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Sample records for allison automatic transmissions

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VIII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960, 6060, AND 8860 (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL DESCRIPTION, (2) OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT, (3) TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW (SPLITTER SECTION), (4) TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW (RANGE SECTION), (5)…

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON, TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960 AND 6060 (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL SPECIFICATION DATA, (2) OPTIONS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS, (3) ROAD TEST INSTRUCTIONS, (4) IDENTIFICATION AND SPECIFICATION DATA, (5) ALLISON…

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  4. Semi-automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morscheck, T.J.; Davis, A.R.; Huggins, M.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system of the type comprising: a mechanical change gear transmission of the type comprising a transmission housing, an input shaft rotatably supported in the housing and driven by an engine through a nonpositive coupling, an output shaft rotatably supported in the housing and a plurality of selectable ratio gears selectively engageable one at a time to a first transmission element by means of positive, nonsynchronized jaw clutch assemblies for providing a plurality of manually selectable drive ratios between the input and output shafts, each of the jaw clutch assemblies comprising a first jaw clutch member rotatably associated with the first transmission element and a second jaw clutch member rotatably associated with a second transmission element, each of the first jaw clutch members axially moveable relative to the first transmission element; manually operated means for engaging and disengaging the nonpositive coupling; manually operated shifting means for engaging selected ratio gears to and disengaging selected ratio gears from the first transmission element; selection for sensing the identity of the particular ratio gear selected for manual engagement or disengagement from the first transmission element and for providing a signal; first and second rotational speed sensors for sensing the rotational speed of the first and second transmission elements and providing signals; a power synchronizer assembly selectively actuable for selectively varying the rotational speed of the second transmission element and the second jaw clutch members rotatably associated therewith; and a central processing unit semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system.

  5. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  6. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

  7. Allison moving forward

    SciTech Connect

    Raflo, D.

    1994-07-01

    Allison has been on its own since December 1, when General Motors Corporation sold its former Allison Gas Turbine Division to Clayton, Dubilier & Rice Inc, a private New York investment firm, and a group of senior Allison managers for $318 million. Allison engine Company`s current product line includes large engines, small aircraft engines, and industrial engines. Over 140,000 engines have been produced since 1915, giving Allison a large stake in world leaderhsip. With strong cogeneration markets already established in Europe and Japan, Allison`s industrial engines are being positioned to compete in emerging markets in China, Indonesia and the Soviet Union. Cogeneration market potential in the US improves despite the current popularity with abundant, low-cost natural gas because of the South Coast Air Control Management District`s push for reduced emissions. The new 7000-shp KB7 industrial engine is the latest addition to the 501K engine family, and adds increased power (by 1700 shp), with a boost compressor to the current core compressor increasing air flow, along with a new low-loss exhaust system. Allison`s new AE series of turboprop (AE 2100) and turbofan (AE 3007) engines, with engine cores derived from the T406 design, have been selected to power regional airliners. 2 figs.

  8. Adaptive control of an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, C.A.; Runde, J.K.; Hunter, J.H.; Wiles, C.R.

    1991-12-10

    This patent describes a vehicular automatic transmission in which a shift from a first speed ratio to a second speed ratio is carried out through concurrent disengagement of a fluid pressure operated off-going torque transmitting device associated with the first speed ratio and engagement of a fluid pressure operated oncoming torque transmitting device associated with the second speed ratio, a method of automatically shifting the transmission. It comprises disengaging the off-going torque transmitting device by reducing its pre-shift engagement pressure, engaging the on-coming torque transmitting device by supplying it with hydraulic pressure according to a pressure command having a predetermined initial value, and thereafter initiating a closed-loop control of the pressure command based on a predefined pattern of input and output speeds chosen to yield high quality shifting, the pressure command achieving a final value upon completion of the closed-loop control; comparing a difference between the final value of the pressure command and the pressure command at the initiation of the closed-loop control with a threshold to detect an aberration; and if the difference exceeds the threshold, adjusting the predetermined initial value by an amount which is a function of the difference so that on the next shift the pressure command will have an initial value which is substantially correct for achieving the predefined pattern of input and output speeds.

  9. Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y

    1989-05-16

    A hydraulic control system is described for an automatic transmission including hydraulic servos for clutches and brakes to engage and disengage components in the transmission gear mechanism and having a forward clutch hydraulic servo and a brake hydraulic servo, and a manual valve, comprising:a modulator valve for adjusting line pressure to a predetermined modulator pressure; a control valve adapted to be shifted in response to signals based on positions of the manual valve and the vehicle running condition; a first oil path connected between the control valve and the manual valve as a line pressure oil path; the control valve including a first port connecting to the forward clutch hydraulic servo; a second oil path connected between the control valve and the brake hydraulic servo; and a shift valve situated in the second oil path, the shift valve not operating during a low speed vehicle condition, the shift valve being adapted to connect the second oil path when the shift valve shifts to a low speed position and to disconnect the oil path when the shift valve shifts to a high speed position.

  10. Control of a vehicle automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a vehicle having vehicle brake means, an engine provided with engine output control means having an idle position, an automatic transmission comprising a torque converter having a turbine, a multiple-stage transmission gear mechanism connected with the turbine of the torque converter and having a neutral gear stage, a first gear stage and at least one higher gear stage. It also includes a gear stage selecting means for selecting one of the gear states, and a shift lever having a neutral range and at least one running range for operating the gear stage selecting means so that the neutral gear stage is selected when the shift lever is in the neutral range and one of the first and higher gear stages is selected when the shift lever is in the running range. The improvement consists of a shift position detecting means for detecting that the shift lever is in the running range, engine idle detecting means for detecting that the engine output control means is in the idle position, vehicle stop detecting means for detecting that the vehicle is substantially stopped, vehicle brake detecting means for detecting that the vehicle brake means is engaged. There is also a control means responsive to output signals from the detecting means to operate the gear stage selecting means when the shift lever is in the running range and the vehicle is stopped so that the gear mechanism is shifted to the higher gear stage in an instance where the engine output control means is in the idle position.

  11. Hydraulic control system for vehicular automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, C.A.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a hydraulic control system for the automatic transmission of a vehicle wherein the transmission includes a plurality of torque transfer devices which can be engaged and disengaged in response to fluid pressure provided by a pump, the sequence of engagement and disengagement of the torque transfer devices being determined by a pre-programmed, on-board computer so as to provide a neutral, reverse, and a plurality of forward drive ratios, the control system interconnected between the pump and the torque transfer devices. It comprises conduits; fluid operated relay valves interconnected in a cascaded arrangement by the conduits, particular relay valves having outputs connected to effect the operational status of specific torque transfer devices; solenoid valves; each solenoid valve having an electrical control input, a fluid pressure inlet and a fluid pressure outlet; a pressure regulating valve having an electrical control input; a fluid pressure inlet and a fluid pressure outlet; a pressure regulating valve having an inlet and an outlet; the pressure regulating valve receiving line pressure from the pump at the regulating valve inlet; the regulating valve outlet connected to the fluid pressure inlets of the solenoid valves; the electrical input of each solenoid valve connected to receive a control input from the computer and the outlet of each solenoid valve connected to actuate one of the relay valves; a single, pulse width, pressure modulating valve receiving line pressure from the pump and providing a modulated output pressure; and, a control valve having first and second inlets; the first inlet of the control valve receiving modulated pressure from the modulating valve; the second inlet of the control valve receiving line pressure from the pump.

  12. Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kashihara, Y.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according to signals from the control unit. The control device consists of: a selecting value switched by signals indicating stopping and running condition of a vehicle, the selecting valve being connected to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch for engaging and transmitting torque during the forward running conditon, the selecting valve selectively receiving a line pressure and a control pressure from the regulating valve so that hydraulic pressure just below engaging pressure regulated by the regulating valve is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during stopping, and a line pressure is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during running.

  13. Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes an automatic transmission consisting of: fluid operated friction units, including a first clutch, a second clutch and a brake, which are selectively made operative and inoperative to produce first, second, third and fourth speed ratios, the first clutch having a first chamber and being engaged when the first chamber is pressurized, the second clutch having a second chamber and being engaged when the second chamber is pressurized, the brake having a servo apply chamber and a servo release chamber, the brake being released when the servo release chamber is pressurized and being applied when the servo release chamber is discharged with the servo apply chamber being pressurized; means for generating an actuating fluid pressure; a 2-3 shift valve communicating with the actuating fluid pressure generating means and the first chamber, the 2-3 shift valve having an upshift position wherein it supplies the actuating fluid pressure to the first chamber; a 3-4 shift valve communicating with the actuating fluid pressure generating means and the first, second and servo release chambers, and 3-4 shift valve having a downshift position wherein it supplies the actuating fluid pressure to the second chamber and provides communication between the first and servo release chambers, the 3-4 shift valve having an upshift position wherein it discharges the second servo release chambers; and means for defining a drain passage which allows the fluid discharged from the servo release chamber to pass there-through when the 3-4 shift valve is moved to the upshift position thereof, wherein the drain passage defining means includes an orifice and a 3-4 timing valve means for providing a passage portion bypassing the orifice.

  14. Allison engine ATS program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Mukavetz, D.

    1995-12-31

    Gas turbines in industrial and utility applications can help meet future national and worldwide power generation requirements. Implementation of the ATS Program will also keep U.S. manufacturers on the cutting edge of turbine technology for power generation applications and enhance the nation`s economic competitiveness. Allison`s ATS addresses the program goals in the following manner: (1) Efficiency - The turbine selected for the ATS uses Allison`s latest single crystal alloys incorporating the most efficient component cooling technology Allison has developed. These features allow the turbine to operate at a rotor inlet temperature (RIT) of 1427{degrees}C (2600{degrees}F). The compression system for this engine has an overall pressure ratio of more than 20:1 and is based on technology previously demonstrated at Allison. The engine that uses these components will demonstrate a thermal efficiency that is 18% better than the best in class today. (2) Environment - The combustion system selected for this engine incorporates a catalytically stabilized, lean premix system with ceramic components requiring no significant wall cooling. This system will achieve acceptance in severe nonattainment areas, producing less than 8 ppm for oxides of nitrogen (NOx), with acceptable carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC). (3) Fuel Flexibility - Allison has production engines in commercial service that are operating on biomass fuels. Previous DOE-funded programs have allowed Allison to develop and demonstrate coal-fueled gas turbine technology. (4) Cost of Power - The busbar cost of energy for the Allison ATS ranges from 23.6 to 27.6% lower than the current state of the art for systems meeting ATS environmental requirements. (5) Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability - The Allison ATS will be designed to have high reliability and low maintenance costs. Critical components will be designed using Allison`s latest life analysis methods.

  15. Overview of Allison/AGTSR interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s Tom Bechtel`s perseverance resulted in the creation of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) initiative in 1992. His foresight resulted in establishing an advanced gas turbine research center. The center is supported by the Government and industry. The industry serves in an oversight role, and helps select the type of research projects to be conducted by universities. AGTSR now represents an effective university and industry partnership, and is recognized as a positive mechanism. Allison Engine Company (Allison) continues to be an active participant and a strong supporter of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research initiative at Clemson University. Allison took part in early formulation stages of this university/industry consortium. We have been a member of the consortium since its inception in 1992. Allison`s senior management is cognizant of the benefits of these jointly sponsored research programs. Over the years, Allison has promoted cooperative gas turbine research and advanced technology development at many universities. This activity is conducted through direct assignments at Allison for university students, and support of research projects at various universities, focused on different disciplines of gas turbine research.

  16. Evaluation of oleic acid as additive in automatic transmission fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuldean, A. K.; Ing, T. Chiong; Bambang, S.; Baharin, T. Kamarul; Wira, J. Y.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    Transmission fluid has already being monopolized by petroleum oil over these years, either mineral oil or synthetic oil, the base oil originated from the crude oil. Currently, with environmental issue becomes globally concerned, it is time to move toward green technology and more to the sustainability, resource renewability and biodegradability. To respond to this challenge, a research focusing on development of environmental friendly lubricant for Automatic Transmission (AT) is conducted. In this paper, the Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm-Olein (RBDPO) mixed with the Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF), is developed and tested. The research focuses on some parameters such as anti wear and friction coefficient characteristics. The test is conducted using four ball wear tester machine to analyze anti wear of the lubricant as well as to simulate the sliding surface of gear operation inside the transmission which is the most critical operation condition for the lubricant. The method of testing is based on ASTM D4172 Test B condition for wear measurement. By comparing the experimental results between mixed lubricants and the commercial ATF, it can be seen that the palm olein is very potential to become a base oil for transmission lubricant in the future due to its promising performance of the tested physical properties.

  17. Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 8. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, David; Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This module is the eighth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: introduction to automatic transmission/transaxle; hydraulic control systems; transmission/transaxle diagnosis; automatic transmission/transaxle maintenance and adjustment; in-vehicle transmission repair; and off-car…

  18. Automatic transmission control system and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.W.; Arzoian, J.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a control system for an automatic transmission of a vehicle with a fluid torque converter having a bypass clutch, and a change gear assembly providing a variety of ratio changes on selective actuation of a plurality of friction engaging elements of the change gear assembly. The control system provides the selective engagement of three friction elements and the bypass clutch through the selective energization and de-energization of two solenoid operated valves and the selective actuation and de-actuation of three shift control valves.

  19. Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy I.; Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

  20. Computer controllable synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, R.I.; Patil, P.B.

    1989-08-08

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements. 6 figs.

  1. Hydraulic servo for friction coupling element of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiya, K.; Watanabe, K.; Kubo, S.

    1987-09-01

    A hydraulic servo is described for a friction coupling element in an automatic transmission including a casing, comprising: an annular drum fixed to the automatic transmission casing and having an outer cylinder, as in inner cylinder, a sidewall connecting the outer and inner cylinders, and an intermediate cylinder connected to the sidewall between the outer and inner cylinders to divide the interior of the drum into outer and inner annular spaces; a piston slidably mounted within the outer annular space, between the outer and intermediate cylinders, the piston having a terminal axially extending guide sleeve portion; and return biasing means including: a connecting member having one end fixed to the piston and abutting the guide sleeve portion and the other end located in the inner annular space, between the inner cylinder and the intermediate cylinder; a retainer fixed to the inner cylinder, at a position axially inward of the guide sleeve with respect to the sidewall when the piston is fully retracted, and; return springs interposed within the inner annular space between the other end of the connecting member and the retainer.

  2. Allison Sloan: Paraprofessional of the Year 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Allison Sloan, the 2010 winner of "LJ"'s Paraprofessional of the Year Award, sponsored by DEMCO, Inc. Her outstanding service and her championship of the term paralibrarian illustrates her passionately held and most fundamental belief: "This is not just a nice job, this is a career." When she launched that career at the…

  3. Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  4. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determine from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  5. Hydraulic servo for friction coupling element of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiya, K.; Kano, T.; Kubo, S.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-07-28

    A hydraulic servo is described for a friction coupling element in an automatic transmission including a casing, the hydraulic servo, comprising: an annular drum having a first cylinder, a second cylinder, and a side wall connecting the first and second cylinders all integrally formed together as a single piece by press forming, the first cylinder having splines on its outer cylindrical surface and fixed to the interior of the casing through the splines and the second cylinder having splines on its inner cylindrical surface; a press-formed third cylinder joined to the side wall of the annular drum by a fully encircling weld; a piston fitted between the first cylinder and the third cylinder; and biasing means provided between the third cylinder and the second cylinder for returning the piston.

  6. Automatic transmission electronic gearshift control having altitude corrected shift criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Baltusis, P.A.; Greene, T.L.; Palansky, B.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a method for controlling gearshifts in an automatic transmission of a motor vehicle having an engine, electronic computer, electronic memory accessible to the computer. It comprises: generating an engine speed signal; storing in memory engine speeds corresponding to a wide open throttle condition at which gearshifts are scheduled to occur at a reference barometric pressure; calculating a engine speed barometric pressure correction to account for a difference between reference barometric pressure and current ambient barometric pressure; generating, in response to the engine speed barometric pressure correction, an altitude corrected engine speed signal representing engine speed corresponding to a wide open throttle condition at which gearshifts are to occur at current ambient barometric pressure; comparing the current engine speed signal to the barometric pressure corrected engine speed signal; and producing a gearshift when the comparison indicates current engine speed exceeds the barometric pressure corrected engine speed.

