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Sample records for allison gt 404-4

  1. Allison moving forward

    SciTech Connect

    Raflo, D.

    1994-07-01

    Allison has been on its own since December 1, when General Motors Corporation sold its former Allison Gas Turbine Division to Clayton, Dubilier & Rice Inc, a private New York investment firm, and a group of senior Allison managers for $318 million. Allison engine Company`s current product line includes large engines, small aircraft engines, and industrial engines. Over 140,000 engines have been produced since 1915, giving Allison a large stake in world leaderhsip. With strong cogeneration markets already established in Europe and Japan, Allison`s industrial engines are being positioned to compete in emerging markets in China, Indonesia and the Soviet Union. Cogeneration market potential in the US improves despite the current popularity with abundant, low-cost natural gas because of the South Coast Air Control Management District`s push for reduced emissions. The new 7000-shp KB7 industrial engine is the latest addition to the 501K engine family, and adds increased power (by 1700 shp), with a boost compressor to the current core compressor increasing air flow, along with a new low-loss exhaust system. Allison`s new AE series of turboprop (AE 2100) and turbofan (AE 3007) engines, with engine cores derived from the T406 design, have been selected to power regional airliners. 2 figs.

  2. 48 CFR 1515.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit. 1515.404-4 Section 1515.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1515.404-4 Profit. This section implements FAR 15.404-4 and prescribes the...

  3. 48 CFR 1515.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Profit. 1515.404-4 Section 1515.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1515.404-4 Profit. This section implements FAR 15.404-4 and prescribes the...

  4. 48 CFR 1515.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Profit. 1515.404-4 Section 1515.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1515.404-4 Profit. This section implements FAR 15.404-4 and prescribes the...

  5. 48 CFR 15.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Profit. 15.404-4 Section 15.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.404-4 Profit. (a) General. This subsection prescribes policies for establishing...

  6. 48 CFR 15.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Profit. 15.404-4 Section 15.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.404-4 Profit. (a) General. This subsection prescribes policies for establishing...

  7. 48 CFR 15.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Profit. 15.404-4 Section 15.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.404-4 Profit. (a) General. This subsection prescribes policies for establishing...

  8. 48 CFR 1415.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Profit. 1415.404-4 Section 1415.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1415.404-4 Profit. (a) DOI's policy is to use...

  9. 48 CFR 1615.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1615.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... Contract Pricing 1615.404-4 Profit. (a) When the pricing of FEHB Program contracts is determined by cost analysis, OPM will determine the profit or fee prenegotiation objective (service charge) portion of...

  10. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... responsibilities. The statutory limitations on price and fee as set forth in 48 CFR 15.404-4(c)(4)(i) shall be... profit/fee analysis technique designed for a systematic application of the profit factors in 48 CFR 15...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of...

  11. 48 CFR 415.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by...

  12. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... responsibilities. The statutory limitations on price and fee as set forth in 48 CFR 15.404-4(c)(4)(i) shall be... profit/fee analysis technique designed for a systematic application of the profit factors in 48 CFR 15...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of...

  13. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... responsibilities. The statutory limitations on price and fee as set forth in 48 CFR 15.404-4(c)(4)(i) shall be... profit/fee analysis technique designed for a systematic application of the profit factors in 48 CFR 15...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of...

  14. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... responsibilities. The statutory limitations on price and fee as set forth in 48 CFR 15.404-4(c)(4)(i) shall be... profit/fee analysis technique designed for a systematic application of the profit factors in 48 CFR 15...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of...

  15. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations. 915.404-4-71-2 Section 915.404-4-71-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-2 Limitations....

  16. 36 CFR 404.4 - Access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to information. 404.4 Section 404.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 404.4 Access to information. (a) The American Battle Monuments Commission...

  17. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-7 - Alternative techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in 915.404-4-71. (b) Profit and fee to be paid on contracts under the threshold stated at 48 CFR 15... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative techniques. 915.404-4-70-7 Section 915.404-4-70-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-7 - Alternative techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative techniques. 915.404-4-70-7 Section 915.404-4-70-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-7...

  19. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-7 - Alternative techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in 915.404-4-71. (b) Profit and fee to be paid on contracts under the threshold stated at 48 CFR 15... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative techniques. 915.404-4-70-7 Section 915.404-4-70-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-7 - Alternative techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in 915.404-4-71. (b) Profit and fee to be paid on contracts under the threshold stated at 48 CFR 15... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative techniques. 915.404-4-70-7 Section 915.404-4-70-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-7 - Alternative techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in 915.404-4-71. (b) Profit and fee to be paid on contracts under the threshold stated at 48 CFR 15... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative techniques. 915.404-4-70-7 Section 915.404-4-70-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations. 915.404-4-71-2 Section 915.404-4-71-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-2 Limitations. Amounts payable under construction and...

  3. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-3 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation. 915.404-4-70-3 Section 915.404-4-70-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-3...

  4. Allison engine ATS program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Mukavetz, D.

    1995-12-31

    Gas turbines in industrial and utility applications can help meet future national and worldwide power generation requirements. Implementation of the ATS Program will also keep U.S. manufacturers on the cutting edge of turbine technology for power generation applications and enhance the nation`s economic competitiveness. Allison`s ATS addresses the program goals in the following manner: (1) Efficiency - The turbine selected for the ATS uses Allison`s latest single crystal alloys incorporating the most efficient component cooling technology Allison has developed. These features allow the turbine to operate at a rotor inlet temperature (RIT) of 1427{degrees}C (2600{degrees}F). The compression system for this engine has an overall pressure ratio of more than 20:1 and is based on technology previously demonstrated at Allison. The engine that uses these components will demonstrate a thermal efficiency that is 18% better than the best in class today. (2) Environment - The combustion system selected for this engine incorporates a catalytically stabilized, lean premix system with ceramic components requiring no significant wall cooling. This system will achieve acceptance in severe nonattainment areas, producing less than 8 ppm for oxides of nitrogen (NOx), with acceptable carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC). (3) Fuel Flexibility - Allison has production engines in commercial service that are operating on biomass fuels. Previous DOE-funded programs have allowed Allison to develop and demonstrate coal-fueled gas turbine technology. (4) Cost of Power - The busbar cost of energy for the Allison ATS ranges from 23.6 to 27.6% lower than the current state of the art for systems meeting ATS environmental requirements. (5) Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability - The Allison ATS will be designed to have high reliability and low maintenance costs. Critical components will be designed using Allison`s latest life analysis methods.

  5. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-5 - Fee schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 915.404-4-71-6, provide maximum fee levels for construction and construction management contracts. The... consideration associated with the subcontractor effort under construction management contracts. (See 915.404-4... forth the base for construction management contracts: Construction Management Contracts Schedule...

  6. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-5 - Fee schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 915.404-4-71-6, provide maximum fee levels for construction and construction management contracts. The... consideration associated with the subcontractor effort under construction management contracts. (See 915.404-4... forth the base for construction management contracts: Construction Management Contracts Schedule...

  7. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-5 - Fee schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 915.404-4-71-6, provide maximum fee levels for construction and construction management contracts. The... consideration associated with the subcontractor effort under construction management contracts. (See 915.404-4... forth the base for construction management contracts: Construction Management Contracts Schedule...

  8. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-5 - Fee schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 915.404-4-71-6, provide maximum fee levels for construction and construction management contracts. The... consideration associated with the subcontractor effort under construction management contracts. (See 915.404-4... forth the base for construction management contracts: Construction Management Contracts Schedule...

  9. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-6 - Fee base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fee base. 915.404-4-71-6 Section 915.404-4-71-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND... in the Construction Contracts Schedule and Construction Management Contracts Schedule represents...

  10. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-6 - Fee base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fee base. 915.404-4-71-6 Section 915.404-4-71-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND... in the Construction Contracts Schedule and Construction Management Contracts Schedule represents...

  11. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-6 - Fee base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fee base. 915.404-4-71-6 Section 915.404-4-71-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND... in the Construction Contracts Schedule and Construction Management Contracts Schedule represents...

  12. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-6 - Fee base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee base. 915.404-4-71-6 Section 915.404-4-71-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND... in the Construction Contracts Schedule and Construction Management Contracts Schedule represents...

  13. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 915.404-4-71-1 Section 915.404-4-71-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND...) Reward contractors based on the complexity of work; (2) Reward contractors who demonstrate and...

  14. Overview of Allison/AGTSR interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s Tom Bechtel`s perseverance resulted in the creation of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) initiative in 1992. His foresight resulted in establishing an advanced gas turbine research center. The center is supported by the Government and industry. The industry serves in an oversight role, and helps select the type of research projects to be conducted by universities. AGTSR now represents an effective university and industry partnership, and is recognized as a positive mechanism. Allison Engine Company (Allison) continues to be an active participant and a strong supporter of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research initiative at Clemson University. Allison took part in early formulation stages of this university/industry consortium. We have been a member of the consortium since its inception in 1992. Allison`s senior management is cognizant of the benefits of these jointly sponsored research programs. Over the years, Allison has promoted cooperative gas turbine research and advanced technology development at many universities. This activity is conducted through direct assignments at Allison for university students, and support of research projects at various universities, focused on different disciplines of gas turbine research.

  15. Allison Sloan: Paraprofessional of the Year 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Allison Sloan, the 2010 winner of "LJ"'s Paraprofessional of the Year Award, sponsored by DEMCO, Inc. Her outstanding service and her championship of the term paralibrarian illustrates her passionately held and most fundamental belief: "This is not just a nice job, this is a career." When she launched that career at the…

  16. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., facilities investment, and special factors as set forth in this subpart. (b) Commercial (profit) organization. Profit or fee prenegotiation objectives for contracts with commercial (profit) organizations shall be... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-1 General. (a) Objective. It is...

  17. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-2 - Weighted guidelines system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weighted guidelines system. 915.404-4-70-2 Section 915.404-4-70-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-2 Weighted guidelines system. (a) To properly...

  18. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-3 - Factors for determining fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Factors for determining fees. 915.404-4-71-3 Section 915.404-4-71-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-3 Factors for determining fees. (a) The...

  19. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-3 - Factors for determining fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factors for determining fees. 915.404-4-71-3 Section 915.404-4-71-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-3 Factors for determining fees. (a) The...

  20. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-3 - Factors for determining fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Factors for determining fees. 915.404-4-71-3 Section 915.404-4-71-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-3 Factors for determining fees. (a) The...

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-3 - Factors for determining fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Factors for determining fees. 915.404-4-71-3 Section 915.404-4-71-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-3 Factors for determining fees. (a) The...

  2. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-3 - Factors for determining fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Factors for determining fees. 915.404-4-71-3 Section 915.404-4-71-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-3 Factors for determining fees. (a) The...

  3. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Considerations affecting fee amounts. 915.404-4-71-4 Section 915.404-4-71-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-4 Considerations affecting fee amounts....

  4. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations affecting fee amounts. 915.404-4-71-4 Section 915.404-4-71-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-4 Considerations affecting fee amounts....

  5. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Considerations affecting fee amounts. 915.404-4-71-4 Section 915.404-4-71-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-4 Considerations affecting fee amounts....

  6. 48 CFR 14.404-4 - Restrictions on disclosure of descriptive literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of descriptive literature. 14.404-4 Section 14.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contract 14.404-4 Restrictions on disclosure of descriptive literature. When a bid is accompanied by descriptive literature (as defined in 2.101), and the bidder imposes a restriction that prevents the...

  7. 48 CFR 27.404-4 - Contractor's release, publication, and use of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., publication, and use of data. 27.404-4 Section 27.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Copyrights 27.404-4 Contractor's release, publication, and use of data. (a) In contracts for basic or applied research with universities or colleges, agencies shall not place any restrictions on the conduct of...

  8. 48 CFR 27.404-4 - Contractor's release, publication, and use of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., publication, and use of data. 27.404-4 Section 27.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Copyrights 27.404-4 Contractor's release, publication, and use of data. (a) In contracts for basic or applied research with universities or colleges, agencies shall not place any restrictions on the conduct of...

  9. 48 CFR 27.404-4 - Contractor's release, publication, and use of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contractor's release, publication, and use of data. 27.404-4 Section 27.404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 27.404-4 Contractor's...

  10. 48 CFR 915.404-4-72 - Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost-plus-award-fee contracts. 915.404-4-72 Section 915.404-4-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....404-4-72 Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts. (a) When a contract is to be awarded on a cost-plus-award-fee basis several special considerations are appropriate. Fee objectives...

  11. 43 CFR 404.4 - What are the goals of the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the goals of the program? 404.4 Section 404.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.4 What are the goals of the program? The goals of the program are to:...

  12. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.

    2004-12-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  13. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-03-15

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  14. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71 - Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts. 915.404-4-71 Section 915.404-4-71 Federal Acquisition... Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71 Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts....

  15. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71 - Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts. 915.404-4-71 Section 915.404-4-71 Federal Acquisition... Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71 Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts....

  16. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71 - Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts. 915.404-4-71 Section 915.404-4-71 Federal Acquisition... Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71 Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts....

  17. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71 - Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts. 915.404-4-71 Section 915.404-4-71 Federal Acquisition... Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71 Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts....

  18. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71 - Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts. 915.404-4-71 Section 915.404-4-71 Federal Acquisition... Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71 Profit and fee-system for construction and construction management contracts....

