Science.gov

Sample records for allison automatic transmissions

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VIII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960, 6060, AND 8860 (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL DESCRIPTION, (2) OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT, (3) TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW (SPLITTER SECTION), (4) TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW (RANGE SECTION), (5)…

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON, TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960 AND 6060 (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL SPECIFICATION DATA, (2) OPTIONS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS, (3) ROAD TEST INSTRUCTIONS, (4) IDENTIFICATION AND SPECIFICATION DATA, (5) ALLISON…

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  4. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  6. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  9. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  10. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  11. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  12. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  13. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  14. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  15. Automatic transmission line monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  16. Automatic transmission for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Sakakibara, S.

    1989-06-27

    An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft with an input end and an output end and an overdrive mechanism of planetary gear type having a reduction ratio smaller than 1, the input shaft and the output shaft of the auxiliary transmission being located close to and on the side of the hydraulic torque converter with respect to the auxiliary transmission, respectively, and being coupled with a planetary gear carrier and a ring gear of the overdrive mechanism, respectively, a one-way clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a sun gear of the overdrive mechanism, a clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a position radially and outwardly of the one-way clutch for engaging the disengaging the planetary carrier and the sun gear, a brake being provided between the transmission housing and the sun gear and positioned radially and outwardly of the clutch for controlling engagement of the sun gear with a stationary portion of the transmission housing, and the output end of the output shaft being disposed between the auxiliary transmission mechanism and the hydraulic torque converter.

  17. Automatic transmission with add-on overdrive

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, R.E.; Woodcock, S.J.

    1989-01-17

    An overdrive unit is described for use with an automatic transmission, the transmission having an extended output shaft extending rearwardly therefrom through the forward open end of an overdrive outer casing and aligned on the longitudinal axis thereof, the overdrive unit comprising: a planetary gear set concentrically disposed about the longitudinal axis and including a sun gear, an annulus gear and a carrier with fore and aft carrier rings supporting a plurality of planetary pinion gears in meshing engagement with the sun gear and the annulus gear, the aft carrier ring concentrically engaged with the transmission output shaft; and a one-way clutch including inner and outer concentrically disposed races with coupling means located therebetween, the one-way clutch positioned rearward of the aft carrier ring, the annulus gear having a rearwardly projecting portion surrounding a portion the outer race concentrically engaged therewith, the inner race concentrically engaged with the transmission output shaft and the outer race concentrically engaged with an overdrive output shaft disposed coaxial with the transmission output shaft.

  18. Electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Koshizawa, T.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describes an electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus having a shift schedule map for commanding an optimum gear position based on a vehicle speed signal and an accelerator opening signal, the electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus comprising: first means for comparing a gear position commanded by the shift schedule map with a present gear position; second means for effecting a gear shift to a gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position and for restraining a gear shift to the commanded gear position for a prescribed period of time, if the commanded gear position requires an upshift to a gear position which is two or more gear positions higher than the present gear position as a result of the comparison performed by the first means; and third means for holding the gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position until an accelerator pedal is depressed again, when the accelerator opening signal indicates an idling position while the gear shift up to the gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position, is being effected by the second means.

  19. Gear shift controller for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, M.; Sakai, S.; Sakurai, T.

    1987-01-20

    A gear shift controller is described for an automatic transmission having a gear shift, comprising: a hydraulic torque converter; a gear change group, having a plurality of gears, each gear providing a different transmission ratio for the transmission of power from the hydraulic torque converter to the output of the transmission, each of the gears comprising a gear train; a one-way clutch interposed in at least one of the gear trains; a plurality of clutch means operatively connected with the gear trains for actuating each of the gear trains selectively; a gear change determination circuit operatively connected with the clutch means to control the operation of each of the clutch means according to a predetermined gear shifting program for engaging a gear train selected by the program; a coasting detection circuit for detecting a car in the coasting state; a gear shift limiting circuit, operatively connected with the gear change determination circuit and with the coasting detection circuit. The circuit is for actuating only the gear train in which the one-way clutch is interposed immediately, regardless of the selected gear train and of the operation of the gear change determination circuit, when the coasting detection circuit has determined the car to be coasting; and an operation transfer control system including a brake operation detecting means and a mode selector switch means for transferring the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit. The operation transfer control system is adapted to stop, upon detection of one of the brake operation and a reset state of the mode selector switch, the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit and to place the plurality of clutch means under the control of the gear change determination circuit.

  20. Planetary gear train of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-03-31

    A planetary gear train is described for an automatic transmission having input and output shafts, comprising: a first planetary gear unit including a first sun gear, a first internal gear and a first pinion carrier; a second planetary gear unit including a second sun gear, a second internal gear and a second pinion carrier, the first internal gear and the second pinion carrier being constantly connected to the output shaft; a first brake unit capable of braking the first and second sun gears which are connected to each other to rotate together; a clutch through which the first pinion carrier is connectable to the input shaft; a second brake unit capable of braking the first pinion carrier; a third brake unit capable of braking the second internal gear; and first and second groups of one-way means which are parallelly interposed between the input shaft and the first sun gear and arranged in a mutually reversed relationship so that the power transmission from the input shaft to the first sun gear and that from the first sun gear to the input shaft are respectively carried out by the first and second groups of one-way means.

  1. Overview of Allison/AGTSR interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s Tom Bechtel`s perseverance resulted in the creation of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) initiative in 1992. His foresight resulted in establishing an advanced gas turbine research center. The center is supported by the Government and industry. The industry serves in an oversight role, and helps select the type of research projects to be conducted by universities. AGTSR now represents an effective university and industry partnership, and is recognized as a positive mechanism. Allison Engine Company (Allison) continues to be an active participant and a strong supporter of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research initiative at Clemson University. Allison took part in early formulation stages of this university/industry consortium. We have been a member of the consortium since its inception in 1992. Allison`s senior management is cognizant of the benefits of these jointly sponsored research programs. Over the years, Allison has promoted cooperative gas turbine research and advanced technology development at many universities. This activity is conducted through direct assignments at Allison for university students, and support of research projects at various universities, focused on different disciplines of gas turbine research.

  2. Planetary gear train for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-04-28

    A planetary gear train is described for an automatic transmission, the planetary gear train having gear ratios including a first forward gear ratio and a reverse, the planetary gear train comprising: an input shaft; a basic planetary gearing including a first rotary element which is to be held stationary when the first gear ratio is established and also when the reverse is established, and a second rotary element which is to serve as an output member of the basic planetary gearing; an output planetary gear set including a ring gear, a sun gear and a pinion carrier; change speed means for establishing any desired one of the gear ratios; a clutch means for establishing a connection between the other one of the ring gear and the sun gear of the output planetary gear set and the first rotary element of the basic planetary gearing during operation with the first gear ratio and also during operation with the reverse, and a brake means for anchoring the other one of the ring gear and the sun gear of the output planetary gear set during operation with the reverse; and an output shaft connected to the pinion carrier of the output planetary gear set.

  3. Control system for automatic transmission producing shock-free shift

    SciTech Connect

    Takase, S.; Takeda, H.; Isobe, O.

    1989-01-17

    A control system for an automatic transmission is described, comprising: torque sensor means for detecting an output shaft torque of the automatic transmission which varies in a pattern in effecting shifting the automatic transmission; a control unit including means for recognizing the patten of variation of the output shaft torque detected by the torque sensor means, means for evaluating the pattern of variation recognized, and means for determining a variation of fluid pressure to be supplied to a friction element in response to the result of the evaluation of the pattern of variation recognized; and means for regulating a fluid pressure supplied to the friction element in response to the variation of fluid pressure determined, whereby the fluid pressure supplied to the friction element is appropriately adjusted to alleviate substantial shift shock in effecting the same shifting by the friction element subsequently.

  4. Allison Sloan: Paraprofessional of the Year 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Allison Sloan, the 2010 winner of "LJ"'s Paraprofessional of the Year Award, sponsored by DEMCO, Inc. Her outstanding service and her championship of the term paralibrarian illustrates her passionately held and most fundamental belief: "This is not just a nice job, this is a career." When she launched that…

  5. Four speed ratio automatic power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Daggett, W.E.; Zaracki, S.J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a multiple speed power transmission. It comprises: a power input shaft, a power output shaft and an intermediate shaft located between the input shaft and the output shaft, each shaft being coaxially aligned; first, second and third planetary gear units, each unit having a ring gear, a sun gear, a carrier and planet pinions mounted on the carrier in neshing engagement with the sun gear and ring gear; overdrive brake means; coast clutch means; direct clutch means; band brake means; intermediate brake means; a first overrunning brake; and a second overrunning clutch.

  6. Unified Process Planning, the Allison approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Clair

    Process Planning, the organization of product/process information for the manufacturing enterprise, represents the lead activity within the manufacturing portion of a business. Process planning encompasses all aspects that contribute to the successful manufacture of a quality product. This paper explains the role of process planning and how a 'Unified Process Plan' (UPP) provides Allison with a more effective and organized method of manufacturing information management. This approach allows for a more effective use of the manufacturing engineering staff. Allison is transitioning to a knowledge base of process information that will be continually improved and accessible to every engineer and operator. Unified Process Planning focuses key pieces of information into one manageable and controlled environment.

  7. Evaluation of oleic acid as additive in automatic transmission fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuldean, A. K.; Ing, T. Chiong; Bambang, S.; Baharin, T. Kamarul; Wira, J. Y.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    Transmission fluid has already being monopolized by petroleum oil over these years, either mineral oil or synthetic oil, the base oil originated from the crude oil. Currently, with environmental issue becomes globally concerned, it is time to move toward green technology and more to the sustainability, resource renewability and biodegradability. To respond to this challenge, a research focusing on development of environmental friendly lubricant for Automatic Transmission (AT) is conducted. In this paper, the Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm-Olein (RBDPO) mixed with the Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF), is developed and tested. The research focuses on some parameters such as anti wear and friction coefficient characteristics. The test is conducted using four ball wear tester machine to analyze anti wear of the lubricant as well as to simulate the sliding surface of gear operation inside the transmission which is the most critical operation condition for the lubricant. The method of testing is based on ASTM D4172 Test B condition for wear measurement. By comparing the experimental results between mixed lubricants and the commercial ATF, it can be seen that the palm olein is very potential to become a base oil for transmission lubricant in the future due to its promising performance of the tested physical properties.

  8. Multibody simulation of vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, B.; Kouroussis, G.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays automotive vehicles remain as one of the most used modes of transportation. Furthermore automatic transmissions are increasingly used to provide a better driving comfort and a potential optimization of the engine performances (by placing the gear shifts at specific engine and vehicle speeds). This paper presents an effective modeling of the vehicle using the multibody methodology (numerically computed under EasyDyn, an open source and in-house library dedicated to multibody simulations). However, the transmission part of the vehicle is described by the usual equations of motion computed using a systematic matrix approach: del Castillo's methodology for planetary gear trains. By coupling the analytic equations of the transmission and the equations computed by the multibody methodology, the performances of any vehicle can be obtained if the characteristics of each element in the vehicle are known. The multibody methodology offers the possibilities to develop the vehicle modeling from 1D-motion to 3D-motion by taking into account the rotations and implementing tire models. The modeling presented in this paper remains very efficient and provides an easy and quick vehicle simulation tool which could be used in order to calibrate the automatic transmission.

  9. Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 8. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, David; Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This module is the eighth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: introduction to automatic transmission/transaxle; hydraulic control systems; transmission/transaxle diagnosis; automatic transmission/transaxle maintenance and adjustment; in-vehicle transmission repair; and off-car…

  10. Automatic transmission control system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.W.; Arzoian, J.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a control system for an automatic transmission of a vehicle with a fluid torque converter having a bypass clutch, and a change gear assembly providing a variety of ratio changes on selective actuation of a plurality of friction engaging elements of the change gear assembly. The control system provides the selective engagement of three friction elements and the bypass clutch through the selective energization and de-energization of two solenoid operated valves and the selective actuation and de-actuation of three shift control valves.

  11. Computer controllable synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.I.; Patil, P.B.

    1989-08-08

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements. 6 figs.

  12. Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Roy I.; Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

  13. Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  14. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determine from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  15. Automatic transmission having C. V. T. system for a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

    1987-11-17

    An automatic transmission is described having a C.V.T. system for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power; a planetary gear mechanism having a first planetary gear set, a second planetary gear set, an input shaft disposed coaxially with and rotatably coupled at one end thereof with the second shaft of the belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system and connected at the other end concentrically with the first sun gear, an output shaft disposed coaxially with the input shaft and connected at one end concentrically with the second planetary carrier, a first intermediate shaft disposed concentrically with and radially outward in connection with the input shaft and connected at one end with the first ring gear and the second sun gear and a second intermediate shaft disposed concentrically with and between the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft in a radial direction and connected at one end with the first planetary carrier and the second ring gear; and a forward-reverse changeover mechanism having one and single shift lever and one and single sleeve.

  16. Lock-up control system for automobile automatic power transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, T.; Sumida, S.

    1986-04-08

    This patent describes a lock-up control system for an automobile's automatic power transmission. This system consists of a hydraulic torque converter including an input member and an output member, multiple stage transmission gear, the transmission gear means being provided with gear stages which are selected by changing power transmitting paths therein. An engine speed sensor for sensing engine load. A gear stage selector connected with the engine speed sensing means and the load sensor to receive output signals from the speed sensor and the load sensing means. A lock-up zone discriminator is connected with the engine speed sensor and the load sensor to receive the output signals from each of the sensors. The lock-up zone discriminator includes lock-up control map means having at least one lock-up release data line and at least one lock-up engage data line which are drawn on the basis of engine speed and engine load for at least one of the gear stages. The lock-up engage data line is located at a higher engine speed side than the release data line. In the lock-up zone are discriminating means for comparing the output signals with the data lines and generating a control signal for controlling engagement of the lock-up means, gear shift means for selectively shifting the gear stage by changing the power transmitting path in the multiple stage transmission gear means. Electro-megnetic means are responsive to the signal from the gear stage selecting means for controlling the gear shift means. Lock-up control means for releasing the lock-up means are irrespective of the control signal from the lock-up zone discriminating means when en engine throttle valve is full closed and enlarging the lock-up zone so that the lock-up means is engaged when the engine throttle valve is opened again to a position included in the enlarged lock-up zone.

  17. [The application of atomic absorption spectrometry in automatic transmission fault detection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-dan; Chen, Kai-kao

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied the innovative applications of atomic absorption spectrometry in the automatic transmission fault detection. After the authors have determined Fe, Cu and Cr contents in the five groups of Audi A6 main metal in automatic transmission fluid whose travel course is respectively 10-15 thousand kilometers, 20-26 thousand kilometers, 32-38 thousand kilometers, 43-49 thousand kilometers, and 52-58 thousand kilometers by atomic absorption spectrometry, the authors founded the database of primary metal content in the Audi A6 different mileage automatic transmission fluid (ATF). The research discovered that the main metal content in the automatic transmission fluid increased with the vehicles mileage and its normal metal content level in the automatic transmission fluid is between the two trend lines. The authors determined the main metal content of automatic transmission fluid which had faulty symptoms and compared it with its database value. Those can not only judge the wear condition of the automatic transmission which had faulty symptoms but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose automatic transmission failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced automobile maintenance costs, and improved the quality of automobile maintenance.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VI, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--PLANETARY GEARING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH THE OPERATION OF PLANETARY GEARS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF PLANETARY GEARING, (2) POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH A PLANETARY SYSTEM, (3) HYDRAMATIC TRANSMISSION, (4) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND (5) GEAR FAILURE AND…

  19. Study on shift schedule saving energy of automatic transmission of ground vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie; Zhao, Ding-Xuan; Chen, Ying; Chen, Ning

    2004-07-01

    To improve ground vehicle efficiency, shift schedule energy saving was proposed for the ground vehicle automatic transmission by studying the function of the torque converter and transmission in the vehicular drivetrain. The shift schedule can keep the torque converter working in the high efficiency range under all the working conditions except in the low efficiency range on the left when the transmission worked at the lowest shift, and in the low efficiency range on the right when the transmission worked at the highest shift. The shift quality key factors were analysed. The automatic trans-mission's bench-test adopting this shift schedule was made on the automatic transmission's test-bed. The experimental results showed that the shift schedule was correct and that the shift quality was controllable.