  7. [The application of atomic absorption spectrometry in automatic transmission fault detection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-dan; Chen, Kai-kao

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied the innovative applications of atomic absorption spectrometry in the automatic transmission fault detection. After the authors have determined Fe, Cu and Cr contents in the five groups of Audi A6 main metal in automatic transmission fluid whose travel course is respectively 10-15 thousand kilometers, 20-26 thousand kilometers, 32-38 thousand kilometers, 43-49 thousand kilometers, and 52-58 thousand kilometers by atomic absorption spectrometry, the authors founded the database of primary metal content in the Audi A6 different mileage automatic transmission fluid (ATF). The research discovered that the main metal content in the automatic transmission fluid increased with the vehicles mileage and its normal metal content level in the automatic transmission fluid is between the two trend lines. The authors determined the main metal content of automatic transmission fluid which had faulty symptoms and compared it with its database value. Those can not only judge the wear condition of the automatic transmission which had faulty symptoms but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose automatic transmission failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced automobile maintenance costs, and improved the quality of automobile maintenance. PMID:22497168

  8. Variable force solenoid pressure control for an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, G.E.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a hydraulic pressure control circuit for an automatic transmission having fluid pressure operated clutch and brake servo. The controlling transmission consists of: a pump and a main pressure regulator valve means for establishing a regulated pressure in the control circuit; a variable force solenoid valve means for developing a pressure proportional to engine torque including a variable force solenoid connected to pressure regulating portions of the torque proportional pressure; a torque signal passage connecting to the variable force solenoid valve means with the pressure regulator valve means whereby the regulated pressure level maintained by the main regulator valve means is controlled in response to changes in the torque proportional pressure; and a variable force solenoid pressure relief valve means communicating with the torque signal passage and with the variable force solenoid valve means whereby the variable force solenoid valve means is adapted to regulate and to develop a pressure of reduced value relative to the regulated pressure of the main pressure regulator valve means as it establishes the torque proportional pressure, the solenoid pressure relief valve means comprising a pressure regulating valve spool, a valve chamber receiving the spool. The spool and the valve chamber having registering valve lands, a valve spring on one side of the spool urging the spool in one direction, a first pressure area on the pool being exposed to the torque proportional pressure, a second pressure area on the valve spool exposed to the pressure of reduced value whereby the spring, the pressure of reduced value and the torque proportional pressure establish a balanced force on the spool.

  9. Hydraulic servo mechanism of automatic transmission for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiya, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kubo, S.; Moroto, S.

    1988-06-07

    In a vehicle having an automatic transmission, a hydraulic servo control mechanism is described comprising: a hydraulic pressure source, a hydraulic servo; an accumulator; a drain oil line; interconnecting passage means providing a fluid path from the hydraulic pressure source to the hydraulic servo and from the hydraulic servo to the drain oil line; a selector valve, connected in the interconnecting passage means, for alternately connecting the hydraulic servo to the hydraulic pressure source and to the drain oil line; branch passage means connecting the accumulator to a portion of the interconnecting passage extending from the selector valve to the servo, the branch passage means meeting the portion of the interconnecting passage at a junction; first throttle means (R/sub 10/) in the branch passage means to connect the accumulator to the hydraulic servo; check valve means (q/sub 1/) in the branch passage means, and in parallel with the first throttle means, to connect the hydraulic servo to the accumulator; second throttle means (R/sub 20/), in the interconnecting passage means between the junction and the oil drain line; and relief valve means (V/sub r/), in the interconnecting passage means between the junction and the oil drain line, for adjusting the working oil discharge rate.

  10. System for controlling automatic transmission having communication control valve means

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, T.; Arakawa, Y.; Sumiya, K.; Sakaguchi, Y.

    1987-01-06

    A system is described for hydraulically controlling an automatic transmission equipped with a gear mechanism having elements and friction engaging means therefor for attaining a shift ranges by locking and releasing at least one of the elements of the gear mechanism. It is disposed between an input shaft and an output shaft, to and from a case, by bringing the elements into and out of engagement with one of the input shaft, the output shaft, and each other. The system comprises: a first and a second friction engaging means which take part in achieving at least two speed ranges comprising a higher speed range and a lower speed range; the first friction engaging means taking part in achieving a gear train of the higher speed range between the input and output shafts, and the second friction engaging means taking part in achieving a gear train of the lower speed range; a first and a second hydraulic servo means for actuating the first and the second friction engaging means, respectively; a third hydraulic servo means which is disposed to act opposing to the second hydraulic servo means and is communicated with the first hydraulic servo means; a hydraulic pressure source for generating a hydraulic pressure; a regulator valve for regulating the hydraulic pressure from the hydraulic pressure source into a given pressure; and a first signal hydraulic pressure valve for generating a first signal pressure related with the operation conditions of an engine for driving the input shaft, the conditions including at least output of the engine.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VI, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--PLANETARY GEARING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH THE OPERATION OF PLANETARY GEARS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF PLANETARY GEARING, (2) POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH A PLANETARY SYSTEM, (3) HYDRAMATIC TRANSMISSION, (4) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND (5) GEAR FAILURE AND…

  12. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.

    2004-12-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  13. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-03-15

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  14. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  15. The development of a portable, automatic, microwave transmission line test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, Val; Karuschkat, Glenn; Simone, Frederick

    Existing test sets for flightline testing of microwave transmission lines are complex, semiportable systems requiring the piece-part testing of waveguides, antennas, and transmission line components in the aircraft. Moreover, these systems are not fully automated and require a large degree of manual intervention. Therefore, advances in test-set miniaturization and automatic control techniques can now be utilized to develop a fully portable, automatic test set for the flightline functional and diagnostic fault isolation testing of RF avionics and microwave transmission lines. A description is given of the proposed capabilities of such a tester, and the benefits expected to be derived from its use.

  16. Automatic transmission having hydraulic and electronic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, T.; Mori, M.

    1987-06-23

    A shifting apparatus is described for a motor vehicle transmission which comprises: a shift actuator including shift shafts, cylinders, springs and select levers; the shift shafts effecting engagement and disengagement of transmission gears to accomplish shift ranges; each of the cylinders comprising one piston and two chambers defined by the piston, the piston being movable to three positions corresponding to the positions of the shift shaft and being actuated to one of the first or second position by applying working pressure to the chambers corresponding to each position; each of the springs urging the pistons to locate at a neutral position defined between the first or second positions; each of the select levers operatively connecting one of the shift shafts with a respective one of the pistons; an electronic control unit for gear shift operation; a hydraulic control unit comprising first, second and third solenoid valves, only the first solenoid valve actuated at a first shift range; the first and second solenoid valves actuated at a second shift range; only the second solenoid valve is actuated at a third shift range, and second and third solenoid valves are actuated at a fourth shift range; the third solenoid valve is actuated at a fifth shift range, no solenoid valve is actuated at a neutral shift range; and a reverse shift range is accomplished by actuating all the three solenoid valves.

  17. Traction drive automatic transmission for gas turbine engine driveline

    DOEpatents

    Carriere, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    A transaxle driveline for a wheeled vehicle has a high speed turbine engine and a torque splitting gearset that includes a traction drive unit and a torque converter on a common axis transversely arranged with respect to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle. The drive wheels of the vehicle are mounted on a shaft parallel to the turbine shaft and carry a final drive gearset for driving the axle shafts. A second embodiment of the final drive gearing produces an overdrive ratio between the output of the first gearset and the axle shafts. A continuously variable range of speed ratios is produced by varying the position of the drive rollers of the traction unit. After starting the vehicle from rest, the transmission is set for operation in the high speed range by engaging a first lockup clutch that joins the torque converter impeller to the turbine for operation as a hydraulic coupling.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT X, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (2) SERVICING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (3) EXAMINING THE RANGE CONTROL VALVE, (4) EXAMINING THE LOCK-UP AND FLOW VALVE, (5) EXAMINING THE MAIN REGULATOR…

  19. Automatic power transmission mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, R.J.

    1987-11-17

    In a transmission for a vehicle having two forward traction wheels and two rear traction wheels, this patent describes a multiple ratio transaxle having an input shaft adapted to be connected to an engine and arranged on a first axis and planetary gearing coaxially disposed relative to the input shaft and an output shaft; a first differential gear mechanism forming a part of the transaxle and having a torque output gear and side gears adapted to be connected to axle shafts for the forward wheels; a torque transfer drive means connecting the output shaft with the torque output gear including a first drive gear coaxially mounted relative to the torque output gear; an interaxle geared differential having a differential carrier and a pair of side gears, an interaxle torque input shaft having a third axis parallel to the second axis; a rear axle drive means connected to one of the interaxle differential side gears; a second drive gear and a third drive gear coaxially mounted with respect to the interaxle differential side gears; and first, second, third and fourth clutch means coaxially arranged with respect to the interaxle torque input shaft and independently actuatable for selectively connecting respectively (i) the third drive gear with the second drive gear, (ii) the second drive gear with the intermediate shaft, (iii) the third drive gear with the other side gear of the interaxle differential and (iv) the rear axle drive means with the carrier of the interaxle differential.

  20. Effect of acceleration rate on automatic transmission shift-speeds for two 1979 Novas. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.

    1980-01-01

    Variations in acceleration rates will result in variations in vehicle fuel economy. If typical vehicle acceleration rates are distributed in the same manner as the accelerations are distributed on the EPA test cycles, or if the vehicle operational characteristics do not significantly change with acceleration rate, then results from the EPA cycles should be representative of average vehicle use. However, if vehicle operational characteristics change with changing acceleration rates, and if vehicle accelerations in consumer use are not distributed in the same manner as the accelerations of the EPA test cycle, then significant differences between EPA estimated fuel economy and actual vehicle fuel consumption may result. One vehicle characteristic which often changes with acceleration rate is the transmission shift speed for vehicles with automatic transmissions. To determine the effects of acceleration rates on transmission shift speeds, EPA recently conducted a short test sequence on two vehicles with automatic transmissions. These tests determined the relation between vehicle acceleration rate and transmission shift speed for acceleration rates from 1 to 6 mph/sec.

  1. Control system and method for an automatic transmission providing smooth engagement action

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, K.

    1987-08-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission system for a vehicle, the automatic transmission system comprising a gear transmission mechanism which comprises a rotational element, and first and second friction engaging means which are oppositely changed over between engaged and disengaged states so as to alternately provide one of a first speed stage and a second speed stage of the gear transmission mechanism, a control system comprising: first means for detecting a rotational speed of the rotational element; second means for controlling an engagement and disengagement of the first friction engaging means so as to increase a degree of engagement of the first friction engaging means when activated in one of first and second actuating directions thereof and to decrease the degree of engagement of the first friction engaging means when activated in the other of the first and second actuating directions: third means for repetitively comparing each current value of the rotational speed of the rotational element detected by the first means with a preceding value of the rotational speed of the rotational element detected by the first means in the repetitive comparison; fourth means for activating the second means to incrementally activate the second means in one of the first and second actuating directions each time the third means detects in the repetitive comparison.

  2. Automatic Transmission Period Setting for Intermittent Periodic Transmission in Wireless Backhaul System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guangri; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    Intermittent Periodic Transmission (IPT forwarding) has been proposed as an efficient packet relay method for wireless backhaul. In IPT forwarding, a source node sends packets to a destination node with a certain time interval (IPT duration) so that signal interference between relay nodes that send packets simultaneously are reduced and frequency reuse is realized which brings about an improvement of system throughput. However, optimum IPT duration setting for each node is a difficult problem which is not solved adequately yet. In this paper, we propose a new IPT duration setting protocol which employs some training packets to search for the optimum IPT duration for each node. A simulation and experiment show that the proposed method is not only very effective but also practical for wireless backhaul.

  3. Clutch fill control of an automatic transmission for heavy-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Chen, Huiyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper an integrated clutch filling phase control for gearshifts on wet clutch transmissions is developed. In a clutch-to-clutch shift of an automatic transmission, in order to obtain smooth gearshift, it should synchronize the oncoming clutch and the off-going clutch timely as well as precise pressure control for the engagement of the oncoming clutch. However, before the oncoming clutch pressure starts to increase, the initial cavity of the clutch chamber has to be filled first. The filling time and stability of the fill phase are very important for the clutch control. In order to improve the shift quality of the automatic transmission which is equipped on heavy-duty vehicles, the electro-hydraulic clutch actuation system is analysed and modelled. A new fill phase control strategy is proposed based on the system analysis as well as the control parameters are optimized according to the variation of the oil temperature and engine speed. The designed strategy is validated by a simulation work. The results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy and parameters modified method can transit the shift process from the fill phase to the torque phase effectively.

  4. Remnants of Tropical Storm Allison over Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 13, 2001 MODIS acquired this true-color image of Tropical Storm Allison over the Southeastern United States. Also pictured are a few wildfires burning in the stat of Florida. MODIS has thermal detectors uniquely designed to detect fires as hot as 500K without saturating, and it is being used by land managers throughout the U.S. to monitor and manage wildfires. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  5. Optimal shifting control strategy in inertia phase of an automatic transmission for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Yihuai; Geng, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Shifting quality is a crucial factor in all parts of the automobile industry. To ensure an optimal gear shifting strategy with best fuel economy for a stepped automatic transmission, the controller should be designed to meet the challenge of lacking of a feedback sensor to measure the relevant variables. This paper focuses on a new kind of automatic transmission using proportional solenoid valve to control the clutch pressure, a speed difference of the clutch based control strategy is designed for the shift control during the inertia phase. First, the mechanical system is shown and the system dynamic model is built. Second, the control strategy is designed based on the characterization analysis of models which are derived from dynamics of the drive line and electro-hydraulic actuator. Then, the controller uses conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control theory, and a robust two-degree-of-freedom controller is also carried out to determine the optimal control parameters to further improve the system performance. Finally, the designed control strategy with different controller is implemented on a simulation model. The compared results show that the speed difference of clutch can track the desired trajectory well and improve the shift quality effectively.

  6. Hydraulic control for automatic transmission wherein sequential clutch engagement is controlled by an accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, K.

    1987-05-19

    A hydraulic control is described for an automatic transmission which comprises, in combination: a source of operating fluid; and an accumulator having a working chamber fluid-connected with the first fluid passage. The accumulator comprises a piston and a spring for urging the piston in one direction, the piston comprising a switching member which controls the supply of operating fluid to the second fluid passage. The switching member is operable to establish the second fluid passage when the operating fluid supplied into the working chamber attains a predetermined value required to displace the piston against the spring to regulate the pressure of the operating fluid for minimizing a shock which would result when one of the first and second friction coupling members is brought into the coupled position.

  7. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D`Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-04-01

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the < 5 % level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. This paper describes a detailed breakdown of the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.

  8. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    D'Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-01-26

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the <5% level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. As a result, this paper describes a detailed breakdown ofmore » the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.« less

  9. Advanced Seals and Secondary Airflow Systems for Allison AST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2006-01-01

    The author will present results obtained to date of a secondary flow study currently being conducted. The purpose of the study is to investigate and report all the ramifications of introducing advanced sealing technology into gas turbine engine secondary flow systems. In addition to detailed cost/benefit results we will also derive seal operational requirements which can be fed into a subsequent advanced seal development program. Using the current Allison AE3007 engine as a model/baseline we have examined 6 different advanced seal variations. We have settled on a design with 2 advanced seals which results n a savings of 2% in chargeable cooling. The introduction of these advanced seals has resulted in substantial changes to surrounding engine components which will be reported.

  10. Speed change control method and device of automatic transmission for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugasa, Y.; Yaegashi, T.

    1986-02-25

    A speed change control device of an automatic transmission for a vehicle is described, the control device comprising: a first voltage producing means for producing voltage related with engine temperature; a second voltage producing means for producing voltage related with vehicle speed; a first comparator for comparing the output voltage of the first voltage producing means with a first predetermined value; a second comparator for comparing the output voltage of the second voltage producing means with a second predetermined value; an oil pressure supply controlling means for controlling oil pressure supply to a hydraulic servo for a friction engaging device upon receiving operating signals when a speed change stage producing a reduction gear ratio lower than a predetermined value is to be performed; and a blocking means for blocking input of the operating signals to the oil pressure supply controlling means only when the engine temperature is lower than the first predetermined value and the vehicle speed is lower than the second predetermined value in response to the outputs of the first and second comparators.

  11. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  12. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  13. Initial experience with automatic image transmission to an intensive care unit using PACS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravin, Carl E.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the refinement of the interaction between a CR system and PACS that has made the automatic distribution of images to specified locations possible. Those interactions between the CR and the PACS that were considered important to the acceptance of the data to be sent to the ICU are described. Display and user interface considerations that were important for physician acceptance of the unit are also discussed. System enhancements and future applications will be developed based on the possible implications of this technology in both Radiology and the ICUs.

  14. Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Specialist. Instructor Manual and Student Workbook. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for transmission/transaxle specialist is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum contains nine units. Each unit of instruction includes some or all of the following components: objective sheet,…

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2 UNIT IV, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULICS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF VALVES UTILIZED IN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEWING FACTS ABOUT PUMPS, (2) USING VALVES FOR CONTROL, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES ON RELIEF VALVES, (4) USING DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES,…

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT IX, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OIL FLOW WITHIN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE GENERAL DESCRIPTION, HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS, AND BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT AND OPERATION. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "LEARNING ABOUT THE ALLISON…

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT III, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULICS (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES AND PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE WHY USE HYDRAULICS, REVIEWING BASIC PHYSICS LAWS IN RELATION TO HYDRAULICS, UNDERSTANDING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND DEVELOPING A BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. THE MODULE…

  18. Automatic Assessment of Acquisition and Transmission Losses in Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, D.; Purna Kumari, B.; Manju Sarma, M.; Aparna, N.; Gopal Krishna, B.