  19. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-2 - Weighted guidelines system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bases representative of the prescribed profit factors cited in 48 CFR 15.404-4(d) and paragraph (d) of... Considerations (Weights applied to total of Profits $ for items 4.a. thru 4.e.) −5 to +5. VII....

  20. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-2 - Weighted guidelines system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bases representative of the prescribed profit factors cited in 48 CFR 15.404-4(d) and paragraph (d) of...) Other materials 1 to 3. b. Labor skills: (1) Technical and managerial: (a) Scientific 10 to 20....

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-2 - Weighted guidelines system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bases representative of the prescribed profit factors cited in 48 CFR 15.404-4(d) and paragraph (d) of...) Other materials 1 to 3. b. Labor skills: (1) Technical and managerial: (a) Scientific 10 to 20....

  2. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-2 - Weighted guidelines system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bases representative of the prescribed profit factors cited in 48 CFR 15.404-4(d) and paragraph (d) of...) Other materials 1 to 3. b. Labor skills: (1) Technical and managerial: (a) Scientific 10 to 20....

  3. Remnants of Tropical Storm Allison over Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 13, 2001 MODIS acquired this true-color image of Tropical Storm Allison over the Southeastern United States. Also pictured are a few wildfires burning in the stat of Florida. MODIS has thermal detectors uniquely designed to detect fires as hot as 500K without saturating, and it is being used by land managers throughout the U.S. to monitor and manage wildfires. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  4. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-5 - Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404-4-70-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  5. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-5 - Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404-4-70-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  6. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  7. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  8. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  9. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  10. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  11. 43 CFR 404.4 - What are the goals of the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. The Principles and Guidelines are intended to ensure proper and consistent planning..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.4 What are the goals of the program? The goals of the program are to: (a) Assess and address urgent and compelling rural water...

  12. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D`Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-04-01

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the < 5 % level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. This paper describes a detailed breakdown of the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.

  13. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    D'Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-01-26

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the <5% level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. As a result, this paper describes a detailed breakdown ofmore » the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.« less

  14. Advanced Seals and Secondary Airflow Systems for Allison AST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2006-01-01

    The author will present results obtained to date of a secondary flow study currently being conducted. The purpose of the study is to investigate and report all the ramifications of introducing advanced sealing technology into gas turbine engine secondary flow systems. In addition to detailed cost/benefit results we will also derive seal operational requirements which can be fed into a subsequent advanced seal development program. Using the current Allison AE3007 engine as a model/baseline we have examined 6 different advanced seal variations. We have settled on a design with 2 advanced seals which results n a savings of 2% in chargeable cooling. The introduction of these advanced seals has resulted in substantial changes to surrounding engine components which will be reported.

  15. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  16. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-5 - Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation, the DOE negotiating official shall calculate the fee as for a contract with a commercial concern... were a commercial concern. When this is the case, the contract file shall be documented to specifically... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-5 Special considerations—contracts...

  17. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  18. Asymmetric GT of social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Web citation indexes are computed according to a data vector X collected from the frequency of user accesses, citations weighted by other sites' popularities, and modified by the financial sponsorship in a proprietary manner. The indexing determining the information to be retrieved by the public should be made responsible transparently in at least two ways. One shall balance the inbound linkages pointed at the specific i-th site called the popularity (see paper for equation) with the outbound linkages (see paper for equation) called the risk factor before the release of new information as environmental impact analysis. The relationship between these two factors cannot be assumed equivalent (undirected) as in the case of many mainstream Graph Theory (GT) models.

  19. Interview with a quality leader: Joel T. Allison on healthcare technology and quality care. Interview by Marie St. Rose.

    PubMed

    Allison, Joel T

    2009-01-01

    Managing the delivery of healthcare in a turbulent environment is challenging. In this article, Joel T. Allison shares his knowledge, experiences, and best practices on healthcare technology and quality care. PMID:19753802

  20. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  1. Texas after Tropical Storm Allison (bands 2,1,3 in R,G,B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS image of Texas (left), Oklahoma (top left), Louisiana (bottom right) and Arkansas (upper right) makes use of band combinations (groups of wavelengths) that make water stand out against land. In this image, the dark blue/black squiggles indicate water. The bright green area along the Texas coast is Galveston Bay, southeast of Houston. Houston was devastated in the past week from the rains from Tropical Storm Allison. The brightness of the Bay may be due to sediment runoff from all the floodwaters. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  2. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  3. Control system for the Spallation Neutron Source H{sup -} source test facility Allison scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C. D.; Stockli, M. P.; Gorlov, T. V.; Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.

    2010-02-15

    Spallation Neutron Source is currently in progress of a multiyear plan to ramp ion beam power to the initial design power of 1.4 MW. Key to reaching this goal is understanding and improving the operation of the H{sup -} ion source. An Allison scanner was installed on the ion source in the test facility to support this improvement. This paper will discuss the hardware and the software control system of the installed Allison scanner. The hardware for the system consists of several parts. The heart of the system is the scanner head, complete with associated bias plates, slits, and signal detector. There are two analog controlled high voltage power supplies to bias the plates in the head, and a motor with associated controller to position the head in the beam. A multifunction data acquisition card reads the signals from the signal detector, as well as supplies the analog voltage control for the power supplies. To synchronize data acquisition with the source, the same timing signal that is used to trigger the source itself is used to trigger data acquisition. Finally, there is an industrial personal computer to control the rest of the hardware. Control software was developed using National Instruments LABVIEW, and consists of two parts: a data acquisition program to control the hardware and a stand alone application for offline user data analysis.

  4. Control System for the SNS H- Source Test Stand Allison Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Cary D; Stockli, Martin P; Gorlov, Timofey V; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Murray Jr, S N

    2010-01-01

    SNS is currently in progress of a multi-year plan to ramp ion beam power to the initial design power of 1.4 MW. Key to reaching this goal is understanding and improving the operation of the H- ion source. An Allison scanner was installed on the ion source test stand to support this improvement. This paper will discuss the hardware and the software control system of the installed Allison scanner. The hardware for the system consists of several parts. The heart of the system is the scanner head, complete with associated bias plates, slits, and signal detector. There are two analog controlled high voltage power supplies to bias the plates in the head, and a motor with associated controller to position the head in the beam. A multifunction data acquisition card reads the signals from the signal detector, as well as supplying the analog voltage control for the power supplies. To synchronize data acquisition with the source, the same timing signal that is used to trigger the source itself is used to trigger data acquisition. Finally, there is an industrial PC to control the rest of the hardware. Control software was developed using National Instruments LabVIEW, and consists of two parts, a data acquisition program to control the hardware, and a stand alone application for offline user data analysis.

  5. THE ALLISON UNIT CO{sub 2}-ECBM PILOT: A RESERVOIR MODELING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves; Anne Taillefert; Larry Pekot; Chris Clarkson

    2003-02-01

    In October, 2000, the United States Department of Energy, through contractor Advanced Resources International (ARI), launched a multi-year government-industry research & development collaboration called the Coal-Seq project. The Coal-Seq project is investigating the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams by performing detailed reservoir studies of two enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery field projects in the San Juan basin. The two sites are the Allison Unit, operated by Burlington Resources, and into which CO{sub 2} is being injected, and the Tiffany Unit, operating by BP America, into which nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is being injected (the interest in understanding the N{sub 2}-ECBM process has important implications for CO{sub 2} sequestration via flue-gas injection). The purposes of the field studies are to understand the reservoir mechanisms of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} injection into coalseams, demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the ECBM and sequestration processes, demonstrate an engineering capability to model them, and to evaluate sequestration economics. In support of these efforts, laboratory and theoretical studies are also being performed to understand and model multicomponent isotherm behavior, and coal permeability changes due to swelling with CO{sub 2} injection. This report describes the results of an important component of the overall project, the Allison Unit reservoir study. The Allison Unit is located in the northern New Mexico portion of the prolific San Juan basin. The study area consists of 16 methane production wells, 4 CO{sub 2} injection wells, and one pressure observation well. The field originally began production in July 1989, and CO{sub 2} injection operations for ECBM purposes commenced in April, 1995. CO{sub 2} injection was suspended in August, 2001, to evaluate the results of the pilot. In this study, a detailed reservoir characterization of the field was developed, the field

  6. GT Merge Process: Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M P; Dodge, D; Myers, S C

    2008-06-10

    This document summarizes the process used to merge GT25 and better data between LANL and LLNL. The merge also includes OUO arrivals provided by AFTAC for events in the merge. The merge process is mostly automated and includes extensive quality control operations at each step. Events in common between the labs are identified and resolved using GT level criteria. Arrivals in common between the labs are also resolved through the use of agreed upon arrival author rankings. Finally, baselined origin times are computed for all crustal events using either teleseismic P-arrivals and the iasp91 model or, in certain regions, regional P-arrivals and regional velocity models that are known to be consistent with teleseismic iasp91 P-wave predictions. We combine the core tables from each contributor and resolve unique and common GT events between contributors. Next, we merge at the pick level so that each distinct EVENT-STATION-PHASE tuple has a unique arrival. All BMEB (Bondar-Myers-Engdahl-Bergman) GT are recalculated and evaluated for adherence to their criteria. Finally, new origin times are computed (baselining) for the merged GT events. In addition to the reconciliation of events and picks between contributors, the merge process involves several quality control steps that are intended to remove outlier and irrelevant data from the final results. The process is described in the section entitled 'Merge Steps'.

  7. GT Merge Process: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M P; Dodge, D; Myers, S C

    2008-06-10

    This document summarizes the process used to merge GT25 and better data between LANL and LLNL for use in a tomographic inversion for Pn velocity of Eurasia. The merge process is automated and includes extensive quality control operations at each step. Events in common between the labs are identified and resolved using GT level criteria. Arrivals in common between the labs are also resolved through the use of agreed upon arrival author rankings. Finally, baselined origin times are computed for all crustal events using either teleseismic P-arrivals and the iasp91 model or, in certain regions, regional P-arrivals and regional velocity models that are known to be consistent with teleseismic iasp91 P-wave predictions. We combine the core tables from each lab and first resolve unique and common GT events between LANL and LLNL. Phase names are then checked and possibly adjusted for consistency. Next, we merge at the pick level so that each distinct EVENT-STATION-PHASE tuple has a unique arrival. All BMEB (Bondar-Myers-Engdahl-Bergman) GT are evaluated for adherence to their criteria, and possibly re-calculated. Finally, new origin times are computed (baselining) for the merged GT events. In addition to the reconciliation of events and picks between LANL and LLNL, the merge process involves several quality control steps that are intended to remove outlier and irrelevant data from the final results.

  8. Comparative analysis of GT14/GT14-like family genes in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu; Li, Ting; Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yang, Xiaohan

    2011-01-01

    Glycosyltransferase family14 (GT14) belongs to the glycosyltransferase (GT) superfamily that plays important roles in the biosynthesis of cell walls, the most abundant source of cellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. It has been hypothesized that DUF266 proteins are a new class of GTs related to GT14. In this study, we identified 62 GT14 and 106 DUF266 genes (named GT14-like herein) in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis. Our phylogenetic analysis separated GT14 and GT14-like genes into two distinct clades, which were further divided into eight and five groups, respectively. Similarities in protein domain, 3D structure and gene expression were uncovered between the two phylogenetic clades, supporting the hypothesis that GT14 and GT14-like genes belong to one family. Therefore, we proposed a new family name, GT14/GT14-like family that combines both subfamilies. Variation in gene expression and protein subcellular localization within the GT14-like subfamily were greater than those within the GT14 subfamily. One-half of the Arabidopsis and Populus GT14/GT14-like genes were found to be preferentially expressed in stem/xylem, indicating that they are likely involved in cell wall biosynthesis. This study provided new insights into the evolution and functional diversification of the GT14/GT14-like family genes.

  9. Comparative analysis of GT14/GT14-like gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yang, Xiaohan

    2011-12-01

    Glycosyltransferase family14 (GT14) belongs to the glycosyltransferase (GT) superfamily that plays important roles in the biosynthesis of cell walls, the most abundant source of cellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. It has been hypothesized that DUF266 proteins are a new class of GTs related to GT14. In this study, we identified 62 GT14 and 106 DUF266 genes (named GT14-like herein) in Arabidopsis, Oryza, Populus, Sorghum and Vitis. Our phylogenetic analysis separated GT14 and GT14-like genes into two distinct clades, which were further divided into eight and five groups, respectively. Similarities in protein domain, 3D structure and gene expression were uncovered between the two phylogenetic clades, supporting the hypothesis that GT14 and GT14-like genes belong to one family. Therefore, we proposed a new family name, GT14/GT14-like family that combines both subfamilies. Variation in gene expression and protein subcellular localization within the GT14-like subfamily were greater than those within the GT14 subfamily. One-half of the Arabidopsis and Populus GT14/GT14-like genes were found to be preferentially expressed in stem/xylem, indicating that they are likely involved in cell wall biosynthesis. This study provided new insights into the evolution and functional diversification of the GT14/GT14-like family genes. PMID:21958711

  10. The Poplar GT8E and GT8F Glycosyltransferases are Functional Orthologs of Arabidopsis PARVUS Involved in Gulcuronoxylan Biosynthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poplar GT8E and GT8F glycosyltransferases have previously been shown to be associated with wood formation, but their roles in the biosynthesis of wood components are not known. Here, we show that PoGT8E and PoGT8F are expressed in vessels and fibers during wood formation and ...