  20. The development of a portable, automatic, microwave transmission line test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, Val; Karuschkat, Glenn; Simone, Frederick

    Existing test sets for flightline testing of microwave transmission lines are complex, semiportable systems requiring the piece-part testing of waveguides, antennas, and transmission line components in the aircraft. Moreover, these systems are not fully automated and require a large degree of manual intervention. Therefore, advances in test-set miniaturization and automatic control techniques can now be utilized to develop a fully portable, automatic test set for the flightline functional and diagnostic fault isolation testing of RF avionics and microwave transmission lines. A description is given of the proposed capabilities of such a tester, and the benefits expected to be derived from its use.

  1. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  2. Automatic grading of carbon blacks from transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo, L.; Treuillet, S.; Gomez, E.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon blacks are widely used as filler in industrial products to modify their mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For rubber products, they are the subject of a standard classification system relative to their surface area, particle size and structure. The electron microscope remains the most accurate means of measuring these characteristics on condition that boundaries of aggregates and particles are correctly detected. In this paper, we propose an image processing chain allowing subsequent characterization for automatic grading of the carbon black aggregates. Based on literature review, 31 features are extracted from TEM images to obtain reliable information on the particle size, the shape and microstructure of the carbon black aggregates. Then, they are used for training several classifiers to compare their results for automatic grading. To obtain better results, we suggest to use a cluster identification of aggregates in place of the individual characterization of aggregates.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT X, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (2) SERVICING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (3) EXAMINING THE RANGE CONTROL VALVE, (4) EXAMINING THE LOCK-UP AND FLOW VALVE, (5) EXAMINING THE MAIN REGULATOR…

  4. Traction drive automatic transmission for gas turbine engine driveline

    DOEpatents

    Carriere, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    A transaxle driveline for a wheeled vehicle has a high speed turbine engine and a torque splitting gearset that includes a traction drive unit and a torque converter on a common axis transversely arranged with respect to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle. The drive wheels of the vehicle are mounted on a shaft parallel to the turbine shaft and carry a final drive gearset for driving the axle shafts. A second embodiment of the final drive gearing produces an overdrive ratio between the output of the first gearset and the axle shafts. A continuously variable range of speed ratios is produced by varying the position of the drive rollers of the traction unit. After starting the vehicle from rest, the transmission is set for operation in the high speed range by engaging a first lockup clutch that joins the torque converter impeller to the turbine for operation as a hydraulic coupling.

  5. Automatic power transmission mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, R.J.

    1987-11-17

    In a transmission for a vehicle having two forward traction wheels and two rear traction wheels, this patent describes a multiple ratio transaxle having an input shaft adapted to be connected to an engine and arranged on a first axis and planetary gearing coaxially disposed relative to the input shaft and an output shaft; a first differential gear mechanism forming a part of the transaxle and having a torque output gear and side gears adapted to be connected to axle shafts for the forward wheels; a torque transfer drive means connecting the output shaft with the torque output gear including a first drive gear coaxially mounted relative to the torque output gear; an interaxle geared differential having a differential carrier and a pair of side gears, an interaxle torque input shaft having a third axis parallel to the second axis; a rear axle drive means connected to one of the interaxle differential side gears; a second drive gear and a third drive gear coaxially mounted with respect to the interaxle differential side gears; and first, second, third and fourth clutch means coaxially arranged with respect to the interaxle torque input shaft and independently actuatable for selectively connecting respectively (i) the third drive gear with the second drive gear, (ii) the second drive gear with the intermediate shaft, (iii) the third drive gear with the other side gear of the interaxle differential and (iv) the rear axle drive means with the carrier of the interaxle differential.

  6. Direct-coupling clutch control device for a torque converter in vehicular automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, M.; Sakurai, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a direct coupling clutch control device for a torque converter which is utilized in vehicular automatic transmissions. The appartus consists of a number of interactive components operating together to form a functional control device. The first member of the device described in the patent is a fluid-type torque converter equipped with an output element. Coupled to the torque converter is an auxiliary transmission which is capable of selecting any of a number of multi-staged transmission gear ratios. A hydraulic direct-coupling clutch is characterized in the patent as being located between the input and output members and functioning to mechanically couple these components. Closely associated with the clutch is a gear shift control modality which is discussed in detail in the patent in relation to its design function, of selecting any one transmission gear ratio in an automatic or manual fashion with the capacity for switching transmission modes engineered into the device. A direct-coupling clutch modality is depicted in the patent as possessing a variable characteristic by means of which the vehicle speed for commencing the actuation of the clutch is shifted with oil pressure magnitude to the lower speed side in correspondence with an automatic gear shift position of the gear shift control means and to the high speed side in accordance with a manual gear shift position.

  7. Improving transaxle performance at low temperature with reduced-viscosity automatic transmission fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, J.L.; Kemp, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of automatic transmission fluid viscosity on the low-temperature performance of a front-wheel-drive transaxle were determined in a cold room maintained at a temperature of -20/sup 0/F (-28.9/sup 0/C), using both a cranking apparatus and a vehicle. Cranking and vehicle tests were conducted to determine the effects of fluid viscosity on the power required to crack a transaxle and on transaxle performance under low-temperature transient operation, respectively. Four automatic transmission fluids were tested, ranging in viscosity from 2 600 to 16 000 cP at - 20/sup 0/F. All test fluids contained the same additive package and were blended using the same types of base oils.

  8. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    SciTech Connect

    D'Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-01-26

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the <5% level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. As a result, this paper describes a detailed breakdown of the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.

  9. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    DOE PAGES

    D'Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; ...

    2016-01-26

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the <5% level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. As a result, this paper describes a detailed breakdown ofmore » the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.« less

  10. Automatic Transmission Period Setting for Intermittent Periodic Transmission in Wireless Backhaul System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guangri; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    Intermittent Periodic Transmission (IPT forwarding) has been proposed as an efficient packet relay method for wireless backhaul. In IPT forwarding, a source node sends packets to a destination node with a certain time interval (IPT duration) so that signal interference between relay nodes that send packets simultaneously are reduced and frequency reuse is realized which brings about an improvement of system throughput. However, optimum IPT duration setting for each node is a difficult problem which is not solved adequately yet. In this paper, we propose a new IPT duration setting protocol which employs some training packets to search for the optimum IPT duration for each node. A simulation and experiment show that the proposed method is not only very effective but also practical for wireless backhaul.

  11. Clutch fill control of an automatic transmission for heavy-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Chen, Huiyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper an integrated clutch filling phase control for gearshifts on wet clutch transmissions is developed. In a clutch-to-clutch shift of an automatic transmission, in order to obtain smooth gearshift, it should synchronize the oncoming clutch and the off-going clutch timely as well as precise pressure control for the engagement of the oncoming clutch. However, before the oncoming clutch pressure starts to increase, the initial cavity of the clutch chamber has to be filled first. The filling time and stability of the fill phase are very important for the clutch control. In order to improve the shift quality of the automatic transmission which is equipped on heavy-duty vehicles, the electro-hydraulic clutch actuation system is analysed and modelled. A new fill phase control strategy is proposed based on the system analysis as well as the control parameters are optimized according to the variation of the oil temperature and engine speed. The designed strategy is validated by a simulation work. The results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy and parameters modified method can transit the shift process from the fill phase to the torque phase effectively.

  12. Power-based Shift Schedule for Pure Electric Vehicle with a Two-speed Automatic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Liu, Yanfang; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Xiangyang

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces a comprehensive shift schedule for a two-speed automatic transmission of pure electric vehicle. Considering about driving ability and efficiency performance of electric vehicles, the power-based shift schedule is proposed with three principles. This comprehensive shift schedule regards the vehicle current speed and motor load power as input parameters to satisfy the vehicle driving power demand with lowest energy consumption. A simulation model has been established to verify the dynamic and economic performance of comprehensive shift schedule. Compared with traditional dynamic and economic shift schedules, simulation results indicate that the power-based shift schedule is superior to traditional shift schedules.

  13. Application of multi-variable control for automatic frequency controller of HVDC transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Sanpei, Masatoshi ); Kakehi, Atsuyuki; Takeda, Hideo )

    1994-04-01

    In an HVDC transmission system that links two ac power systems, the automatic frequency controller (AFC) calculates power to be interchanged between the two ac systems according to their frequencies thereby improving the frequency characteristics of the two power systems. This paper introduces a newly developed dc AFC system, which applies a multi-variable control to the dc system-based frequency control. It is capable of controlling the frequencies of the two ac systems optimally while maintaining their stability. This system was developed for one of Japan's HVDC transmission facilities and produced good results in a combined test using a power system simulator. The field installation will be completed in March 1993, when the AFC system will enter service.

  14. Optimal shifting control strategy in inertia phase of an automatic transmission for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Yihuai; Geng, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Shifting quality is a crucial factor in all parts of the automobile industry. To ensure an optimal gear shifting strategy with best fuel economy for a stepped automatic transmission, the controller should be designed to meet the challenge of lacking of a feedback sensor to measure the relevant variables. This paper focuses on a new kind of automatic transmission using proportional solenoid valve to control the clutch pressure, a speed difference of the clutch based control strategy is designed for the shift control during the inertia phase. First, the mechanical system is shown and the system dynamic model is built. Second, the control strategy is designed based on the characterization analysis of models which are derived from dynamics of the drive line and electro-hydraulic actuator. Then, the controller uses conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control theory, and a robust two-degree-of-freedom controller is also carried out to determine the optimal control parameters to further improve the system performance. Finally, the designed control strategy with different controller is implemented on a simulation model. The compared results show that the speed difference of clutch can track the desired trajectory well and improve the shift quality effectively.

  15. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  16. Automatic transmission brake assembly including an overrunning roller brake and a friction brake

    SciTech Connect

    Premiski, V.; Hohnel, R.; Premiski, C.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an overrunning roller brake assembly for a planetary gear unit in an automatic transmission for automobiles, the gear unit having a ring gear, a carrier and a sun gear, the carrier having planet pinions thereon engaging the sun and ring gears; a brake for anchoring a reaction member of the gear unit, at least one other member of the gear unit being adapted to receive driving torque; the brake comprising an annular inner brake race surrounding a fixed part of the transmission, an annular outer brake race connected to the reaction member and surrounding the inner race, the outer race comprising an extrusion with an outer brake drum surface adapted to be engaged by a reaction friction brake band; overrunning brake rollers between the races, a pair of support rings between the races on either side of the rollers; the support rings having a C-shaped cross section whereby the inner and outer surfaces thereof provide a bearing support for the races; retainer rings enclosed within the support rings, the retainer rings having a radial thickness approximately equal to the radial inside dimension of the C-shaped cross section of the support rings whereby radial loads are transmitted between the races through the retainer rings and support rings.

  17. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  18. Fundamental study of subharmonic vibration of order 1/2 in automatic transmissions for cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, T.; Nakae, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Nanba, A.; Takikawa, Y.; Ooi, Y.; Sueoka, A.

    2016-09-01

    A torque converter is an element that transfers torque from the engine to the gear train in the automatic transmission of an automobile. The damper spring of the lock-up clutch in the torque converter is used to effectively absorb the torsional vibration caused by engine combustion. A damper with low stiffness reduces fluctuations in rotational speed but is difficult to use because of space limitations. In order to address this problem, the damper is designed using a piecewise-linear spring with three stiffness stages. However, the damper causes a nonlinear vibration referred to as a subharmonic vibration of order 1/2. In the subharmonic vibration, the frequency is half that of the vibrations from the engine. In order to clarify the mechanism of the subharmonic vibration, in the present study, experiments are conducted using the fundamental experimental apparatus of a single-degree-of-freedom system with two stiffness stages. In the experiments, countermeasures to reduce the subharmonic vibration by varying the conditions of the experiments are also performed. The results of the experiments are evaluated through numerical analysis using the shooting method. The experimental and analytical results were found to be in close agreement.

  19. Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

    EPA Science Inventory

    Describe the method and test results of EPA’s partial transmission benchmarking process which involves installing both the engine and transmission in an engine dynamometer test cell with the engine wire harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell.

  20. Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Specialist. Instructor Manual and Student Workbook. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for transmission/transaxle specialist is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum contains nine units. Each unit of instruction includes some or all of the following components: objective sheet,…

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2 UNIT IV, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULICS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF VALVES UTILIZED IN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEWING FACTS ABOUT PUMPS, (2) USING VALVES FOR CONTROL, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES ON RELIEF VALVES, (4) USING DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES,…

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT IX, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OIL FLOW WITHIN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE GENERAL DESCRIPTION, HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS, AND BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT AND OPERATION. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "LEARNING ABOUT THE ALLISON…

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT III, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULICS (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES AND PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE WHY USE HYDRAULICS, REVIEWING BASIC PHYSICS LAWS IN RELATION TO HYDRAULICS, UNDERSTANDING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND DEVELOPING A BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. THE MODULE…

  4. Automatic mosaicking and volume assembly for high-throughput serial-section transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tasdizen, Tolga; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley C.; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Whitaker, Ross T.; Marc, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a computationally efficient and robust fully-automatic method for large-scale electron microscopy image registration. The proposed method is able to construct large image mosaics from thousands of smaller, overlapping tiles with unknown or uncertain positions, and to align sections from a serial section capture into a common coordinate system. The method also accounts for nonlinear deformations both in constructing sections and in aligning sections to each other. The underlying algorithms are based on the Fourier shift property which allows for a computationally efficient and robust method. We demonstrate results on two electron microscopy datasets. We also quantify the accuracy of the algorithm through a simulated image capture experiment. The publicly available software tools include the algorithms and a Graphical User Interface for easy access to the algorithms. PMID:20713087

  5. Control system for the Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} source test facility Allison scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C. D.; Stockli, M. P.; Gorlov, T. V.; Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.

    2010-02-15

    Spallation Neutron Source is currently in progress of a multiyear plan to ramp ion beam power to the initial design power of 1.4 MW. Key to reaching this goal is understanding and improving the operation of the H{sup -} ion source. An Allison scanner was installed on the ion source in the test facility to support this improvement. This paper will discuss the hardware and the software control system of the installed Allison scanner. The hardware for the system consists of several parts. The heart of the system is the scanner head, complete with associated bias plates, slits, and signal detector. There are two analog controlled high voltage power supplies to bias the plates in the head, and a motor with associated controller to position the head in the beam. A multifunction data acquisition card reads the signals from the signal detector, as well as supplies the analog voltage control for the power supplies. To synchronize data acquisition with the source, the same timing signal that is used to trigger the source itself is used to trigger data acquisition. Finally, there is an industrial personal computer to control the rest of the hardware. Control software was developed using National Instruments LABVIEW, and consists of two parts: a data acquisition program to control the hardware and a stand alone application for offline user data analysis.

  6. Control System for the SNS H- Source Test Stand Allison Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Cary D; Stockli, Martin P; Gorlov, Timofey V; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Murray Jr, S N

    2010-01-01

    SNS is currently in progress of a multi-year plan to ramp ion beam power to the initial design power of 1.4 MW. Key to reaching this goal is understanding and improving the operation of the H- ion source. An Allison scanner was installed on the ion source test stand to support this improvement. This paper will discuss the hardware and the software control system of the installed Allison scanner. The hardware for the system consists of several parts. The heart of the system is the scanner head, complete with associated bias plates, slits, and signal detector. There are two analog controlled high voltage power supplies to bias the plates in the head, and a motor with associated controller to position the head in the beam. A multifunction data acquisition card reads the signals from the signal detector, as well as supplying the analog voltage control for the power supplies. To synchronize data acquisition with the source, the same timing signal that is used to trigger the source itself is used to trigger data acquisition. Finally, there is an industrial PC to control the rest of the hardware. Control software was developed using National Instruments LabVIEW, and consists of two parts, a data acquisition program to control the hardware, and a stand alone application for offline user data analysis.