    2016-06-01

    The quality of Remote Sensing data is an important parameter that defines the extent of its usability in various applications. The data from Remote Sensing satellites is received as raw data frames at the ground station. This data may be corrupted with data losses due to interferences during data transmission, data acquisition and sensor anomalies. Thus it is important to assess the quality of the raw data before product generation for early anomaly detection, faster corrective actions and product rejection minimization. Manual screening of raw images is a time consuming process and not very accurate. In this paper, an automated process for identification and quantification of losses in raw data like pixel drop out, line loss and data loss due to sensor anomalies is discussed. Quality assessment of raw scenes based on these losses is also explained. This process is introduced in the data pre-processing stage and gives crucial data quality information to users at the time of browsing data for product ordering. It has also improved the product generation workflow by enabling faster and more accurate quality estimation.

  19. Interview with a quality leader: Joel T. Allison on healthcare technology and quality care. Interview by Marie St. Rose.

    PubMed

    Allison, Joel T

    2009-01-01

    Managing the delivery of healthcare in a turbulent environment is challenging. In this article, Joel T. Allison shares his knowledge, experiences, and best practices on healthcare technology and quality care. PMID:19753802

  20. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  1. Texas after Tropical Storm Allison (bands 2,1,3 in R,G,B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS image of Texas (left), Oklahoma (top left), Louisiana (bottom right) and Arkansas (upper right) makes use of band combinations (groups of wavelengths) that make water stand out against land. In this image, the dark blue/black squiggles indicate water. The bright green area along the Texas coast is Galveston Bay, southeast of Houston. Houston was devastated in the past week from the rains from Tropical Storm Allison. The brightness of the Bay may be due to sediment runoff from all the floodwaters. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  2. Control system for the Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} source test facility Allison scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C. D.; Stockli, M. P.; Gorlov, T. V.; Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.

    2010-02-15

    Spallation Neutron Source is currently in progress of a multiyear plan to ramp ion beam power to the initial design power of 1.4 MW. Key to reaching this goal is understanding and improving the operation of the H{sup -} ion source. An Allison scanner was installed on the ion source in the test facility to support this improvement. This paper will discuss the hardware and the software control system of the installed Allison scanner. The hardware for the system consists of several parts. The heart of the system is the scanner head, complete with associated bias plates, slits, and signal detector. There are two analog controlled high voltage power supplies to bias the plates in the head, and a motor with associated controller to position the head in the beam. A multifunction data acquisition card reads the signals from the signal detector, as well as supplies the analog voltage control for the power supplies. To synchronize data acquisition with the source, the same timing signal that is used to trigger the source itself is used to trigger data acquisition. Finally, there is an industrial personal computer to control the rest of the hardware. Control software was developed using National Instruments LABVIEW, and consists of two parts: a data acquisition program to control the hardware and a stand alone application for offline user data analysis.

  3. Control System for the SNS H- Source Test Stand Allison Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Cary D; Stockli, Martin P; Gorlov, Timofey V; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Murray Jr, S N

    2010-01-01

    SNS is currently in progress of a multi-year plan to ramp ion beam power to the initial design power of 1.4 MW. Key to reaching this goal is understanding and improving the operation of the H- ion source. An Allison scanner was installed on the ion source test stand to support this improvement. This paper will discuss the hardware and the software control system of the installed Allison scanner. The hardware for the system consists of several parts. The heart of the system is the scanner head, complete with associated bias plates, slits, and signal detector. There are two analog controlled high voltage power supplies to bias the plates in the head, and a motor with associated controller to position the head in the beam. A multifunction data acquisition card reads the signals from the signal detector, as well as supplying the analog voltage control for the power supplies. To synchronize data acquisition with the source, the same timing signal that is used to trigger the source itself is used to trigger data acquisition. Finally, there is an industrial PC to control the rest of the hardware. Control software was developed using National Instruments LabVIEW, and consists of two parts, a data acquisition program to control the hardware, and a stand alone application for offline user data analysis.

  4. THE ALLISON UNIT CO{sub 2}-ECBM PILOT: A RESERVOIR MODELING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; Anne Taillefert; Larry Pekot; Chris Clarkson

    2003-02-01

    In October, 2000, the United States Department of Energy, through contractor Advanced Resources International (ARI), launched a multi-year government-industry research & development collaboration called the Coal-Seq project. The Coal-Seq project is investigating the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams by performing detailed reservoir studies of two enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery field projects in the San Juan basin. The two sites are the Allison Unit, operated by Burlington Resources, and into which CO{sub 2} is being injected, and the Tiffany Unit, operating by BP America, into which nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is being injected (the interest in understanding the N{sub 2}-ECBM process has important implications for CO{sub 2} sequestration via flue-gas injection). The purposes of the field studies are to understand the reservoir mechanisms of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} injection into coalseams, demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the ECBM and sequestration processes, demonstrate an engineering capability to model them, and to evaluate sequestration economics. In support of these efforts, laboratory and theoretical studies are also being performed to understand and model multicomponent isotherm behavior, and coal permeability changes due to swelling with CO{sub 2} injection. This report describes the results of an important component of the overall project, the Allison Unit reservoir study. The Allison Unit is located in the northern New Mexico portion of the prolific San Juan basin. The study area consists of 16 methane production wells, 4 CO{sub 2} injection wells, and one pressure observation well. The field originally began production in July 1989, and CO{sub 2} injection operations for ECBM purposes commenced in April, 1995. CO{sub 2} injection was suspended in August, 2001, to evaluate the results of the pilot. In this study, a detailed reservoir characterization of the field was developed, the field

  5. Passage of Tropical Storm Allison (2001) over southeast Texas recorded in δ18O values of Ostracoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, James R.; Hyeong, Kiseong; Maddocks, Rosalie F.; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2008-09-01

    Freshwater Ostracoda collected in ephemeral pond-waters derived from Tropical Storm Allison (2001, Texas) recorded the unusually low oxygen-isotope values of that storm. Therefore, the potential clearly exists, in locations where tropical cyclones make landfall, to obtain a long-term record of tropical cyclone activity from fossil ostracode calcite.

  6. Learning through Expeditions: The Need for Method as Well as Opportunity--A Response to Allison and Von Wald (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Mark; Collins, Dave; Hathaway, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Allison and Von Wald (2010) highlight the substantial opportunities presented by expeditions to address the crucial topic of personal and social development. The present paper wishes to address the apparent oversight of transfer within such learning experiences. Issues that need to be addressed if the impact of transfer is to be optimised are…

  7. Rolling-element fatigue life with traction fluids and automatic transmission fluid in a high-speed rolling-contact rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Nahm, A. H.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rolling-element fatigue tests were run in standard and high-speed rolling-contact rigs at bar speeds from 5000 to 50,000 rpm to determine the effects of speed and lubricant film parameter on rolling-element fatigue life. AISI 52100 test bars were tested at a maximum Hertz stress of 4.83 GPa (700,000 psi) with three traction fluids and an automatic transmission fluid. Rolling-element fatigue life increased with speed, with the greatest increases occurring from 10,000 to 50,000 rpm. The life data tended to follow published life-versus-lubricant-film-parameter data up to a film parameter of approximately 3.

  8. Natural Hazard Problem and Solution Definition in the News Media: the Case of Tropical Storm Allison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric; Mosher-Howe, Katrina

    2010-05-01

    Focusing events such as natural or technological disasters can have significant impacts on public policy and planning in both the near and long term. These impacts can manifest at different temporal scales ranging from the period of immediate attention and disaster relief through the period of recovery and reconstruction and beyond. These impacts and associated decisions can be studied in retrospect and understood as not only short-term reactions, but as long-term components of subsequent natural hazard planning and public policy. By studying in detail how an event was defined, and the policy and planning alternatives that were raised or recommended in response to a disaster event, we can better understand the role that disaster-related focusing events play in the long-term evolution of a community's public policy, infrastructural planning efforts, and responses to natural disasters. This paper will use a focusing event framework to explore the local and regional policy impacts over time of a major urban flood in Houston, Texas, Tropical Storm Allison. Tropical Storm Allison (TSA), dropped 36 inches of rain on Houston over a period of four days in early June 2001, and was responsible for 22 deaths, 70,000 flood damaged homes, and 5 billion in damage to the region. The primary data source for this effort is a database of 500 articles from the major regional newspaper, the Houston Chronicle, over the period of 2001 through 2008. These articles were coded for multiple variables, including, cause, effect and impact (financial and social), blame, problem and solution definition and solution acceptance). This paper focuses primarily on the measures of problem definition (how was TSA, as an event, defined in the media, for example, as an act of God, or as a result of poor planning or decision making, etc), and on solution definition (what solutions were proposed to mitigate or adapt to future storms of this magnitude, how were they linked to the definition of the problem

  9. Low-Energy Emittance Studies with the new Allison Emittance Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Blokland, Willem; Gorlov, Timofey V; Han, Baoxi; Long, Cary D; Pennisi, Terry R; Assadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The new SNS Allison emittance scanner measures emittances of 65 kV ion beams over a range of +/- 116 mrad. Its versatile control system allows for time-dependent emittance measurements using an external trigger to synchronize with pulsed ion beam systems. After an adjustable initial delay, the system acquires an array of equally-delayed beam current measurements, each averaged over a certain time span, where all three time parameters are user selectable. The zero offset of the beam current measurements is determined by averaging a fraction of 1 ms shortly before the start of the ion beam pulse. This paper discusses the optimization of the angular range. In addition it presents the first results and reports an unresolved artefact. Data are presented on the time evolution of emittance ellipses during 0.8 ms long H- beam pulses emerging from the SNS test LEBT, which is important for loss considerations in the SNS accelerator. Additional data explore the emittance growth observed with increasing beam current and/or increasing RF-power.

  10. Catalyst evaluation on a detroit diesel Allison 6V-92TA methanol-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, R.C.; McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Lipari, F.; Scruggs, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The fresh catalytic activities of both a production Pt-Pd catalyst and a GMR Pd-promoted Ag catalyst were evaluated in back-to-back emissions tests on an experimental Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA) 6V-92TA methanol-fueled engine. Both the 13-mode steady-state and transient heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedures were employed. The production catalyst was characterized by relatively high conversions (70-90%) of unburned methanol and carbon monoxide in both the transient and 13-mode tests. However, the production catalyst promoted the partial oxidation of unburned methanol to formaldehyde, as indicated by large negative apparent conversions of formaldehyde in both the transient and steady-state tests (-77% transient; -188% 13-mode). In contrast, the Pd-promoted Ag catalyst converted formaldehyde with good efficiency (--90% in the 13-mode test and --50% in the hot transient test) but was much less efficient than the production catalyst for converting unburned methanol and carbon monoxide.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  12. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  13. Erosion Coatings for High-Temperature Polymer Composites: A Collaborative Project With Allison Advanced Development Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    2000-01-01

    composite (ASTM D 4541 95 "Pull Off Strength of Coatings"). Glenn and Allison Advanced Development Company collaborated to optimize erosion coatings for gas turbine fan and compressor applications. All the coating systems survived aggressive thermal cycling without spalling. During erosion tests (see the final photo), the most promising coating systems tested had Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co as the hard topcoats. In all cases, these coating systems performed significantly better than that with a TiN hard topcoat. When material depth (thickness) loss is considered, the Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co coating systems provided, on average, an erosion resistance 8.5 times greater than that for the uncoated PMR 15/T650 35 composite. Similarly, Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co coating systems adhered to the PMC substrate during tensile tests significantly better than systems containing a TiN topcoat. Differences in topcoats of Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co were determined by considering issues such as cost and environmental impact. The preferred erosion-resistant coating system for PMR 15/T650 35 has WC-Co as the hard topcoat. This system provides the following benefits in comparison to the coating system with Cr3C2-NiCr topcoat: lower powder material cost (15 to 20 percent), environmentally friendly materials (Cr3C2-NiCr is hazardous), and higher deposition yield (10 to 15 percent), which results in less waste.

  14. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  15. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  16. 76 FR 66220 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...: Requires each transmission owner to provide automatic switching of its existing capacitor banks... underfrequency isolation of generating units, tripping of shunt capacitors, and other automatic actions that...

  17. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  18. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  19. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  20. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  1. Automatic warranties.

    PubMed

    Decker, R

    1987-10-01

    In addition to express warranties (those specifically made by the supplier in the contract) and implied warranties (those resulting from circumstances of the sale), there is one other classification of warranties that needs to be understood by hospital materials managers. These are sometimes known as automatic warranties. In the following dialogue, Doctor Decker develops these legal concepts. PMID:10284977

  2. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  3. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  4. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  5. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting for the Allison Woods Research Station in Iredell County, North Carolina, 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Brad A.; Abraham, Joju

    2010-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Allison Woods research station near Statesville, North Carolina, in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from April 2005 through September 2008 are presented in this report. Data presented include well-construction characteristics and periodic groundwater-level measurements for 29 wells, borehole geophysical logs for 8 wells, hourly groundwater-level measurements for 5 wells, continuous water-quality measurements for 3 wells, periodic water-quality samples for 12 wells and 1 surface-water station, slug-test results for 11 wells, and shallow groundwater-flow maps. In addition, the geology and hydrogeology at the site are summarized.

  6. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  7. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  8. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  9. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  10. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  11. Equations for Automotive-Transmission Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, S.; Aston, M. B.; Chapman, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Curve-fitting procedure ensures high confidence levels. Threedimensional plot represents performance of small automatic transmission coasting in second gear. In equation for plot, PL power loss, S speed and T torque. Equations applicable to manual and automatic transmissions over wide range of speed, torque, and efficiency.

  12. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  13. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  14. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  15. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  20. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  1. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  2. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  3. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  4. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System... Identification System (ATIS). All satellite uplink transmissions carrying broadband video information shall be identified through the use of an automatic transmitter identification system as specified below....

  5. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  6. Performance of Allison Model 400-C6 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. I; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Compressor at Equivalent Impeller Speeds of 6000, 7000, and 8500 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Karl; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    The Allison model 400-C6 compressor was operated at an inlet pressure of 12 inches of mercury absolute ana ambient inlet temperature at equivalent impeller speeds of 6000, 7000, and 8500 rpm. Additional runs at an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm and ambient inlet temperature were made at inlet pressures from 7 to 22 inches of mercury absolute. The results of this investigation are compared with those of the 533-A-23 compressors. For the speeds investigated, the Allison model 400-C6 compressor had a maximum adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.768 at an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm; the corresponding equivalent weight flow was 45.0 pounds per second and the pressure ratio was 1.83. At an equivalent impeller speed of 8500 rpm, the maximum equivalent weight flow was 61.6 pounds per second and the peak pressure ratio of 2.38 occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 52.2 pounds per 1 second and an adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.714. At an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm, increasing the compressor- inlet pressure increased the maximum equivalent weight flow and the pressure ratio.

  7. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  8. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  9. An 110 Ma Crocodilian-Bearing Vertebrate Assemblage Preserved Between Basalt Flows on a mid-Pacific Seamount, ODP Site 865, Allison Guyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firth, J. V.; Yancey, T.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.

    2006-12-01

    Crocodilian teeth, fish teeth, scales, and bones, and teeth and bones of uncertain affinities occur within a mudstone deposit sandwiched between basalt flows at the base of ODP Hole 865A on Allison Guyot in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Age control from large benthic foraminifers, Sr-isotope stratigraphy, and radiometric ages of the basalt place the age of this assemblage at 110 \\mp 1.2 Ma, or late Aptian/early Albian. This deposit contains the oldest known crocodilian remains in the Pacific Realm. The vertebrate-bearing interval lies within a 30 cm mudstone unit overlying lithified fossiliferous limestone and underlying fossiliferous clayey limestone. The surface of the lithified limestone contains fish scales, vertebrate teeth and bones, and a carapace of the ostracod Cytherella. The lower 17 cm of mudstone is the prime vertebrate-bearing layer. It has a fining-upwards grain size trend, and an upward increase in dark coloration. The sand sized fraction is primarily pelletal glauconite, pyrite and fish debris. Limestone clasts up to several mm in diameter occur through the lower portion, whereas the higher portion contains sand laminae. A pristine 1 cm long crocodilian tooth, along with several smaller crocodilian teeth from this interval, attest to the presence of a saltwater crocodilian within the lagoon of this drowned mid-Pacific atoll. Common and varied fish teeth include both slender forms for piercing and grasping mobile prey and blunt flat-topped forms for crushing and grinding hard-shelled bottom living organisms such as oysters. The crushing teeth resemble those of the modern Black Drum fish, a bottom feeder common in shallow coastal environments. Abundant fish scales include both heavy phosphatic ganoid scales, a type present on many Mesozoic fish, and thin flexible scales of a type present on most modern fish. Some teeth and bone fragments are currently unidentified, and may represent vertebrates other than fish or crocodilians. No calcareous

  10. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  11. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  12. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  13. Automatic Differentiation Package

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  14. Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Miller, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Error detection incorporated with automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) is widely used for error control in data communication systems. This method of error control is simple and provides high system reliability. If a properly chosen code is used for error detection, virtually error-free data transmission can be attained. Various types of ARQ and hybrid ARQ schemes, and error detection using linear block codes are surveyed.