  11. Passage of Tropical Storm Allison (2001) over southeast Texas recorded in δ18O values of Ostracoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, James R.; Hyeong, Kiseong; Maddocks, Rosalie F.; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2008-09-01

    Freshwater Ostracoda collected in ephemeral pond-waters derived from Tropical Storm Allison (2001, Texas) recorded the unusually low oxygen-isotope values of that storm. Therefore, the potential clearly exists, in locations where tropical cyclones make landfall, to obtain a long-term record of tropical cyclone activity from fossil ostracode calcite.

  12. Learning through Expeditions: The Need for Method as Well as Opportunity--A Response to Allison and Von Wald (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Mark; Collins, Dave; Hathaway, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Allison and Von Wald (2010) highlight the substantial opportunities presented by expeditions to address the crucial topic of personal and social development. The present paper wishes to address the apparent oversight of transfer within such learning experiences. Issues that need to be addressed if the impact of transfer is to be optimised are…

  13. A Central Brazil GT5 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Caixeta, D.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-truth (GT) events, accurately located with a precision of 5 km (GT5 event) and associated travel times to regional stations are important in developing precise velocity models. The low Brazilian seismicity, with only three continental earthquakes of magnitude five in the last three decades, and the low number of seismic stations explain the difficulty to detect events at regional distances. In the world maps of GT events, Brazil appears almost empty. In Stable Continental Interiors, like Brazil, it is difficult to find an event fulfilling all the GT5 prerequisites, particularly in respect with the number of picked phases and azimuthal gaps. Recently PTS-CTBTO has organized meeting and workshops to encourage seismologists from South and Central America to cooperate with the work of identifying GT5 events in these countries, with a goal of developing a 3-dimentional velocity model for this part of the globe not covered yet like Europe and North America. As a result we studied a recent magnitude 5 event in Central Brazil detected by few regional stations. Aftershock studies with local stations, showed a fault 5 km long. Taking the mainshock epicenter as the center of fault the maximum error would be minimal, 2.5 km, assuming the events were located with zero uncertainty. The parameters depth and origin time source were precisely determined using correlations between waveforms of six events and stations corrections. The event magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.0 (mainshock, taken as reference event) recorded by regional and local stations. Events recorded at local and regional stations were used to determine the regional station corrections. These events were located only with data from local stations, assigning to the regional stations P and S phases zero weight in order to determine residuals for each regional stations used. The stations corrections were taken as the average of the residuals at each station. Precise pickings of P and S phases for the mainshock

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14.

    PubMed

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell-surface proteoglycans in plants and are involved in many cellular processes including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and cell elongation. We reported a glucuronosyltransferase encoded by Arabidopsis AtGlcAT14A, which catalyzes an addition of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14 in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT14A. Evidently, two other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT14B and AtGlcAT14C, respectively. PMID:24739253

  15. Intermonitor variability of GT3X accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, A; Torres-Luque, G; Marín, P J; Ruiz, J R; Lucia, A; Garatachea, N

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the inter-monitor reliability of the tri-axial GT3X Actigraph accelerometer over a range of physical activities (PA). This device collects motion data on each of the vertical (Y), horizontal right-left (X), and horizontal front-back (Z) axes and also calculates the vector summed value √X(2)+Y(2)+Z(2) known as 'vector magnitude' (VM). 8 GT3X accelerometers were worn at the same time by the same participant. Accelerometers were placed back-to-front, all facing forward and in sets of 4 securely taped together, attached to a belt and allocating each block above either left or right hip at waist level. Inter-monitor reliability was assessed during 6 conditions: rest, walking (4 and 6 km·h(-1)), running (8 and 10 km·h(-1)) and repeated sit-to-stand (40 times·min(-1)). The intra-class correlation coefficients were high for X, Y and Z axes (i.e., all ≥ 0.925) and for VM (≥ 0.946). In conclusion, we found good inter-instrument reliability of the GT3X accelerometer across all planes, yet our results also suggest that the X and Z axes do not provide further benefits over the 'traditional' Y-axis to assess the movement in typical PA. PMID:22791617

  16. Natural Hazard Problem and Solution Definition in the News Media: the Case of Tropical Storm Allison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric; Mosher-Howe, Katrina

    2010-05-01

    Focusing events such as natural or technological disasters can have significant impacts on public policy and planning in both the near and long term. These impacts can manifest at different temporal scales ranging from the period of immediate attention and disaster relief through the period of recovery and reconstruction and beyond. These impacts and associated decisions can be studied in retrospect and understood as not only short-term reactions, but as long-term components of subsequent natural hazard planning and public policy. By studying in detail how an event was defined, and the policy and planning alternatives that were raised or recommended in response to a disaster event, we can better understand the role that disaster-related focusing events play in the long-term evolution of a community's public policy, infrastructural planning efforts, and responses to natural disasters. This paper will use a focusing event framework to explore the local and regional policy impacts over time of a major urban flood in Houston, Texas, Tropical Storm Allison. Tropical Storm Allison (TSA), dropped 36 inches of rain on Houston over a period of four days in early June 2001, and was responsible for 22 deaths, 70,000 flood damaged homes, and 5 billion in damage to the region. The primary data source for this effort is a database of 500 articles from the major regional newspaper, the Houston Chronicle, over the period of 2001 through 2008. These articles were coded for multiple variables, including, cause, effect and impact (financial and social), blame, problem and solution definition and solution acceptance). This paper focuses primarily on the measures of problem definition (how was TSA, as an event, defined in the media, for example, as an act of God, or as a result of poor planning or decision making, etc), and on solution definition (what solutions were proposed to mitigate or adapt to future storms of this magnitude, how were they linked to the definition of the problem

  17. Low-Energy Emittance Studies with the new Allison Emittance Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Blokland, Willem; Gorlov, Timofey V; Han, Baoxi; Long, Cary D; Pennisi, Terry R; Assadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The new SNS Allison emittance scanner measures emittances of 65 kV ion beams over a range of +/- 116 mrad. Its versatile control system allows for time-dependent emittance measurements using an external trigger to synchronize with pulsed ion beam systems. After an adjustable initial delay, the system acquires an array of equally-delayed beam current measurements, each averaged over a certain time span, where all three time parameters are user selectable. The zero offset of the beam current measurements is determined by averaging a fraction of 1 ms shortly before the start of the ion beam pulse. This paper discusses the optimization of the angular range. In addition it presents the first results and reports an unresolved artefact. Data are presented on the time evolution of emittance ellipses during 0.8 ms long H- beam pulses emerging from the SNS test LEBT, which is important for loss considerations in the SNS accelerator. Additional data explore the emittance growth observed with increasing beam current and/or increasing RF-power.

  18. Catalyst evaluation on a detroit diesel Allison 6V-92TA methanol-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, R.C.; McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Lipari, F.; Scruggs, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The fresh catalytic activities of both a production Pt-Pd catalyst and a GMR Pd-promoted Ag catalyst were evaluated in back-to-back emissions tests on an experimental Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA) 6V-92TA methanol-fueled engine. Both the 13-mode steady-state and transient heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedures were employed. The production catalyst was characterized by relatively high conversions (70-90%) of unburned methanol and carbon monoxide in both the transient and 13-mode tests. However, the production catalyst promoted the partial oxidation of unburned methanol to formaldehyde, as indicated by large negative apparent conversions of formaldehyde in both the transient and steady-state tests (-77% transient; -188% 13-mode). In contrast, the Pd-promoted Ag catalyst converted formaldehyde with good efficiency (--90% in the 13-mode test and --50% in the hot transient test) but was much less efficient than the production catalyst for converting unburned methanol and carbon monoxide.

  19. The Wheat GT Factor TaGT2L1D Negatively Regulates Drought Tolerance and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Liu, Haipei; Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Dong, Baodi; Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Mengyu; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    GT factors are trihelix transcription factors that specifically regulate plant development and stress responses. Recently, several GT factors have been characterized in different plant species; however, little is known about the role of GT factors in wheat. Here, we show that TaGT2L1A, TaGT2L1B, and TaGT2L1D are highly homologous in hexaploid wheat, and are localized to wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D, respectively. These TaGT2L1 genes encode proteins containing two SANT domains and one central helix. All three homologs were ubiquitously expressed during wheat development and were responsive to osmotic stress. Functional analyses demonstrated that TaGT2L1D acts as a transcriptional repressor; it was able to suppress the expression of AtSDD1 in Arabidopsis by binding directly to the GT3 box in its promoter that negatively regulates drought tolerance. TaGT2L1D overexpression markedly increased the number of stomata and reduced drought tolerance in gtl1-3 plants. Notably, ectopic expression of TaGT2L1D also affected floral organ development and overall plant growth. These results demonstrate that TaGT2L1 is an ortholog of AtGTL1, and that it plays an evolutionarily conserved role in drought resistance by fine tuning stomatal density in wheat. Our data also highlight the role of TaGT2L1 in plant growth and development. PMID:27245096

  20. The Wheat GT Factor TaGT2L1D Negatively Regulates Drought Tolerance and Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Liu, Haipei; Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Dong, Baodi; Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Mengyu; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    GT factors are trihelix transcription factors that specifically regulate plant development and stress responses. Recently, several GT factors have been characterized in different plant species; however, little is known about the role of GT factors in wheat. Here, we show that TaGT2L1A, TaGT2L1B, and TaGT2L1D are highly homologous in hexaploid wheat, and are localized to wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D, respectively. These TaGT2L1 genes encode proteins containing two SANT domains and one central helix. All three homologs were ubiquitously expressed during wheat development and were responsive to osmotic stress. Functional analyses demonstrated that TaGT2L1D acts as a transcriptional repressor; it was able to suppress the expression of AtSDD1 in Arabidopsis by binding directly to the GT3 box in its promoter that negatively regulates drought tolerance. TaGT2L1D overexpression markedly increased the number of stomata and reduced drought tolerance in gtl1-3 plants. Notably, ectopic expression of TaGT2L1D also affected floral organ development and overall plant growth. These results demonstrate that TaGT2L1 is an ortholog of AtGTL1, and that it plays an evolutionarily conserved role in drought resistance by fine tuning stomatal density in wheat. Our data also highlight the role of TaGT2L1 in plant growth and development. PMID:27245096

  1. Technical Reliability Assessment of the Actigraph GT1M Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge; Esliger, Dale; Welk, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Actigraph GT1M (Pensacola, FL, USA) accelerometer activity count and step functions. Fifty GT1M accelerometers were initialized to collect simultaneous acceleration counts and steps data using 15-sec epochs. All reliability testing was completed using a mechanical shaker plate to…

  2. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  3. Erosion Coatings for High-Temperature Polymer Composites: A Collaborative Project With Allison Advanced Development Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    2000-01-01

    composite (ASTM D 4541 95 "Pull Off Strength of Coatings"). Glenn and Allison Advanced Development Company collaborated to optimize erosion coatings for gas turbine fan and compressor applications. All the coating systems survived aggressive thermal cycling without spalling. During erosion tests (see the final photo), the most promising coating systems tested had Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co as the hard topcoats. In all cases, these coating systems performed significantly better than that with a TiN hard topcoat. When material depth (thickness) loss is considered, the Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co coating systems provided, on average, an erosion resistance 8.5 times greater than that for the uncoated PMR 15/T650 35 composite. Similarly, Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co coating systems adhered to the PMC substrate during tensile tests significantly better than systems containing a TiN topcoat. Differences in topcoats of Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co were determined by considering issues such as cost and environmental impact. The preferred erosion-resistant coating system for PMR 15/T650 35 has WC-Co as the hard topcoat. This system provides the following benefits in comparison to the coating system with Cr3C2-NiCr topcoat: lower powder material cost (15 to 20 percent), environmentally friendly materials (Cr3C2-NiCr is hazardous), and higher deposition yield (10 to 15 percent), which results in less waste.

  4. GT198 Expression Defines Mutant Tumor Stroma in Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheqiong; Peng, Min; Cheng, Liang; Jones, Kimya; Maihle, Nita J; Mivechi, Nahid F; Ko, Lan

    2016-05-01

    Human breast cancer precursor cells remain to be elucidated. Using breast cancer gene product GT198 (PSMC3IP; alias TBPIP or Hop2) as a unique marker, we revealed the cellular identities of GT198 mutant cells in human breast tumor stroma. GT198 is a steroid hormone receptor coactivator and a crucial factor in DNA repair. Germline mutations in GT198 are present in breast and ovarian cancer families. Somatic mutations in GT198 are present in ovarian tumor stromal cells. Herein, we show that human breast tumor stromal cells carry GT198 somatic mutations and express cytoplasmic GT198 protein. GT198(+) stromal cells share vascular smooth muscle cell origin, including myoepithelial cells, adipocytes, capillary pericytes, and stromal fibroblasts. Frequent GT198 mutations are associated with GT198(+) tumor stroma but not with GT198(-) tumor cells. GT198(+) progenitor cells are mostly capillary pericytes. When tested in cultured cells, mutant GT198 induces vascular endothelial growth factor promoter, and potentially promotes angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Our results suggest that multiple lineages of breast tumor stromal cells are mutated in GT198. These findings imply the presence of mutant progenitors, whereas their descendants, carrying the same GT198 mutations, are collectively responsible for forming breast tumor microenvironment. GT198 expression is, therefore, a specific marker of mutant breast tumor stroma and has the potential to facilitate diagnosis and targeted treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:27001628

  5. HTGR-GT and electrical load integrated control

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.; Openshaw, F.; Pfremmer, D.