  7. THE ALLISON UNIT CO{sub 2}-ECBM PILOT: A RESERVOIR MODELING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; Anne Taillefert; Larry Pekot; Chris Clarkson

    2003-02-01

    In October, 2000, the United States Department of Energy, through contractor Advanced Resources International (ARI), launched a multi-year government-industry research & development collaboration called the Coal-Seq project. The Coal-Seq project is investigating the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams by performing detailed reservoir studies of two enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery field projects in the San Juan basin. The two sites are the Allison Unit, operated by Burlington Resources, and into which CO{sub 2} is being injected, and the Tiffany Unit, operating by BP America, into which nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is being injected (the interest in understanding the N{sub 2}-ECBM process has important implications for CO{sub 2} sequestration via flue-gas injection). The purposes of the field studies are to understand the reservoir mechanisms of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} injection into coalseams, demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the ECBM and sequestration processes, demonstrate an engineering capability to model them, and to evaluate sequestration economics. In support of these efforts, laboratory and theoretical studies are also being performed to understand and model multicomponent isotherm behavior, and coal permeability changes due to swelling with CO{sub 2} injection. This report describes the results of an important component of the overall project, the Allison Unit reservoir study. The Allison Unit is located in the northern New Mexico portion of the prolific San Juan basin. The study area consists of 16 methane production wells, 4 CO{sub 2} injection wells, and one pressure observation well. The field originally began production in July 1989, and CO{sub 2} injection operations for ECBM purposes commenced in April, 1995. CO{sub 2} injection was suspended in August, 2001, to evaluate the results of the pilot. In this study, a detailed reservoir characterization of the field was developed, the field

  8. Automatic Assessment of Acquisition and Transmission Losses in Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, D.; Purna Kumari, B.; Manju Sarma, M.; Aparna, N.; Gopal Krishna, B.

    2016-06-01

    The quality of Remote Sensing data is an important parameter that defines the extent of its usability in various applications. The data from Remote Sensing satellites is received as raw data frames at the ground station. This data may be corrupted with data losses due to interferences during data transmission, data acquisition and sensor anomalies. Thus it is important to assess the quality of the raw data before product generation for early anomaly detection, faster corrective actions and product rejection minimization. Manual screening of raw images is a time consuming process and not very accurate. In this paper, an automated process for identification and quantification of losses in raw data like pixel drop out, line loss and data loss due to sensor anomalies is discussed. Quality assessment of raw scenes based on these losses is also explained. This process is introduced in the data pre-processing stage and gives crucial data quality information to users at the time of browsing data for product ordering. It has also improved the product generation workflow by enabling faster and more accurate quality estimation.

  9. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  10. Natural Hazard Problem and Solution Definition in the News Media: the Case of Tropical Storm Allison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric; Mosher-Howe, Katrina

    2010-05-01

    Focusing events such as natural or technological disasters can have significant impacts on public policy and planning in both the near and long term. These impacts can manifest at different temporal scales ranging from the period of immediate attention and disaster relief through the period of recovery and reconstruction and beyond. These impacts and associated decisions can be studied in retrospect and understood as not only short-term reactions, but as long-term components of subsequent natural hazard planning and public policy. By studying in detail how an event was defined, and the policy and planning alternatives that were raised or recommended in response to a disaster event, we can better understand the role that disaster-related focusing events play in the long-term evolution of a community's public policy, infrastructural planning efforts, and responses to natural disasters. This paper will use a focusing event framework to explore the local and regional policy impacts over time of a major urban flood in Houston, Texas, Tropical Storm Allison. Tropical Storm Allison (TSA), dropped 36 inches of rain on Houston over a period of four days in early June 2001, and was responsible for 22 deaths, 70,000 flood damaged homes, and 5 billion in damage to the region. The primary data source for this effort is a database of 500 articles from the major regional newspaper, the Houston Chronicle, over the period of 2001 through 2008. These articles were coded for multiple variables, including, cause, effect and impact (financial and social), blame, problem and solution definition and solution acceptance). This paper focuses primarily on the measures of problem definition (how was TSA, as an event, defined in the media, for example, as an act of God, or as a result of poor planning or decision making, etc), and on solution definition (what solutions were proposed to mitigate or adapt to future storms of this magnitude, how were they linked to the definition of the problem

  11. A turbo engine with automatic transmission? How to marry chemicomotion to the subtleties and robustness of life.

    PubMed

    Koefoed, Sarah; Otten, Marijke; Koebmann, Brian; Bruggeman, Frank; Bakker, Barbara; Snoep, Jacky; Krab, Klaas; van Spanning, Rob; van Verseveld, Henk; Jensen, Peter; Koster, Johanna; Westerhoff, Hans

    2002-09-10

    Most genomes are much more complex than required for the minimum chemistry of life. Evolution has selected sophistication more than life itself. Could this also apply to bioenergetics? We first examine mechanisms through which bioenergetics could deliver sophistication. We illustrate possible benefits of the turbo-charging of catabolic pathways, of loose coupling, low-gear catabolism, automatic transmission in energy coupling, and of homeostasis. Mechanisms for such phenomena may reside at the level of individual proton pumps, or consist of rerouting of electrons over parallel pathways. The mechanisms may be confined to preexisting components, or involve the plasticity of gene expression that is so characteristic of most living organisms. These possible benefits lead us to the conjecture that also bioenergetics has evolved more for sophistication than for necessity. We next discuss a hitherto unresolved enigma, i.e. that bioenergetics does not seem to be critical for the physiological state. To decide on how critical bioenergetics is, we quantified the control exerted by catabolism on important physiological functions such as growth rate and growth yield. We also determined whether a growth inhibition mostly affected bioenergetics (catabolism) or anabolism; if ATP increases with growth rate, then growth should be considered energy (catabolism) limited. The experimental results for Escherichia coli pinpoint the enigma: its energy metabolism (catabolism) is not critical for growth rate. These results might suggest that because it has no direct control over cell function, bioenergetics is unimportant. Paradoxically however, in biology, highly important mechanisms tend to have little control on cell function, precisely because of that importance. Sophistication in terms of homeostatic mechanisms has evolved to guarantee robustness of the most important functions: The most important mechanisms are redundant in biology. Bioenergetics may be an excellent example of this

  12. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  13. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  14. Erosion Coatings for High-Temperature Polymer Composites: A Collaborative Project With Allison Advanced Development Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    2000-01-01

    composite (ASTM D 4541 95 "Pull Off Strength of Coatings"). Glenn and Allison Advanced Development Company collaborated to optimize erosion coatings for gas turbine fan and compressor applications. All the coating systems survived aggressive thermal cycling without spalling. During erosion tests (see the final photo), the most promising coating systems tested had Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co as the hard topcoats. In all cases, these coating systems performed significantly better than that with a TiN hard topcoat. When material depth (thickness) loss is considered, the Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co coating systems provided, on average, an erosion resistance 8.5 times greater than that for the uncoated PMR 15/T650 35 composite. Similarly, Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co coating systems adhered to the PMC substrate during tensile tests significantly better than systems containing a TiN topcoat. Differences in topcoats of Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co were determined by considering issues such as cost and environmental impact. The preferred erosion-resistant coating system for PMR 15/T650 35 has WC-Co as the hard topcoat. This system provides the following benefits in comparison to the coating system with Cr3C2-NiCr topcoat: lower powder material cost (15 to 20 percent), environmentally friendly materials (Cr3C2-NiCr is hazardous), and higher deposition yield (10 to 15 percent), which results in less waste.

  15. Rolling-element fatigue life with traction fluids and automatic transmission fluid in a high-speed rolling-contact rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Nahm, A. H.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rolling-element fatigue tests were run in standard and high-speed rolling-contact rigs at bar speeds from 5000 to 50,000 rpm to determine the effects of speed and lubricant film parameter on rolling-element fatigue life. AISI 52100 test bars were tested at a maximum Hertz stress of 4.83 GPa (700,000 psi) with three traction fluids and an automatic transmission fluid. Rolling-element fatigue life increased with speed, with the greatest increases occurring from 10,000 to 50,000 rpm. The life data tended to follow published life-versus-lubricant-film-parameter data up to a film parameter of approximately 3.

  16. Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Ewoldt, Randy H; Long, John H

    2016-09-15

    During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we cyclically bent isolated segments of 10 vertebrae and nine joints. For the first time in the biomechanics of fish vertebral columns, we simultaneously characterized non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation, extending recently proposed techniques for large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization to large-amplitude oscillatory bending (LAOB). The vertebral column segments behave as non-linear viscoelastic springs. Elastic properties dominate for all frequencies and curvatures tested, increasing as either variable increases. Non-linearities within a bending cycle are most in evidence at the highest frequency, 2.0 Hz, and curvature, 5 m(-1) Viscous bending properties are greatest at low frequencies and high curvatures, with non-linear effects occurring at all frequencies and curvatures. The range of mechanical behaviors includes that of springs and brakes, with smooth transitions between them that allow for continuously variable power transmission by the vertebral column to assist in the mechanics of undulatory propulsion.

  17. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  18. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  19. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  20. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  1. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  2. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  3. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  4. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  5. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  6. Planetary gear train for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-03-31

    A planetary gear train is described comprising: a first planetary gear set having rotary elements including a first sun gear, a first ring gear and a first pinion carrier rotatably supporting a plurality of first pinions meshing with the first sun gear and the first ring gear; a second planetary gear set having rotary elements including a second sun gear, a second ring gear and a second pinion carrier rotatably supporting a plurality of second pinions meshing with the second sun gear and the second ring gear; an input shaft drivingly-connected with the first ring gear; an output shaft; first drive connection establishing means for connecting the second ring gear with the output shaft; the first drive connection establishing means comprising: a third planetary gear set including a third sun gear constantly connected with the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and a third pinion carrier constantly connected with the output shaft. The third pinion carrier rotatably supports third pinions meshing with the third sun and ring gears.

  7. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  8. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  9. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  10. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  11. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  12. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  13. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  14. Performance of Allison Model 400-C6 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. I; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Compressor at Equivalent Impeller Speeds of 6000, 7000, and 8500 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Karl; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    The Allison model 400-C6 compressor was operated at an inlet pressure of 12 inches of mercury absolute ana ambient inlet temperature at equivalent impeller speeds of 6000, 7000, and 8500 rpm. Additional runs at an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm and ambient inlet temperature were made at inlet pressures from 7 to 22 inches of mercury absolute. The results of this investigation are compared with those of the 533-A-23 compressors. For the speeds investigated, the Allison model 400-C6 compressor had a maximum adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.768 at an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm; the corresponding equivalent weight flow was 45.0 pounds per second and the pressure ratio was 1.83. At an equivalent impeller speed of 8500 rpm, the maximum equivalent weight flow was 61.6 pounds per second and the peak pressure ratio of 2.38 occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 52.2 pounds per 1 second and an adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.714. At an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm, increasing the compressor- inlet pressure increased the maximum equivalent weight flow and the pressure ratio.

  15. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  16. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  17. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  18. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall...

  19. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  20. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  1. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  2. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  3. [Study on a wireless energy transmission system for the noninvasive examination micro system inside alimentary tracts].

    PubMed

    He, Xiu; Yan, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Fu-Min

    2008-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system for the MEMS system inside alimentary tracts is reported here in the paper. It consists of an automatic frequency tracking circuit of phase lock loop and phase shift PWM control circuit. Experimental results show that the energy transmission system is capable of automatic frequency-tracking and transmission power-adjusting and has stable received energy.

  4. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  5. Assessment of the value of microgravity to estimate the principal directions of the anisotropic transmissivity of aquifers from pumping tests: A study using a Hough transform based automatic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; González-Quirós, Andrés; Rubio-Melendi, David

    2016-11-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic parameters of an aquifer is usually performed via interpretation of pumping tests. This invasive method requires drilling both pumping and observation wells. As the process is expensive, only a single pumping well and one or two observation wells or piezometers are generally drilled, at most. The interpretation is done assuming aquifer isotropy and homogeneity. However, in many aquifers, horizontal anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity greatly affects the flow regime. Its disregard may lead to important misinterpretations, especially for environmental impact assessments. This paper studies the capabilities of gravity for the identification and determination of the principal directions of anisotropy. This has been automatized using a methodology based on the Hough Transform. The results show how a microgravity survey could be an adequate and relatively cheap monitoring tool for the identification of anisotropy. This is valuable information that can be used in the decision making process for performing or discarding additional studies. Even more, the presented methodology can be extended to other studies in which contour maps are used to identify directionality in any process or property.

  6. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  7. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  8. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  9. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  10. Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Miller, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Error detection incorporated with automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) is widely used for error control in data communication systems. This method of error control is simple and provides high system reliability. If a properly chosen code is used for error detection, virtually error-free data transmission can be attained. Various types of ARQ and hybrid ARQ schemes, and error detection using linear block codes are surveyed.

  11. How automatic is manual gear shifting?

    PubMed

    Shinar, D; Meir, M; Ben-Shoham, I

    1998-12-01

    Manual gear shifting is often used as an example of an automated (vs. controlled) process in driving. The present study provided an empirical evaluation of this assumption by evaluating sign detection and recall performance of novice and experienced drivers driving manual shift and automatic transmission cars in a downtown area requiring frequent gear shifting. The results showed that manual gear shifting significantly impaired sign detection performance of novice drivers using manual gears compared with novice drivers using an automatic transmission, whereas no such differences existed between the two transmission types for experienced drivers. The results clearly demonstrate that manual gear shifting is a complex psychomotor skill that is not easily (or quickly) automated and that until it becomes automated, it is an attention-demanding task that may impair other monitoring aspects of driving performance. Actual or potential applications of this research include a reevaluation of the learning process in driving and the need for phased instruction in driving from automatic gears to manual gears.

  12. Automated manual transmission mode selection controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.

    1999-11-09

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  13. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  14. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  15. Automatic wire twister.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Rodeheaver, G T; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; Chang, D E; Fariss, B L; Edlich, R F

    1988-06-01

    This automatic wire twister used in surgery consists of a 6-inch needle holder attached to a twisting mechanism. The major advantage of this device is that it twists wires significantly more rapidly than the conventional manual techniques. Testing has found that the ultimate force required to disrupt the wires twisted by either the automatic wire twister or manual techniques did not differ significantly and was directly related to the number of twists. The automatic wire twister reduces the time needed for wire twisting without altering the security of the twisted wire.

  16. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  17. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  18. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  19. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  20. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Q&As on Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other African Countries Partnering with West African Communities Call CDC's Role Photos From the Field CDC Responder Stories Allison Friedman Gary Cobb, Arthur Hudson, and Drenda Morrissette John Saindon and Brian Bird Karen Wong Angela Dunn Brant Goode CDC In ...

  1. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  2. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  3. DOE/Allison ceramic vane effort

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.; Browning, W.; Calcuttawala, S.

    1995-10-01

    An objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to develop ultra-high efficiency gas turbine systems. Rotor inlet temperatures several hundred degrees greater than for the highest temperature current industrial engines will be required to meet the ATS objectives. Consequently, new technologies need to be developed and demonstrated to achieve the required ultra-high ATS efficiencies.

  4. Allison engine ATS program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Mukavetz, D.

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines in industrial and utility applications can help meet future national and worldwide power generation requirements. Turbine systems burning natural gas offer environmentally sound and economical power generation and cogeneration. Since U.S. demand alone will require up to 15 gigawatts per year of new and replacement capacity after the year 2000, the availability of Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) to fill a share of this need will save significant amounts of fuel and benefit the environment. Implementation of the ATS Program will also keep U.S. manufacturers on the cutting ledge of turbine technology for power generation applications and enhance the nation`s economic competitiveness.

  5. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  6. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  7. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  8. Automatic Language Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    the speech utterance is hypothesized. ter performance for his HMM approach than his static ap- Finally, Thyme -Gobbel et al. [47] have also looked...1998. [47] A.E. Thyme -Gobbel and S.E. Hutchins. On using prosodic cues in automatic language identification. In International Conference on Spoken

  9. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  10. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  11. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  12. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be... integrated into the uplink transmitter chain in a method that cannot easily be defeated. (c) The ATIS...