  15. Automated manual transmission mode selection controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.

    1999-11-09

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  16. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  17. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  18. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  19. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  20. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  1. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  2. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  3. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  4. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  5. Transmissible amyloid.

    PubMed

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  6. Rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  7. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  8. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  9. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  10. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  11. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  12. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  13. Principles of Automatic Lemmatisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hann, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Introduces some algorithmic methods, for which no pre-editing is necessary, for automatically "lemmatising" raw text (changing raw text to an equivalent version in which all inflected words are artificially transformed to their dictionary look-up form). The results of a study of these methods, which used a German Text, are also given. (KM)

  14. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  16. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  17. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  18. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  19. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  20. Reliable Communications Using Multi-layer Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assimi, Abdel-Nasser; Poulliat, Charly; Fijalkow, Inbar

    In this paper, we propose a MIMO approach for packet combining in hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols using single-carrier multi-layer transmission over block fading channels. Based on this model, the problem of the optimization of the linear superposition coefficients is briefly addressed.

  1. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  2. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  3. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  4. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  5. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  6. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  7. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  8. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  9. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  10. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  11. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  12. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  13. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  14. Automatic digital image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  15. Vented transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1990-01-29

    This patent describes a vented transmission. It comprises: a housing; a rotary input to the housing; a rotary output from the housing; transmission means within the housing interconnecting the input and the output and including a hollow, rotary shaft journaled within the housing; a vent tube having a first end extending into one end of the hollow shaft and a second end in fluid communication with the exterior of the housing; a shoulder within the hollow shaft and intermediate the ends of the vent tube and defining of relatively smaller diameter section near the first end of the vent tube that is within the hollow shaft and a relatively large diameter section nearer the second end of the vent tube; at least one aperture extending through the hollow shaft from the large diameter section immediately adjacent the shoulder; and a labyrinth seal at the interface of the vent tube and the large diameter section at a location between the aperture (s) and the second end of the vent tube.

  16. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  17. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  18. Automatic clutch control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, H.; Ogawa, N.; Hattori, T.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an automatic clutch control system, comprising: a clutch having a full clutch engagement point and a clutch contact point; a clutch actuator for controlling a clutch stroke; a plurality of solenoid valves for controlling the clutch actuator; clutch stroke sensor means for measuring the clutch stroke and for detecting the full clutch engagement point and the clutch contact point in the clutch stroke; control means, for feeding back a stroke signal detected by the clutch stroke sensor and for controlling the solenoid valves to control clutch engagement and disengagement.

  19. Automatic speaker recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Naylor, Joe

    1984-07-01

    The Defense Communications Division of ITT (ITTDCD) has developed an automatic speaker recognition (ASR) system that meets the functional requirements defined in NRL's Statement of Work. This report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a short history of the development of the ASR system, both the algorithm and the implementation. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of system testing, and Chapter 4 summarizes test results. In Chapter 5, some additional testing performed using GFM test material is discussed. Conclusions derived from the contract work are given in Chapter 6.

  20. Automatic readout micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.

    1982-03-23

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  1. Automatic engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

  2. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  3. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  4. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  5. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  6. Transmission of digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

  7. Automatic beamline calibration procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Zambre, Y.

    1992-03-01

    Recent experience with the SLC and SPEAR accelerators have led to a well-defined set of procedures for calibration of the beamline model using the orbit fitting program, RESOLVE. Difference orbit analysis is used to calibrate quadrupole strengths, BPM sensitivities, corrector strengths, focusing effects from insertion devices, and to determine the source of dispersion and coupling errors. Absolute orbit analysis is used to locate quadrupole misalignments, BPM offsets, or beam loss. For light source applications, the photon beam source coordinates can be found. The result is an accurate model of the accelerator which can be used for machine control. In this paper, automatable beamline calibration procedures are outlined and illustrated with recent examples. 5 refs.

  8. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  9. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  10. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  11. Automatic flowmeter calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating the accuracy of a flowmeter is described. The system includes a calculator capable of performing mathematical functions responsive to receiving data signals and function command signals. A prover cylinder is provided for measuring the temperature, pressure, and time required for accumulating a predetermined volume of fluid. Along with these signals, signals representing the temperature and pressure of the fluid going into the meter are fed to a plurality of data registers. Under control of a progress controller, the data registers are read out and the information is fed through a data select circuit to the calculator. Command signals are also produced by a function select circuit and are fed to the calculator set indicating the desired function to be performed. The reading is then compared with the reading produced by the flowmeter.

  12. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanims, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  13. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  14. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  15. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  16. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  17. Automatic quality assessment of planetary images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, P.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    A significant fraction of planetary images are corrupted beyond the point that much scientific meaning can be extracted. For example, transmission errors result in missing data which is unrecoverable. The available planetary image datasets include many such "bad data", which both occupy valuable scientific storage resources and create false impressions about planetary image availability for specific planetary objects or target areas. In this work, we demonstrate a pipeline that we have developed to automatically assess the quality of planetary images. Additionally, this method discriminates between different types of image degradation, such as low-quality originating from camera flaws or low-quality triggered by atmospheric conditions, etc. Examples of quality assessment results for Viking Orbiter imagery will be also presented.

  18. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  19. Automatic battery analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.J.; Frailing, C.E.

    1980-03-11

    Apparatus for automatically testing automotive-type, lead acid storage batteries is disclosed in which three separate tests are made and the results thereof compared to predetermined standards in a specified order to maximize the information obtained about the battery. The three tests measure (1) whether the battery meets its cold cranking rating by drawing a predetermined load current therefrom for a predetermined period of time and determining whether the battery terminal voltage is above a specified level at the end of that period, (2) whether the battery terminal voltage is above another specified level at the end of a predetermined period of time following the completion of the first test, and (3) whether the internal resistance is acceptably low. If the battery passes the first test, it is known to be acceptable. If the battery fails the first test and passes the second test, it is known to be unacceptable. If the battery fails the first and second tests, the third test is performed. If the battery then passes the third test, it is known to be acceptable but to require a recharge, whereas if the battery then fails the third test the acceptability of the battery is then not yet determined and it must be recharged and retested.

  20. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  1. Automatic brain tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1998-06-01

    A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

  2. DOE/Allison ceramic vane effort

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.; Browning, W.; Calcuttawala, S.

    1995-10-01

    An objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to develop ultra-high efficiency gas turbine systems. Rotor inlet temperatures several hundred degrees greater than for the highest temperature current industrial engines will be required to meet the ATS objectives. Consequently, new technologies need to be developed and demonstrated to achieve the required ultra-high ATS efficiencies.

  3. Allison engine ATS program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Mukavetz, D.

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines in industrial and utility applications can help meet future national and worldwide power generation requirements. Turbine systems burning natural gas offer environmentally sound and economical power generation and cogeneration. Since U.S. demand alone will require up to 15 gigawatts per year of new and replacement capacity after the year 2000, the availability of Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) to fill a share of this need will save significant amounts of fuel and benefit the environment. Implementation of the ATS Program will also keep U.S. manufacturers on the cutting ledge of turbine technology for power generation applications and enhance the nation`s economic competitiveness.

  4. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  5. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  6. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  7. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  8. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  9. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  10. Operating safety of automatic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich

    Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.

  11. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  12. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  13. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOEpatents

    Nambu, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  14. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  15. Apparatus for controlling transmission gear shift selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.M.

    1986-07-29

    In an automotive engine having an electrical power source and an automatic or semi-automatic transmission including a manually operated transmission gear shift lever having at least two forward drive positions, an apparatus is described which consists of: (a) a speed sensing means for sensing the rotation speed of the engine and generating an output signal when the engine reaches a preselected rotational speed; and (b) a gear shifting means for changing the shift positions of the gear shift lever from a first drive position to a second drive position automatically in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, the gear shifting means including (i) a latch actuable between open and closed positions, (ii) a normally de-energized solenoid having a plunger connected to the latch and operable to move the latch to the open position when the solenoid is energized by the electrical power source, (iii) a relay means for allowing the energizing of the solenoid by the power source in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, and (iv) an actuating means, including a spring biased linkage mechanism operably connected to the gear shift lever and the latch, for actuating the movement of the gear shift lever from the first drive position to the second drive position in response to movement of the latch from the closed to the open position, thereby causing gear shifting to occur when the engine reaches the preselected rotational speed.

  16. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  17. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  18. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  19. FAMA: Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella

    2014-02-01

    FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis), written in Perl, computes the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) automatically and independently of any subjective approach. Based on the widely-used MOOG code, it simultaneously searches for three equilibria, excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between logn(FeI) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but instead are based on the quality of the spectra.

  20. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  1. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-02-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. PMID:6338826

  2. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  3. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  4. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Answers for Patients . Top of Page Related Pages Transmission for Healthcare Providers Cover Your Cough Clean Hands ...

  5. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not shingles. For more information about shingles, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

  6. Automatic 35 mm slide duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, H. F.; Texler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic duplicator is readily assembled from conventional, inexpensive equipment and parts. Series of slides can be exposed without operator attention, eliminating considerable manual handling and processing ordinarily required. At end of programmed exposure sequence, unit shuts off and audible alarm signals completion of process.

  7. Automatic Association of News Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  8. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  9. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  10. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  11. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  12. Automatic agar tray inoculation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic agar tray inoculation device is simple in design and foolproof in operation. It employs either conventional inoculating loop or cotton swab for uniform inoculation of agar media, and it allows technician to carry on with other activities while tray is being inoculated.

  13. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  14. The processing and transmission of EEG data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Interest in sleep research was stimulated by the discovery of a number of physiological changes that occur during sleep and by the observed effects of sleep on physical and mental performance and status. The use of the relatively new methods of EEG measurement, transmission, and automatic scoring makes sleep analysis and categorization feasible. Sleep research involving the use of the EEG as a fundamental input has the potential of answering many unanswered questions involving physical and mental behavior, drug effects, circadian rhythm, and anesthesia.

  15. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  16. Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer system: Automatic Whistler Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, J.; Ferencz, C.; BodnáR, L.; Hamar, D.; Steinbach, P.

    2008-12-01

    A new, unique system has been developed for the automatic detection and analysis of whistlers. The Automatic Whistler Detector and Analyzer (AWDA) system has two purposes: (1) to automatically provide plasmaspheric electron densities extracted from whistlers and (2) to collect statistical data for the investigation of whistler generation and propagation. This paper presents the details of and the first results obtained by the automatic detector segment. The detector algorithm is based on image correlation where the target image is a preprocessed spectrogram of raw VLF signals and the pattern is a model whistler. The first AWDA system has been working in Tihany, Hungary (L = 1.8), and has collected 100,000 whistler traces per year. The overall detection efficiency using a parameter set optimized for purpose 2 is 90% for misdetection and 50-80% for false detection. The statistical analysis over the period February 2002 to February 2008 including 600,000 whistler traces shows high diurnal variations; whistler were mainly, but not only, detected when both the source and receiver regions were unlit. The seasonal occurrence is high during austral summer and low during austral winter. Comparison with Tarcsai et al.'s (1988) statistical study on Tihany whistlers shows differences in both diurnal and seasonal variations, but the latter study was made on 1388 manually identified whistlers only. The L value distributions of both data sets are similar. A global network of AWDA systems (AWDAnet) has been set up to overcome the time and space limitations of a single station; the network consists of 13 nodes, and another 6 are envisaged for the near future.

  17. Study on Planar Antennas for Wireless Power Transmission of Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Toshikazu; Kawashima, Kazumasa

    Wireless electric power transmission systems are suitable to spread electric vehicles, because non-contact charging systems are convenient tools. Such charging systems recharge automatically without intervention from drivers. In this paper, the results of experiments on the transmitting and receiving antennas of the wireless power transmission systems are presented. To study wireless power transmission efficiency, horn antennas, patch antennas, and array antennas were fabricated and evaluated.

  18. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  19. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  20. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  1. Automatic design of magazine covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  2. AUTO: Automatic script generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granacki, John; Hom, Ivan; Kazi, Tauseef

    1993-11-01

    This technical manual describes an automatic script generation system (Auto) for guiding the physical design of a printed circuit board. Auto accepts a printed circuit board design as specified in a netlist and partslist and returns a script to automatically provide all the necessary commands and file specifications required by Harris EDA's Finesse CAD system for placing and routing the printed circuit board. Auto insulates the designer from learning the details of commercial CAD systems, allows designers to modify the script for customized design entry, and performs format and completeness checking of the design files. This technical manual contains a complete tutorial/design example describing how to use the Auto system and also contains appendices describing the format of files required by the Finesse CAD system.

  3. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  4. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  5. Automatic Home Nursing Activity Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Tang, Chunqiang

    2009-01-01

    The rapid deployment of Web-based, consumer-centric electronic medical records (CEMRs) is an important trend in healthcare. In this paper, we incorporate nursing knowledge into CEMR so that it can automatically recommend home nursing activities (HNAs). Those more complex HNAs are made clickable for users to find detailed implementation procedures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20351888

  6. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  7. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  8. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  9. Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

  10. Automatic Synthesis Imaging with Difmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Shepherd, M. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Myers, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    Difmap is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, self-calibration, imaging, deconvolution, and model-fitting. The program can handle continuum, spectral-line, and polarization data from connected-element and very-long-baseline interferometer arrays. The program is written in ANSI C and runs on UNIX workstations. We describe the operation of the program with example data sets from the Very Large Array, the global VLBI network, and the Owens Valley Millimeter Array. We have developed Difmap scripts for automatic mapping and self-calibration of both VLA and VLBI data. We describe the strategies adopted for choosing the imaging, deconvolution, and self-calibration parameters, and show how these automatic scripts have made possible the rapid imaging of several hundred sources in the Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys (CJ1 and CJ2) and several thousand sources in a VLA search for gravitational lenses (CLASS). Other images made with automatic mapping in Difmap are presented at this meeting by Fassnacht et al., Myers et al., and Taylor et al.

  11. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  12. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  13. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Automatic hypermnesia and impaired recollection in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Linscott, R J; Knight, R G

    2001-10-01

    Evidence from studies of nonmnemonic automatic cognitive processes provides reason to expect that schizophrenia is associated with exaggerated automatic memory (implicit memory), or automatic hypermnesia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 22) and control participants (n = 26) were compared on word stem completion (WSC) and list discrimination (LD) tasks administered using the process dissociation procedure. Unadjusted, extended measurement model and dual-process signal-detection methods were used to estimate recollection and automatic memory indices. Schizophrenia was associated with automatic hypermnesia on the WSC task and impaired recollection on both tasks. Thought disorder was associated with even greater automatic hypermnesia. The absence of automatic hypermnesia on the LD task was interpreted with reference to the neuropsychological bases of context and content memory. PMID:11761047

  16. Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lowery, B S; Hardin, C D; Sinclair, S

    2001-11-01

    Although most research on the control of automatic prejudice has focused on the efficacy of deliberate attempts to suppress or correct for stereotyping, the reported experiments tested the hypothesis that automatic racial prejudice is subject to common social influence. In experiments involving actual interethnic contact, both tacit and expressed social influence reduced the expression of automatic prejudice, as assessed by two different measures of automatic attitudes. Moreover, the automatic social tuning effect depended on participant ethnicity. European Americans (but not Asian Americans) exhibited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to avoid prejudice (Experiment 3). Results are consistent with shared reality theory, which postulates that social regulation is central to social cognition. PMID:11708561

  17. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    2003-06-01

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective.

  18. Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J

    2003-06-19

    In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed field measurements of free-ranging echolocating dolphins. Here we show that dolphins do possess an automatic gain control mechanism, but that it is implemented in the transmission phase rather than the receiving phase of a sonar cycle. We find that the amplitude of the dolphins' echolocation signals are highly range dependent; this amplitude increases with increasing target range, R, in a 20 log(R) fashion to compensate for propagation loss. If the echolocation target is a fish school with many sound scatterers, the echoes from the school will remain nearly constant with range as the dolphin closes in on it. This characteristic has the same effect as time-varying gain in bats and technological sonar when considered from a sonar system perspective. PMID:12815429

  19. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  20. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  3. Automatic assembly of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    A problem in the automatic assembly of space stations is the determination of guidance laws for the terminal rendezvous and docking of two structural components or modules. The problem involves the feedback control of both the relative attitude and translational motion of the modules. A suitable mathematical model based on rigid body dynamics was used. The basic requirements, physical constraints and difficulties associated with the control problem are discussed. An approach which bypasses some of the difficulties is proposed. A nonlinear guidance law satisfying the basic requirements is derived. The implementation requirements is discussed. The performance of the resulting feedback control system with rigid and flexible structural components is studied by computer simulation.