    1980-05-01

    A discussion of the control and operation of the HTGR-GT power plant is presented in terms of its closely coupled electrical load and core cooling functions. The system and its controls are briefly described and comparisons are made with more conventional plants. The results of analyses of selected transients are presented to illustrate the operation and control of the HTGR-GT. The events presented were specifically chosen to show the controllability of the plant and to highlight some of the unique characteristics inherent in this multiloop closed-cycle plant.

  6. GT-CATS: Tracking Operator Activities in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Palmer, Everett A.

    1999-01-01

    Human operators of complex dynamic systems can experience difficulties supervising advanced control automation. One remedy is to develop intelligent aiding systems that can provide operators with context-sensitive advice and reminders. The research reported herein proposes, implements, and evaluates a methodology for activity tracking, a form of intent inferencing that can supply the knowledge required for an intelligent aid by constructing and maintaining a representation of operator activities in real time. The methodology was implemented in the Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS), which predicts and interprets the actions performed by Boeing 757/767 pilots navigating using autopilot flight modes. This report first describes research on intent inferencing and complex modes of automation. It then provides a detailed description of the GT-CATS methodology, knowledge structures, and processing scheme. The results of an experimental evaluation using airline pilots are given. The results show that GT-CATS was effective in predicting and interpreting pilot actions in real time.

  7. Characterization of recombinant amylopullulanase (gt-apu) and truncated amylopullulanase (gt-apuT) of the extreme thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP33 and their action in starch saccharification.

    PubMed

    Nisha, M; Satyanarayana, T

    2013-07-01

    A gene encoding amylopullulanase (gt-apu) of the extremely thermophilic Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP33 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene has an open reading frame of 4,965 bp that encodes a protein of 1,655 amino acids with molecular mass of 182 kDa. The six conserved regions, characteristic of GH13 family, have been detected in gt-apu. The recombinant enzyme has only one active site for α-amylase and pullulanase activities based on the enzyme kinetic analyses in a system that contains starch as well as pullulan as competing substrates and response to inhibitors. The end-product analysis confirmed that this is an endoacting enzyme. The specific enzyme activities for α-amylase and pullulanase of the truncated amylopullulanase (gt-apuT) are higher than gt-apu. Both enzymes exhibited similar temperature (60 °C) and pH (7.0) optima, although gt-apuT possessed a higher thermostability than gt-apu. The overall catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) of gt-apuT is greater than that of gt-apu, with almost similar substrate specificities. The C-terminal region of gt-apu appeared to be non-essential, and furthermore, it negatively affects the substrate binding and stability of the enzyme. PMID:23132347

  8. Investigating giant (Gt) repression in the formation of partially overlapping pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thiago Casé; Ventrice, Glauber; Machado-Lima, Ariane; Andrioli, Luiz Paulo

    2010-11-01

    Drosophila pair-rule genes are expressed in striped patterns with a precise order of overlap between stripes of different genes. We investigated the role of Giant (Gt) in the regulation of even-skipped, hairy, runt, and fushi tarazu stripes formed in the vicinity of Gt expression domains. In gt null embryos, specific stripes of eve, h, run, and ftz are disrupted. With an ectopic expression system, we verified that stripes affected in the mutant are also repressed. Simultaneously hybridizing gt misxpressing embryos with two pair-rule gene probes, we were able to distinguish differences in the repression of pairs of stripes that overlap extensively. Together, our results showed Gt repression roles in the regulation of two groups of partially overlapping stripes and that Gt morphogen activity is part of the mechanism responsible for the differential positioning of these stripes borders. We discuss the possibility that other factors regulate Gt stripe targets as well. PMID:20925117

  9. Primary Studies of Steady States of HTGR-GT

    SciTech Connect

    Jianhua Cao; Jie Wang; Xiaoyong Yang; Suyuan Yu

    2006-07-01

    The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor coupled with gas turbine (HTGR-GT) is supposed to be one of the candidates for the future nuclear power plants in both electricity and hydrogen production. The HTGR-GT cycle is theoretically based on the closed Brayton cycle with recuperator, inter-cooler and pre-cooler. In this paper, the exergy analysis on a typical HTGR coupled with Gas Turbine was presented. Besides the core outlet temperature of the cycle, other operating parameters have been calculated to see their effect of the exergy efficiency of the whole cycle. The results show that, the compressor pressure ratio (Y) of the cycle has a great effect on the exergy losses of both heat-exchange and work components. And only the exergy loss of the recuperator decreases with the increase of Y, especially sharply when Y is small, while the exergy losses of other components increases. So there are optimized Y under different working conditions. The effect of other operating parameters, like pressure drop, recuperation efficiency and isentropic efficiencies of compressors and turbine, has been evaluated. The effect of two formers is similar, both obvious at the range of near the optimized Y, and Y goes down slightly when these two operating conditions are better. Compressors and turbine, as the work components of the cycle, their isentropic efficiency is quite important to the exergy efficiency of the cycle. The bigger Y, the more effect. Whatever, the isentropic efficiency of compressors and turbine is already quite high. (authors)

  10. A Glucurono(arabino)xylan Synthase Complex from Wheat Contains Members of the GT43, GT47, and GT75 Families and Functions Cooperatively1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Nadella, Ramya; Killen, Tara L.; Nadella, Vijayanand; Faik, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAXs) are the major hemicelluloses in grass cell walls, but the proteins that synthesize them have previously been uncharacterized. The biosynthesis of GAXs would require at least three glycosyltransferases (GTs): xylosyltransferase (XylT), arabinosyltransferase (AraT), and glucuronosyltransferase (GlcAT). A combination of proteomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed three wheat (Triticum aestivum) glycosyltransferase (TaGT) proteins from the GT43, GT47, and GT75 families as promising candidates involved in GAX synthesis in wheat, namely TaGT43-4, TaGT47-13, and TaGT75-4. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments using specific antibodies produced against TaGT43-4 allowed the immunopurification of a complex containing these three GT proteins. The affinity-purified complex also showed GAX-XylT, GAX-AraT, and GAX-GlcAT activities that work in a cooperative manner. UDP Xyl strongly enhanced both AraT and GlcAT activities. However, while UDP arabinopyranose stimulated the XylT activity, it had only limited effect on GlcAT activity. Similarly, UDP GlcUA stimulated the XylT activity but had only limited effect on AraT activity. The [14C]GAX polymer synthesized by the affinity-purified complex contained Xyl, Ara, and GlcUA in a ratio of 45:12:1, respectively. When this product was digested with purified endoxylanase III and analyzed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography, only two oligosaccharides were obtained, suggesting a regular structure. One of the two oligosaccharides has six Xyls and two Aras, and the second oligosaccharide contains Xyl, Ara, and GlcUA in a ratio of 40:8:1, respectively. Our results provide a direct link of the involvement of TaGT43-4, TaGT47-13, and TaGT75-4 proteins (as a core complex) in the synthesis of GAX polymer in wheat. PMID:20631319

  11. An in vitro comparison of torsional stress and cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X rotary nickel-titanium files.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, Thomas R; Bahcall, James

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the torsional stress and cyclic fatigue characteristics of ProFile GT (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) and ProFile GT Series X (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Files of 0.04 and 0.06 taper, 25 mm in length, and ISO sizes of 20 and 30 tips were compared (n = 25 per test group). Torque stress resistance was evaluated by measuring the torque in gram-centimeters (g-cm) and angle of deflection (degrees of rotation) required for instrument separation with use of a torsiometer instrument. Cyclic fatigue was determined by recording the time until breakage of a file rotating in a simulated canal with an applied 45 degrees or 60 degrees curve. The files were operated in a cyclic fatigue instrument that simulated clinical rotary file usage with a constant cyclical axial motion. There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) when comparing the torque (g-cm) required to induce a torsional failure of ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X files of identical file sizes. The angle of deflection (degrees of rotation) of ProFile GT was significantly greater (p < or = 0.001) before separation than ProFile GT Series X for all file sizes tested except 20/.04 (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in cyclic fatigue failure for ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X in a canal with a curvature of 45 degrees . In the 60 degrees canal curvature, ProFile GT was found to be significantly more resistant (p = 0.005) to fracture because of cyclic fatigue than ProFile GT Series X for file size 30/.06 and significant (p < or = 0.001) for files sizes 20/.06 and 30/.04. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in cyclic fatigue resistance in the 60 degrees canal for ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X for file size 20/.04. PMID:19249605

  12. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  13. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting for the Allison Woods Research Station in Iredell County, North Carolina, 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Brad A.; Abraham, Joju

    2010-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Allison Woods research station near Statesville, North Carolina, in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from April 2005 through September 2008 are presented in this report. Data presented include well-construction characteristics and periodic groundwater-level measurements for 29 wells, borehole geophysical logs for 8 wells, hourly groundwater-level measurements for 5 wells, continuous water-quality measurements for 3 wells, periodic water-quality samples for 12 wells and 1 surface-water station, slug-test results for 11 wells, and shallow groundwater-flow maps. In addition, the geology and hydrogeology at the site are summarized.

  14. Human Ovarian Cancer Stroma Contains Luteinized Theca Cells Harboring Tumor Suppressor Gene GT198 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jaafar, Lahcen; Risinger, John I.; Huang, Shuang; Mivechi, Nahid F.; Ko, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal gynecological cancer, and its causes remain to be understood. Using a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, GT198 (PSMC3IP), as a unique marker, we searched for the identity of GT198 mutant cells in ovarian cancer. GT198 has germ line mutations in familial and early onset breast and ovarian cancers and recurrent somatic mutations in sporadic fallopian tube cancers. GT198 protein has been shown as a steroid hormone receptor coregulator and also as a crucial factor in DNA repair. In this study, using GT198 as a marker for microdissection, we find that ovarian tumor stromal cells harboring GT198 mutations are present in various types of ovarian cancer including high and low grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and granulosa cell carcinomas and in precursor lesions such as inclusion cysts. The mutant stromal cells consist of a luteinized theca cell lineage at various differentiation stages including CD133+, CD44+, and CD34+ cells, although the vast majority of them are differentiated overexpressing steroidogenic enzyme CYP17, a theca cell-specific marker. In addition, wild type GT198 suppresses whereas mutant GT198 protein stimulates CYP17 expression. The chromatin-bound GT198 on the human CYP17 promoter is decreased by overexpressing mutant GT198 protein, implicating the loss of wild type suppression in mutant cells. Together, our results suggest that GT198 mutant luteinized theca cells overexpressing CYP17 are common in ovarian cancer stroma. Because first hit cancer gene mutations would specifically mark cancer-inducing cells, the identification of mutant luteinized theca cells may add crucial evidence in understanding the cause of human ovarian cancer. PMID:24097974

  15. DuoliteTM GT-73 Resin Testing in Support of the Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1998-12-07

    This study evaluated DuoliteTM GT-73 performance for removing mercury ions from several high level waste streams under consideration by the Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team as a technical risk. Experiments conducted over an eight week period address the technical uncertainties for GT-73 performance

  16. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.; Siegle, Del, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These two newsletters of The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) present articles concerned with research on the education of gifted and talented students. The articles are: "NRC/GT: Research Should Inform Practice" (E. Jean Gubbins); "Building a Bridge: A Combined Effort between Gifted and Bilingual Education" (Valentina…

  17. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.; Siegle, Del, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These two newsletters of The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) present articles concerned with research on the education of gifted and talented students. The articles are: "NRC/GT's Suggestions: Evaluating Your Programs and Services" (E. Jean Gubbins); "Professional Development Practices in Gifted Education: Results of a…

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.D.; Lommers, L.J.; Tangirala, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    A qualitative comparison between the safety characteristics of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and those of the steam cycle shows that the two designs achieve equivalent levels of overall safety performance. This comparison is obtained by applying the scaling laws to detailed steam-cycle computations as well as the conclusions obtained from preliminary GT-MHR model simulations. The gas turbine design is predicted to be superior for some event categories, while the steam cycle design is better for others. From a safety perspective, the GT-MHR has a modest advantage for pressurized conduction cooldown events. Recent computational simulations of 102 column, 550 MW(t) GT-MHR during a depressurized conduction cooldown show that peak fuel temperatures are within the limits. The GT-MHR has a significantly lower risk due to water ingress events under operating conditions. Two additional scenarios, namely loss of load event and turbine deblading event that are specific to the GT-MHR design are discussed. Preliminary evaluation of the GT-MHR`s safety characteristics indicate that the GT-MHR can be expected to satisfy or exceed its safety requirements.

  19. A photometric and orbital analysis of GT MUSCAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, K. A.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Gilmore, A. C.

    1995-10-01

    GT Mus is a quadruple system comprising a long-period RS CVn-type binary (HD 101379) and a pair of eclipsing A dwarfs (HD 101380). Six and a half years of UBV (RI)_C photometry obtained at the Mt John University Observatory has enabled identification of four distinct types of photometric variability in this system. These are (1) a slowly changing mean magnitude, which probably arises from an activity-cycle-like effect in the active component of HD 101379, (2) a periodic variation (P_rot~64d), which is attributed to rotational modulation due to spots on the active star, (3) a periodic variation (P_eclipse=2.7546d) due to the eclipses of HD 101380, and (4) an excess in the I band, which occurs on a short time-scale (<1d) and is probably associated with HD 101379 activity. The evolution of the light curve of HD 101379 is fast with respect to the rotational period, suggesting rapid spot evolution for which we anticipate a possible model. The colours of HD 101379, even at maximum brightness, are excessively red for its spectral type, unless there is significant reddening by dust. Radial velocity measurements of HD 101379 are also presented, along with an improved determination of the orbit of this somewhat long-period (P_orb=61.448d) system.