  13. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  14. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  15. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  16. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  17. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  18. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  19. Automatic Assessment of the Quality of Group 3 Facsimile Transmission.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    progressive de toutes les applications suppose la creation d’un support comm’un pour toutes lea Wnormations. tine v~ritable " Banque de donn~es". r...v-6ritable " Banque de donn~es", r~partie sur des rnnypuis de traitement nationaux et r~gianaux. et qui devra rester alimentt~e, mise A jour en perma...uf-an 4"-9 tI cs6 so d’auwjw w ’s em weruo 0 ft. IsN lign retard est. dQoticW 9-!-: -w. A cd upti Is fgure 2 reprilinnte Is wuic courbe dourAMa 14

  20. Automatic Alignment Fiber Optic Coupling System for Optimal Signal Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Devices Packaging,” Proc. of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics , July 10-12, Taiwan, 2005. [3] C.L. Chang, C.Y. Tseng, and J.P...Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, June 25-28, China, 2006. 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-01-0188

  1. Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan

    2017-03-01

    Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.

  2. Transmission shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a mechanism for selecting the gear of an automatic transmission in a vehicle. The mechanism consists of: a pressure source; a gear selection valve having an inlet means for receiving fluid from the pressure source, first outlet ports, and second outlet ports; a manual override means for opening and blocking communication between the pressure source and the first ports and for simultaneously opening and blocking communication between the pressure source and the second outlet ports; a port selector means within the valve for controlling flow through the second ports, the port selector means being movable to a plurality of positions, each position permitting a selected second outlet port to open; a selector control mans for moving the port selector means from one position to another, the selector control means including a planetary gear set connected by an input shaft to the transmission and connected to a vehicle load by an output shaft, the planetary gear set having a ring gear whose angular position is a function of reaction torque imposed by the load on the output shaft, the selector control means further including an arm assembly connected between the ring gear and the port selector means so that the position of the port selector means is a function of the reaction torque on the output shaft.

  3. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  4. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  5. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  6. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  7. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  8. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  9. Automatic Retinal Oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldorsson, G. H.; Karlsson, R. A.; Hardarson, S. H.; Mura, M. Dalla; Eysteinsson, T.; Beach, J. M.; Stefansson, E.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a method for automating the evaluation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the retina. This method should prove useful for monitoring ischemic retinal diseases and the effect of treatment. In order to obtain saturation values automatically, spectral images must be registered in pairs, the vessels of the retina located and measurement points must be selected. The registration algorithm is based on a data driven approach that circumvents many of the problems that have plagued previous methods. The vessels are extracted using an algorithm based on morphological profiles and supervised classifiers. Measurement points on retinal arterioles and venules as well as reference points on the adjacent fundus are automatically selected. Oxygen saturation values along vessels are averaged to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the retinal vessel oxygen saturation. The system yields reproducible results as well as being sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation.

  10. Automatic Word Alignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    strategy was evalu­ ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  11. Automatic Test Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    Search Terms Automatic Test Equipment Frequency Analyzers Oscilloscopes Pulse Analyzers Signal Generators "Etc." Third Level Search Guided...VAST Building Block Equipment RF Test Point Control Switch Digital Multimeter Frequency and Time Interval Meter Digital Word Generator Delay...Generator RF Amplifier, 95 Hz-2 GHz RF Amplifier, 2-4 GHz RF Amplifier, 4-8 GHz RF Amplifier, 8-12.2 GHz Signal Generator, 0.1 Hz-50 kHz

  12. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  13. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  14. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  15. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  16. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  17. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  18. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  19. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  20. Overdrive transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

  1. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  2. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  3. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  4. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  5. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  6. Transmission of digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

  7. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  8. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  9. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  10. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  11. An Automatic Meteorological Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    the measurement site. Not only the transmission depends on meteorological conditions, but also the thermal behaviour of materials. Solar heating for... pannel in the power supply box. 0 0 FUSE 0 0 0 0 220-MAINS 0 PIR S-NETr AMRP CM1 1 0 0/1 o 0 0 0 220-T+RH PRECIP WIND.DIR T+RH WIND.SP.Q Fa.4.1 Lay-u co...ectr pannel in pow mipply box TNOMW The codes on the cables consist of two parts. The first parn indicates the sga flow, the second part describes

  12. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  13. Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Akashi, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio. A first synchronizer connects the input shaft and the output shaft via a series connection of the first on-off clutch, the first one way clutch, and the first gear train when the first synchronizer is shifted to a first side of a neutral position thereof so as to transmit rotational power from the input shaft to the output shaft in a normal rotational direction at a first speed stage and which connects the input shaft and the output shaft via series connection of the first on-off clutch.

  14. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  15. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  16. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  17. Automatic Chloroplast Movement Analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Zeidler, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at the upper and lower sides or along the side walls of the cell respectively. This movement, regulated by the phototropin blue light photoreceptors phot1 and phot2, results in a decreased or increased transmission of light through the leaf. This way the plant is able to optimize harvesting of the incoming light or avoid damage caused by excess light. Here we describe a method that indirectly measures the movement of chloroplasts by taking advantage of the resulting change in leaf transmittance. By using a microplate reader, quantitative measurements of chloroplast accumulation or avoidance can be monitored over time, for multiple samples with relatively little hands-on time.

  18. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  19. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  20. Automatic pump for deep wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1981-11-24

    An automatic pump for deep wells comprises a long stroke reciprocating pump having its piston normally in its bottom position and an automatic control dependent upon the collection of a predetermined amount of liquid in the pump cylinder above the piston for actuating the piston to pump the liquid into a production line. The automatic control includes an electric motor driven hydraulic pump and a reservoir of hydraulic fluid which is actuated upon filling of the reciprocating pump chamber to supply hydraulic fluid to a closed chamber below the piston and force the piston upwardly to discharge liquid from the pump cylinder. Gas collected in the top of the pump cylinder results in low starting current and a saving of energy. The hydraulic pump is reversed automatically upon completion of the pumping stroke of the piston.

  1. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)

  2. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  3. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  4. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  5. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  6. 12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic membership. 925.4 Section 925.4 Banks... MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 925.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership... between the member and the Bank at the time of such conversion may continue. (b) Automatic membership...

  7. Measurement of Transmission Error Including Backlash in Angle Transmission Mechanisms for Mechatronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Aiguo; Kajitani, Makoto; Kanamori, Chisato; Ishikawa, Jiro

    The characteristics of angle transmission mechanisms exert a great influence on the servo performance in the robotic or mechatronic mechanism. Especially, the backlash of angle transmission mechanism is preferable the small amount. Recently, some new types of gear reducers with non-backlash have been developed for robots. However, the measurement and evaluation method of the backlash of gear trains has not been considered except old methods which can statically measure at only several meshing points of gears. This paper proposes an overall performance testing method of angle transmission mechanisms for the mechatronic systems. This method can measure the angle transmission error both clockwise and counterclockwise. In addition the backlash can be continuously measured in all meshing positions automatically. This system has been applied to the testing process in the production line of gear reducers for robots, and it has been effective for reducing the backlash of the gear trains.

  8. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  9. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOEpatents

    Nambu, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  10. Apparatus for monitoring the condition of mining machinery transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levites, I. A.; Fiks, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    A portable apparatus is reported for measuring vibro-acoustic signals of mining machine transmissions for analysis of vibration levels and for damage detection. An automatic recording device connected to the detection channels permits measurments of the overall level of vibroacceleration as well as of the level in octave bands.

  11. Apparatus for controlling transmission gear shift selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.M.

    1986-07-29

    In an automotive engine having an electrical power source and an automatic or semi-automatic transmission including a manually operated transmission gear shift lever having at least two forward drive positions, an apparatus is described which consists of: (a) a speed sensing means for sensing the rotation speed of the engine and generating an output signal when the engine reaches a preselected rotational speed; and (b) a gear shifting means for changing the shift positions of the gear shift lever from a first drive position to a second drive position automatically in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, the gear shifting means including (i) a latch actuable between open and closed positions, (ii) a normally de-energized solenoid having a plunger connected to the latch and operable to move the latch to the open position when the solenoid is energized by the electrical power source, (iii) a relay means for allowing the energizing of the solenoid by the power source in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, and (iv) an actuating means, including a spring biased linkage mechanism operably connected to the gear shift lever and the latch, for actuating the movement of the gear shift lever from the first drive position to the second drive position in response to movement of the latch from the closed to the open position, thereby causing gear shifting to occur when the engine reaches the preselected rotational speed.

  12. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  13. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  14. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  15. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  16. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  17. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  18. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  19. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  20. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  1. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  2. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  3. Automatic calculation in quarkonium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, an automatic calculating package based on REDUCE and RLISP, FDC, is introduced, especially its one-loop calculation part and its special treatment for quarkonium physics. With FDC, many works have been completed, most of them are very important in solve/clarify current puzzles in quarkonium physics.

  4. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  5. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... 1 page] Portuguese [PDF - 1 page] Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  6. Manual and Automatic Lineament Mapping: Comparing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, D. A.; di Achille, G.; Barata, M. T.; Alves, E. I.

    2008-03-01

    A method for automatic lineament extraction using topographic data is applied on the Thaumasia plateau. A comparison is made between the results that are obtained from the automatic mapping approach and from a traditional tectonic lineament mapping.

  7. The processing and transmission of EEG data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Interest in sleep research was stimulated by the discovery of a number of physiological changes that occur during sleep and by the observed effects of sleep on physical and mental performance and status. The use of the relatively new methods of EEG measurement, transmission, and automatic scoring makes sleep analysis and categorization feasible. Sleep research involving the use of the EEG as a fundamental input has the potential of answering many unanswered questions involving physical and mental behavior, drug effects, circadian rhythm, and anesthesia.

  8. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  9. 8 CFR 1205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 1205.1 Section 1205.1... REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 1205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition or self-petition made under section 204 of the Act and in...

  10. 8 CFR 205.1 - Automatic revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic revocation. 205.1 Section 205.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVOCATION OF APPROVAL OF PETITIONS § 205.1 Automatic revocation. (a) Reasons for automatic revocation. The approval of a petition...

  11. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  12. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  13. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  14. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  15. Adding Automatic Evaluation to Interactive Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farias, Gonzalo; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Gómez-Estern, Fabio; De la Torre, Luis; Sánchez, Carlos; Dormido, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Automatic evaluation is a challenging field that has been addressed by the academic community in order to reduce the assessment workload. In this work we present a new element for the authoring tool Easy Java Simulations (EJS). This element, which is named automatic evaluation element (AEE), provides automatic evaluation to virtual and remote…

  16. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  17. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  18. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  19. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  20. Automatically scramming nuclear reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2004-10-12

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  1. Reflection-transmission photoellipsometry: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bader, G; Ashrit, P V; Girouard, F E; Truong, V V

    1995-04-01

    We propose a method that uses reflection and transmission photoellipsometry to analyze samples consisting of thin films combined with semitransparent thick layers or substrates in the form of multilayer structures. Athick film or substrate is defined as a layer for which no interference effects can be observed for a given wavelength resolution, and contributions from multiple reflections in the substrate are taken into account in the theoretical treatment. An automatic reflection-transmission spectroscopic ellipsometer was built to test the theory, and satisfactory results have been obtained. Examples corresponding to a strongly absorbing film deposited on a glass substrate and a highly transmitting film also deposited on glass are shown. In both cases a good fit between theory and experiment is found. The photoellipsometric method presented is particularly suited to the analysis of actual samples of energy-efficient coatings for windows.

  2. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  3. How CBO Estimates Automatic Stabilizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Pamela Green , Kurt Seibert, Joshua Shakin, and Robert Stewart for technical assistance. The authors also thank Leah Loversky for outstanding research...ANSI Std Z39-18 Abstract Federal receipts and outlays regularly respond to cyclical movements in the economy. When the economy is operating...Those “automatic stabilizers” thus tend to dampen the size of cyclical movements in the economy, by supporting or restraining private spending. (The

  4. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  5. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  6. Attention, Automaticity and Priority Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    paradiams is taken to indicate that processing remains under attentional control. This paper proposes a priority learning mechanism to model the...effects of practice and the development of automaticity, in visual search tasks. A connectionist simulation model implements this learning algorithm. Five...reliable finding from varied mapping studies is proposes a priority learning mechanism to model the effects of that reaction time increases roughly

  7. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  8. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  9. Automatic noise limiter-blanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A blanker system that may be used with audio noise limiters or automatic noise limiters was described. The system employs a pair of silicon diodes and two RC filters connected across the feedback impedance of an operational amplifier so as to counteract impulse noise interference caused by local spherics activity or 60 Hz harmonics radiated from ac motor control systems. The following information is given: circuit diagram and description, operating details, evaluation, discussion of other noise blanking methods.

  10. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  11. Automatic Synthesis Imaging with Difmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Shepherd, M. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Myers, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    Difmap is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, self-calibration, imaging, deconvolution, and model-fitting. The program can handle continuum, spectral-line, and polarization data from connected-element and very-long-baseline interferometer arrays. The program is written in ANSI C and runs on UNIX workstations. We describe the operation of the program with example data sets from the Very Large Array, the global VLBI network, and the Owens Valley Millimeter Array. We have developed Difmap scripts for automatic mapping and self-calibration of both VLA and VLBI data. We describe the strategies adopted for choosing the imaging, deconvolution, and self-calibration parameters, and show how these automatic scripts have made possible the rapid imaging of several hundred sources in the Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys (CJ1 and CJ2) and several thousand sources in a VLA search for gravitational lenses (CLASS). Other images made with automatic mapping in Difmap are presented at this meeting by Fassnacht et al., Myers et al., and Taylor et al.

  12. Automatic tracking sensor camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takao; Kato, Daiichiro; Ishikawa, Akio; Inoue, Seiki

    2001-04-01

    We are developing a sensor camera system for automatically tracking and determining the positions of subjects moving in three-dimensions. The system is intended to operate even within areas as large as soccer fields. The system measures the 3D coordinates of the object while driving the pan and tilt movements of camera heads, and the degree of zoom of the lenses. Its principal feature is that it automatically zooms in as the object moves farther away and out as the object moves closer. This maintains the area of the object as a fixed position of the image. This feature makes stable detection by the image processing possible. We are planning to use the system to detect the position of a soccer ball during a soccer game. In this paper, we describe the configuration of the developing automatic tracking sensor camera system. We then give an analysis of the movements of the ball within images of games, the results of experiments on method of image processing used to detect the ball, and the results of other experiments to verify the accuracy of an experimental system. These results show that the system is sufficiently accurate in terms of obtaining positions in three-dimensions.

  13. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  16. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  17. Automatic view synthesis by image-domain-warping.

    PubMed

    Stefanoski, Nikolce; Wang, Oliver; Lang, Manuel; Greisen, Pierre; Heinzle, Simon; Smolic, Aljosa

    2013-09-01

    Today, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is already mainstream, and almost all new display devices for the home support S3D content. S3D distribution infrastructure to the home is already established partly in the form of 3D Blu-ray discs, video on demand services, or television channels. The necessity to wear glasses is, however, often considered as an obstacle, which hinders broader acceptance of this technology in the home. Multiviewautostereoscopic displays enable a glasses free perception of S3D content for several observers simultaneously, and support head motion parallax in a limited range. To support multiviewautostereoscopic displays in an already established S3D distribution infrastructure, a synthesis of new views from S3D video is needed. In this paper, a view synthesis method based on image-domain-warping (IDW) is presented that automatically synthesizes new views directly from S3D video and functions completely. IDW relies on an automatic and robust estimation of sparse disparities and image saliency information, and enforces target disparities in synthesized images using an image warping framework. Two configurations of the view synthesizer in the scope of a transmission and view synthesis framework are analyzed and evaluated. A transmission and view synthesis system that uses IDW is recently submitted to MPEG's call for proposals on 3D video technology, where it is ranked among the four best performing proposals.