  4. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  5. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  6. Edge Detection and Shape Recognition in Neutron Transmission Images

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, Eric D; McConchie, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements are a valuable tool for nondestructively imaging special nuclear materials. Analysis of these images, however, tends to require significant user interaction to determine the sizes, shapes, and likely compositions of measured objects. Computer vision (CV) techniques can be a useful approach to automatically extracting important information from either neutron transmission images or fission-site-mapping images. An automatable approach has been developed that processes an input image and, through recursive application of CV techniques, produces a set of basic shapes that define surfaces observed in the image. These shapes can then be compared to a library of known shape configurations to determine if the measured object matches its expected configuration, as could be done behind an information barrier for arms control treaty verification inspections.

  7. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  8. An automatic assembly planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lee, C. S. G.

    An automatic assembly planning system which takes the CAD description of a product as input and automatically generates an assembly plan subject to the resource constraint of a given assembly cell is presented. The system improves the flexibility and productivity of flexible manufacturing systems and is composed of five modules: world database, simulated world model, knowledge acquisition mechanism, planning knowledge base, and assembly planner. The acquired knowledge forms the planning knowledge base. The simulated world model keeps track of the current state of the assembly world. In the initial state, all the components are separated, while in the final state, all the components are assembled. The assembly planner is made up of a set of production rules which models the effects of real assembly tasks. By repeatedly applying these production rules to the simulated world state, the planner transforms the initial state into the final state. The set of rules applied during this transformation process forms the assembly plan to actually assemble the product in the given assembly cell. Examples are given to illustrate the concepts in these five modules.

  9. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  10. Automatic control of visual selection.

    PubMed

    Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks out to reduce the role of the homunculus, the 'little man in the head' that is still prominent in most psychological theories regarding the control our behaviour. We argue that once engaged in a task (which is a volitional act), visual selection run off more or less in an automatic fashion. We argue that the salience map that drives automatic selection is not only determined by raw physical salience of the objects in the environment but also by the way these objects appear to the person. We provide evidence that priming (feature priming, priming by working memory and reward priming) sharpens the cortical representation of these objects such that these objects appear to be more salient above and beyond their physical salience. We demonstrate that this type of priming is not under volitional control: it occurs even if observers try to volitionally prepare for something else. In other words, looking at red prepares our brain for things that are red even if we volitionally try to prepare for green. PMID:23437629

  11. The effect of mismatched recording conditions on human and automatic speaker recognition in forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Alexander, A; Botti, F; Dessimoz, D; Drygajlo, A

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse mismatched technical conditions in training and testing phases of speaker recognition and their effect on forensic human and automatic speaker recognition. We use perceptual tests performed by non-experts and compare their performance with that of a baseline automatic speaker recognition system. The degradation of the accuracy of human recognition in mismatched recording conditions is contrasted with that of the automatic system under similar recording conditions. The conditions considered are of public switched telephone network (PSTN) and global system for mobile communications (GSM) transmission and background noise. The perceptual cues that the human subjects use to perceive differences in voices are studied along with their importance in different conditions. We discuss the possibility of increasing the accuracy of automatic systems using the perceptual cues that remain robust to mismatched conditions. We estimate the strength of evidence for both humans and automatic systems, calculating likelihood ratios using the perceptual scores for humans and the log-likelihood scores for automatic systems. PMID:15639600

  12. Global positioning automatic vehicle location system

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheofanis, B.J.; Hasenack, M.L.; Teller, R.T.; Ramsey, G.F.

    1997-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a unique facility covering over 43 square miles. The Emergency Management and Response Office (EM&R) is required to respond, provide Incident Command (IC), and coordination for all Laboratory emergencies. This requires IC`s and support staff to respond to the actual scene of the incident. Since the IC is under numerous constraints and stress, the office wanted the capability of locating the EM&R vehicles on an electronic map. An automated vehicle location (AVL) system was required for the additional safety of the emergency response personal. The requirements for the AVL system include total automatic tracking and low cost. After careful consideration, it was determined that the most efficient and cost effective system would be based on packet radio technology as the transmission media. The location is determined by the Department of Defense Global Positioning System (GPS). The system that was designed and constructed required four components to be interfaced and communicate with each other. The first component was a GPS receiver which actually provides the location information, equipped with a digital interface to communicate location information remotely. The second component is a modem that interfaces the GPS digital interface information to a radio. The third component is the radio itself which allows for the actual information transfer from the remote GPS receiver and modem. The fourth component is the software package that provides moving maps and displays the vehicle location on that map. The equipment was all commercial off-the-shelf that only required proper integration and packaging for the AVL application. This paper describes the steps taken in the integration of the equipment into the AVL package.

  13. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  14. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  15. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  16. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  17. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  18. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  19. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  20. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  1. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  2. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  3. Automatic Nanodesign Using Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Many problems associated with the development of nanotechnology require custom designed molecules. We use genetic graph software, a new development, to automatically evolve molecules of interest when only the requirements are known. Genetic graph software designs molecules, and potentially nanoelectronic circuits, given a fitness function that determines which of two molecules is better. A set of molecules, the first generation, is generated at random then tested with the fitness function, Subsequent generations are created by randomly choosing two parent molecules with a bias towards high scoring molecules, tearing each molecules in two at random, and mating parts from the mother and father to create two children. This procedure is repeated until a satisfactory molecule is found. An atom pair similarity test is currently used as the fitness function to evolve molecules similar to existing pharmaceuticals.

  4. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  5. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  6. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  7. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  8. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  9. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  10. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  11. Automatic communication signal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system is presented for automatic monitoring of a communication signal in the RF or IF spectrum utilizing a superheterodyne receiver technique with a VCO to select and sweep the frequency band of interest. A first memory is used to store one band sweep as a reference for continual comparison with subsequent band sweeps. Any deviation of a subsequent band sweep by more than a predetermined tolerance level produces an alarm signal which causes the band sweep data temporarily stored in one of two buffer memories to be transferred to long-term store while the other buffer memory is switched to its store mode to assume the task of temporarily storing subsequent band sweeps.

  12. Automatic tools for system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    As spacecraft control and other space-related ground systems become increasingly complex, the effort required in testing and validation also increases. Implementation of a spacecraft control system normally involves a number of incremental deliveries. In addition kernel or general purpose software may also be involved, which must itself be considered in the integration and testing program. Tools can be used to assist this testing. These can reduce the effort required or alternatively they can ensure that for a given level of effort, a better job is done. Great benefit could be derived by automating certain types of testing (interactive software) which up to now has been performed manually at a terminal. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study examines means of automating spacecraft control system testing, evaluates relevant commercial tools and aims to prototype basic automatic testing functions.

  13. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  14. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  15. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  16. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  17. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  18. Automatic AVHRR image navigation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Dan; Emery, William

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report describing the work done on the project entitled Automatic AVHRR Image Navigation Software funded through NASA-Washington, award NAGW-3224, Account 153-7529. At the onset of this project, we had developed image navigation software capable of producing geo-registered images from AVHRR data. The registrations were highly accurate but required a priori knowledge of the spacecraft's axes alignment deviations, commonly known as attitude. The three angles needed to describe the attitude are called roll, pitch, and yaw, and are the components of the deviations in the along scan, along track and about center directions. The inclusion of the attitude corrections in the navigation software results in highly accurate georegistrations, however, the computation of the angles is very tedious and involves human interpretation for several steps. The technique also requires easily identifiable ground features which may not be available due to cloud cover or for ocean data. The current project was motivated by the need for a navigation system which was automatic and did not require human intervention or ground control points. The first step in creating such a system must be the ability to parameterize the spacecraft's attitude. The immediate goal of this project was to study the attitude fluctuations and determine if they displayed any systematic behavior which could be modeled or parameterized. We chose a period in 1991-1992 to study the attitude of the NOAA 11 spacecraft using data from the Tiros receiving station at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamic Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado.

  19. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  20. Automatic data editing: a brief introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the automatic data editing process: (1) check the data records for consistency, (2) analyze the inconsistent records to determine the inconsistent variables. It is stated that the application of automatic data editing is broad, and two specific examples are cited. One example, that of a vehicle maintenance data base is used to illustrate the process.

  1. Automatic Contour Tracking in Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new automatic contour tracking system, EdgeTrak, for the ultrasound image sequences of human tongue is presented. The images are produced by a head and transducer support system (HATS). The noise and unrelated high-contrast edges in ultrasound images make it very difficult to automatically detect the correct tongue surfaces. In…

  2. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  3. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification....

  4. 32 CFR 2001.30 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic declassification. 2001.30 Section 2001.30 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification § 2001.30 Automatic declassification....

  5. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  6. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  7. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  8. The Automaticity of Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Junge, Justin; Scholl, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time, and recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have suggested that this information can be automatically extracted by the visual system. The experiments reported in this article explore the automaticity of VSL in…

  9. Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) to Support Low-Cost Spacecraft Operation via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul; Repaci, Max; Sames, David

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Packet telemetry, Internet IP networks and cost reduction; 2) Basic functions and technical features of SAFE; 3) Project goals, including low-cost satellite transmission to data centers to be distributed via an Internet; 4) Operations with a replicated file protocol; 5) File exchange operation; 6) Ground stations as gateways; 7) Lessons learned from demonstrations and tests with SAFE; and 8) Feedback and future initiatives.

  10. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  11. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  12. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  13. Automatic Structures — Recent Results and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Regular languages are languages recognised by finite automata; automatic structures are a generalisation of regular languages where one also uses automatic relations (which are relations recognised by synchronous finite automata) and automatic functions (which are functions whose graph is an automatic relation). Functions and relations first-order definable from other automatic functions and relations are again automatic. Automatic functions coincide with the functions computed by position-faithful one-tape Turing machines in linear time. This survey addresses recent results and open questions on topics related to automatic structures: How difficult is the isomorphism problem for various types of automatic structures? Which groups are automatic? When are automatic groups Abelian or orderable? How can one overcome some of the limitations to represent rings and fields by weakening the automaticity requirements of a structure?

  14. Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

  15. Automatic spectral transmittance measurement system for DWDM filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gao-Wei; Heish, Ming-Yu

    2003-08-01

    For many years, fiber-optics communication has become an essential part of the development of our modern society. For example, its significance comes from the increasing demands on real-time image transmission, multimedia communication, distance learning, video-conferencing, video telephone, and cable TV, etc. This paper is to develop an automatic transmittance measurement system for a DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing) filter. In this system, a grating-based monochromators is devised to generate a collection of monochromatic light with various wavelengths, instead of using an expensive tunable laser. From this approach, the cost of the proposed system will be much lower than that of those having the same functions, by one order. In addition, we simulate the spectral filtering to investigate the resolving power of the system. It appears that our simulations give quite satisfactory results.

  16. Automatic locking orthotic knee device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.

  17. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

  18. Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology (AAIT) Project is an activity of the Robotics Process Systems Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Army's Project Manager-Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) at the Picatinny Arsenal in Picatinny, New Jersey. The project objective is to evaluate new two-dimensional bar code symbologies for potential use in ammunition logistics systems and automated reloading equipment. These new symbologies are a significant improvement over typical linear bar codes since machine-readable alphanumeric messages up to 2000 characters long are achievable. These compressed data symbologies are expected to significantly improve logistics and inventory management tasks and permit automated feeding and handling of ammunition to weapon systems. The results will be increased throughout capability, better inventory control, reduction of human error, lower operation and support costs, and a more timely re-supply of various weapon systems. This paper will describe the capabilities of existing compressed data symbologies and the symbol testing activities being conducted at ORNL for the AAIT Project.

  19. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  20. Automatic inspection of road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughooputh, Harry C. S.; Rughooputh, Soonil D. D. V.; Kinser, Jason M.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional inspections of road surfaces for the condition assessment and for locating cracks are time-consuming, expensive and can prove to be dangerous. What is ideally required would be a fully equipped automated inspecting vehicle capable of high precision location and characterization of road surface cracks over the width of the road (single pass). We propose an automatic crack monitoring system (akin to HARRIS - UK) with the video-based subsystem substituted by Global Positioning Systems for more accurate positioning. Besides, our technique avoids the storage of large volumes of scanned images of 'acceptable' road surface conditions. A pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is used as a preprocessor for each scanned image to detect cracks while another PCNN segments this image to characterize identified defects. The latter image is then stored as binary image along with the GPS data. The type of cracks is later identified (offline) from the recorded binary images. This mode of data collection leads to a more accurate, less costly and faster automated system. Our results for road surface (concrete and bituminous) images reveal the suitability of this novel technique for a fully automated road inspection system for crack identification and characterization.

  1. Towards accurate and automatic morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Sharkey, Paul M.

    2005-10-01

    Image morphing has proved to be a powerful tool for generating compelling and pleasing visual effects and has been widely used in entertainment industry. However, traditional image morphing methods suffer from a number of drawbacks: feature specification between images is tedious and the reliance on 2D information ignores the possible advantages to be gained from 3D knowledge. In this paper, we utilize recent advantages of computer vision technologies to diminish these drawbacks. By analyzing multi view geometry theories, we propose a processing pipeline based on three reference images. We first seek a few seed correspondences using robust methods and then recover multi view geometries using the seeds, through bundle adjustment. Guided by the recovered two and three view geometries, a novel line matching algorithm across three views is then deduced, through edge growth, line fitting and two and three view geometry constraints. Corresponding lines on a novel image is then obtained by an image transfer method and finally matched lines are fed into the traditional morphing methods and novel images are generated. Novel images generated by this pipeline have advantages over traditional morphing methods: they have an inherent 3D foundation and are therefore physically close to real scenes; not only images located between the baseline connecting two reference image centers, but also extrapolated images away from the baseline are possible; and the whole processing can be either wholly automatic, or at least the tedious task of feature specification in traditional morphing methods can be greatly relieved.

  2. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  3. A neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production.

    PubMed

    Helie, Sebastien; Roeder, Jessica L; Vucovich, Lauren; Rünger, Dennis; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Most behaviors unfold in time and include a sequence of submovements or cognitive activities. In addition, most behaviors are automatic and repeated daily throughout life. Yet, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of automatic sequence production. Past research suggests a gradual transfer from the associative striatum to the sensorimotor striatum, but a number of more recent studies challenge this role of the BG in automatic sequence production. In this article, we propose a new neurocomputational model of automatic sequence production in which the main role of the BG is to train cortical-cortical connections within the premotor areas that are responsible for automatic sequence production. The new model is used to simulate four different data sets from human and nonhuman animals, including (1) behavioral data (e.g., RTs), (2) electrophysiology data (e.g., single-neuron recordings), (3) macrostructure data (e.g., TMS), and (4) neurological circuit data (e.g., inactivation studies). We conclude with a comparison of the new model with existing models of automatic sequence production and discuss a possible new role for the BG in automaticity and its implication for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25671503

  4. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  5. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  6. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  7. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  8. Towards microsystems for automatic acquisition of in vivo gastrointestinal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Fukuda, Junji; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2009-05-01

    The possibility to develop a microanalysis system for the acquisition of gastrointestinal information is presented here. The system consists of four assay sites for trypsin, pepsin, and other biochemical compounds. The major components in each assay site were a pH-responsive valve, a pH-stat used to maintain the pH of the solution to be analyzed and used for electrochemical pH-titration, and a freeze-dried enzyme substrate stored in the pH-stat. The operation of the valve is based on electrowetting, and the valve is made pH-responsive by means of a nonstandard three-electrode system. The sample solution was automatically injected into the compartment and rapidly dissolved into the substrate layer. The automatic pH-stat, based on another nonstandard use of the electrochemical three-electrode system, maintained the solution pH and, at the same time, conducted pH-titration. The determination of the activity of the proteases was conducted at their optimum pHs. The output current showed a clear dependence on the activity of the enzymes. Integrating the functions provides significant advantages for the use of this system as an isolated telemetric microsystem that may operate with wireless signal transmission using a small power supply.