  20. Helium turbomachine design for GT-MHR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Orlando, R.J.; Cotzas, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The power conversion system in the gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) power plant is based on a highly recuperated closed Brayton cycle. The major component in the direct cycle system is a helium closed-cycle gas turbine rated at 286 MW(e). The rotating group consists of an intercooled helium turbocompressor coupled to a synchronous generator. The vertical rotating assembly is installed in a steel vessel, together with the other major components (i.e., recuperator, precooler, intercooler, and connecting ducts and support structures). The rotor is supported on an active magnetic bearing system. The turbine operates directly on the reactor helium coolant, and with a temperature of 850{degree}C (1562{degree}F) the plant efficiency is over 47%. This paper addresses the design and development planning of the helium turbomachine, and emphasizes that with the utilization of proven technology, this second generation nuclear power plant could be in service in the first decade of the 21st century.

  1. The GT-MHR for destruction of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, A.M.; Neylan, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of nearly 100 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) made surplus by the disarmament treaties is receiving urgent attention, highlighted by the recent seizure in Germany of small quantities of weapons-useful plutonium. Unlike highly enriched uranium, simple denaturing cannot make this plutonium worthless for use in future weapons. The use of physical security and institutional barriers, including long-term storage in high-level waste repositories, to provide secure storage for centuries to come is questionable when considering government instability and the possibility of national recidivism. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and General Atomics have signed an agreement for the cooperative design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) to burn the WG-Pu stockpile. A formal proposal for a joint U.S./Russian program for the development of this reactor has been submitted by MINATOM to Vice President Gore. The major benefit of this program is that the reactor would deplete the Russian surplus plutonium stockpile, provide jobs for technical specialists in the former weapons complex, and produce valuable electric power. It would also provide a mutually assured means of destroying the U.S. and Russian stockpiles.

  2. Comparison of Raw Acceleration from the GENEA and ActiGraph™ GT3X+ Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    John, Dinesh; Sasaki, Jeffer; Staudenmayer, John; Mavilia, Marianna; Freedson, Patty S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare raw acceleration output of the ActiGraph™ GT3X+ and GENEA activity monitors. Methods: A GT3X+ and GENEA were oscillated in an orbital shaker at frequencies ranging from 0.7 to 4.0 Hz (ten 2-min trials/frequency) on a fixed radius of 5.08 cm. Additionally, 10 participants (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years) wore the GT3X+ and GENEA on the dominant wrist and performed treadmill walking (2.0 and 3.5 mph) and running (5.5 and 7.5 mph) and simulated free-living activities (computer work, cleaning a room, vacuuming and throwing a ball) for 2-min each. A linear mixed model was used to compare the mean triaxial vector magnitude (VM) from the GT3X+ and GENEA at each oscillation frequency. For the human testing protocol, random forest machine-learning technique was used to develop two models using frequency domain (FD) and time domain (TD) features for each monitor. We compared activity type recognition accuracy between the GT3X+ and GENEA when the prediction model was fit using one monitor and then applied to the other. Z-statistics were used to compare the proportion of accurate predictions from the GT3X+ and GENEA for each model. Results: GENEA produced significantly higher (p < 0.05, 3.5 to 6.2%) mean VM than GT3X+ at all frequencies during shaker testing. Training the model using TD input features on the GENEA and applied to GT3X+ data yielded significantly lower (p < 0.05) prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy was not compromised when interchangeably using FD models between monitors. Conclusions: It may be inappropriate to apply a model developed on the GENEA to predict activity type using GT3X+ data when input features are TD attributes of raw acceleration. PMID:24177727

  3. Dynamics and control modeling of the closed-cycle gas turbine (GT-HTGR) power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardia, A.

    1980-02-01

    The simulation if presented for the 800-MW(e) two-loop GT-HTGR plant design with the REALY2 transient analysis computer code, and the modeling of control strategies called for by the inherently unique operational requirements of a multiple loop GT-HTGR is described. Plant control of the GT-HTGR is constrained by the nature of its power conversion loops (PCLs) in which the core cooling flow and the turbine flow are directly related and thus changes in flow affect core cooling as well as turbine power. Additionally, the high thermal inertia of the reactor core precludes rapid changes in the temperature of the turbine inlet flow.

  4. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter. Fall 1994-Spring 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.; Siegle, Del, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of three consecutive but unnumbered issues of a newsletter from the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talended (NRC/GT) containing articles on the education of gifted and talented students: "NRC/GT Destination: Around the Corner" (E. Jean Gubbins); "New NRC/GT Studies for Year 5" (on implementing enrichment…

  5. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  6. Genetically modified flax expressing NAP-SsGT1 transgene: examination of anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  7. Genetically Modified Flax Expressing NAP-SsGT1 Transgene: Examination of Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  8. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. PMID:24517843

  9. Bacterial β-Kdo glycosyltransferases represent a new glycosyltransferase family (GT99).

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Mallette, Evan; Koizumi, Akihiko; Lowary, Todd L; Kimber, Matthew S; Whitfield, Chris

    2016-05-31

    Kdo (3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) is an eight-carbon sugar mostly confined to Gram-negative bacteria. It is often involved in attaching surface polysaccharides to their lipid anchors. α-Kdo provides a bridge between lipid A and the core oligosaccharide in all bacterial LPSs, whereas an oligosaccharide of β-Kdo residues links "group 2" capsular polysaccharides to (lyso)phosphatidylglycerol. β-Kdo is also found in a small number of other bacterial polysaccharides. The structure and function of the prototypical cytidine monophosphate-Kdo-dependent α-Kdo glycosyltransferase from LPS assembly is well characterized. In contrast, the β-Kdo counterparts were not identified as glycosyltransferase enzymes by bioinformatics tools and were not represented among the 98 currently recognized glycosyltransferase families in the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes database. We report the crystallographic structure and function of a prototype β-Kdo GT from WbbB, a modular protein participating in LPS O-antigen synthesis in Raoultella terrigena The β-Kdo GT has dual Rossmann-fold motifs typical of GT-B enzymes, but extensive deletions, insertions, and rearrangements result in a unique architecture that makes it a prototype for a new GT family (GT99). The cytidine monophosphate-binding site in the C-terminal α/β domain closely resembles the corresponding site in bacterial sialyltransferases, suggesting an evolutionary connection that is not immediately evident from the overall fold or sequence similarities. PMID:27199480

  10. A thermodynamic study of waste heat recovery from GT-MHR using organic Rankine cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S. M. S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the utilization of waste heat from a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) using different arrangements of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power production. The considered organic Rankine cycles were: simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC), ORC with internal heat exchanger (HORC) and regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). The performances of the combined cycles were studied from the point of view of first and second-laws of thermodynamics. Individual models were developed for each component and the effects of some important parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and evaporator and environment temperatures on the efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate were studied. Finally the combined cycles were optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on the identical operating conditions for the GT-MHR cycle, a comparison between the three combined cycles and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also were made. This comparison was also carried out from the point of view of economics. The GT-MHR/SORC combined cycle proved to be the best among all the cycles from the point of view of both thermodynamics and economics. The efficiency of this cycle was about 10% higher than that of GT-MHR alone.

  11. 46 CFR 11.313 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as chief mate of vessels of 500 GT or more and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mate of vessels of 500 GT or more and less than 3,000 GT (management level). 11.313 Section 11.313... chief mate of vessels of 500 GT or more and less than 3,000 GT (management level). (a) To qualify for an... areas: (i) Advanced shiphandling. (ii) Advanced stability. (iii) Advanced meteorology. (iv)...

  12. 46 CFR 11.311 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as master of vessels of 500 GT or more and less...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meteorology. (iv) Leadership and managerial skills. (v) Search and rescue. (vi) Management of medical care... master of vessels of 500 GT or more and less than 3,000 GT (management level). 11.311 Section 11.311... master of vessels of 500 GT or more and less than 3,000 GT (management level). (a) To qualify for an...

  13. Isolation and characterization of GtMYBP3 and GtMYBP4, orthologues of R2R3-MYB transcription factors that regulate early flavonoid biosynthesis, in gentian flowers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are one of the major plant pigments for flower colour. Not only coloured anthocyanins, but also co-pigment flavones or flavonols, accumulate in flowers. To study the regulation of early flavonoid biosynthesis, two R2R3-MYB transcription factors, GtMYBP3 and GtMYBP4, were identified from the petals of Japanese gentian (Gentiana triflora). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two proteins belong to the subgroup 7 clade (flavonol-specific MYB), which includes Arabidopsis AtMYB12, grapevine VvMYBF1, and tomato SlMYB12. Gt MYBP3 and Gt MYBP4 transcripts were detected specifically in young petals and correlated with the profiles of flavone accumulation. Transient expression assays showed that GtMYBP3 and GtMYBP4 enhanced the promoter activities of early biosynthetic genes, including flavone synthase II (FNSII) and flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H), but not the late biosynthetic gene, flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H). GtMYBP3 also enhanced the promoter activity of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene. In transgenic Arabidopsis, overexpression of Gt MYBP3 and Gt MYBP4 activated the expression of endogenous flavonol biosynthesis genes and led to increased flavonol accumulation in seedlings. In transgenic tobacco petals, overexpression of Gt MYBP3 and Gt MYBP4 caused decreased anthocyanin levels, resulting in pale flower colours. Gt MYBP4-expressing transgenic tobacco flowers also showed increased flavonols. As far as is known, this is the first functional characterization of R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulating early flavonoid biosynthesis in petals. PMID:23125348

  14. 48 CFR 15.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... objective in price negotiations based on cost analysis. (1) Profit or fee prenegotiation objectives do not... those acquisitions that require cost analysis; and (ii) May prescribe specific exemptions for situations... negotiation is not based on cost analysis, contracting officers are not required to analyze profit. (2)...

  15. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are defined as those business entities organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific... of cooperation (both business and technical), compliance with previous contract requirements, and... involving: Small businesses; HUBZone small businesses; service-disabled, veteran-owned small businesses;...

  16. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are defined as those business entities organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific... of cooperation (both business and technical), compliance with previous contract requirements, and... involving: Small businesses; HUBZone small businesses; service-disabled, veteran-owned small businesses;...

  17. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are defined as those business entities organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific... of cooperation (both business and technical), compliance with previous contract requirements, and... involving: Small businesses; HUBZone small businesses; service-disabled, veteran-owned small businesses;...

  18. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are defined as those business entities organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific... of cooperation (both business and technical), compliance with previous contract requirements, and... involving: Small businesses; HUBZone small businesses; service-disabled, veteran-owned small businesses;...

  19. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are defined as those business entities organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific... of cooperation (both business and technical), compliance with previous contract requirements, and... involving: Small businesses; HUBZone small businesses; service-disabled, veteran-owned small businesses;...

  20. 12 CFR 404.4 - Request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... employee of Ex-Im Bank familiar with the subject matter of the request to locate the record with a... waiver, Ex-Im Bank shall advise the requester of the requirements of this paragraph. If the requester... Privacy Office shall notify the requester, in writing, that Ex-Im Bank will not process the request. (2)...

  1. 12 CFR 404.4 - Request requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee of Ex-Im Bank familiar with the subject matter of the request to locate the record with a... waiver, Ex-Im Bank shall advise the requester of the requirements of this paragraph. If the requester... Privacy Office shall notify the requester, in writing, that Ex-Im Bank will not process the request. (2)...

  2. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of the... as those of the BPA, now being performed by DOE are exempt from the 6 percent of cost restriction...

  3. 48 CFR 15.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Contract cost risk. (A) This factor measures the degree of cost responsibility and associated risk that the... risks. (B) The contractor assumes the greatest cost risk in a closely priced firm-fixed-price contract...-fixed-price contracts may entail substantially less cost risk than others because, for example,...

  4. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracts with Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) (see 215.404-75). There are three... architect-engineer or construction work; (iii) Primarily for delivery of material from subcontractors; or... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing...

  5. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) (see 215.404-75). There are three structured... pricing data threshold (see FAR 15.403-4(a)(1)); (ii) For architect-engineer or construction work; (iii... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing...

  6. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracts with Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) (see 215.404-75). There are three... architect-engineer or construction work; (iii) Primarily for delivery of material from subcontractors; or... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing...

  7. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) (see 215.404-75). There are three structured... pricing data threshold (see FAR 15.403-4(a)(1)); (ii) For architect-engineer or construction work; (iii... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing...

  8. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Profit. (b) Policy. (1) Contracting officers shall use a structured approach for developing a... alternate structured approach. (c) Contracting officer responsibilities. (1) Also, do not perform a profit analysis when assessing cost realism in competitive acquisitions. (2) When using a structured approach,...

