1954-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyo., by the U. S. Geological Survey in October 1951. From June to November 1952, an area of about 750 square miles was examined for uranium deposits, and 211 localities having abnormally high radioactivity were found; uranium minerals are visible at 121 of these localities. All known uranium mineralization in the area is restricted to sandstones of the Wasatch formation, except sparsely disseminated uranium in the sandstone of the White River formation, which caps the Pumpkin Buttes, mid several localities on the Great Pine Ridge southwest of the Pumpkin Buttes where iron-saturated sandstone and clinker in the Fort Union formation have above-normal radioactivity. The uranium occurrences in the Wasatch formation are in a red sandstone zone 450 to 900 feet above the base of the formation and are of two types: small concretionary masses of uranium, iron, manganese and vanadium minerals in sandstone, and irregular zones in which uranium minerals are disseminated in sandstone. The second type is usually larger but of lower grade than the first. Most of the localities at which uranium occurs are in a north-trending belt about 60 miles long and 18 miles in maximum width.

  9. Summary of investigations of uranium deposits in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Johnson and Campbell Counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troyer, Max L.; McKay, Edward J.; Soister, Paul E.; Wallace, Stewart R.

    1953-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in the Pumpkin Buttes area Campbell and Johnson Counties by the U.S. Geological Survey in October 1951 From June to November 1952 an area of about 750 square miles was examined for uranium deposits, and 211 localities with abnormally high radioactivity were found uranium minerals are visible at 121 of these localities. All known uranium mineralization is restricted to sandstones of the Wasatch formation exclusive of sparsely disseminated uranium in the White River sandstone which caps the Pumpkin Buttes and several localities on the Great Pine Ridge southwest of the Pumpkin Buttes where ironstone and clinker in the Fort Union formation have above normal radioactivity. The uranium occurrences in the Wasatch formation are in a red sandstone zone 450 to 900 feet above the base of formation and are of two types. (1) small concretionary masses of uranium, iron, and manganese minerals in sandstone and (2) irregular zones in which uranium minerals are disseminated in sandstone The second type is usually larger but lower grade than the first type. Most of the localities at which uranium occurs are in a north -trending belt approximately 60 miles long with a maximum width of 18 miles,

  10. Uranium Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata was cooperatively compiled from Federal and State agency data sets and enables the user to conduct geographic and analytical studies on mine impacts on the public and environment.

  11. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  12. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

    1959-07-01

    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

  13. The neurotoxicology of uranium.

    PubMed

    Dinocourt, Céline; Legrand, Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2015-11-04

    The brain is a target of environmental toxic pollutants that impair cerebral functions. Uranium is present in the environment as a result of natural deposits and release by human applications. The first part of this review describes the passage of uranium into the brain, and its effects on neurological functions and cognitive abilities. Very few human studies have looked at its cognitive effects. Experimental studies show that after exposure, uranium can reach the brain and lead to neurobehavioral impairments, including increased locomotor activity, perturbation of the sleep-wake cycle, decreased memory, and increased anxiety. The mechanisms underlying these neurobehavioral disturbances are not clearly understood. It is evident that there must be more than one toxic mechanism and that it might include different targets in the brain. In the second part, we therefore review the principal mechanisms that have been investigated in experimental models: imbalance of the anti/pro-oxidant system and neurochemical and neurophysiological pathways. Uranium effects are clearly specific according to brain area, dose, and time. Nonetheless, this review demonstrates the paucity of data about its effects on developmental processes and the need for more attention to the consequences of exposure during development.

  14. Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.

    2006-04-05

    The FRC groundwater and sediment contain significant concentrations of U and Tc and are dominated by low pH, and high nitrate and Al concentrations where dissimilatory metal reducing bacterial activity may be limited. The presence of Clostridia in Area 3 at the FRC site has been confirmed and their ability to reduce uranium under site conditions will be determined. Although the phenomenon of uranium reduction by Clostridia has been firmly established, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a reaction are not very clear. The authors are exploring the hypothesis that U(VI) reduction occurs through hydrogenases and other enzymes (Matin and Francis). Fundamental knowledge of metal reduction using Clostridia will allow us to exploit naturally occurring processes to attenuate radionuclide and metal contaminants in situ in the subsurface. The outline for this report are as follows: (1) Growth of Clostridium sp. under normal culture conditions; (2) Fate of metals and radionuclides in the presence of Clostridia; (3) Bioreduction of uranium associated with nitrate, citrate, and lepidocrocite; and (4) Utilization of Clostridium sp. for immobilization of uranium at the FRC Area 3 site.