  18. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  19. The Automaticity of Social Life

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  20. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  3. The effect of mismatched recording conditions on human and automatic speaker recognition in forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Alexander, A; Botti, F; Dessimoz, D; Drygajlo, A

    2004-12-02

    In this paper, we analyse mismatched technical conditions in training and testing phases of speaker recognition and their effect on forensic human and automatic speaker recognition. We use perceptual tests performed by non-experts and compare their performance with that of a baseline automatic speaker recognition system. The degradation of the accuracy of human recognition in mismatched recording conditions is contrasted with that of the automatic system under similar recording conditions. The conditions considered are of public switched telephone network (PSTN) and global system for mobile communications (GSM) transmission and background noise. The perceptual cues that the human subjects use to perceive differences in voices are studied along with their importance in different conditions. We discuss the possibility of increasing the accuracy of automatic systems using the perceptual cues that remain robust to mismatched conditions. We estimate the strength of evidence for both humans and automatic systems, calculating likelihood ratios using the perceptual scores for humans and the log-likelihood scores for automatic systems.

  4. Edge Detection and Shape Recognition in Neutron Transmission Images

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, Eric D; McConchie, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements are a valuable tool for nondestructively imaging special nuclear materials. Analysis of these images, however, tends to require significant user interaction to determine the sizes, shapes, and likely compositions of measured objects. Computer vision (CV) techniques can be a useful approach to automatically extracting important information from either neutron transmission images or fission-site-mapping images. An automatable approach has been developed that processes an input image and, through recursive application of CV techniques, produces a set of basic shapes that define surfaces observed in the image. These shapes can then be compared to a library of known shape configurations to determine if the measured object matches its expected configuration, as could be done behind an information barrier for arms control treaty verification inspections.

  5. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  6. Automatic interpretation of digital maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Volker; Luo, Fen

    In the past, the availability and/or the acquisition of spatial data were often the main problems of the realization of spatial applications. Meanwhile this situation has changed: on one hand, comprehensive spatial datasets already exist and on the other hand, new sensor technologies have the ability to capture fast and with high quality large amounts of spatial data. More and more responsible for the increasing accessibility of spatial data are also collaborative mapping techniques which enable users to create maps by themselves and to make them available in the internet. However, the potential of this diversity of spatial data can only hardly be utilized. Especially maps in the internet are represented very often only with graphical elements and no explicit information about the map's scale, extension and content is available. Nevertheless, humans are able to extract this information and to interpret maps. For example, it is possible for a human to distinguish between rural and industrial areas only by looking at the objects' geometries. Furthermore, a human can easily identify and group map objects that belong together. Also the type, scale and extension of a map can be identified under certain conditions only by looking at the objects' geometries. All these examples can be subsumed under the term "map interpretation". In this paper it is discussed how map interpretation can be automated and how automatic map interpretation can be used in order to support other processes. The different kinds of automatic map interpretation are discussed and two approaches are shown in detail.

  7. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ΔE=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 μm and 189+/-34 μm, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  8. Automatic precision measurement of spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B A; Sansonetti, C J; Andrew, K L

    1978-08-01

    A fully automatic comparator has been designed and implemented to determine precision wavelengths from high-resolution spectrograms. The accuracy attained is superior to that of an experienced operator using a semiautomatic comparator with a photoelectric setting device. The system consists of a comparator, slightly modified for simultaneous data acquisition from two parallel scans of the spectrogram, interfaced to a minicomputer. The software which controls the system embodies three innovations of special interest. (1) Data acquired from two parallel scans are compared and used to separate unknown from standard lines, to eliminate spurious lines, to identify blends of unknown with standard lines, to improve the accuracy of the measured positions, and to flag lines which require special examination. (2) Two classes of lines are automatically recognized and appropriate line finding methods are applied to each. This provides precision measurement for both simple and complex line profiles. (3) Wavelength determination using a least-squares fitted grating equation is supported in addition to polynomial interpolation. This is most useful in spectral regions with sparsely distributed standards. The principles and implementation of these techniques are fully described.

  9. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  10. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ΔE=273 J mol(-1) and A=3 x 10(44) s(-1). Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162 ± 34 μm and 189 ± 34 μm, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  11. Automatic testing of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Speech reception tests are commonly administered by manually scoring the oral response of the subject. This requires a test supervisor to be continuously present. To avoid this, a subject can type the response, after which it can be scored automatically. However, spelling errors may then be counted as recognition errors, influencing the test results. We demonstrate an autocorrection approach based on two scoring algorithms to cope with spelling errors. The first algorithm deals with sentences and is based on word scores. The second algorithm deals with single words and is based on phoneme scores. Both algorithms were evaluated with a corpus of typed answers based on three different Dutch speech materials. The percentage of differences between automatic and manual scoring was determined, in addition to the mean difference in speech recognition threshold. The sentence correction algorithm performed at a higher accuracy than commonly obtained with these speech materials. The word correction algorithm performed better than the human operator. Both algorithms can be used in practice and allow speech reception tests with open set speech materials over the internet.

  12. Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane P

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.

  13. Automatic visible watermarking of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. Ravishankar; Braudaway, Gordon W.; Mintzer, Frederick C.

    1998-04-01

    Visible image watermarking has become an important and widely used technique to identify ownership and protect copyrights to images. A visible image watermark immediately identifies the owner of an image, and if properly constructed, can deter subsequent unscrupulous use of the image. The insertion of a visible watermark should satisfy two conflicting conditions: the intensity of the watermark should be strong enough to be perceptible, yet it should be light enough to be unobtrusive and not mar the beauty of the original image. Typically such an adjustment is made manually, and human intervention is required to set the intensity of the watermark at the right level. This is fine for a few images, but is unsuitable for a large collection of images. Thus, it is desirable to have a technique to automatically adjust the intensity of the watermark based on some underlying property of each image. This will allow a large number of images to be automatically watermarked, this increasing the throughput of the watermarking stage. In this paper we show that the measurement of image texture can be successfully used to automate the adjustment of watermark intensity. A linear regression model is used to predict subjective assessments of correct watermark intensity based on image texture measurements.

  14. Global positioning automatic vehicle location system

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheofanis, B.J.; Hasenack, M.L.; Teller, R.T.; Ramsey, G.F.

    1997-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a unique facility covering over 43 square miles. The Emergency Management and Response Office (EM&R) is required to respond, provide Incident Command (IC), and coordination for all Laboratory emergencies. This requires IC`s and support staff to respond to the actual scene of the incident. Since the IC is under numerous constraints and stress, the office wanted the capability of locating the EM&R vehicles on an electronic map. An automated vehicle location (AVL) system was required for the additional safety of the emergency response personal. The requirements for the AVL system include total automatic tracking and low cost. After careful consideration, it was determined that the most efficient and cost effective system would be based on packet radio technology as the transmission media. The location is determined by the Department of Defense Global Positioning System (GPS). The system that was designed and constructed required four components to be interfaced and communicate with each other. The first component was a GPS receiver which actually provides the location information, equipped with a digital interface to communicate location information remotely. The second component is a modem that interfaces the GPS digital interface information to a radio. The third component is the radio itself which allows for the actual information transfer from the remote GPS receiver and modem. The fourth component is the software package that provides moving maps and displays the vehicle location on that map. The equipment was all commercial off-the-shelf that only required proper integration and packaging for the AVL application. This paper describes the steps taken in the integration of the equipment into the AVL package.

  15. Neologistic speech automatisms during complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Bell, W L; Horner, J; Logue, P; Radtke, R A

    1990-01-01

    There are no documented cases of seizures causing reiterative neologistic speech automatisms. We report an 18-year-old right-handed woman with stereotypic ictal speech automatisms characterized by phonemic jargon and reiterative neologisms. Video-EEG during the reiterative neologisms demonstrated rhythmic delta activity, which was most prominent in the left posterior temporal region. At surgery, there was an arteriovenous malformation impinging on the left supramarginal gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus. Though intelligible speech automatisms can result from seizure foci in either hemisphere, neologistic speech automatisms may implicate a focus in the language-dominant hemisphere.

  16. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  17. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  18. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  19. Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

  20. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  1. Automatic inspection of leather surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Niel, Albert

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the key elements of a system for detecting quality defects on leather surfaces. The inspection task must treat defects like scars, mite nests, warts, open fissures, healed scars, holes, pin holes, and fat folds. The industrial detection of these defects is difficult because of the large dimensions of the leather hides (2 m X 3 m), and the small dimensions of the defects (150 micrometers X 150 micrometers ). Pattern recognition approaches suffer from the fact that defects are hidden on an irregularly textured background, and can be hardly seen visually by human graders. We describe the methods tested for automatic classification using image processing, which include preprocessing, local feature description of texture elements, and final segmentation and grading of defects. We conclude with a statistical evaluation of the recognition error rate, and an outlook on the expected industrial performance.

  2. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  3. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  4. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  5. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  6. Automatic AVHRR image navigation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Dan; Emery, William

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report describing the work done on the project entitled Automatic AVHRR Image Navigation Software funded through NASA-Washington, award NAGW-3224, Account 153-7529. At the onset of this project, we had developed image navigation software capable of producing geo-registered images from AVHRR data. The registrations were highly accurate but required a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's axes alignment deviations, commonly known as attitude. The three angles needed to describe the attitude are called roll, pitch, and yaw, and are the components of the deviations in the along scan, along track and about center directions. The inclusion of the attitude corrections in the navigation software results in highly accurate georegistrations, however, the computation of the angles is very tedious and involves human interpretation for several steps. The technique also requires easily identifiable ground features which may not be available due to cloud cover or for ocean data. The current project was motivated by the need for a navigation system which was automatic and did not require human intervention or ground control points. The first step in creating such a system must be the ability to parameterize the spacecraft's attitude. The immediate goal of this project was to study the attitude fluctuations and determine if they displayed any systematic behavior which could be modeled or parameterized. We chose a period in 1991-1992 to study the attitude of the NOAA 11 spacecraft using data from the Tiros receiving station at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamic Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado.

  7. Aided versus automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.; Brown, Jeff

    1997-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms have offered the promise of recognizing items of military importance over the past 20 years. It is the experience of the authors that greater ATR success would be possible if the ATR were used to 'aid' the human operator instead of automatically 'direct' the operator. ATRs have failed not due to their probability of detection versus false alarm rate, but to neglect of the human component. ATRs are designed to improve overall throughput by relieving the human operator of the need to perform repetitive tasks like scanning vast quantities of imagery for possible targets. ATRs are typically inserted prior to the operator and provide cues, which are then accepted or rejected. From our experience at three field exercises and a current operational deployment to the Bosnian theater, this is not the best way to get total system performance. The human operator makes decisions based on learning, history of past events, and surrounding contextual information. Loss of these factors by providing imagery, latent with symbolic cues on top of the original imagery, actually increases the workload of the operator. This paper covers the lessons learned from the field demonstrations and the operational deployment. The reconnaissance and intelligence community's primary use of an ATR should be to establish prioritized cues of potential targets for an operator to 'pull' from and to be able to 'send' targets identified by the operator for a 'second opinion.' The Army and Air Force are modifying their exploitation workstations over the next 18 months to use ATRs, which operate in this fashion. This will be the future architecture that ATRs for the reconnaissance and intelligence community should integrate into.

  8. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  9. Pregnancy & perinatal transmission update.

    PubMed

    Denison, R

    1998-09-01

    According to a June 1998 report from UNAIDS, the majority of children infected with HIV acquired it from their mothers during or near birth. One way to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV is to increase prevention efforts for women. Other ways to prevent perinatal transmission include using AZT treatment, avoiding breastfeeding, and choosing a C-section delivery instead of a vaginal delivery. One important study, called the Thai study, promoted a shorter course of AZT therapy that was less expensive, more accessible, and still prevented transmission in many cases. Several reasons are cited for why some women continue breastfeeding, despite the increased risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. An important factor in preventing perinatal transmission is the overall health of the mother, and her ability to maintain her health and treatment regimen while caring for a newborn.

  10. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  11. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  12. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  13. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  14. Pattern Recognition For Automatic Visual Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, K. S.

    1982-11-01

    Three major approaches to pattern recognition, (1) template matching, (2) decision-theoretic approach, and (3) structural and syntactic approach, are briefly introduced. The application of these approaches to automatic visual inspection of manufactured products are then reviewed. A more general method for automatic visual inspection of IC chips is then proposed. Several practical examples are included for illustration.

  15. Integrating Automatic Genre Analysis into Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauber, Andreas; Muller-Kogler, Alexander

    With the number and types of documents in digital library systems increasing, tools for automatically organizing and presenting the content have to be found. While many approaches focus on topic-based organization and structuring, hardly any system incorporates automatic structural analysis and representation. Yet, genre information…

  16. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  17. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  18. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  19. Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010388 TITLE: Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO10378 thru ADPO10397 UNCLASSIFIED 69 TOWARDS MULTILINGUAL INTEROPERABILITY IN AUTOMATIC SPEECH...communication, we address multilingual interoperability (DARPA) [39, 5, 12, 40, 14, 43]. aspects in speech recognition. After giving a tentative

  20. Prospects for Automatic Recognition of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houde, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper discusses problems with the development of technology permitting simultaneous automatic captioning of speech. It is concluded that success with a machine which will provide automatic recognition of speech is still many years in the future. (PHR)

  1. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic operations. 87.219 Section 87.219... Aeronautical Advisory Stations (Unicoms) § 87.219 Automatic operations. (a) A station operator need not be present when an automated unicom is in operation. (b) Unicoms operating in an automated mode must...

  2. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  3. An Experiment in Automatic Hierarchical Document Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathleen

    1983-01-01

    Describes method of automatic document classification in which documents classed as QA by Library of Congress classification system were clustered at six thresholds by keyword using single link technique. Automatically generated clusters were compared to Library of Congress subclasses, and partial classified hierarchy was formed. Twelve references…

  4. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  5. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1987-09-01

    A multistate transmission is described having an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears with planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the planetary gear train means connected to the output shaft; b. first bypass means connecting the input shaft to the planetary gear train means; c. differential transmission means for receiving its input from the input shaft and having means to adjust the torque and speed output infinitely variable over its range of operation for each state of the transmission; d. power return means for receiving the output of the differential transmission means; e. means including clutch operated speed reversing means for interconnecting the sun gear in the planetary gear train means with the power return means; f. the power return means including a first gear to receive the output of the differential transmission means; g. first multispeed transmission means connecting the means for supporting the carrier shaft to the first bypass means.

  6. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  7. Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuanggui

    Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

  8. Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) to Support Low-Cost Spacecraft Operation via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul; Repaci, Max; Sames, David

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Packet telemetry, Internet IP networks and cost reduction; 2) Basic functions and technical features of SAFE; 3) Project goals, including low-cost satellite transmission to data centers to be distributed via an Internet; 4) Operations with a replicated file protocol; 5) File exchange operation; 6) Ground stations as gateways; 7) Lessons learned from demonstrations and tests with SAFE; and 8) Feedback and future initiatives.

  9. A review of two current TMDE infrared thermal imaging programs for automatic fault detection and isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Perry W.; Kaplan, Herbert

    Based on the promising initial results of the IRAMS (infrared automatic mass screening) program, a feasibility study was initiated in October, 1986, to assess the applicability of IRAMS techniques to mechanical assemblies, such as, transmissions, engines, and other drive mechanisms. The author provides a review of the IRAMS testing approach, a current status of the IRAMS program, the initial results of the mechanical assembly investigation, and projections into the future of both programs.

  10. Automatic spectral transmittance measurement system for DWDM filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gao-Wei; Heish, Ming-Yu

    2003-08-01

    For many years, fiber-optics communication has become an essential part of the development of our modern society. For example, its significance comes from the increasing demands on real-time image transmission, multimedia communication, distance learning, video-conferencing, video telephone, and cable TV, etc. This paper is to develop an automatic transmittance measurement system for a DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing) filter. In this system, a grating-based monochromators is devised to generate a collection of monochromatic light with various wavelengths, instead of using an expensive tunable laser. From this approach, the cost of the proposed system will be much lower than that of those having the same functions, by one order. In addition, we simulate the spectral filtering to investigate the resolving power of the system. It appears that our simulations give quite satisfactory results.