  9. LU60645GT and MA132843GT Catalogues of Lunar and Martian Impact Craters Developed Using a Crater Shape-based Interpolation Crater Detection Algorithm for Topography Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salamuniccar, Goran; Loncaric, Sven; Mazarico, Erwan Matias

    2012-01-01

    For Mars, 57,633 craters from the manually assembled catalogues and 72,668 additional craters identified using several crater detection algorithms (CDAs) have been merged into the MA130301GT catalogue. By contrast, for the Moon the most complete previous catalogue contains only 14,923 craters. Two recent missions provided higher-quality digital elevation maps (DEMs): SELENE (in 1/16° resolution) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (we used up to 1/512°). This was the main motivation for work on the new Crater Shape-based interpolation module, which improves previous CDA as follows: (1) it decreases the number of false-detections for the required number of true detections; (2) it improves detection capabilities for very small craters; and (3) it provides more accurate automated measurements of craters' properties. The results are: (1) LU60645GT, which is currently the most complete (up to D>=8 km) catalogue of Lunar craters; and (2) MA132843GT catalogue of Martian craters complete up to D>=2 km, which is the extension of the previous MA130301GT catalogue. As previously achieved for Mars, LU60645GT provides all properties that were provided by the previous Lunar catalogues, plus: (1) correlation between morphological descriptors from used catalogues; (2) correlation between manually assigned attributes and automated measurements; (3) average errors and their standard deviations for manually and automatically assigned attributes such as position coordinates, diameter, depth/diameter ratio, etc; and (4) a review of positional accuracy of used datasets. Additionally, surface dating could potentially be improved with the exhaustiveness of this new catalogue. The accompanying results are: (1) the possibility of comparing a large number of Lunar and Martian craters, of e.g. depth/diameter ratio and 2D profiles; (2) utilisation of a method for re-projection of datasets and catalogues, which is very useful for craters that are very close to poles; and (3) the extension of the

  10. Comparison of Yamax pedometer and GT3X accelerometer steps in a free-living sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare steps detected by the Yamax pedometer (PEDO) versus the GT3X accelerometer (ACCEL) in free-living adults. Daily PEDO and ACCEL steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (18 females; mean +/- sd: age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; body mass index = 3...

  11. MAXI/GSC detected a high state on an RS CVn star GT Mus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, R.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakahira, S.; Negoro, H.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sugawara, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Kawase, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2016-07-01

    At 2016-07-16 19:18 UT , the MAXI/GSC nova alert system triggered on a bright source at a position consistent with that of an RS CVn star GT Mus. The flux increased from 2016-07-16 13:08:30 UT to 2016-07-16 19:18 UT (the trigger time).

  12. Genome-wide hydroxymethylation tested using the HELP-GT assay shows redistribution in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Yu, Yiting; Suzuki, Masako; Campbell, Nathaniel; Mazdo, Jozef; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Bhagat, Tushar D.; Nischal, Sangeeta; Christopeit, Maximilian; Parekh, Samir; Steidl, Ulrich; Godley, Lucy; Maitra, Anirban; Greally, John M.; Verma, Amit

    2013-01-01

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a recently discovered epigenetic modification that is altered in cancers. Genome-wide assays for 5-hmC determination are needed as many of the techniques for 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) determination, including methyl-sensitive restriction digestion and bisulfite sequencing cannot distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC. Glycosylation of 5-hmC residues by beta-glucosyl transferase (β-GT) can make CCGG residues insensitive to digestion by MspI. Restriction digestion by HpaII, MspI or MspI after β-GT conversion, followed by adapter ligation, massive parallel sequencing and custom bioinformatic analysis allowed us determine distribution of 5-mC and 5-hmC at single base pair resolution at MspI restriction sites. The resulting HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR with β-GT (HELP-GT) assay identified 5-hmC loci that were validated at global level by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the locus-specific level by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 5-hmC pull-down DNA. Hydroxymethylation at both promoter and intragenic locations correlated positively with gene expression. Analysis of pancreatic cancer samples revealed striking redistribution of 5-hmC sites in cancer cells and demonstrated enrichment of this modification at many oncogenic promoters such as GATA6. The HELP-GT assay allowed global determination of 5-hmC and 5-mC from low amounts of DNA and with the use of modest sequencing resources. Redistribution of 5-hmC seen in cancer highlights the importance of determination of this modification in conjugation with conventional methylome analysis. PMID:23861445

  13. Performance of Allison Model 400-C6 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. I; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Compressor at Equivalent Impeller Speeds of 6000, 7000, and 8500 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Karl; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    The Allison model 400-C6 compressor was operated at an inlet pressure of 12 inches of mercury absolute ana ambient inlet temperature at equivalent impeller speeds of 6000, 7000, and 8500 rpm. Additional runs at an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm and ambient inlet temperature were made at inlet pressures from 7 to 22 inches of mercury absolute. The results of this investigation are compared with those of the 533-A-23 compressors. For the speeds investigated, the Allison model 400-C6 compressor had a maximum adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.768 at an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm; the corresponding equivalent weight flow was 45.0 pounds per second and the pressure ratio was 1.83. At an equivalent impeller speed of 8500 rpm, the maximum equivalent weight flow was 61.6 pounds per second and the peak pressure ratio of 2.38 occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 52.2 pounds per 1 second and an adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.714. At an equivalent speed of 7000 rpm, increasing the compressor- inlet pressure increased the maximum equivalent weight flow and the pressure ratio.

  14. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) Newsletter, June 1991-Winter 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.; Siegle, Del L., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These 15 newsletters from the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) contain the following articles: (1) "National Research Needs Assessment Process" (Brian D. Reid); (2) "NRC/GT: Update of Year 2 Activities" (E. Jean Gubbins); (3) "Parents: Their Impact on Gifted Adolescents" (Julie L. Sherman); (4) "Cluster Grouping Fact…

  15. 78 FR 29810 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2003 BMW K 1200 GT Motorcycles Are Eligible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You may read the... 2003 BMW K 1200 GT Motorcycles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2003 BMW K 1200 GT...

  16. An 110 Ma Crocodilian-Bearing Vertebrate Assemblage Preserved Between Basalt Flows on a mid-Pacific Seamount, ODP Site 865, Allison Guyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firth, J. V.; Yancey, T.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.

    2006-12-01

    Crocodilian teeth, fish teeth, scales, and bones, and teeth and bones of uncertain affinities occur within a mudstone deposit sandwiched between basalt flows at the base of ODP Hole 865A on Allison Guyot in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Age control from large benthic foraminifers, Sr-isotope stratigraphy, and radiometric ages of the basalt place the age of this assemblage at 110 \\mp 1.2 Ma, or late Aptian/early Albian. This deposit contains the oldest known crocodilian remains in the Pacific Realm. The vertebrate-bearing interval lies within a 30 cm mudstone unit overlying lithified fossiliferous limestone and underlying fossiliferous clayey limestone. The surface of the lithified limestone contains fish scales, vertebrate teeth and bones, and a carapace of the ostracod Cytherella. The lower 17 cm of mudstone is the prime vertebrate-bearing layer. It has a fining-upwards grain size trend, and an upward increase in dark coloration. The sand sized fraction is primarily pelletal glauconite, pyrite and fish debris. Limestone clasts up to several mm in diameter occur through the lower portion, whereas the higher portion contains sand laminae. A pristine 1 cm long crocodilian tooth, along with several smaller crocodilian teeth from this interval, attest to the presence of a saltwater crocodilian within the lagoon of this drowned mid-Pacific atoll. Common and varied fish teeth include both slender forms for piercing and grasping mobile prey and blunt flat-topped forms for crushing and grinding hard-shelled bottom living organisms such as oysters. The crushing teeth resemble those of the modern Black Drum fish, a bottom feeder common in shallow coastal environments. Abundant fish scales include both heavy phosphatic ganoid scales, a type present on many Mesozoic fish, and thin flexible scales of a type present on most modern fish. Some teeth and bone fragments are currently unidentified, and may represent vertebrates other than fish or crocodilians. No calcareous

  17. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K. . E-mail: veenap@ccmb.res.in

    2006-09-29

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif.

  18. Search for the Binary Companion of Deep Impact Target 2002 GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2012-10-01

    The first evidence for a possible companion to 2002 GT was acquired in April 2013. The current apparition is the only opportunity to verify or constrain possibly binary configurations for this Near Earth Asteroid before the 2020 arrival of the retargeted Deep Impact spacecraft. Ground-based options for verification have been nearly exhausted at this point. Rapid action is needed before 2002 GT's increasing distance from the Earth precludes any chance of direct confirmation of the presence of a companion. The presence, or not, of a companion, is absolutely essential information for the success of the mission. We are requesting two orbits of HST time as soon as is practical in July 2013.

  19. 2 kW (2  +  1) GT-wave fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Huan; Wang, Yuying; Peng, Kun; Wang, Zhen; Ni, Li; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Jianjun; Jing, Feng; Lin, Aoxiang

    2016-04-01

    We report on a home-made 2 kW (2  +  1) GT-wave fiber, and demonstrated its use in the creation of a bidirectional pump amplifier. The constructed all-fiber master oscillator power amplifier system allowed for 2.65 kW aggregated pump power from four 976 nm-laser-diode ports simultaneously and generated a 2.02 kW laser output with optical-to-optical efficiency of 67.8% at 1064 nm. This bi-directional pump GT-wave fiber amplifier sytem showed excellent stability at 1.35 kW, and the laser beam quality factor M 2 was measured to be 2.8.

  20. Interaction between body weight status and walking speed in steps monitoring by GT3X accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Marie-Lyse; Kestens, Yan; Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Tremblay, Angelo; Mathieu, Marie-Eve

    2014-08-01

    The measurement error of the step count function of the ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer was assessed at different walking speeds in 12 obese and 16 nonobese individuals. In comparison with visual verification, the accelerometer step count function measurement error was larger for obese individuals walking at low speeds (2.5 km·h(-1)). This error equated to an approximate 50% underestimation at these speeds. PMID:24823315

  1. Observing Campaign for Potential Deep Impact Flyby Target 163249 (2002 GT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittichova, Jana; Chesley, S. R.; Abell, P. A.; Benner, L. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft is currently on course for a Jan. 4, 2020 flyby of the sub-kilometer near-Earth asteroid 163249 (2002 GT). The re-targeting will be complete with a final small maneuver scheduled for Oct. 4, 2012. 2002 GT, which is also designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA), has a well-determined orbit and is approx 800 m in diameter (H=18.3). Little more is known about the nature of this object, but in mid-2013 it will pass near the Earth, affording an exceptional opportunity for ground-based characterization. At this apparition 2002 GT will be in range of Arecibo. In addition to Doppler measurements, radar delay observations with precisions of a few microseconds are expected and have a good chance of revealing whether the system is binary or not. The asteroid will be brighter than 16th mag., which will facilitate a host of observations at a variety of wavelengths. Light curve measurements across a wide range of viewing perspectives will reveal the rotation rate and ultimately lead to strong constraints on the shape and pole orientation. Visible and infrared spectra will constrain the mineralogy, taxonomy, albedo and size. Along with the radar observations, optical astrometry will further constrain the orbit, both to facilitate terminal guidance operations and to potentially reveal nongravitational forces acting on the asteroid. Coordinating all of these observations will be a significant task and we encourage interested observers to collaborate in this effort. The 2013 apparition of 2002 GT represents a unique opportunity to characterize a potential flyby target, which will aid interpretation of the high-resolution flyby imagery and aid planning and development of the flyby imaging sequence. The knowledge gained from this flyby will be highly relevant to the human exploration program at NASA, which desires more information on the physical characteristics of sub-kilometer near-Earth asteroids.

  2. Observing Campaign for Potential Deep Impact Flyby Target 163249 (2002 GT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichova, Jana; Chesley, S. R.; Abell, P. A.; Benner, L. A. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft is currently on course for a proposed 2020-Jan-4 flyby of Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 163249 (2002 GT). The re-targeting will be complete with a final small maneuver scheduled for 2012-Oct-04. 2002 GT has a well-determined orbit and absolute magnitude 18.3 ( 800m diameter). Little more is known about the nature of this object, but in late June 2013 it will pass 0.012 AU from Earth, affording an exceptional opportunity for ground-based characterization. At this apparition 2002 GT will be in range of Arecibo, which should provide radar delay observations with precisions of a few microseconds, potentially revealing whether the system is binary or not. The asteroid will reach magnitude V=16.1 and will be brighter than V=18 for over two months, facilitating a host of observations at a variety of wavelengths. Light curve measurements across a wide range of viewing perspectives will reveal the rotation rate and ultimately lead to strong constraints on the shape and pole orientation. Visible and infrared spectra will constrain the mineralogy, taxonomy, albedo and size. Radar and optical astrometry will further constrain the orbit, both to facilitate terminal guidance operations and, when combined with spacecraft flyby data, to potentially reveal nongravitational forces acting on the asteroid. Coordinating all of these observations will be a significant task and we encourage interested observers to collaborate in this effort. The 2013 apparition will be the last time 2002 GT will be brighter than magnitude 18 until after the 2020 spacecraft flyby and thus represents a unique opportunity to characterize a potential flyby target, which will aid planning and development of the flyby imaging sequence and interpretation of flyby imagery. The knowledge gained from this proposed flyby will be highly relevant to NASA’s human exploration program, which desires more information on the characteristics of sub-kilometer near-Earth asteroids.

  3. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power part II. System packaging and operating route simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work assesses the feasibility of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid power systems for use as the prime mover in freight locomotives. The available space in a diesel engine-powered locomotive is compared to that required for an SOFC-GT system, inclusive of fuel processing systems necessary for the SOFC-GT. The SOFC-GT space requirement is found to be similar to current diesel engines, without consideration of the electrical balance of plant. Preliminary design of the system layout within the locomotive is carried out for illustration. Recent advances in SOFC technology and implications of future improvements are discussed as well. A previously-developed FORTRAN model of an SOFC-GT system is then augmented to simulate the kinematics and power notching of a train and its locomotives. The operation of the SOFC-GT-powered train is investigated along a representative route in Southern California, with simulations presented for diesel reformate as well as natural gas reformate and hydrogen as fuels. Operational parameters and difficulties are explored as are comparisons of expected system performance to modern diesel engines. It is found that even in the diesel case, the SOFC-GT system provides significant savings in fuel and CO2 emissions, making it an attractive option for the rail industry.