  9. Optoacoustic temperature determination and automatic coagulation control in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Luft, Susanne; Baade, Alex; Bever, Marco; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Retinal laser photocoagulation is an established treatment method for many retinal diseases like macula edema or diabetic retinopathy. The selection of the laser parameters is so far based on post treatment evaluation of the lesion size and strength. Due to local pigment variations in the fundus and individual transmission the same laser parameters often lead to an overtreatment. Optoacoustic allows a non invasive monitoring of the retinal temperature increase during retinal laser irradiation by measuring the temperature dependent pressure amplitudes, which are induced by short probe laser pulses. A 75 ns/ 523 nm Nd:YLF was used as a probe laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and a cw / 532 nm treatment laser for heating. A contact lens was modified with a ring-shaped ultrasonic transducer to detect the pressure waves at the cornea. Temperatures were collected for irradiations leading to soft or invisible lesions. Based on this data the threshold for denaturation was found. By analyzing the initial temperature increase, the further temperature development during irradiation could be predicted. An algorithm was found to calculate the irradiation time, which is needed for a soft lesion formation, from the temperature curve. By this it was possible to provide a real-time dosimetry by automatically switching off the treatment laser after the calculated irradiation time. Automatically controlled coagulations appear softer and more uniformly.

  10. Automatic defensive control of asynchronous sequential machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Control theoretic techniques are utilised to develop automatic controllers that counteract robotic adversarial interventions in the operation of asynchronous sequential machines. The scenario centres on automatic protection against pre-programmed adversarial agents that attempt to subvert the operation of an asynchronous computing system. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of defensive controllers that automatically defeat such adversarial agents are derived. These conditions are stated in terms of skeleton matrices - matrices of zeros and ones obtained directly from the given description of the asynchronous sequential machine being protected. When defensive controllers exist, a procedure for their design is outlined.

  11. On the implementation of automatic differentiation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C. H.; Hovland, P. D.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Aachen Univ. of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Automatic differentiation is a semantic transformation that applies the rules of differential calculus to source code. It thus transforms a computer program that computes a mathematical function into a program that computes the function and its derivatives. Derivatives play an important role in a wide variety of scientific computing applications, including numerical optimization, solution of nonlinear equations, sensitivity analysis, and nonlinear inverse problems. We describe the forward and reverse modes of automatic differentiation and provide a survey of implementation strategies. We describe some of the challenges in the implementation of automatic differentiation tools, with a focus on tools based on source transformation. We conclude with an overview of current research and future opportunities.

  12. Automatic Behavior Pattern Classification for Social Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Abraham; Bellas, Francisco; Caamaño, Pilar; Duro, Richard J.

    In this paper, we focus our attention on providing robots with a system that allows them to automatically detect behavior patterns in other robots, as a first step to introducing social responsive robots. The system is called ANPAC (Automatic Neural-based Pattern Classification). Its main feature is that ANPAC automatically adjusts the optimal processing window size and obtains the appropriate features through a dimensional transformation process that allow for the classification of behavioral patterns of large groups of entities from perception datasets. Here we present the basic elements and operation of ANPAC, and illustrate its applicability through the detection of behavior patterns in the motion of flocks.

  13. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  14. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  15. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  16. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  17. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  18. Transmission planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2009-07-15

    Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

  19. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  20. Automatic tuning of myoelectric prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bonivento, C; Davalli, A; Fantuzzi, C; Sacchetti, R; Terenzi, S

    1998-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a software package for the automatic tuning of myoelectric prostheses. The package core consists of Fuzzy Logic Expert Systems (FLES) that embody skilled operator heuristics in the tuning of prosthesis control parameters. The prosthesis system is an artificial arm-hand system developed at the National Institute of Accidents at Work (INAIL) laboratories. The prosthesis is powered by an electric motor that is controlled by a microprocessor using myoelectric signals acquired from skin-surface electrodes placed on a muscle in the residual limb of the subject. The software package, Microprocessor Controlled Arm (MCA) Auto Tuning, is a tool for aiding both INAIL expert operators and unskilled persons in the controller parameter tuning procedure. Prosthesis control parameter setup and subsequent recurrent adjustments are fundamental for the correct working of the prosthesis, especially when we consider that myoelectric parameters may vary greatly with environmental modifications. The parameter adjustment requires the end-user to go to the manufacturer's laboratory for the control parameters setup because, generally, he/she does not have the necessary knowledge and instruments to do this at home. However, this procedure is not very practical and involves a waste of time for the technicians and uneasiness for the clients. The idea behind the MCA Auto Tuning package consists in translating technician expertise into an FLES knowledge database. The software interacts through a user-friendly graphic interface with an unskilled user, who is guided through a step-by-step procedure in the prosthesis parameter tuning that emulates the traditional expert-aided procedure. The adoption of this program on a large scale may yield considerable economic benefits and improve the service quality supplied to the users of prostheses. In fact, the time required to set the prosthesis parameters are remarkably reduced, as is the technician

  1. Automatic Recognition of Road Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

  2. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  3. Automatic program timing profiles with FTN4

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.

    1980-09-01

    Design of a scheme for producing execution timing profiles of FORTRAN programs automatically is proposed with a recommendation to implement it as an option to the compiler. An experimental implementation on the LBL 7600 is also described. 1 figure.

  4. Automatic mathematical modeling for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline K.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatic mathematical modeling is described. The major objective is to create a very friendly environment for engineers to design, maintain and verify their model and also automatically convert the mathematical model into FORTRAN code for conventional computation. A demonstration program was designed for modeling the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation mathematical model called Propulsion System Automatic Modeling (PSAM). PSAM provides a very friendly and well organized environment for engineers to build a knowledge base for base equations and general information. PSAM contains an initial set of component process elements for the Space Shuttle Main Engine simulation and a questionnaire that allows the engineer to answer a set of questions to specify a particular model. PSAM is then able to automatically generate the model and the FORTRAN code. A future goal is to download the FORTRAN code to the VAX/VMS system for conventional computation.

  5. Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.

  6. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  7. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  8. Automatic Evolution of Molecular Nanotechnology Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes strategies for automatically generating designs for analog circuits at the molecular level. Software maps out the edges and vertices of potential nanotechnology systems on graphs, then selects appropriate ones through evolutionary or genetic paradigms.

  9. Automatic lexical classification: bridging research and practice.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna

    2010-08-13

    Natural language processing (NLP)--the automatic analysis, understanding and generation of human language by computers--is vitally dependent on accurate knowledge about words. Because words change their behaviour between text types, domains and sub-languages, a fully accurate static lexical resource (e.g. a dictionary, word classification) is unattainable. Researchers are now developing techniques that could be used to automatically acquire or update lexical resources from textual data. If successful, the automatic approach could considerably enhance the accuracy and portability of language technologies, such as machine translation, text mining and summarization. This paper reviews the recent and on-going research in automatic lexical acquisition. Focusing on lexical classification, it discusses the many challenges that still need to be met before the approach can benefit NLP on a large scale. PMID:20603372

  10. LIMESTONE SCRUBBER SLURRY AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report utilizes current understanding of limestone scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to develop an effort into the optimization of automatic control for the recirculating slurry processes. The acknowledged methods of mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and ...

  11. Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group Security Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Suzanne

    1987-09-01

    The ATRWG Security Committee participates in the development of Automatic Target Recognizers (ATRs) and image processing guidelines as related to TEMPEST requirements and policies set forth by the Department of Defense (DoD).

  12. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  13. Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.

  14. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  15. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2010-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the most important elements in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, an automatic design process using a genetic algorithm is presented. Some practical considerations are introduced in the optimization of the layout design of the module. This paper presents a process for automatic layout design for high power density modules. Detailed GA implementations are introduced both for outer loop and inner loop. As verified by a design example, the results of the automatic design process presented here are better than those from manual design and also better than the results from a popular design software. This automatic design procedure could be a major step toward improving the overall performance of future layout design.

  16. Automatic calibration system for pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Fifty-channel automatic pressure transducer calibration system increases quantity and accuracy for test evaluation calibration. The pressure transducers are installed in an environmental tests chamber and manifolded to connect them to a pressure balance which is uniform.

  17. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  18. Automatic program generation from specifications using Prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An automatic program generator which creates Prolog programs from input/output specifications is presented. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of tests, a set of transformations and the input/out relation. Abstract data types are used as models. The tests, the transformations and the input/out relation are also specified by equations. The heuristics used by the automatic propram generator in building Prolog programs are discussed.

  19. On the automatic differentiation of computer programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is a methodology for developing sensitivity-enhanced versions of arbitrary computer programs. In this paper, we provide some background information on AD and address some frequently asked questions. We introduce the ADIFOR and ADIC tools for the automatic differentiation of Fortran 77 and ANSI-C programs, respectively, and give an example of applying ADIFOR in the context of the optimization of multibody systems.

  20. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  1. Data transmission networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  2. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  3. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  4. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  5. Maintenance of hydrostatic transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, A.

    1981-10-01

    Problems in hydrostatic transmission maintenance are identified and ways of overcoming them are suggested. It is found that problems arise from lack of lubrication, impurities in the oil, and cavitation at the pump and at the motor. It is under suggested that under nonsevere operating conditions, oil and filter should be changed every year, or every 1500 to 2000 hr running time. Under severe operating conditions or in dusty environments, the interval should be every 6 months or 1000 hr.

  6. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  7. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  8. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  9. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  17. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  18. 46 CFR 52.01-10 - Automatic controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic controls. 52.01-10 Section 52.01-10 Shipping... Requirements § 52.01-10 Automatic controls. (a) Each main boiler must meet the special requirements for automatic safety controls in § 62.35-20(a)(1) of this chapter. (b) Each automatically controlled...

  19. 30 CFR 27.23 - Automatic warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic warning device. 27.23 Section 27.23... Automatic warning device. (a) An automatic warning device shall be suitably constructed for incorporation in... automatic warning device shall include an alarm signal (audible or colored light), which shall be made...

  20. Identification of the defective transmission devices using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingchen; Omatu, Sigeru; Abe, Toshiro

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, a system is described that uses the wavelet transform to automatically identify the particular failure mode of a known defective transmission device. The problem of identifying a particular failure mode within a costly failed assembly is of benefit in practical applications. In this system, external acoustic sensors, instead of intrusive vibrometers, are used to record the acoustic data of the operating transmission device. A skilled factory worker, who is unfamiliar with statistical classification, helps to determine the feature vector of the particular failure mode in the feature extraction process. In the automatic identification part, an improved learning vector quantization (LVQ) method with normalizing the inputting feature vectors is proposed to compensate for variations in practical data. Some acoustic data, which are collected from the manufacturing site, are utilized to test the effectiveness of the described identification system. The experimental results show that this system can identify the particular failure mode of a defective transmission device and find out the causes of failure successfully. PMID:15943423

  1. Bearing lubrication system for extension housing of vehicular transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kubo, S.; Taga, Y.

    1986-11-11

    A bearing lubrication system is described for bearing means supported with an extension housing of an automatic transmission. The extension housing is connected at one end face flush to an end face of a transmission case. The transmission has a hydraulic control system including a valve casing fastened to the transmission case and a transmission output shaft supported in the extension housing. The extension housing has a sleeve yoke splined to the output shaft and fitted within the bearing means supported by the extension housing. The hydraulic control system includes a first passage formed in the transmission case for supply of hydraulic operating fluid under pressure from the valve means. The lubrication system is provided with a forced feed lubrication means comprising: second passage means, branched off from the first passage, for supplying hydraulic operating fluid to the bearing means thereby lubricating the bearing means. The second passage means includes a first passage portion running through the transmission case and terminating at the end face of the transmission case and a second passage portion running between a first terminus at the one end face and a second terminus discharging the fluid for lubrication of the bearing means; sealing means for connecting the first and second passage portions at the juncture of the end faces; throttle means, disposed within the second passage means, for limiting the flow of fluid therethrough; and fluid collecting means for establishing a pool of the fluid in contact with the bearing beneath the output shaft. The fluid collecting means comprises a weir and a trough formed in the extension housing and running between the weir and the bearing means.

  2. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  3. Attention to Automatic Movements in Parkinson's Disease: Modified Automatic Mode in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hejia; Hallett, Mark; Zheng, Zheng; Chan, Piu

    2015-10-01

    We investigated neural correlates when attending to a movement that could be made automatically in healthy subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Subjects practiced a visuomotor association task until they could perform it automatically, and then directed their attention back to the automated task. Functional MRI was obtained during the early-learning, automatic stage, and when re-attending. In controls, attention to automatic movement induced more activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and rostral supplementary motor area. The motor cortex received more influence from the cortical motor association regions. In contrast, the pattern of the activity and connectivity of the striatum remained at the level of the automatic stage. In PD patients, attention enhanced activity in the DLPFC, premotor cortex, and cerebellum, but the connectivity from the putamen to the motor cortex decreased. Our findings demonstrate that, in controls, when a movement achieves the automatic stage, attention can influence the attentional networks and cortical motor association areas, but has no apparent effect on the striatum. In PD patients, attention induces a shift from the automatic mode back to the controlled pattern within the striatum. The shifting between controlled and automatic behaviors relies in part on striatal function. PMID:24925772

  4. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  5. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE`s NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, {sup 131m}Xe(11.9 d), {sup 133m}Xe(2.19 d), {sup 133}Xe (5.24 d), and {sup 135}Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m{sup 3}/h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers.

  6. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  7. Automatic imitation is reduced in narcissists.

    PubMed

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Giacomin, Miranda; Jordan, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait that has been extensively studied in normal populations. Individuals high on subclinical narcissism tend to display an excessive self-focus and reduced concern for others. Does their disregard of others have roots in low-level processes of social perception? We investigated whether narcissism is related to the automatic imitation of observed actions. In the automatic imitation task, participants make cued actions in the presence of action videos displaying congruent or incongruent actions. The difference in response times and accuracy between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., the interference effect) is a behavioral index of motor resonance in the brain-a process whereby observed actions activate matching motor representations in the observer. We found narcissism to be negatively related to interference in the automatic imitation task, such that high narcissism is associated with reduced imitation. Thus, levels of narcissism predict differences in the tendency to automatically resonate with others, and the pattern of data we observe suggests that a key difference is that high narcissists possess an improved ability to suppress automatic imitation when such imitation would be detrimental to task performance. To the extent that motor resonance is a product of a human mirror system, our data constitute evidence for a link between narcissistic tendencies and mirror system functioning. PMID:23957308

  8. Automatic query formulations in information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Salton, G; Buckley, C; Fox, E A

    1983-07-01

    Modern information retrieval systems are designed to supply relevant information in response to requests received from the user population. In most retrieval environments the search requests consist of keywords, or index terms, interrelated by appropriate Boolean operators. Since it is difficult for untrained users to generate effective Boolean search requests, trained search intermediaries are normally used to translate original statements of user need into useful Boolean search formulations. Methods are introduced in this study which reduce the role of the search intermediaries by making it possible to generate Boolean search formulations completely automatically from natural language statements provided by the system patrons. Frequency considerations are used automatically to generate appropriate term combinations as well as Boolean connectives relating the terms. Methods are covered to produce automatic query formulations both in a standard Boolean logic system, as well as in an extended Boolean system in which the strict interpretation of the connectives is relaxed. Experimental results are supplied to evaluate the effectiveness of the automatic query formulation process, and methods are described for applying the automatic query formulation process in practice. PMID:10299297

  9. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  10. On the malleability of automatic attitudes: combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, N; Greenwald, A G

    2001-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether exposure to pictures of admired and disliked exemplars can reduce automatic preference for White over Black Americans and younger over older people. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to either admired Black and disliked White individuals, disliked Black and admired White individuals, or nonracial exemplars. Immediately after exemplar exposure and 24 hr later, they completed an Implicit Association Test that assessed automatic racial attitudes and 2 explicit attitude measures. Results revealed that exposure to admired Black and disliked White exemplars significantly weakened automatic pro-White attitudes for 24 hr beyond the treatment but did not affect explicit racial attitudes. Experiment 2 provided a replication using automatic age-related attitudes. Together, these studies provide a strategy that attempts to change the social context and, through it, to reduce automatic prejudice and preference. PMID:11708558

  11. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT V, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--TORQUE CONVERTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF TORQUE CONVERTERS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FLUID COUPLINGS (LOCATION AND PURPOSE), (2) PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION, (3) TORQUE CONVERRS, (4) TORQMATIC CONVERTER, (5) THREE STAGE, THREE ELEMENT TORQUE CONVERTER, AND (6)…

  13. Automatic Transmission Services; An Instructor's Guide for a Program in Trade and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Nelson S.

    The curriculum guide is designed to prepare students for employment in a specialized area of automotive services. Units are presented in a sequence which may be altered or shortened if trainee needs, time, or funds require. Methods and materials to enrich the course are suggested. General objectives for each unit are stated in terms of performance…

  14. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection. PMID:26612500

  15. Data Acquisition and Transmission System Based on Short Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi; Wu, Tong; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Yao; Hou, Chunying

    The data collection and transmission system based on single chip microcontroller (SCM) uses the LCD screen to display the real-time data, and employs the button matrix as the interactive interface to enter the preset alarm value, the target cell phone numbers and the control signals. TC35i is used as the GSM module to transmit data and control information. The alarm short message (SMS) will be sent automatically when the data exceeds the preset alarm value. And user also can order the SCM to send the real-time data and complete the remote control by sending a SMS of specific format.