  11. Infinitely variable steering transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.O.

    1989-04-04

    A steering transmission is described comprising: first and second drive units each driven at a substantially constant speed for producing respective first and second unidirectional, continuous outputs infinitely variable between a minimum speed and a maximum speed; a first output planetary gear drivingly connected to a first transmission output; a second output planetary gear set drivingly connected to a second transmission output; an input gear set; means interconnecting the first and second output planetary gear sets; means connecting the first drive unit to the first output planetary gear set; means applying the second drive unit output to the second output planetary gear set; means applying a substantially constant speed input to the input gear set; means for selectively conditioning the input gear set to drive the one output planetary gear set at a speed having a first predetermined fixed ratio to the constant speed input, whereby to operate the transmission in one speed range; and means for selectively applying the first drive unit output to second output planetary gear set, whereby to operate the transmission in another speed range different from the one speed range.

  12. Torque feedback transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

  13. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  14. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    PubMed

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease.

  15. Optoacoustic temperature determination and automatic coagulation control in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Luft, Susanne; Baade, Alex; Bever, Marco; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Retinal laser photocoagulation is an established treatment method for many retinal diseases like macula edema or diabetic retinopathy. The selection of the laser parameters is so far based on post treatment evaluation of the lesion size and strength. Due to local pigment variations in the fundus and individual transmission the same laser parameters often lead to an overtreatment. Optoacoustic allows a non invasive monitoring of the retinal temperature increase during retinal laser irradiation by measuring the temperature dependent pressure amplitudes, which are induced by short probe laser pulses. A 75 ns/ 523 nm Nd:YLF was used as a probe laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and a cw / 532 nm treatment laser for heating. A contact lens was modified with a ring-shaped ultrasonic transducer to detect the pressure waves at the cornea. Temperatures were collected for irradiations leading to soft or invisible lesions. Based on this data the threshold for denaturation was found. By analyzing the initial temperature increase, the further temperature development during irradiation could be predicted. An algorithm was found to calculate the irradiation time, which is needed for a soft lesion formation, from the temperature curve. By this it was possible to provide a real-time dosimetry by automatically switching off the treatment laser after the calculated irradiation time. Automatically controlled coagulations appear softer and more uniformly.

  16. Towards microsystems for automatic acquisition of in vivo gastrointestinal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Fukuda, Junji; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2009-05-01

    The possibility to develop a microanalysis system for the acquisition of gastrointestinal information is presented here. The system consists of four assay sites for trypsin, pepsin, and other biochemical compounds. The major components in each assay site were a pH-responsive valve, a pH-stat used to maintain the pH of the solution to be analyzed and used for electrochemical pH-titration, and a freeze-dried enzyme substrate stored in the pH-stat. The operation of the valve is based on electrowetting, and the valve is made pH-responsive by means of a nonstandard three-electrode system. The sample solution was automatically injected into the compartment and rapidly dissolved into the substrate layer. The automatic pH-stat, based on another nonstandard use of the electrochemical three-electrode system, maintained the solution pH and, at the same time, conducted pH-titration. The determination of the activity of the proteases was conducted at their optimum pHs. The output current showed a clear dependence on the activity of the enzymes. Integrating the functions provides significant advantages for the use of this system as an isolated telemetric microsystem that may operate with wireless signal transmission using a small power supply.

  17. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  18. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  19. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  20. Compaction with automatic jog introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, F. M.

    1986-05-01

    This thesis presents an algorithm for one-dimensional compaction of VLSI layouts. It differs from older methods in treating wires not as objects to be moved, but as constraints on the positions of other circuit components. These constraints are determined for each wiring layer using the theory of planar routing. Assuming that the wiring layers can be treated independently, the algorithm minimizes the width of a layout, automatically inserting as many jogs in wires as necessary. It runs in time 0(n4) on input of size n. Several heuristics are suggested for improving the algorithm's practical performance. The compaction algorithm takes as input a data structure called a sketch, which explicitly distinguishes between flexible components (wires) and rigid components (modules). The algorithm first finds constraints on the positions of modules that ensure enough space is left for wires. Next, it solves the system of constraints by a standard graph-theoretic technique, obtaining a placement for the modules. It then relies on a single-layer router to restore the wires to each circuit layer. An efficient single-layer router is already known; it is able to minimize the length of every wire, though not the number of jogs. As given, the compaction algorithm applies only to a VLSI model that requires wires to run a rectilinear grid. This restriction is needed only because the theory of planar routing (and single-layer routers) has not yet been extended to other models.

  1. Compaction with automatic jog introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, E. M.

    1986-11-01

    This thesis presents an algorithm for one-dimensional compaction of VLSI layouts. It differs from older methods in treating wires not as objects to be moved, but as constraints on the positions of other circuit components. These constraints are determined for each wiring layer using the theory of planar routing. Assuming that the wiring layers can be treated independently, the algorithm minimizes the width of a layout, automatically inserting as many jogs in wires as necessary. It runs in time O(n4) on input of size n. Several heuristics are suggested for improving the algorithm's practical performance. The compaction algorithm takes as input a data structure called a sketch, which explicitly distinguished between flexible components (wires) and rigid components (modules). The algorithms first finds constraints on the positions of modules that ensure enough space is left for wires. Next, it solves the system of constraints by a standard graph-theoretic technique, obtaining a placement for the modules. It then relies on a single-layer router to restore the wires to each circuit layer.

  2. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  3. Automatic image cropping for republishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheatle, Phil

    2010-02-01

    Image cropping is an important aspect of creating aesthetically pleasing web pages and repurposing content for different web or printed output layouts. Cropping provides both the possibility of improving the composition of the image, and also the ability to change the aspect ratio of the image to suit the layout design needs of different document or web page formats. This paper presents a method for aesthetically cropping images on the basis of their content. Underlying the approach is a novel segmentation-based saliency method which identifies some regions as "distractions", as an alternative to the conventional "foreground" and "background" classifications. Distractions are a particular problem with typical consumer photos found on social networking websites such as FaceBook, Flickr etc. Automatic cropping is achieved by identifying the main subject area of the image and then using an optimization search to expand this to form an aesthetically pleasing crop. Evaluation of aesthetic functions like auto-crop is difficult as there is no single correct solution. A further contribution of this paper is an automated evaluation method which goes some way towards handling the complexity of aesthetic assessment. This allows crop algorithms to be easily evaluated against a large test set.

  4. Automatic Machine For Spin Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho; Pais, Cassiano P.; Prina, Rogerio

    1989-01-01

    One of the bottle necks of the defence industry is the fuze testing. This task must be performed twice for each fuze. It is a 100% test, since all the fuzes must pass two tests. The arming test is performed at an high rotation speed, and it is necessary to guarantee that a minimum diameter is open. The non arming speed must guarantee that a too small aperture has not happened. The usual way to test the fuzes is the visual inspection by experienced operators. This method presents several problems and is always possible to have some faults. To solve this problem, it was developed a special purpose machine to perform this task in a completely automated way. The results of this development are presented in this paper. The optical system which incorporates a laser and the interface with the mechanics of the machine are analysed. The prototype is installed at INDEP and being used for the automatic testing of the fuzes. A description of the optical system and its characteristics are presented in detail.

  5. Automatic panoramic thermal integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutin, Mikhail A.; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga N.

    2005-05-01

    Historically, the US Army has recognized the advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution: increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The novel ViperViewTM high-resolution panoramic thermal imager is the heart of the Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) in support of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Intelligent Munitions Systems (IMS). The APTIS is anticipated to operate as an intelligent node in a wireless network of multifunctional nodes that work together to improve situational awareness (SA) in many defense and offensive operations, as well as serve as a sensor node in tactical Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR). The ViperView is as an aberration-corrected omnidirectional imager with small optics designed to match the resolution of a 640x480 pixels IR camera with improved image quality for longer range target detection, classification, and tracking. The same approach is applicable to panoramic cameras working in the visible spectral range. Other components of the ATPIS sensor suite include ancillary sensors, advanced power management, and wakeup capability. This paper describes the development status of the APTIS system.

  6. Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army's Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

  7. Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

  8. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  9. Disease transmission in horses.

    PubMed

    Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed.

  10. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  11. Heterosexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Laga, M

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for

  12. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  13. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  14. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  15. On the implementation of automatic differentiation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C. H.; Hovland, P. D.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Aachen Univ. of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Automatic differentiation is a semantic transformation that applies the rules of differential calculus to source code. It thus transforms a computer program that computes a mathematical function into a program that computes the function and its derivatives. Derivatives play an important role in a wide variety of scientific computing applications, including numerical optimization, solution of nonlinear equations, sensitivity analysis, and nonlinear inverse problems. We describe the forward and reverse modes of automatic differentiation and provide a survey of implementation strategies. We describe some of the challenges in the implementation of automatic differentiation tools, with a focus on tools based on source transformation. We conclude with an overview of current research and future opportunities.

  16. Mechanical transmission of poleroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Verbeek, M; Romano, A; Dullemans, A M; van den Heuvel, J F; van der Wilk, F

    2001-02-01

    Previously, transmission of poleroviruses has relied solely on the use of their aphid vectors. Biolistic inoculation allowed for the first time the mechanical transmission of Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) to several host plants. Inoculation with purified preparations and viral RNA extracts of PLRV resulted in 30-50% systemically infected Nicotiana occidentalis P1 plants and 15-30% infected Nicotiana clevelandii plants. Particle bombardment was also used successfully to infect N. clevelandii plants with in vitro RNA transcripts of full-length cDNA of BWYV.

  17. Single parameter optimization for simultaneous automatic compensation of multiple orders of dispersion for a 1.28 Tbaud signal.

    PubMed

    Paquot, Yvan; Schröder, Jochen; Van Erps, Jürgen; Vo, Trung D; Pelusi, Mark D; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-12-05

    We report the demonstration of automatic higher-order dispersion compensation for the transmission of 275 fs pulses associated with a Tbaud Optical Time Division Multiplexed (OTDM) signal. Our approach achieves simultaneous automatic compensation for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order dispersion using an LCOS spectral pulse shaper (SPS) as a tunable dispersion compensator and a dispersion monitor made of a photonic-chip-based all-optical RF-spectrum analyzer. The monitoring approach uses a single parameter measurement extracted from the RF-spectrum to drive a multidimensional optimization algorithm. Because these pulses are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the GVD and higher orders of chromatic dispersion, this work represents a key result towards practical transmission of ultrashort optical pulses. The dispersion can be adapted on-the-fly for a 1.28 Tbaud signal at any place in the transmission line using a black box approach.

  18. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  19. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  20. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  1. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  2. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  3. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  4. Automatic program timing profiles with FTN4

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.

    1980-09-01

    Design of a scheme for producing execution timing profiles of FORTRAN programs automatically is proposed with a recommendation to implement it as an option to the compiler. An experimental implementation on the LBL 7600 is also described. 1 figure.

  5. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  6. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  7. Continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Okada, M.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for transmitting a torque from an engine to a final reduction gear, comprising: an input shaft connected with the engine at one end thereof; a continuously variable transmission means having a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member, the movable member being actuated by an hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening between the fixed member and movable member, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. The other movable member is similarly actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening between the other fixed member and the other movable member, and a belt member spanning the pulleys provides for a continuously variable transmission ratio; a planetary gear unit including a sun gear, a plurality of pinion gears which mesh with the sun gear and are connected with the driven pulley and a ring gear which meshes with the plurality of pinion gears; and a rotation transmitting means for transmitting rotation of the input shaft to the planetary gear unit. The rotation transmitting means is provided between the input shaft and the planetary gear unit and includes a shaft connected with the sun gear of the planetary gear unit and a first gear connected with the input shaft. The first gear is located between the engine and the continuously variable transmission means.

  8. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  9. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  10. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  11. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: Transmisión de las paperas Mumps Virus Still Around Mumps still occurs in the ...

  12. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  13. Facsimile Transmission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    transmettre les cartes tactiques et les compte rendu de situation. La presente note technique expose les 6lements nec~ssaires A la transmission de t~l6copies...Group MI machines introduced digital scanning techniques in which the single photoelectric cell was replaced with a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) array

  14. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  15. Transmission planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2009-07-15

    Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

  16. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  17. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  18. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  19. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  20. Emotional automaticity is a matter of timing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Holroyd, Tom; Majestic, Catherine; Cheng, Xi; Schechter, Julia; Blair, R James

    2010-04-28

    There has been a long controversy concerning whether the amygdala's response to emotional stimuli is automatic or dependent on attentional load. Using magnoencephalography and an advanced beamformer source localization technique, we found that amygdala automaticity was a function of time: while early amygdala responding to emotional stimuli (40-140 ms) was unaffected by attentional load, later amygdala response (280-410 ms), subsequent to frontoparietal cortex activity, was modulated by attentional load.

  1. Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/03/2007 – 30/11/2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition 5a. CONTRACT...14. ABSTRACT: This project created, implemented, and evaluated distributed computational mechanisms for automating composition and scheduling of...Temporal Planning for Automatic Service Composition Edmund H. Durfee, University of Michigan 1. Project Objectives: This project’s objectives were to

  2. Automatic welding comes of age. [Offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Automatic pipe welding systems today fall into three main categories: gas metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, and flash-butt welding. The first automatic welding devices used offshore were the CRC and H.C. Price systems. Both use gas metal arc welding with a consumable steel filler wire. The recently developed McDermott flash-butt welding system is described. (DLC)

  3. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  4. Automatic effects of no-go instructions.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Degryse, Jasper; Theeuwes, Marijke

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that stimulus-response mappings that have been instructed but never applied overtly before can lead to automatic response biases when they are irrelevant. In the present study, we investigated whether the same applies to no-go instructions, which relate a stimulus to a no-go response. The results of 2 experiments suggest that a no-go instruction that has never been practiced overtly before can automatically bias responding when it is irrelevant. In addition, the automatic effect of a no-go instruction was similar in size to the automatic effect of a go instruction. Finally, the automatic effect of an unpracticed no-go instruction tended to be larger than the automatic effect of an overtly practiced no-go instruction. We propose that (a) associations between a stimulus and the requirement to stop can be formed on the basis of instructions and without overt practice, (b) these associations may be functionally equivalent to associations formed on the basis of go instructions, and (c) overtly practiced no-go instructions and unpracticed no-go instructions are represented in different formats. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. [Transmission and prevention].

    PubMed

    Reboulot, B

    1992-01-01

    This work provides an overview of current knowledge of AIDS transmission and attitudes toward prevention in France. Most HIV infections are transmitted sexually. AIDS became established in the homosexual community in California because of mutual infection by members of the community with large numbers of sexual partners. The possibility of heterosexual transmission was not immediately recognized by all observers. Different publications estimate the risk of seroconversion after 1 episode of heterosexual coitus at between 1:100 and 1:1000/ Heterosexual transmission is bidirectional, but male-female transmission appears easier. Factors favoring transmission identified in AFrican studies include multiple partners, sexually transmitted diseases, anal penetration, relations during menstruation, and age. No epidemiologic study has concluded that kissing with mutual salivary contact can lead to infection, but oral-genital sex may pose a risk. As of October 1991, 966 cases of posttransfusion AIDS had been diagnosed in France, and an estimated 6000-9000 HIV seropositive persons were infected through transfusion. 239 AIDS cases were reported in hemophiliacs and others with coagulation disorders. 1200 of 3500 French hemophiliacs receiving transfusions before 1985 are seropositive. The risk of developing AIDS from a transfusions in France is currently estimated at 1/250,000. HIV transmission among drug addicts results from sharing contaminated needles and syringes. The risk of infection for health workers treating those who are HIV positive appears small; only about 30 documented cases have been reported worldwide, including 3 of 10,000 cases in France. The risk that an infected mother will have a seropositive baby is estimated at 25% in France. The number of seropositive women in the world is estimated at over 3 million, with 80% in sub-Saharan Africa. As of October 1991, 16,0000-36,000 seropositive women and 1500 seropositive children were estimated to live in France

  6. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  7. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnby, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bombara, M.; Evans, D.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jovanović, P.; Jusko, A.; Kour, R.; Králik, I.; Krivda, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lietava, R.; Matthews, Z. L.; Navin, S.; Palaha, A.; Petrov, P.; Platt, R.; Šándor, L.; Scott, P.; Urbán, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed.