  4. Somatic c.34G>T KRAS mutation: a new prescreening test for MUTYH-associated polyposis?

    PubMed

    Aimé, Adeline; Coulet, Florence; Lefevre, Jeremie H; Colas, Chrystelle; Cervera, Pascale; Flejou, Jean-François; Lascols, Olivier; Soubrier, Florent; Parc, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the somatic c.34G>T KRAS transversion as a marker suggestive of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We compared 86 adenomas and 19 colorectal cancers (CRCs) of 30 MAP patients to 135 adenomas and five CRCs of 47 familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. The c.34G>T mutation was investigated by DNA sequencing. Secondly, the germline MUTYH gene sequence was analyzed in patients carrying c.34G>T in CRCs diagnosed between 2008 and 2012. The c.34G>T was present in 39.7% of MAP adenomas versus 1.6% of FAP adenomas (P < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting MAP were 39.7% and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity increased with the number of adenomas tested (P = 0.039). KRAS exon 2 analysis was performed on 2239 CRC and 2.2% harbored the c.34G>T transversion. Among 28 carriers of the c.34G>T mutation, biallelic MUTYH mutations were detected in seven patients (25%). One patient did not have any polyp or family history and did not fulfill criteria for MUTYH testing. With high specificity, the c.34G>T mutation seems to be a useful and promising test for MAP. For polyposis, it may guide genetic testing toward APC or MUTYH. If routinely performed in CRC patients, it could help to diagnose MUTYH-mutation carriers, even when they don't fulfill genetic testing criteria. PMID:26056087

  5. Thermal Emission Photometry of Deep Impact Flyby Target (163249) 2002 GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Reddy, V.; Vilas, F.; 2002 GT Observing Team

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (163249) 2002 GT is now the target of a Deep Impact spacecraft flyby in Jan. 2020 (see Pittichova et al., this volume, for details of the flyby and observing campaign). Thermal emission photometry of 2002 GT was obtained from NIRI on Gemini-North in the L' and M' filters, which are centered at 3.76 and 4.68 microns respectively. J- and K-band reflectance photometry was also acquired in support of the thermal observations. The full JKL'M' set was acquired on UT 2013-Jun-13 at a solar phase angle of 53 degrees. A further set of photometry in J, K, and L' only was carried out on 2013-Jun-19 at a phase angle of 65 degrees. High water vapor conditions at Mauna Kea during this period unfortunately prevented acquisition of a second set of M' measurements. In addition, N-band photometry of 2002 GT was conducted on 2013-Jun-10 from CanariCam at the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias using a beta version of the moving object guiding system. Data were acquired in three filters between 8.7 and 12.5 microns, although the limitations of the guiding are complicating the analysis. (We note that N-band observing was not offered by either Gemini or IRTF during this apparition.) Data analysis is ongoing and results will be discussed. We appreciate the efforts of the Gemini and GTC staff in support of these observing programs.

  6. Nucleotide 1376 G-->T mutation in G6PD-deficient Chinese in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ainoon, O; Joyce, J; Boo, N Y; Cheong, S K; Hamidah, N H

    1995-12-01

    G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and affects 200 million people worldwide. To date more than 400 biochemical variants and at least 60 different point mutations in the G6PD locus have been discovered. In Malaysia the overall incidence of G6PD deficiency among males is 3.1%, being more prevalent among the Chinese and Malays and less common among the Indians. As part of our initial effort to characterise G6PD deficiency in the Malaysian population, we investigated 18 G6PD deficient Chinese male neonates for the G6PD mutation G-->T at nt 1376, a common mutation seen among the Chinese in Taiwan and mainland China. The mutation was detected by a PCR-based technique using primers that artificially create a site for restriction enzyme Xho I. We found 61% (11 out of 18) of the Chinese G6PD deficient male neonates positive for this mutation. Study of enzyme electrophoretic mobility in 7 of the cases positive for this mutation revealed three different patterns of mobility. 107% (5 out of 7), 103% (1 out of 7) and 100% (1 out of 7). This study shows that mutation G-->T at nt 1376 is a common allele causing G6PD deficiency in Malaysians of Chinese origin. The finding of different patterns of electrophoretic mobility among the 7 cases positive for 1376 G-->T mutation supports the notion that diverse biochemical variants may share the same mutation. PMID:8935127

  7. Effect of ganglioside GT1b on the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    HWANG, Seon-Ung; JEON, Yubyeol; YOON, Junchul David; CAI, Lian; KIM, Eunhye; YOO, Hyunju; KIM, Kyu-Jun; PARK, Kyu Mi; JIN, Minghui; KIM, Hyunggee; HYUN, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioside is an acidic glycosphingolipid with sialic acids residues. This study was performed to investigate the effect and mechanism of ganglioside GT1b in porcine oocytes in the process of in vitro maturation (IVM) and preimplantation development. Metaphase II (MII) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the control group and the 5 nM GT1b treatment group. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in oocytes matured with 5 nM and 20 nM and GT1b decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The 10 nM group showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels compared with the control group. Subsequently, the level of intracellular Ca2+ in oocytes treated with different concentrations of GT1b was measured. Intracellular Ca2+ was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with a higher concentration of GT1b in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR was performed and showed that the expression of bradykinin 2 receptor (B2R) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CaMKIIδ) in cumulus cells was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the 20 nM GT1b treatment group. Treatment with 5 nM GT1b significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the expression of CaMKIIδ. In oocytes, treatment with 5 nM GT1b significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CaMKIIγ and POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1). However, treatment with 20 nM GT1b significantly (P < 0.05) increased the expression of POU5F1. Finally, embryonic developmental data showed no significant differences in the two experiments (parthenogenesis and in vitro fertilization). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that GT1b plays an important role in increasing the nuclear maturation rate and decreasing the intracellular ROS levels during IVM. However, GT1b inhibited maturation of the cytoplasm by maintaining intracellular Ca2+ in the process of oocyte maturation regardless of the cell cycle stage. Therefore, GT1b is thought to act on another mechanism

  8. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine: a plant concept with inherent cogeneration (power plus heat production) capability

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.

    1980-04-01

    The high-grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) plant is ideally suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed-cycle plant could include (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. This paper discusses the HTGR-GT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes. This paper concludes that the HTGR-GT plant, which can potentially approach a 50% overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation.

  9. FSV experience in support of the GT-MHR reactor physics, fuel performance, and graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, A.M.; McEachern, D.; Hanson, D.L.; Vollman, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) power plant was the most recent operating graphite-moderated, helium-cooled nuclear power plant in the United States. Many similarities exist between the FSV design and the current design of the GT-MHR. Both designs use graphite as the basic building blocks of the core, as structural material, in the reflectors, and as a neutron moderator. Both designs use hexagonal fuel elements containing cylindrical fuel rods with coated fuel particles. Helium is the coolant and the power densities vary by less than 5%. Since material and geometric properties of the GT-MHR core am very similar to the FSV core, it is logical to draw upon the FSV experience in support of the GT-MHR design. In the Physics area, testing at FSV during the first three cycles of operation has confirmed that the calculational models used for the core design were very successful in predicting the core nuclear performance from initial cold criticality through power operation and refueling. There was excellent agreement between predicted and measured initial core criticality and control rod positions during startup. Measured axial flux distributions were within 5% of the predicted value at the peak. The isothermal temperature coefficient at zero power was in agreement within 3%, and even the calculated temperature defect over the whole operating range for cycle 3 was within 8% of the measured defect. In the Fuel Performance area, fuel particle coating performance, and fission gas release predictions and an overall plateout analysis were performed for decommissioning purposes. A comparison between predicted and measured fission gas release histories of Kr-85m and Xe-138 and a similar comparison with specific circulator plateout data indicated good agreement between prediction and measured data. Only I-131 plateout data was overpredicted, while Cs-137 data was underpredicted.

  10. Temporally-Resolved UV/VIS Reflectance Spectra of Near-Earth Asteroid 163249 2002 GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Faith; Hendrix, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft has been targeted by NASA to image near-Earth asteroid 163249 2002 GT when it passes nearby in 2020. To place the images it will acquire in context, a campaign to observe 2002 GT was conducted during its last, brightest apparition before fly-by in spring 2013. As part of this campaign, the asteroid was observed using the MMT 6.5-m telescope with the facility Blue Channel spectrograph on UT June 19 (V ~ 16.2). Fifteen spectra covering a wavelength range of 320 - 640 nm were obtained across a 4.57-hr time interval, exceeding the 3.766-hr rotational period of the asteroid. Each exposure was 5 min. Additional UV/blue spectra were also obtained of other S-complex main-belt and near-Earth asteroids. We have previously shown that, in the inner Solar System, space weathering affects spectra of S-complex asteroids at UV/VIS wavelengths with a "bluing" of the spectral reflectance. This effect of space weathering is consistent with the addition of iron or iron-bearing opaque minerals. In the 150-450 nm range, we expect space-weathered surfaces consisting of iron-bearing opaques to be less spectrally red (bluing) and potentially brighter than non-weathered surfaces with lower amounts of iron-bearing minerals. Further, we expect to see the onset and effects of space weathering more rapidly in the UV/blue than at VNIR wavelengths, as short wavelengths are more sensitive to thin coatings on grains that could be the result of weathering processes. The preliminary examination of the temporally-resolved spectra of 2002 GT suggests some variation, indicating a slight difference in level of weathering across the asteroid's surface. We discuss all data collectively within this context.

  11. Enhanced software for the GT1022 automated gaging system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Several enhancements have been added to the gaging software of a microcomputer-controlled gaging system (GT1022) that is used to acquire and process dimensional product data from multiprobe rotary gages. Processing routines have been developed to inspect five additional feature types: dimension, least squares center, MMC position with datum diameter bonus, total indicator reading, and two-sided wall thickness. Mathematical alignment routines have been added that permit parts to be gaged in a misaligned condition and then have the measurements corrected relative to the part`s datum axes.

  12. Isolation and characterization of recombinant lambda gt11 bacteriophages expressing four different Mycobacterium intracellulare antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S L; Rouse, D A; Hussong, D; Chaparas, S D

    1990-01-01

    Four bacteriophages expressing different immunoreactive recombinant Mycobacterium intracellulare antigens were isolated from a lambda gt11 library with monoclonal antibodies to M. intracellulare. These four antibodies reacted with native M. intracellulare proteins of 54, 43, 40/38, and 22 kilodaltons. Southern blot hybridizations with DNA probes prepared from insert fragments of these bacteriophages confirmed the M. intracellulare derivation of the inserts. The physical maps of the immunoreactive phages were deduced by restriction enzyme digestions. The molecular weights of the expressed recombinant antigens were determined by Western (immuno-) blotting. Images PMID:2136733

  13. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power: Part I. Development of a dynamic 3.5 MW SOFC-GT FORTRAN model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work presents the development of a dynamic SOFC-GT hybrid system model applied to a long-haul freight locomotive in operation. Given the expectations of the rail industry, the model is used to develop a preliminary analysis of the proposed system's operational capability on conventional diesel fuel as well as natural gas and hydrogen as potential fuels in the future. It is found that operation of the system on all three of these fuels is feasible with favorable efficiencies and reasonable dynamic response. The use of diesel fuel reformate in the SOFC presents a challenge to the electrochemistry, especially as it relates to control and optimization of the fuel utilization in the anode compartment. This is found to arise from the large amount of carbon monoxide in diesel reformate that is fed to the fuel cell, limiting the maximum fuel utilization possible. This presents an opportunity for further investigations into carbon monoxide electrochemical oxidation and/or system integration studies where the efficiency of the fuel reformer can be balanced against the needs of the SOFC.

  14. Structure–function relationships of membrane-associated GT-B glycosyltransferases†

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Giganti, David; Jackson, Mary; Alzari, Pedro M; Guerin, Marcelo E

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-associated GT-B glycosyltransferases (GTs) comprise a large family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sugar moiety from nucleotide-sugar donors to a wide range of membrane-associated acceptor substrates, mostly in the form of lipids and proteins. As a consequence, they generate a significant and diverse amount of glycoconjugates in biological membranes, which are particularly important in cell–cell, cell–matrix and host–pathogen recognition events. Membrane-associated GT-B enzymes display two “Rossmann-fold” domains separated by a deep cleft that includes the catalytic center. They associate permanently or temporarily to the phospholipid bilayer by a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. They have the remarkable property to access both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates that reside within chemically distinct environments catalyzing their enzymatic transformations in an efficient manner. Here, we discuss the considerable progress that has been made in recent years in understanding the molecular mechanism that governs substrate and membrane recognition, and the impact of the conformational transitions undergone by these GTs during the catalytic cycle. PMID:24253765

  15. Designing Ground Antennas for Maximum G/T: Cassegrain or Gregorian?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, William A.