  16. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available.

  17. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  18. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  19. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  20. Pain pathways and transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Kitahata, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Pain has been a major concern of humankind since the ancient times, and it remains one of the most important subjects of all health care professionals. Despite the obvious overwhelming clinical importance, the major advances in its diagnosis and therapy have been made only recently. "How do the sensory apparatus of the body and system of signal transmission relate to pain of peripheral origin?" is the topic of discussion. To do this, it is important to understand what constitutes the total pain experience. It consists of: 1) signal transduction at the peripheral receptor site, 2) signal conduction along the peripheral nerve, 3) pain modulation at the level of the spinal cord, 4) pain perception at the supraspinal site, and 5) the associated sensations, emotional reactions, and effective state. The signal transmission related to pain may be modified by various analgesic agents. Specific analgesic agent has a specific site of action which may be at peripheral receptors, at peripheral nerves, at the level of the spinal cord, at supraspinal levels by activating descending inhibitory systems, or at more cephalad levels by reducing the affective component of pain. PMID:7825344

  1. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  2. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  3. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  4. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  5. Automatic morphological classification of galaxy images

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior

    2009-01-01

    We describe an image analysis supervised learning algorithm that can automatically classify galaxy images. The algorithm is first trained using a manually classified images of elliptical, spiral, and edge-on galaxies. A large set of image features is extracted from each image, and the most informative features are selected using Fisher scores. Test images can then be classified using a simple Weighted Nearest Neighbor rule such that the Fisher scores are used as the feature weights. Experimental results show that galaxy images from Galaxy Zoo can be classified automatically to spiral, elliptical and edge-on galaxies with accuracy of ~90% compared to classifications carried out by the author. Full compilable source code of the algorithm is available for free download, and its general-purpose nature makes it suitable for other uses that involve automatic image analysis of celestial objects. PMID:20161594

  6. Automatic exposure control for space sequential camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcatee, G. E., Jr.; Stoap, L. J.; Solheim, C. D.; Sharpsteen, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The final report for the automatic exposure control study for space sequential cameras, for the NASA Johnson Space Center is presented. The material is shown in the same sequence that the work was performed. The purpose of the automatic exposure control is to automatically control the lens iris as well as the camera shutter so that the subject is properly exposed on the film. A study of design approaches is presented. Analysis of the light range of the spectrum covered indicates that the practical range would be from approximately 20 to 6,000 foot-lamberts, or about nine f-stops. Observation of film available from space flights shows that optimum scene illumination is apparently not present in vehicle interior photography as well as in vehicle-to-vehicle situations. The evaluation test procedure for a breadboard, and the results, which provided information for the design of a brassboard are given.

  7. Automatic CME Detection from Coronagraph Image Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Dejong, E. M.; Hall, J. R.; Lorre, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a technique for the automatic detection of coronal mass ejections using two sequential coronagraph images. The technique is based on tracking arc-like features from one image to the next; the feature's velocity is also determined. The method has been developed and tested using LASCO C2 and C3 data. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic CME detection algorithm that can be used on board the STEREO spacecraft to preferentially downlink data containing CMEs from an onboard "rotating" data buffer. Results for this detection technique compare very favorably with CMEs identified in the LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov/CME_list/). For the periods when results were compared, no time periods with significant CMEs were missed using the automatic technique.

  8. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  9. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  10. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  11. Accuracy analysis of automatic distortion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, Jakub; Rzonca, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the automatic distortion removal from images acquired with non-metric SLR camera equipped with prime lenses. From the photogrammetric point of view the following question arises: is the accuracy of distortion control data provided by the manufacturer for a certain lens model (not item) sufficient in order to achieve demanded accuracy? In order to obtain the reliable answer to the aforementioned problem the two kinds of tests were carried out for three lens models. Firstly the multi-variant camera calibration was conducted using the software providing full accuracy analysis. Secondly the accuracy analysis using check points took place. The check points were measured in the images resampled based on estimated distortion model or in distortion-free images simply acquired in the automatic distortion removal mode. The extensive conclusions regarding application of each calibration approach in practice are given. Finally the rules of applying automatic distortion removal in photogrammetric measurements are suggested.

  12. Automatic Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if the use of automatic welding would allow reduction of the radiographic inspection requirement, and thereby reduce fabrication costs, a series of welding tests were performed. In these tests an automatic welder was used on stainless steel tubing of 1/2, 3/4, and 1/2 inch diameter size. The optimum parameters were investigated to determine how much variation from optimum in machine settings could be tolerate and still result in a good quality weld. The process variables studied were the welding amperes, the revolutions per minute as a function of the circumferential weld travel speed, and the shielding gas flow. The investigation showed that the close control of process variables in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection of welds can be relied upon as an acceptable quality assurance procedure, thus permitting the radiographic inspection to be reduced by a large percentage when using the automatic process.

  13. Automatic Gain Control in Compact Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Protopopov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    An image intensifier installed in the optical path of a compact spectrometer may act not only as a fast gating unit, which is widely used for time-resolved measurements, but also as a variable attenuator-amplifier in a continuous wave mode. This opens the possibility of an automatic gain control, a new feature in spectroscopy. With it, the user is relieved from the necessity to manually adjust signal level at a certain value that it is done automatically by means of an electronic feedback loop. It is even more important that automatic gain control is done without changing exposure time, which is an additional benefit in time-resolved experiments. The concept, algorithm, design considerations, and experimental results are presented. PMID:26810181

  14. Testing and Troubleshooting Automatically Generated Source Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joel

    1998-01-01

    Tools allowing engineers to model the real-time behavior of systems that control many types of NASA systems have become widespread. These tools automatically generate source code that is compiled, linked, then downloaded into computers controlling everything from wind tunnels to space flight systems. These tools save hundreds of hours of software development time and allow engineers with thorough application area knowledge but little software development experience to generate software to control the systems they use daily. These systems are verified and validated by simulating the real-time models, and by other techniques that focus on the model or the hardware. The automatically generated source code is typically not subjected to rigorous testing using conventional software testing techniques. Given the criticality and safety issues surrounding these systems, the application of conventional and new software testing and troubleshooting techniques to the automatically generated will improve the reliability of the resulting systems.

  15. Automatic gisting systems for voice communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, A. T.

    It is pointed out that the detection of a limited number of key words in voice communications, combined with nonlinguistic cues and situation knowledge, holds out the promise for automatic extraction of the general content or gist of the transmitted messages. A systems-level description of an end-to-end automatic gisting system for screening voice communications is presented. The emphasis is on identifying information which can usefully supplement the detected key words in the gisting process. Principal subsystems are identified, and their functions are discussed in the context of an overall system architecture. The example of automatic determination of aircraft takeoffs and landings at an airport, based on monitoring conversations between pilots and air traffic controllers, is used for illustrative purposes.

  16. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  17. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  18. Bayesian Automatic Classification Of HMI Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, John G.

    2011-05-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system known as "AutoClass" finds a set of class definitions based on a set of observed data and assigns data to classes without human supervision. It has been applied to Mt Wilson data to improve modeling of total solar irradiance variations (Ulrich, et al, 2010). We apply AutoClass to HMI observables to automatically identify regions of the solar surface. To prevent small instrument artifacts from interfering with class identification, we apply a flat-field correction and a rotationally shifted temporal average to the HMI images prior to processing with AutoClass. Additionally, the sensitivity of AutoClass to instrumental artifacts is investigated.

  19. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  20. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  1. Study on Reactive Automatic Compensation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Sun; Qingyang, Liang; Peiqing, Luo; Chenfei, Zhang

    At present, low-voltage side of transformer is public in urban distribution network, as inductive load of household appliances is increasing, the power factor decreased, this lead to a large loss of public transformer low voltage side, the supply voltage indicators can not meet user's requirements. Therefore, the design of reactive power compensation system has become another popular research. This paper introduces the principle of reactive power compensation, analyzes key technologies of reactive power compensation, design an overall program of reactive power automatic compensation system to conquer various deficiencies of reactive power automatic compensation equipment.

  2. Electrical single probe with an automatic positioner

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.; Melendez, L.; Sanchez, A.M.; Gaytan, E.; Chavez, E.; Valencia, R.; Cruz, G.; Olayo, M.G.; Flores, A.

    1996-01-01

    An easy to assemble and inexpensive plasma diagnostic system is presented. An electrical single probe and its vacuum and electrical isolation arrangement, integrated to an automatic positioner device, has been constructed and tested in plasma environments. This system provides a more precise estimation of the probe electrode position than others previously proposed in the literature. To control the probe electrode position an electronic circuit based in a microcontroller device is used. This automatic positioner avoids the troubles related to a manual operation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  4. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  5. Automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance.

    PubMed

    Arsikere, Harish; Lulich, Steven M; Alwan, Abeer

    2011-05-01

    This letter focuses on the automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance (Sg1). A database comprising speech and subglottal data of native American English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers was used for the analysis. Data from 11 speakers (five males and six females) were used to derive an empirical relation among the first formant frequency, fundamental frequency, and Sg1. Using the derived relation, Sg1 was automatically estimated from voiced sounds in English and Spanish sentences spoken by 22 different speakers (11 males and 11 females). The error in estimating Sg1 was less than 50 Hz, on average. PMID:21568375

  6. Infrared transmission spectra of Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhmanova, M. V.; Karyakin, A. V.; Tartasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission spectra in the 2-25 micrometer region were obtained for samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. A comparison of the Luna 16, Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 samples showed that the infrared transmission spectra of regolith samples from the mare regions are similar and characteristic of basic basaltic rocks. The absorption bands show up in the vibration region of the SiO4 groups. No water and OH groups were found in the samples based on the spectrum. Spectra of regolith samples calcined at 1000C showed changes that can be interpreted as changes in the spectra of irradiated crystals (especially distinctly for the Luna 16 samples).

  7. Fiber optic data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  8. Nature limits filarial transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

  9. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  10. Television Transmission Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

  11. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  12. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  13. Hydatidosis: dynamics of transmission.

    PubMed

    Bourée, P

    2001-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a widespread zoonosis infecting a large number of animals and humans. Echinococcus granulosus has the smallest taenia adult of the cestodes but with the largest larva. Its morphologic and biologic features were identified with DNA analysis. Different strains were separated according to the intermediate hosts: sheep, cattle, pigs, horses, camels. Definitive host are canids, mostly dogs, where the worm grows to adulthood in several months. The eggs are scattered in the pasture by wind and water and are ingested by various hosts. The larvae migrate through the intestinal wall and penetrate the organs, mostly liver and lungs. The eggs survive several days outside, depending on the temperature, but numerous eggs die in nature because they cannot resist desiccation and extreme temperatures. Dissemination is accomplished by dogs. In Turkana (Kenya) the incidence of hydatidosis is high because of the close relationship between the population and dogs and the habit of leaving their dead bodies in the grasslands. In rural areas, the custom of slaughtering sheep at home, among the dogs, is an important dissemination factor. The circumstances of transmission vary according to the country. In Europe the natural life cycle of E. granulosus granulosus involves dogs as the definitive host and sheep as the intermediate host. In northern Europe E. granulosus borealis infects the canids and deer. E. granulosus canadensis infects wolves and reindeer, but there are no human cases. In the endemic Mediterranean area, sheep and dromedaries are the intermediate hosts. In South America, the life cycle of E. granulosus develops among several definitive and intermediate hosts. Hence the dynamics of transmission vary according to the countries with different hosts. PMID:11213154

  14. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  15. Efficient and automatic wireless geohazard monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Marc J.

    In this dissertation, we present our research contributions geared towards creating an automated and efficient wireless sensor network (WSN) for geohazard monitoring. Specifically, this dissertation addresses three overall technical research problems inherent in implementing and deploying such a WSN, i.e., 1) automated event detection from geophysical data, 2) efficient wireless transmission, and 3) low-cost wireless hardware. In addition, after presenting algorithms, experimentation, and results from these three overall problems, we take a step back and discuss how, when, and why such scientific work matters in a geohazardous risk scenario. First, in Chapter 2, we discuss automated geohazard event detection within geophysical data. In particular, we present our pattern recognition workflow that can automatically detect snow avalanche events in seismic (geophone sensor) data. This workflow includes customized signal preprocessing for feature extraction, cluster-based stratified sub-sampling for majority class reduction, and experimentation with 12 different machine learning algorithms; results show that a decision stump classifier achieved 99.8% accuracy, 88.8% recall, and 13.2% precision in detecting avalanches within seismic data collected in the mountains above Davos, Switzerland, an improvement on previous work in the field. To address the second overall research problem (i.e., efficient wireless transmission), we present and evaluate our on-mote compressive sampling algorithm called Randomized Timing Vector (RTV) in Chapter 3 and compare our approach to four other on-mote, lossy compression algorithms in Chapter 4. Results from our work show that our RTV algorithm outperforms current on-mote compressive sampling algorithms and performs comparably to (and in many cases better than) the four state-of-the-art, on-mote lossy compression techniques. The main benefit of RTV is that it can guarantee a desired level of compression performance (and thus, radio usage

  16. A Semi-Automatic Variability Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.

    Technical features of the Semi-Automatic Variability Search (SAVS) operating at the Astronomical Observatory of the Nicolaus Copernicus University and the results of the first year of observations are presented. The user-friendly software developed for reduction of acquired CCD images and detection of new variable stars is also described.

  17. Automatically Locking/Unlocking Orthotic Knee Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Proposed orthotic knee joint locks and unlocks automatically, at any position within range of bend angles, without manual intervention by wearer. Includes tang and clevis, locks whenever wearer transfers weight to knee and unlocks when weight removed. Locking occurs at any angle between 45 degrees knee bend and full extension.

  18. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  19. What is automatized during perceptual categorization?

    PubMed

    Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-09-01

    An experiment is described that tested whether stimulus-response associations or an abstract rule are automatized during extensive practice at perceptual categorization. Twenty-seven participants each completed 12,300 trials of perceptual categorization, either on rule-based (RB) categories that could be learned explicitly or information-integration (II) categories that required procedural learning. Each participant practiced predominantly on a primary category structure, but every third session they switched to a secondary structure that used the same stimuli and responses. Half the stimuli retained their same response on the primary and secondary categories (the congruent stimuli) and half switched responses (the incongruent stimuli). Several results stood out. First, performance on the primary categories met the standard criteria of automaticity by the end of training. Second, for the primary categories in the RB condition, accuracy and response time (RT) were identical on congruent and incongruent stimuli. In contrast, for the primary II categories, accuracy was higher and RT was lower for congruent than for incongruent stimuli. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rules are automatized in RB tasks, whereas stimulus-response associations are automatized in II tasks. A cognitive neuroscience theory is proposed that accounts for these results. PMID:27232521

  20. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  1. Decision-directed automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Logic circuitry determines whether gain fluctuation are result of signal-strength changes or of atypical strings of like data symbols. Automatic Gain Control (AGC) system provides tight control that is independent of short-term, average, received signal energy and has negligible degrading effect on probability of error for signal.

  2. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  3. Automatic thematic mapping in the EROS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edson, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A specified approach to the automatic extraction and catographic presentation of thematic data contained in multispectral photographic images is presented. Experimental efforts were directed toward the mapping of open waters, snow and ice, infrared reflective vegetation, and massed works of man. The system must also be able to process data from a wide variety of sources.

  4. Automatic Syntactic Analysis of Free Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christoph

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered with the syntactic analysis of free text documents in indexing. Postcoordination and precoordination of terms is discussed, an automatic indexing system call COPSY (context operator syntax) that uses natural language processing techniques is described, and future developments are explained. (60 references) (LRW)

  5. Automatic Thesaurus Generation for Chinese Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2002-01-01

    Reports an approach to automatic thesaurus construction for Chinese documents. Presents an effective Chinese keyword extraction algorithm. Compared to previous studies, this method speeds up the thesaurus generation process drastically. It also achieves a similar percentage level of term relatedness. Includes three tables and four figures.…

  6. Thesaurus-Based Automatic Book Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Describes technique for automatic book indexing requiring dictionary of terms with text strings that count as instances of term and text in form suitable for processing by text formatter. Results of experimental application to portion of book text are presented, including measures of precision and recall. Ten references are noted. (EJS)

  7. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  8. Automatic Guidance System for Welding Torches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H.; Wall, W.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Digital system automatically guides welding torch to produce squarebutt, V-groove and lap-joint weldments within tracking accuracy of +0.2 millimeter. Television camera observes and traverses weld joint, carrying welding torch behind. Image of joint digitized, and resulting data used to derive control signals that enable torch to track joint.