  8. The Importance of Automaticity for Developing Expertise in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Flor, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how students become automatic at reading sub-skills, the indicators that can be used to determine whether a student is automatic, and the psychological mechanisms that allow students to perform complex skills automatically. Discusses implications of automaticity research for teaching reading. (RS)

  9. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  10. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  11. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  12. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  15. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  16. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  17. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  18. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  19. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  20. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  1. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  2. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  3. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  4. Sixteen speed powershift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    McAskill, J.P.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a transmission. It includes a transmission housing; a first shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and having a third gear fixed for rotation therewith and fourth and fifth gears rotatably mounted thereto, the fourth and fifth gears meshing with the first and second gears, respectively; first and second clutch means for selectively fixing the fourth and fifth gears, respectively, for rotation with the second shaft; a third shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and having a sixth gear fixed for rotation therewith and seventh and eighth gears rotatably mounted thereto, the seventh and eighth gears meshing with the first and second gears, respectively; third and fourth clutch means for selectively fixing the seventh and eighth gears respectively, for rotation with the third shaft.

  5. Data transmission networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  6. Identification of the defective transmission devices using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingchen; Omatu, Sigeru; Abe, Toshiro

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, a system is described that uses the wavelet transform to automatically identify the particular failure mode of a known defective transmission device. The problem of identifying a particular failure mode within a costly failed assembly is of benefit in practical applications. In this system, external acoustic sensors, instead of intrusive vibrometers, are used to record the acoustic data of the operating transmission device. A skilled factory worker, who is unfamiliar with statistical classification, helps to determine the feature vector of the particular failure mode in the feature extraction process. In the automatic identification part, an improved learning vector quantization (LVQ) method with normalizing the inputting feature vectors is proposed to compensate for variations in practical data. Some acoustic data, which are collected from the manufacturing site, are utilized to test the effectiveness of the described identification system. The experimental results show that this system can identify the particular failure mode of a defective transmission device and find out the causes of failure successfully.

  7. Facsimile Transmission of Microforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    author and Whould not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documentation...beconstrued as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. ,, -- UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...researcher. Some form of tele- facsimile transmission of microform is needed. This study is designed to to describe the current state of the technology, and

  8. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  9. Compact change speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-06-06

    A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means including a first clutch, a first one-way clutch, and a second one-way clutch which, when the first clutch is engaged, provide a path of transmission of reaction to the stationary part thereby establishing a path of transmission of torque through at least a part of the first and second planetary gear sets to achieve a predetermined one speed ratio of the forward speed ratios; the clutch and brake means including also a brake and a second slutch which, when both of the brake and the second clutch are engaged, hinder the action of the second one-way clutch and that of the first one-way clutch, respectively, thereby providing engine braking during running with the predetermined one speed ratio; the first clutch including means forming a drum-shaped member disposed radially outwardly of and receiving at least one of the first and second planetary gear sets, and an actuating piston of the first clutch; and the second clutch including an actuating piston slidably disposed within the actuating piston of the first clutch.

  10. Intercultural Transmission of Values: The Role of Transmission Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonpflug, Ute

    2001-01-01

    Explored the effect of "transmission belts" (conditions favorable to cultural transmission within particular socioeconomic and cultural contexts) on the similarity of values between Turkish fathers and their sons. Data from father-son dyads in Germany indicated that transmission of values related to the collective value categories of…

  11. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function.

  12. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  13. Automatic prejudice in childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as prejudice-related prime stimuli. In all 4 studies, a pattern occurred that suggests a linear developmental increase of automatic prejudice with significant effects of outgroup negativity appearing only around the ages of 12 to 13 years. Results of younger children, on the contrary, did not indicate any effect of automatic prejudice activation. In contrast, prejudice effects in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) showed high levels of prejudice independent of age (Study 3). Results of Study 4 suggest that these age differences are due to age-related differences in spontaneous categorization processes. Introducing a forced-categorization into the affective priming procedure produced a pattern of results equivalent to that obtained with the IAT. These results suggest that although children are assumed to acquire prejudice at much younger ages, automatization of such attitudes might be related to developmental processes in early adolescence. We discuss possible theoretical implications of these results for a developmental theory of prejudice representation and automatization during childhood and adolescence.

  14. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE`s NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, {sup 131m}Xe(11.9 d), {sup 133m}Xe(2.19 d), {sup 133}Xe (5.24 d), and {sup 135}Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m{sup 3}/h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers.

  15. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  16. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  17. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  18. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1991-05-02

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  19. Automatic Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if the use of automatic welding would allow reduction of the radiographic inspection requirement, and thereby reduce fabrication costs, a series of welding tests were performed. In these tests an automatic welder was used on stainless steel tubing of 1/2, 3/4, and 1/2 inch diameter size. The optimum parameters were investigated to determine how much variation from optimum in machine settings could be tolerate and still result in a good quality weld. The process variables studied were the welding amperes, the revolutions per minute as a function of the circumferential weld travel speed, and the shielding gas flow. The investigation showed that the close control of process variables in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection of welds can be relied upon as an acceptable quality assurance procedure, thus permitting the radiographic inspection to be reduced by a large percentage when using the automatic process.

  20. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  1. Automatic exposure control for space sequential camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcatee, G. E., Jr.; Stoap, L. J.; Solheim, C. D.; Sharpsteen, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The final report for the automatic exposure control study for space sequential cameras, for the NASA Johnson Space Center is presented. The material is shown in the same sequence that the work was performed. The purpose of the automatic exposure control is to automatically control the lens iris as well as the camera shutter so that the subject is properly exposed on the film. A study of design approaches is presented. Analysis of the light range of the spectrum covered indicates that the practical range would be from approximately 20 to 6,000 foot-lamberts, or about nine f-stops. Observation of film available from space flights shows that optimum scene illumination is apparently not present in vehicle interior photography as well as in vehicle-to-vehicle situations. The evaluation test procedure for a breadboard, and the results, which provided information for the design of a brassboard are given.

  2. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  3. Automatic metro map layout using multicriteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jonathan; Rodgers, Peter; Martínez-Ovando, Juan Carlos; Walker, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.

  4. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  5. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  6. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable.

  7. Automatic cardiac MRI myocardium segmentation using graphcut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedenburg, Gunnar; Cocosco, Chris A.; Köthe, Ullrich; Niessen, Wiro J.; Vonken, Evert-jan P. A.; Viergever, Max A.

    2006-03-01

    Segmentation of the left myocardium in four-dimensional (space-time) cardiac MRI data sets is a prerequisite of many diagnostic tasks. We propose a fully automatic method based on global minimization of an energy functional by means of the graphcut algorithm. Starting from automatically obtained segmentations of the left and right ventricles and a cardiac region of interest, a spatial model is constructed using simple and plausible assumptions. This model is used to learn the appearance of different tissue types by non parametric robust estimation. Our method does not require previously trained shape or appearance models. Processing takes 30-40s on current hardware. We evaluated our method on 11 clinical cardiac MRI data sets acquired using cine balanced fast field echo. Linear regression of the automatically segmented myocardium volume against manual segmentations (performed by a radiologist) showed an RMS error of about 12ml.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT V, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--TORQUE CONVERTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF TORQUE CONVERTERS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FLUID COUPLINGS (LOCATION AND PURPOSE), (2) PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION, (3) TORQUE CONVERRS, (4) TORQMATIC CONVERTER, (5) THREE STAGE, THREE ELEMENT TORQUE CONVERTER, AND (6)…

  9. Automatic transmission's Ravigneaux type planetary gear train having two ring gears

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1989-02-07

    A planetary gear system is described comprising: a stationary member; input means for receiving a driving torque; an output shaft; a compound planetary gear train; a clutch group including a first clutch disposed between the input means and the first sun gear for connection and disconnection therebetween, a second clutch disposed between the input means and the second sun gear for connection and disconnection therebetween, and a third clutch disposed between the input means and the pinion carrier for connection and disconnection therebetween; and a holding device group including a first holding device disposed between the first sun gear and the stationary member for holding the first sun gear, a second holding device disposed between the pinion carrier and the stationary member for holding the pinion carrier, and a third holding device disposed between the second ring gear and the stationary member for holding the second ring gear.

  10. Multimedia Presentation and Transmission Standards and Their Support for Automatic Analysis, Conversion and Scaling: A Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    multimedia with a new generation of devices enabled by technologies such as WAP [32], Symbian�s EPOC small-footprint yet advanced operating system...Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language................................................................. 6 3.1.2 Windows Media Technologies v4...tree presentation of (SGML-related) documents. DTD Document Type Definition DVI Digital Video Interactive EPOC A 32-bit, small-footprint operating system

  11. Optimal Design of Spring Characteristics of Damper for Subharmonic Vibration in Automatic Transmission Powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, T.; Ryu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Rosbi, S.; Sueoka, A.; Takikawa, Y.; Ooi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In the torque converter, the damper of the lock-up clutch is used to effectively absorb the torsional vibration. The damper is designed using a piecewise-linear spring with three stiffness stages. However, a nonlinear vibration, referred to as a subharmonic vibration of order 1/2, occurred around the switching point in the piecewise-linear restoring torque characteristics because of the nonlinearity. In the present study, we analyze vibration reduction for subharmonic vibration. The model used herein includes the torque converter, the gear train, and the differential gear. The damper is modeled by a nonlinear rotational spring of the piecewise-linear spring. We focus on the optimum design of the spring characteristics of the damper in order to suppress the subharmonic vibration. A piecewise-linear spring with five stiffness stages is proposed, and the effect of the distance between switching points on the subharmonic vibration is investigated. The results of our analysis indicate that the subharmonic vibration can be suppressed by designing a damper with five stiffness stages to have a small spring constant ratio between the neighboring springs. The distances between switching points must be designed to be large enough that the amplitude of the main frequency component of the systems does not reach the neighboring switching point.

  12. Segmentation of virus particle candidates in transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Kylberg, G; Uppström, M; Hedlund, K-O; Borgefors, G; Sintorn, I-M

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic segmentation method that detects virus particles of various shapes in transmission electron microscopy images. The method is based on a statistical analysis of local neighbourhoods of all the pixels in the image followed by an object width discrimination and finally, for elongated objects, a border refinement step. It requires only one input parameter, the approximate width of the virus particles searched for. The proposed method is evaluated on a large number of viruses. It successfully segments viruses regardless of shape, from polyhedral to highly pleomorphic.

  13. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available.

  14. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  15. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  16. Offset Waveguide Transmission Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin

    1997-01-01

    This report describes measurements to determine transmission losses in S-band (2.60-3.95 GHz) waveguide sections due to misalignment of the sections relative to each other. The experiments were performed in support of the Hydrostar program to determine the feasibility of using deployable waveguide sections in a large space radiometer. The waveguide sections would possibly be hinged and folded for launch, then deployed in space to form long sections of waveguide. Since very low losses are required for radiometer applications, the effects of potential misalignment after deployment of the waveguide sections may be significant. These measurements were performed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory in the Electromagnetics Research Branch.

  17. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  18. Automatic tools for microprocessor failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, Didier; Laurent, J.; Velazco, Raoul; Ziade, Haissam; Cabestany, J.; Sala, F.

    A new approach for fault location when testing microprocessors is presented. The startpoint for the backtracing analysis converging to the failure is constituted by the automatic localization of a reduced area. Automatic image comparison based on pattern recognition is performed by means of an electron beam tester. The developed hardware and software tools allow large circuit areas to be covered offering powerful diagnosis capabilities to the user. The validation of this technique was performed on faulty 68000 microprocessors. It shows the feasibility of the automation of the first and most important step of failure analysis: fault location at the chip surface.

  19. Automatic threshold selection using histogram quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Adali, Tulay; Lo, Shih-Chung B.

    1997-04-01

    An automatic threshold selection method is proposed for biomedical image analysis based on a histogram coding scheme. The threshold values can be determined based on the well-known Lloyd-Max scalar quantization rule, which is optimal in the sense of achieving minimum mean-square-error distortion. An iterative self-organizing learning rule is derived to determine the threshold levels. The rule does not require any prior information about the histogram, hence is fully automatic. Experimental results show that this new approach is easy to implement yet is highly efficient, robust with respect to noise, and yields reliable estimates of the threshold levels.

  20. Bayesian Automatic Classification Of HMI Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, John G.

    2011-05-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system known as "AutoClass" finds a set of class definitions based on a set of observed data and assigns data to classes without human supervision. It has been applied to Mt Wilson data to improve modeling of total solar irradiance variations (Ulrich, et al, 2010). We apply AutoClass to HMI observables to automatically identify regions of the solar surface. To prevent small instrument artifacts from interfering with class identification, we apply a flat-field correction and a rotationally shifted temporal average to the HMI images prior to processing with AutoClass. Additionally, the sensitivity of AutoClass to instrumental artifacts is investigated.

  1. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  2. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  3. Automatic identification of species with neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification. PMID:25392749

  4. Speech production knowledge in automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    King, Simon; Frankel, Joe; Livescu, Karen; McDermott, Erik; Richmond, Korin; Wester, Mirjam

    2007-02-01

    Although much is known about how speech is produced, and research into speech production has resulted in measured articulatory data, feature systems of different kinds, and numerous models, speech production knowledge is almost totally ignored in current mainstream approaches to automatic speech recognition. Representations of speech production allow simple explanations for many phenomena observed in speech which cannot be easily analyzed from either acoustic signal or phonetic transcription alone. In this article, a survey of a growing body of work in which such representations are used to improve automatic speech recognition is provided.

  5. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  6. The Born transmission eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Colton, David; Rezac, Jacob D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the complex plane for obstacles whose contrast is small in magnitude. We use a first order approximation of the refractive index to derive and study an approximate interior transmission problem. In the case of spherically stratified media, we prove existence and discreteness of transmission eigenvalues and derive a condition under which the complex part of transmission eigenvalues cannot lie in a strip parallel to the real axis. For obstacles with general shape, we demonstrate that if transmission eigenvalues exist then they form a discrete set.

  7. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.

  8. Shielded balanced and coaxial transmission lines. Parametric measurements and instrumentation relevant to signal waveform transmission in digital service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, W. L.; Nahman, N. S.

    1981-06-01

    The impulse and step responses of a shielded cable using time domain terminal measurements and a physically based mathematical model for the transmission line properties of the cable are determined. A computer controlled time domain measurement system was implemented using the automatic pulse measurement system. Data are also developed for the frequency domain complex propagation function (attenuation and its related minimum phase shift). The method is applied to 12 shielded paired conductor (balanced) cables and 5 coaxial cables. Time domain responses are presented for three nominal cable lengths, 60 m (200 ft), 150 m (500 ft), and 300 m (1000 ft).

  9. Multi-band automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for measurement of aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Tanre, D.; Buis, J. P.; Setzer, A.; Vermote, E.; Reagan, J. A.; Kaufman, Y. A.

    1994-01-01

    A weather resistant automatic scanning Sun photometer system is assessed and demonstrated as practical for measurements of aerosol concentrations and properties at remote sites. Interfaced with a transmitter using the Geostationary Data Collection System (GDCS), the data are processed in near real time. The processing allows a time dependence of the aerosols and water vapor and an ongoing assessment of the health and calibration of the instruments. The system's automatic data acquisition, transmission, and processing offer immediate application to atmospheric monitoring and modeling on a regional to global scale and validation of satellite retrievals. It is estimated that under normal circumstances the retrieved aerosol optical thickness has a network wide accuracy of +/- 0.02 from 340 nm to 1020 nm, water vapor +/- 0.2 cm and size distribution from 0.1 to 3 micrometers.