  15. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis: Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the active and hibernating periods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhao, Shuai; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2017-02-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to China, up to date, little is known about the regulation of its growth and development. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plays a vital role in regulating vertebrate growth and development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of IGF-I in Chinese alligator (caIGF-I) was obtained for the first time, it contains 890-bp nucleotides encoding a 153-amino acid precursor, the mature caIGF-I consists of 70 amino acids by cleaving the signal peptide and C-terminal extension (E domain). The caIGF-I contains all the features of IGF-I peptide with B, C, A, and D domains and the six conservative cysteine residues involved in the stable tertiary structure. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of caIGF-I shares high identity with American alligator Alligator mississippiensis (100%) and birds (95-97%). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the IGF-I amino acid sequences indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Real-time quantitative PCR technique showed that caIGF-I is widely expressed in all the examined tissues with the highest expression level in liver, higher in pancreas and oviduct while lower in heart, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestines, ovary and muscles. During hibernation, the caIGF-I expression level decreased significantly in liver, pancreas, oviduct and kidney, while did not significantly change in heart, spleen, lung, stomach, small intestine, ovary and muscles. The mRNA expression changes during the two periods implicate that caIGF-I might play an important role in the regulation of feeding and growth in the Chinese alligator.

  17. Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from spent uranium alloy fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghusen, J. J.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gunderson, G. E.; Holmes, J. T.; Jonke, A. A.; Kincinas, J. E.; Levitz, N. M.; Potts, G. L.; Ramaswami, D.; Stethers, H.; Turner, K. S.

    1967-01-01

    Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from uranium fuels containing either zirconium or aluminum. The uranium is recovered as uranium hexafluoride. The process requires few operations in simple, compact equipment, and eliminates aqueous radioactive wastes.

  18. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  19. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume X: endangered species, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    Federally endangered species which occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, and the wood stork. Of these species, only the alligator, sturgeon, and wood stork are likely to be affected by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. The nearest colony of wood storks to the SRP is the Birdsville Colony, about 40-45 km southwest of potential foraging areas in the SRP Savannah River swamp. In 1983, it contained about six percent of the nesting pairs in the United States and produced about 250 fledglings. Its reproductive success was about the same in 1984. Based on the results of surveys made of foraging areas, both on SRP and offsite in 1983 and 1984, forage fish availability could be reduced by increased water depths in the Steel Creek delta area following L-Reactor restart with once-through cooling. Effluent discharge from SRP facilities probably limits the potential use of the SRP Savannah River swamp by foraging wood storks. The SRP supports a low-to-moderate alligator population. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests that populations in suitable habitats (e.g., Beaver Dam Creek, Steel Creek, and Par Pond) should continue to benefit from the protection provided by the SRP and should remain stable or continue to increase. Based upon information from the literature and fisheries data for the Savannah River, the operations of the SRP do not appear to have adverse effects on the shortnose sturgeon. Based on known life history characteristics, there is no indication that spawning, rearing, or foraging habitats are affected by SRP operations. 64 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Principal uranium deposits of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byers, Virginia P.

    1978-01-01

    The geology of the principal world uranium deposits that have identified uranium reserves and production, as described in published literature, is summarized briefly, including such features as type of deposit, host rock and age of host roc, age of mineralization, depositional environment, and mineralogy. The deposits are located on four maps with the deposit grouped according to age of host rocks?Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic?and further subdivided into types of deposits and size categories. Types of deposits are penecordant sandstone, quartz-pebble conglomerate, vein and vein-type, marine black shale, phosphate deposits, coaly carbonaceous rocks, and pegmatic and alaskitic rocks. The economically most significant deposits of uranium known in 1975 are in quartz-pebble conglomerates and sandstones, which together represented about 75 percent of the world?s total production. The largest deposits occur in quartz-pebble conglomerate at the Elliot Lake-Blind River area, Canada (average grade 0.12 percent U3O8), and at the Witwatersrand basin area in the Republic of South Africa (average grade 0.025 percent U3O8), where uranium is produced principally as a byproduct or coproduct of gold mining; and in medium-grained sandstones in the Colorado Plateau, USA (average grade 0.2 percent U3O8). Other economically significant concentrations are vein, pegmatite or contact metamorphic types, containing smaller but relatively high-grade tonnages and representing about 20 percent of the world?s total production. At Vastergotland (Billingen) and Narke in Sweden, uranium has been recovered on a pilot-plant basis from black shale deposits having an uncommonly high grade for black shale of 0.03 percent U3O8. ?Recoverable reserves? in the near future (40 year period, lifetime of nuclear plants) is on the order of 50,000 metric tons U. Over 50 percent of the world?s total uranium reserves is located on or near the trend of the iron deposits in the Precambrian iron