  9. An automatic bridge for inductive voltage dividers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.; Liang, C.P.; Hsiao, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    We describe an automatic, injection-type bridge for inductive voltage divider (IVD) applications at low audio frequencies. We used it to self-calibrate programmable IVDs fabricated in house, by an automated {open_quotes}boot-strap{close_quotes} procedure. It is the heart of our reference standard for ac voltage ratios as well as a calibration system for IVDs.

  10. Automatization of Student Assessment Using Multimedia Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taniar, David; Rahayu, Wenny

    Most use of multimedia technology in teaching and learning to date has emphasized the teaching aspect only. An application of multimedia in examinations has been neglected. This paper addresses how multimedia technology can be applied to the automatization of assessment, by proposing a prototype of a multimedia question bank, which is able to…

  11. Operational efficiency: Automatic ascent flight design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Major objectives, milestones, key contacts, major accomplishments, technology issues, and candidate programs of the automatic ascent flight design are outlined. Topics discussed include: advanced avionics concepts; advanced training concepts; telerobotics/telepresence; integrated command and control; advanced software integration; atmospheric adaptive guidance; and health status and monitoring concept. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  12. Computer Corner: Automatic Differentiation and APL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidinger, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Described are several programs that enable the user to evaluate derivatives to order n of any elementary function by using the combination of automatic differentiation method and A Programming Language (APL). Programs calculating first- and higher-order derivatives are presented. Selected APL symbols are appended. (YP)

  13. Automatic Processing of Current Affairs Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1973-01-01

    The SMART system is used for the analysis, search and retrieval of news stories appearing in Time'' magazine. A comparison is made between the automatic text processing methods incorporated into the SMART system and a manual search using the classified index to Time.'' (14 references) (Author)

  14. Automatic Pilot For Flight-Test Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Jones, Frank P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1992-01-01

    Autopilot replaces pilot during automatic maneuvers. Pilot, based on ground, flies aircraft to required altitude, then turns control over to autopilot. Increases quality of maneuvers significantly beyond that attainable through remote manual control by pilot on ground. Also increases quality of maneuvers because it performs maneuvers faster than pilot could and because it does not have to repeat poorly executed maneuvers.

  15. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  16. AUTOMATIC CALIBRATION OF A DISRIBUTED CATCHMENT MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parameters of hydrologic models often are not exactly known and therefore have to be determined by calibration. A manual calibration depends on the subjective assessment of the modeler and can be very time-consuming though. Methods of automatic calibration can improve these shortcomings. Yet, the...

  17. Semi-automatic approach for music classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong

    2003-11-01

    Audio categorization is essential when managing a music database, either a professional library or a personal collection. However, a complete automation in categorizing music into proper classes for browsing and searching is not yet supported by today"s technology. Also, the issue of music classification is subjective to some extent as each user may have his own criteria for categorizing music. In this paper, we propose the idea of semi-automatic music classification. With this approach, a music browsing system is set up which contains a set of tools for separating music into a number of broad types (e.g. male solo, female solo, string instruments performance, etc.) using existing music analysis methods. With results of the automatic process, the user may further cluster music pieces in the database into finer classes and/or adjust misclassifications manually according to his own preferences and definitions. Such a system may greatly improve the efficiency of music browsing and retrieval, while at the same time guarantee accuracy and user"s satisfaction of the results. Since this semi-automatic system has two parts, i.e. the automatic part and the manual part, they are described separately in the paper, with detailed descriptions and examples of each step of the two parts included.

  18. Apparatus enables automatic microanalysis of body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.; Stuart, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Apparatus will automatically and quantitatively determine body fluid constituents which are amenable to analysis by fluorometry or colorimetry. The results of the tests are displayed as percentages of full scale deflection on a strip-chart recorder. The apparatus can also be adapted for microanalysis of various other fluids.

  19. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  20. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  1. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  2. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  3. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  4. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  5. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  6. Automatic bootstrapping and tracking of object contours.

    PubMed

    Chiverton, John; Xie, Xianghua; Mirmehdi, Majid

    2012-03-01

    A new fully automatic object tracking and segmentation framework is proposed. The framework consists of a motion-based bootstrapping algorithm concurrent to a shape-based active contour. The shape-based active contour uses finite shape memory that is automatically and continuously built from both the bootstrap process and the active-contour object tracker. A scheme is proposed to ensure that the finite shape memory is continuously updated but forgets unnecessary information. Two new ways of automatically extracting shape information from image data given a region of interest are also proposed. Results demonstrate that the bootstrapping stage provides important motion and shape information to the object tracker. This information is found to be essential for good (fully automatic) initialization of the active contour. Further results also demonstrate convergence properties of the content of the finite shape memory and similar object tracking performance in comparison with an object tracker with unlimited shape memory. Tests with an active contour using a fixed-shape prior also demonstrate superior performance for the proposed bootstrapped finite-shape-memory framework and similar performance when compared with a recently proposed active contour that uses an alternative online learning model. PMID:21908256

  7. RFID: A Revolution in Automatic Data Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna…

  8. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  9. Automatic optometer operates with infrared test pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornsweet, T. N.; Crane, H. D.

    1970-01-01

    Refractive strength of human eye is monitored by optometer that automatically and continuously images infrared test pattern onto the retina. Condition of focus of the eye at any instant is determined from optometer settings needed to maintain focus of the pattern on the retina.

  10. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view. PMID:20068746

  11. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  12. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  13. Automatic Layout Design for Power Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei; Ngo, Khai

    2013-01-01

    The layout of power modules is one of the key points in power module design, especially for high power densities, where couplings are increased. In this paper, along with the design example, an automatic design processes by using a genetic algorithm are presented. Some practical considerations and implementations are introduced in the optimization of module layout design.

  14. Handwriting Automaticity: The Search for Performance Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that handwriting has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper, we report on two…

  15. Space tug automatic docking control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the space tug automatic docking control capabilities. The subjects considered are: (1) docking sensor requirements, (2) the influence of the docking mechanism, and (3) the implications and effects of a docking abort. A digital computer simulation, was developed which included the primary aspects of the docking maneuver.

  16. Portable machine welding head automatically controls arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleksiak, C. E.; Robb, M. A.

    1967-01-01

    Portable weld tool makes weld repairs out-of-station and on the side opposite the original weld. It provides full automatic control of the arc voltage, current, wire feed, and electrode travel speed in all welding attitudes. The device is readily adaptable to commercially available straight polarity dc weld packs.

  17. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  18. Automatic visual inspection system for microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micka, E. Z. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A system for automatically inspecting an integrated circuit was developed. A device for shining a scanning narrow light beam at an integrated circuit to be inspected and another light beam at an accepted integrated circuit was included. A pair of photodetectors that receive light reflected from these integrated circuits, and a comparing system compares the outputs of the photodetectors.

  19. Experiments in Automatic Library of Congress Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the results of research into the automatic selection of Library of Congress Classification numbers based on the titles and subject headings in MARC records from a test database at the University of California at Berkeley Library School library. Classification clustering and matching techniques are described. (44 references) (LRW)

  20. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Chief Security Officer shall notify the ISOO of any specific information that DHS proposes to exempt... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL...

  1. 6 CFR 7.28 - Automatic declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Chief Security Officer shall notify the ISOO of any specific information that DHS proposes to exempt... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic declassification. 7.28 Section 7.28 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL...

  2. Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

  3. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES.... (4) An automated unicom may not provide weather information at an airport that has an operational, FAA-certified, automatic weather facility, unless the unicom itself is certified by the FAA. (5)...

  4. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES.... (4) An automated unicom may not provide weather information at an airport that has an operational, FAA-certified, automatic weather facility, unless the unicom itself is certified by the FAA. (5)...

  5. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES.... (4) An automated unicom may not provide weather information at an airport that has an operational, FAA-certified, automatic weather facility, unless the unicom itself is certified by the FAA. (5)...

  6. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES.... (4) An automated unicom may not provide weather information at an airport that has an operational, FAA-certified, automatic weather facility, unless the unicom itself is certified by the FAA. (5)...

  7. 47 CFR 87.219 - Automatic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES.... (4) An automated unicom may not provide weather information at an airport that has an operational, FAA-certified, automatic weather facility, unless the unicom itself is certified by the FAA. (5)...

  8. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  9. Automatic multidiagnosis system for slit lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Vieira Messias, Andre M.; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.; Isaac, Flavio; Caetano, Cesar A. C.; Rosa Filho, Andre B.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a system for several automatic diagnose in Slit Lamp in order to provide 04 additional measurements to the biomicroscope: (1) counting of the endothelial cells of donated corneas; (2) automatic keratometry; (3) corneal ulcer evaluation; (4) measurement of linear distances and areas of the ocular image. The system consists in a Slit Lamp, a beam-splitter, some optical components, a CCD detector, a frame grabber and a PC. The optical components attached to the beam-splitter are the same for all the functions, except for 1. For function 1, we have developed an optical system that magnifies the image 290X and a software that counts the cells interactively and automatically. Results are in good agreement with commercial specular microscopes (correlation coefficient is 0,98081). The automatic keratometry function is able to measure cylinders over 30 di and also irregular astigmatisms. The system consists of projecting a light ring at the patient's cornea and the further analysis of the deformation of the ring provides the radius of curvature as well as the axis of the astigmatism. The nominal precision is 0,005 mm for the curvature radius and 2 degree(s) for the axis component. The results are in good agreement with commercial systems (correlation coefficient of 0,99347). For function 3, the ulcer is isolated by the usual clinical ways and the image of the green area is automatically detected by the developed software in order to evaluate the evolution of the disease. Function 4 simply allows the clinician do any linear or area measurement of the ocular image. The system is a low cost multi evaluation equipment and it is being used in a public hospital in Brazil.

  10. Increasing the reliability of the shutdown of 500 - 750-kV overhead lines equipped with shunt reactors in an unsuccessful three-phase automatic repeated closure cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'micheva, K. I.; Merzlyakov, A. S.; Fokin, G. G.

    2013-05-15

    The reasons for circuit-breaker failures during repeated disconnection of 500 - 750 kV overhead lines with shunt reactors in a cycle of unsuccessful three-phase automatic reconnection (TARC) are analyzed. Recommendations are made for increasing the operating reliability of power transmission lines with shunt reactors when there is unsuccessful reconnection.

  11. Experiments with Uas Imagery for Automatic Modeling of Power Line 3d Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Vander Jagt, B.; Toth, C.

    2015-08-01

    The ideal mapping technology for transmission line inspection is the airborne LiDAR executed from helicopter platforms. It allows for full 3D geometry extraction in highly automated manner. Large scale aerial images can be also used for this purpose, however, automation is possible only for finding transmission line positions (2D geometry), and the sag needs to be estimated manually. For longer lines, these techniques are less expensive than ground surveys, yet they are still expensive. UAS technology has the potential to reduce these costs, especially if using inexpensive platforms with consumer grade cameras. This study investigates the potential of using high resolution UAS imagery for automatic modeling of transmission line 3D geometry. The key point of this experiment was to employ dense matching algorithms to appropriately acquired UAS images to have points created also on wires. This allowed to model the 3D geometry of transmission lines similarly to LiDAR acquired point clouds. Results showed that the transmission line modeling is possible with a high internal accuracy for both, horizontal and vertical directions, even when wires were represented by a partial (sparse) point cloud.

  12. AN AUTOMATIC CHLORINATION SYSTEM FOR ELIMINATING BIOLOGICAL GROWTH IN PUMPING SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Automatic chlorination was determined to be satisfactory for elimination of microbial growth (slime) in monitor pumping systems. With chlorination, changes in dissolved oxygen levels through the sampling system were minimized. Optimum chlorine concentration and frequency of chlor...

  13. High School Students' Preconceptions and Conceptions about Tropical Storm Allison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belknap, Julia

    Today, many people, with no personal experience of living through a tropical storm, reside in coastal regions in harms way. This population needs to be educated about storm risks. One good venue for this is the public school system. Science educators have concluded it is important to establish a knowledge base about the ways students think and…

  14. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  15. 4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 2. FRONT VIEW, TWO DOUBLE AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALS, EASTBOUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FRONT VIEW, TWO DOUBLE AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALS, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 1. FRONT VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  20. PN acquisition demodulator achieves automatic synchronization of a telemetry channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvillon, L.

    1966-01-01

    Data demodulator for automatic sync acquisition provides an automatic means for obtaining initial word and bit synchronization in a pulse-code-modulated/phase-shift-keyed digital communications system.

  1. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  2. Variable speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, W.S.

    1987-08-11

    This patent describes a variable speed transmission for transmitting rotational forces between a first shaft and a second shaft wherein a sprocket is mounted on the first shaft and a variable effective diameter pulley, having opposed inclined chain-belt engaging surfaces, is mounted on the second shaft, an endless chain-belt assembly for transmitting rotational forces. The assembly has side edges thereon, comprising: a first portion defining the edges of the chain-belt assembly and having a plurality of links defining a surface corresponding to the opposed inclined chain-belt engaging surfaces on the pulley; and a second portion intermediate of the first portion having a plurality of links for engaging the teeth on the sprocket, the links being joined by a plurality of pins extending transverse to the links; and a flexible shield mounted over the links and retained relative thereto by the pins wherein the flexible shield surrounds the links of the second portion of the chain-belt assembly and retains lubrication for the second portion and to prevent same for communicating to the first portion of the chain-belt assembly.

  3. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  4. Automatic transponder. [measurement of the internal delay time of a transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Brisken, A. F.; Lewis, J. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the automatic, remote measurement of the internal delay time of a transponder at the time of operation is provided. A small portion of the transmitted signal of the transponder is converted to the receive signal frequency of the transponder and supplied to the input of the transponder. The elapsed time between the receive signal locally generated and the receive signal causing the transmission of the transmitted signal is measured, said time being representative of or equal to the internal delay time of the transponder at the time of operation.

  5. Semi-automatic Segmentation for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, S. Sara; Chng, Nick; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report and characterize a semi-automatic prostate segmentation method for prostate brachytherapy. Based on anatomical evidence and requirements of the treatment procedure, a warped and tapered ellipsoid was found suitable as the a priori 3D shape of the prostate. By transforming the acquired endorectal transverse images of the prostate into ellipses, the shape fitting problem was cast into a convex problem which can be solved efficiently. The average whole gland error between volumes created from manual and semi-automatic contours from 21 patients was 6.63±0.9%. For use in brachytherapy treatment planning, the resulting contours were modified, if deemed necessary, by radiation oncologists prior to treatment. The average whole gland volume error between the volumes computed from semi-automatic contours and those computed from modified contours, from 40 patients, was 5.82±4.15%. The amount of bias in the physicians’ delineations when given an initial semi-automatic contour was measured by comparing the volume error between 10 prostate volumes computed from manual contours with those of modified contours. This error was found to be 7.25±0.39% for the whole gland. Automatic contouring reduced subjectivity, as evidenced by a decrease in segmentation inter- and intra-observer variability from 4.65% and 5.95% for manual segmentation to 3.04% and 3.48% for semi-automatic segmentation, respectively. We characterized the performance of the method relative to the reference obtained from manual segmentation by using a novel approach that divides the prostate region into nine sectors. We analyzed each sector independently as the requirements for segmentation accuracy depend on which region of the prostate is considered. The measured segmentation time is 14±1 seconds with an additional 32±14 seconds for initialization. By assuming 1–3 minutes for modification of the contours, if necessary, a total segmentation time of less than 4 minutes is required

  6. 21 CFR 211.68 - Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment. 211.68 Section 211.68 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Equipment § 211.68 Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment. (a) Automatic, mechanical, or...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103 - Automatic fire warning devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire warning devices. 75.1103 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103 Automatic fire... warning automatically when a fire occurs on or near such belt. The Secretary shall prescribe a...

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system, user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes how to use an automatic target recognition system (version 14). In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a programmer`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide.

  9. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, “automaticity” refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: (a) functional significance of automaticity; (b) neurophysiology of automaticity; (c) measurement of automaticity; (d) mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and (e) strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity. PMID:25999838

  10. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  12. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  13. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  14. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  15. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  16. 5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic separation; exemption. 831.502... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Eligibility for Retirement § 831.502 Automatic separation; exemption. (a... automatic separation at the end of that month. The department or agency shall notify the employee of...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads...

  18. 46 CFR 171.118 - Automatic ventilators and side ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic ventilators and side ports. 171.118 Section... Bulkhead or Weather Deck § 171.118 Automatic ventilators and side ports. (a) An automatic ventilator must... Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) The design and construction of each gangway, cargo and coaling...

  19. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems... § 1037.660 Automatic engine shutdown systems. This section specifies requirements that apply for certified automatic engine shutdown systems (AES) that are modeled under § 1037.520. It does not apply...

  20. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems... § 1037.660 Automatic engine shutdown systems. This section specifies requirements that apply for certified automatic engine shutdown (AES) systems modeled under § 1037.520. It does not apply for...