  10. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  11. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  12. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  13. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Wilfred R

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  14. Infrared transmission spectra of Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhmanova, M. V.; Karyakin, A. V.; Tartasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission spectra in the 2-25 micrometer region were obtained for samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. A comparison of the Luna 16, Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 samples showed that the infrared transmission spectra of regolith samples from the mare regions are similar and characteristic of basic basaltic rocks. The absorption bands show up in the vibration region of the SiO4 groups. No water and OH groups were found in the samples based on the spectrum. Spectra of regolith samples calcined at 1000C showed changes that can be interpreted as changes in the spectra of irradiated crystals (especially distinctly for the Luna 16 samples).

  15. Efficient and automatic wireless geohazard monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Marc J.

    In this dissertation, we present our research contributions geared towards creating an automated and efficient wireless sensor network (WSN) for geohazard monitoring. Specifically, this dissertation addresses three overall technical research problems inherent in implementing and deploying such a WSN, i.e., 1) automated event detection from geophysical data, 2) efficient wireless transmission, and 3) low-cost wireless hardware. In addition, after presenting algorithms, experimentation, and results from these three overall problems, we take a step back and discuss how, when, and why such scientific work matters in a geohazardous risk scenario. First, in Chapter 2, we discuss automated geohazard event detection within geophysical data. In particular, we present our pattern recognition workflow that can automatically detect snow avalanche events in seismic (geophone sensor) data. This workflow includes customized signal preprocessing for feature extraction, cluster-based stratified sub-sampling for majority class reduction, and experimentation with 12 different machine learning algorithms; results show that a decision stump classifier achieved 99.8% accuracy, 88.8% recall, and 13.2% precision in detecting avalanches within seismic data collected in the mountains above Davos, Switzerland, an improvement on previous work in the field. To address the second overall research problem (i.e., efficient wireless transmission), we present and evaluate our on-mote compressive sampling algorithm called Randomized Timing Vector (RTV) in Chapter 3 and compare our approach to four other on-mote, lossy compression algorithms in Chapter 4. Results from our work show that our RTV algorithm outperforms current on-mote compressive sampling algorithms and performs comparably to (and in many cases better than) the four state-of-the-art, on-mote lossy compression techniques. The main benefit of RTV is that it can guarantee a desired level of compression performance (and thus, radio usage

  16. Automatically Detecting Authors’ Native Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    for detecting Chinese and Japanese, but it performed less well with Slavic and Romance languages . Empirical analysis of character trigrams also...well for detecting Chinese and Japanese, but it performed less well with Slavics and Romance languages . We also compared the overall performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AUTHORS’ NATIVE LANGUAGE by Charles S. Ahn March 2011 Thesis Advisor

  17. Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

  18. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  19. Automatic Keypress Activation in Skilled Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Martina

    2004-01-01

    The assumption that letters automatically activate corresponding keypresses in skilled typing was investigated. Participants responded to the color of letters (congruent condition: responding finger was the one usually used to type the letter). Participants skilled in typing showed a congruency effect: unskilled participants did not (Experiment…

  20. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  1. Operational efficiency: Automatic ascent flight design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Major objectives, milestones, key contacts, major accomplishments, technology issues, and candidate programs of the automatic ascent flight design are outlined. Topics discussed include: advanced avionics concepts; advanced training concepts; telerobotics/telepresence; integrated command and control; advanced software integration; atmospheric adaptive guidance; and health status and monitoring concept. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  2. Creative Automaticity: The Writing of Business Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino-Murcia, Mercedes

    Ways to develop "creative automaticity" for writing in a foreign language are examined. The paper focuses on transactional writing (i.e., writing with the purpose of transferring precise information by such means as telex messages, business letters, memoranda, and short reports), and its main features of clarity and conventionality. It is noted…

  3. Automatically Locking/Unlocking Orthotic Knee Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Proposed orthotic knee joint locks and unlocks automatically, at any position within range of bend angles, without manual intervention by wearer. Includes tang and clevis, locks whenever wearer transfers weight to knee and unlocks when weight removed. Locking occurs at any angle between 45 degrees knee bend and full extension.

  4. RFID: A Revolution in Automatic Data Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna…

  5. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from automatic declassification pursuant to section 3.3 (b) through (d) of Executive Order 12958, as... Chief Security Officer shall notify the ISOO of any specific information that DHS proposes to exempt... classified for a longer period of time; and (3) A specific date or event for declassification of...

  6. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  7. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  8. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  9. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  10. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  11. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  12. Automatic Thesaurus Construction Using Bayesian Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young C.; Choi, Key-Sun

    1996-01-01

    Discusses automatic thesaurus construction and characterizes the statistical behavior of terms by using an inference network. Highlights include low-frequency terms and data sparseness, Bayesian networks, collocation maps and term similarity, constructing a thesaurus from a collocation map, and experiments with test collections. (Author/LRW)

  13. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  14. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2013-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  15. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  16. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  17. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  18. Automatic speed control of highway traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingman, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Vehicle control system monitors all vehicles in its range, and automatically slows down speeding vehicles by activating governor in vehicle. System determines only maximum speed; speeds below maximum are controlled by vehicle operator. Loss of transmitted signal or activation of emergency over-ride will open fuel line and return control to operator.

  19. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  20. Computer Corner: Automatic Differentiation and APL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidinger, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Described are several programs that enable the user to evaluate derivatives to order n of any elementary function by using the combination of automatic differentiation method and A Programming Language (APL). Programs calculating first- and higher-order derivatives are presented. Selected APL symbols are appended. (YP)

  1. Modification to Tracerlab Automatic Sample Changer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanegan, F.J.; Nelson, J.M.; Warr, J.J.

    1950-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently modified the Tracerlab Automatic Sample Changer so that the geometry is greatly improved for counting larger low-activity samples in finely ground form. The larger sample and larger Geiger Mueller tubes allow a greater number of samples to be counted per hour with the same statistical accuracy.

  2. Experiments in Automatic Library of Congress Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the results of research into the automatic selection of Library of Congress Classification numbers based on the titles and subject headings in MARC records from a test database at the University of California at Berkeley Library School library. Classification clustering and matching techniques are described. (44 references) (LRW)

  3. A Semi-Automatic Variability Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.

    Technical features of the Semi-Automatic Variability Search (SAVS) operating at the Astronomical Observatory of the Nicolaus Copernicus University and the results of the first year of observations are presented. The user-friendly software developed for reduction of acquired CCD images and detection of new variable stars is also described.

  4. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions... manually, and which are so interconnected by means of electric circuits that their movements must...

  5. Do We Process Frequency Information Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mary Ann; Foley, Hugh J.

    Two criteria for the automatic encoding of learning, instructional manipulation, and stimulus characteristics were studied in subjects who judged the frequency of occurrence of words, letters, and nonwords. In Experiment 1, six word lists were constructed with varying frequency of alphabet letters. A variety of instructions were presented (whether…

  6. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  7. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  9. What is automatized during perceptual categorization?

    PubMed

    Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-09-01

    An experiment is described that tested whether stimulus-response associations or an abstract rule are automatized during extensive practice at perceptual categorization. Twenty-seven participants each completed 12,300 trials of perceptual categorization, either on rule-based (RB) categories that could be learned explicitly or information-integration (II) categories that required procedural learning. Each participant practiced predominantly on a primary category structure, but every third session they switched to a secondary structure that used the same stimuli and responses. Half the stimuli retained their same response on the primary and secondary categories (the congruent stimuli) and half switched responses (the incongruent stimuli). Several results stood out. First, performance on the primary categories met the standard criteria of automaticity by the end of training. Second, for the primary categories in the RB condition, accuracy and response time (RT) were identical on congruent and incongruent stimuli. In contrast, for the primary II categories, accuracy was higher and RT was lower for congruent than for incongruent stimuli. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rules are automatized in RB tasks, whereas stimulus-response associations are automatized in II tasks. A cognitive neuroscience theory is proposed that accounts for these results.

  10. Automatic Frequency Control For DMSK Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Sumida, Joe T.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses performance of automatic frequency-control (AFC) subsystem of differential minimum-shift-keying receiver described in "DMSK Receiver for Moblile/Satellite Service," NPO-16659. Describes efforts to quantify behavior of system during acquisition of carrier signal; including theoretical analysis leading to numerical simulation, and measurements of performance of receiving equipment.

  11. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  12. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  13. Automatic optometer operates with infrared test pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornsweet, T. N.; Crane, H. D.

    1970-01-01

    Refractive strength of human eye is monitored by optometer that automatically and continuously images infrared test pattern onto the retina. Condition of focus of the eye at any instant is determined from optometer settings needed to maintain focus of the pattern on the retina.

  14. Increasing the reliability of the shutdown of 500 - 750-kV overhead lines equipped with shunt reactors in an unsuccessful three-phase automatic repeated closure cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'micheva, K. I.; Merzlyakov, A. S.; Fokin, G. G.

    2013-05-15

    The reasons for circuit-breaker failures during repeated disconnection of 500 - 750 kV overhead lines with shunt reactors in a cycle of unsuccessful three-phase automatic reconnection (TARC) are analyzed. Recommendations are made for increasing the operating reliability of power transmission lines with shunt reactors when there is unsuccessful reconnection.

  15. Automatic multidiagnosis system for slit lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Vieira Messias, Andre M.; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.; Isaac, Flavio; Caetano, Cesar A. C.; Rosa Filho, Andre B.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a system for several automatic diagnose in Slit Lamp in order to provide 04 additional measurements to the biomicroscope: (1) counting of the endothelial cells of donated corneas; (2) automatic keratometry; (3) corneal ulcer evaluation; (4) measurement of linear distances and areas of the ocular image. The system consists in a Slit Lamp, a beam-splitter, some optical components, a CCD detector, a frame grabber and a PC. The optical components attached to the beam-splitter are the same for all the functions, except for 1. For function 1, we have developed an optical system that magnifies the image 290X and a software that counts the cells interactively and automatically. Results are in good agreement with commercial specular microscopes (correlation coefficient is 0,98081). The automatic keratometry function is able to measure cylinders over 30 di and also irregular astigmatisms. The system consists of projecting a light ring at the patient's cornea and the further analysis of the deformation of the ring provides the radius of curvature as well as the axis of the astigmatism. The nominal precision is 0,005 mm for the curvature radius and 2 degree(s) for the axis component. The results are in good agreement with commercial systems (correlation coefficient of 0,99347). For function 3, the ulcer is isolated by the usual clinical ways and the image of the green area is automatically detected by the developed software in order to evaluate the evolution of the disease. Function 4 simply allows the clinician do any linear or area measurement of the ocular image. The system is a low cost multi evaluation equipment and it is being used in a public hospital in Brazil.

  16. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  17. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  18. Television Transmission Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

  19. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  20. The automated command transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Y.; Satoh, S.

    A technique for automated command transmission (ACT) to GEO-stationed satellites is presented. The system is intended for easing the command center workload. The ACT system determines the relation of the commands to on-board units, connects the telemetry with on-board units, defines the control path on the spacecraft, identifies the correspondence of back-up units to primary units, and ascertains sunlight or eclipse conditions. The system also has the address of satellite and command decoders, the ID and content for the mission command sequence, group and inhibit codes, a listing of all available commands, and restricts the data to a command sequence. Telemetry supplies data for automated problem correction. All other missions operations are terminated during system recovery data processing after a crash. The ACT system is intended for use with the GMS spacecraft.

  1. Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-04-03

    Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.

  2. Entropy analysis of automatic sequences revisited: An entropy diagnostic for automaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanos, Kostas

    2001-06-01

    We give a necessary entropy condition, valid for all automatic sequences read by lumping. We next establish new entropic decimation schemes for the Thue-Morse, the Rudin-Shapiro and the paperfolding sequences read by lumping.

  3. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  4. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  5. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  6. 2. FRONT VIEW, TWO DOUBLE AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALS, EASTBOUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FRONT VIEW, TWO DOUBLE AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALS, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  7. 4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 1. FRONT VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...14. ABSTRACT A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the...846-9101 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line David M. French, Brad W. Hoff

  11. Airborne transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jason M; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J

    2012-09-15

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets.

  12. Semi-automatic Segmentation for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, S. Sara; Chng, Nick; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report and characterize a semi-automatic prostate segmentation method for prostate brachytherapy. Based on anatomical evidence and requirements of the treatment procedure, a warped and tapered ellipsoid was found suitable as the a priori 3D shape of the prostate. By transforming the acquired endorectal transverse images of the prostate into ellipses, the shape fitting problem was cast into a convex problem which can be solved efficiently. The average whole gland error between volumes created from manual and semi-automatic contours from 21 patients was 6.63±0.9%. For use in brachytherapy treatment planning, the resulting contours were modified, if deemed necessary, by radiation oncologists prior to treatment. The average whole gland volume error between the volumes computed from semi-automatic contours and those computed from modified contours, from 40 patients, was 5.82±4.15%. The amount of bias in the physicians’ delineations when given an initial semi-automatic contour was measured by comparing the volume error between 10 prostate volumes computed from manual contours with those of modified contours. This error was found to be 7.25±0.39% for the whole gland. Automatic contouring reduced subjectivity, as evidenced by a decrease in segmentation inter- and intra-observer variability from 4.65% and 5.95% for manual segmentation to 3.04% and 3.48% for semi-automatic segmentation, respectively. We characterized the performance of the method relative to the reference obtained from manual segmentation by using a novel approach that divides the prostate region into nine sectors. We analyzed each sector independently as the requirements for segmentation accuracy depend on which region of the prostate is considered. The measured segmentation time is 14±1 seconds with an additional 32±14 seconds for initialization. By assuming 1–3 minutes for modification of the contours, if necessary, a total segmentation time of less than 4 minutes is required

  13. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drainage facilities. (4) Water supplies. The employer shall assure that every automatic sprinkler system is provided with at least one automatic water supply capable of providing design water flow for at least 30 minutes. An auxiliary water supply or equivalent protection shall be provided when the automatic...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drainage facilities. (4) Water supplies. The employer shall assure that every automatic sprinkler system is provided with at least one automatic water supply capable of providing design water flow for at least 30 minutes. An auxiliary water supply or equivalent protection shall be provided when the automatic...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drainage facilities. (4) Water supplies. The employer shall assure that every automatic sprinkler system is provided with at least one automatic water supply capable of providing design water flow for at least 30 minutes. An auxiliary water supply or equivalent protection shall be provided when the automatic...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.159 - Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drainage facilities. (4) Water supplies. The employer shall assure that every automatic sprinkler system is provided with at least one automatic water supply capable of providing design water flow for at least 30 minutes. An auxiliary water supply or equivalent protection shall be provided when the automatic...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19006 - Automatic hoist braking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic hoist braking devices. 57.19006 Section 57.19006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19006 Automatic hoist braking devices. Automatic hoists shall be provided with...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19006 - Automatic hoist braking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic hoist braking devices. 56.19006 Section 56.19006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19006 Automatic hoist braking devices. Automatic hoists shall be provided with...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1103 - Automatic fire warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire warning devices. 75.1103 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103 Automatic fire... warning automatically when a fire occurs on or near such belt. The Secretary shall prescribe a...

  6. Automatic Evaluations in Clinically Anxious and Nonanxious Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Prins, Pier J. M.; de Haan, Else; Nauta, Maaike H.; Boer, Frits

    2010-01-01

    Automatic evaluations of clinically anxious and nonanxious children (n = 40, aged 8-16, 18 girls) were compared using a pictorial performance-based measure of automatic affective associations. Results showed a threat-related evaluation bias in clinically anxious but not in nonanxious children. In anxious participants, automatic evaluations of…

  7. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  8. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  9. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  10. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  12. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  13. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  14. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  15. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  16. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  17. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, “automaticity” refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: (a) functional significance of automaticity; (b) neurophysiology of automaticity; (c) measurement of automaticity; (d) mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and (e) strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity. PMID:25999838

  18. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...