    2005-01-01

    For optimum performance, a ground antenna system must maximize the ratio of received signal to the receiving system noise power, defined as the ratio of antenna gain to system-noise temperature (G/T). The total system noise temperature is the linear combination of the receiver noise temperature (including the feed system losses) and the antenna noise contribution. Hence, for very low noise cryogenic receiver systems, antenna noise-temperature properties are very significant contributors to G/T.It is well known that, for dual reflector systems designed for maximum gain, the gain performance of the antenna system is the same for both Cassegrain and Gregorian configurations. For a12-meter antenna designed to be part of the large array based Deep Space Network, a Cassegrain configuration designed for maximum G/T at X-band was 0.7 dB higher than the equivalent Gregorian configuration. This study demonstrates that, for maximum GIT, the dual shaped Cassegrain design is always better than the Gregorian.

  16. Comparison of older adults' steps per day using NL-1000 pedometer and two GT3X+ accelerometer filters.

    PubMed

    Barreira, Tiago V; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather C; Keller, Jeffrey N; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the steps/d derived from the ActiGraph GT3X+ using the manufacturer's default filter (DF) and low-frequency-extension filter (LFX) with those from the NL-1000 pedometer in an older adult sample. Fifteen older adults (61-82 yr) wore a GT3X+ (24 hr/day) and an NL-1000 (waking hours) for 7 d. Day was the unit of analysis (n = 86 valid days) comparing (a) GT3X+ DF and NL-1000 steps/d and (b) GT3X+ LFX and NL-1000 steps/d. DF was highly correlated with NL-1000 (r = .80), but there was a significant mean difference (-769 steps/d). LFX and NL-1000 were highly correlated (r = .90), but there also was a significant mean difference (8,140 steps/d). Percent difference and absolute percent difference between DF and NL-1000 were -7.4% and 16.0%, respectively, and for LFX and NL-1000 both were 121.9%. Regardless of filter used, GT3X+ did not provide comparable pedometer estimates of steps/d in this older adult sample. PMID:23170752

  17. Operational, control and protective system transient analyses of the closed-cycle GT-HTGR power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Openshaw, F. L.; Chan, T. W.

    1980-11-01

    This paper presents a description of the analyses of the control/protective system preliminary designs for the gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (GT-HTGR) power plant. The purpose of these systems is the control and safe operation of the plant in accordance with utility practice for large nuclear generation stations, and in the event of an abnormal or accident condition to shut the plant down in an orderly manner and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition. Several unique characteristics inherent in the operation of the closed-cycle multiple-loop GT-HTGR design have presented special modeling and/or control design requirements or resulted in unusual conditions. The GT-HTGR dynamic modeling, control/protective system design, and transient analyses are illustrated in this paper through discussion of a few selected transient events and the special modeling and control operation for these events.

  18. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  19. Liver Enzymes: Interaction Analysis of Smoking with Alcohol Consumption or BMI, Comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Background A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. Methodology/Principal Findings The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001) and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001). The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. Conclusion The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury. PMID:22132177

  20. The Arabidopsis Family GT43 Glycosyltransferases Form Two Functionally Nonredundant Groups Essential for the Elongation of Glucuronoxylan Backbone

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exist four members of family GT43 glycosyltransferases in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, and mutations of two of them, IRX9 and IRX14, have previously been shown to cause a defect in glucuronoxylan (GX) biosynthesis. However, it is currently unknown whether ...

  1. Conditional Tat protein brain expression in the GT-tg bigenic mouse induces cerebral fractional anisotropy abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Amanda N.; Liu, Xiaoxu; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Paris, Jason J.; McLaughlin, Jay P.; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral white matter changes including tissue water diffusion abnormalities detected with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) are commonly found in humans with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, as well as in animal models of the disorder. The severities of some of these abnormalities have been reported to correlate with measures of disease progression or severity, or with the degree of cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, DTI may be a useful translational biomarker. HIV-Tat protein appears to be an important factor in the viral pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurotoxicity. We previously reported cerebral gray matter density reductions in the GT-tg bigenic mouse treated with doxycycline (Dox) to conditionally induce Tat protein expression. Presently, we administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) Dox (100 mg/kg/day) for 7 days to GT-tg mice to determine whether induction of conditional Tat expression led to the development of cerebral DTI abnormalities. Perfused and fixed brains from eight GT-tg mice administered Dox and eight control mice administered saline i.p. were extracted and underwent DTI scans on a 9.4 Tesla scanner. A whole brain analysis detected fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in several areas including insular and endopiriform regions, as well as within the dorsal striatum. These findings suggest that exposure to Tat protein is sufficient to induce FA abnormalities, and further support the use of the GT-tg mouse to model some effects of HIV. PMID:25619988

  2. Integration of a wave rotor to an ultra-micro gas turbine (UmuGT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iancu, Florin

    2005-12-01

    Wave rotor technology has shown a significant potential for performance improvement of thermodynamic cycles. The wave rotor is an unsteady flow machine that utilizes shock waves to transfer energy from a high energy fluid to a low energy fluid, increasing both the temperature and the pressure of the low energy fluid. Used initially as a high pressure stage for a gas turbine locomotive engine, the wave rotor was commercialized only as a supercharging device for internal combustion engines, but recently there is a stronger research effort on implementing wave rotors as topping units or pressure gain combustors for gas turbines. At the same time, Ultra Micro Gas Turbines (UmuGT) are expected to be a next generation of power source for applications from propulsion to power generation, from aerospace industry to electronic industry. Starting in 1995, with the MIT "Micro Gas Turbine" project, the mechanical engineering research world has explored more and more the idea of "Power MEMS". Microfabricated turbomachinery like turbines, compressors, pumps, but also electric generators, heat exchangers, internal combustion engines and rocket engines have been on the focus list of researchers for the past 10 years. The reason is simple: the output power is proportional to the mass flow rate of the working fluid through the engine, or the cross-sectional area while the mass or volume of the engine is proportional to the cube of the characteristic length, thus the power density tends to increase at small scales (Power/Mass=L -1). This is the so-called "cube square law". This work investigates the possibilities of incorporating a wave rotor to an UmuGT and discusses the advantages of wave rotor as topping units for gas turbines, especially at microscale. Based on documented wave rotor efficiencies at larger scale and subsidized by both, a gasdynamic model that includes wall friction, and a CFD model, the wave rotor compression efficiency at microfabrication scale could be estimated

  3. Identification and in silico characterization of soybean trihelix-GT and bHLH transcription factors involved in stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Marina Borges; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Castilhos, Graciela; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses caused by either abiotic or biotic factors greatly affect agriculture. As for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril], one of the most important crop species in the world, the situation is not different. In order to deal with these stresses, plants have evolved a variety of sophisticated molecular mechanisms, to which the transcriptional regulation of target-genes by transcription factors is crucial. Even though the involvement of several transcription factor families has been widely reported in stress response, there still is a lot to be uncovered, especially in soybean. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of bHLH and trihelix-GT transcription factors in soybean responses to environmental stresses. Gene annotation, data mining for stress response, and phylogenetic analysis of members from both families are presented herein. At least 45 bHLH (from subgroup 25) and 63 trihelix-GT putative genes reside in the soybean genome. Among them, at least 14 bHLH and 11 trihelix-GT seem to be involved in responses to abiotic/biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis successfully clustered these with members from other plant species. Nevertheless, bHLH and trihelix-GT genes encompass almost three times more members in soybean than in Arabidopsis or rice, with many of these grouping into new clades with no apparent near orthologs in the other analyzed species. Our results represent an important step towards unraveling the functional roles of plant bHLH and trihelix-GT transcription factors in response to environmental cues. PMID:22802709

  4. Comparison of GT3X accelerometer and Yamax pedometer steps/day in a free-living sample of overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare steps/day detected by the YAMAX SW-200 pedometer versus the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer in free-living adults. Daily YAMAX and GT3X steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (78% female; age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; BMI = 31.0 +/-...

  5. 46 CFR 11.307 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as chief mate of vessels of 3,000 GT or more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mate of vessels of 3,000 GT or more (management level). 11.307 Section 11.307 Shipping COAST GUARD... vessels of 3,000 GT or more (management level). (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement as chief mate, an... meteorology. (iv) Leadership and managerial skills. (v) Search and rescue. (vi) ARPA, if serving on a...

  6. 46 CFR 11.315 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as master of vessels of less than 500 GT...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... areas: (i) Search and rescue. (ii) Management of medical care. (iii) Leadership and managerial skills... master of vessels of less than 500 GT (management level). 11.315 Section 11.315 Shipping COAST GUARD... of less than 500 GT (management level). (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement as master,...

  7. 46 CFR 11.305 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as master of vessels of 3,000 GT or more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... master of vessels of 3,000 GT or more (management level). 11.305 Section 11.305 Shipping COAST GUARD... of 3,000 GT or more (management level). (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement as master, an...) Advanced stability. (iii) Advanced meteorology. (iv) Leadership and managerial skills. (v) Search...

  8. 46 CFR 11.317 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as master of vessels of less than 500 GT limited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... master of vessels of less than 500 GT limited to near-coastal waters (management level). 11.317 Section... endorsement as master of vessels of less than 500 GT limited to near-coastal waters (management level). (a) To...-limited). (iv) Leadership and managerial skills. (v) ECDIS, if serving on a vessel with this...

  9. Translation equations to compare ActiGraph GT3X and Actical accelerometers activity counts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a translation equation to enable comparison between Actical and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer counts recorded minute by minute. Methods Five males and five females of variable height, weight, body mass index and age participated in this investigation. Participants simultaneously wore an Actical and an ActiGraph accelerometer for two days. Conversion algorithms and R2 were calculated day by day for each subject between the omnidirectional Actical and three different ActiGraph (three-dimensional) outputs: 1) vertical direction, 2) combined vector, and 3) a custom vector. Three conversion algorithms suitable for minute/minute conversions were then calculated from the full data set. Results The vertical ActiGraph activity counts demonstrated the closest relationship with the Actical, with consistent moderate to strong conversions using the algorithm: y = 0.905x, in the day by day data (R2 range: 0.514 to 0.989 and average: 0.822) and full data set (R2 = 0.865). Conclusions The Actical is most sensitive to accelerations in the vertical direction, and does not closely correlate with three-dimensional ActiGraph output. Minute by minute conversions between the Actical and ActiGraph vertical component can be confidently performed between data sets and might allow further synthesis of information between studies. PMID:22520344

  10. Evolution of the Power Conversion Unit Design of the GT-MHR

    SciTech Connect

    Baxi, C.B.; Perez, E.; Shenoy, A.; Kostin, V.I.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Vasyaev, A.V.; Belov, S.E.; Golovko, V.F.

    2006-07-01

    General Atomics in the USA and Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building (OKBM) in the Russian Federation are jointly developing a gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR). The 600 MW(t) reactor is cooled by helium at a pressure of 7 MPa. The power conversion unit (PCU) uses the reactor outlet temperature of 850 deg C in a direct Brayton cycle to achieve an efficiency of about 48%. The PCU consists of a gas turbine, a recuperator, a pre-cooler, a low-pressure compressor, an inter-cooler, and a high-pressure compressor. The turbo machine (TM), including the generator, is mounted on a single vertical shaft. The TM rotates at a speed of 4400 rpm. The asynchronous generator is connected to the turbine by a flexible coupling. The required grid frequency is achieved by a converter. All PCU components are enclosed in a single vessel. TM uses radial and axial electromagnetic bearings (EMB) for support. Catcher bearings (CB) are provided as redundant support for the TM rotor in case of EMBs failure. These design features were determined after a comprehensive study carried out over the last 10 years. This paper describes the evolution of the current PCU design and justification for the choices. (authors)

  11. Use of lambda gt11 to identify antigenic components of equine herpesvirus 4.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Neilan, J; Brady, I; Coyle, D; Cullinane, A A

    1994-03-01

    A library of the equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) genome was constructed in the lambda gt11 expression vector. Recombinant bacteriophage expressing EHV-4 antigens as beta-galactosidase fusion proteins were detected with rabbit antiserum raised against EHV-4 virions and convalescent horse serum. EHV-4 DNA sequences contained in the immunopositive recombinants were used as hybridization probes for mapping the genes encoding the antigens on the viral genome. The DNA sequence of the probes was determined. Screening the library with rabbit antiserum led to the identification of 40 recombinants, 26 of which were further characterized. Determination of the DNA sequence of the EHV-4 inserts revealed that 23 of the recombinants encode an identical portion of glycoprotein gB. Two of the recombinants encode a portion of the previously unidentified EHV-4 homologue of the EHV-1 immediate early protein. The EHV-4 insert of the remaining recombinant encodes a portion of the previously unidentified EHV-4 homologue of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL36, a tegument protein. Screening the library with horse serum led to the identification of three recombinants, one of which encodes the same gB sequence as the gB recombinant recognized with the rabbit serum. The other two contain overlapping sequences that encode a portion of EHV-4 gX. PMID:7521096

  12. Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 1, Feature extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1987-07-01

    Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.

  13. Equilibration and GGE in interacting-to-free quantum quenches in dimensions d\\gt 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadis, Spyros; Martelloni, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Ground states ofinteracting QFTs are non-Gaussian states, i.e. their connected n-point correlation functions do not vanish for n\\gt 2, in contrast to the free QFT case. We show that, when the ground state of an interacting QFT evolves under a free massive QFT for a long time (a scenario that can be realised by a quantum quench), the connected correlation functions decay and all local physical observables equilibrate to values that are given by a Gaussian density matrix that retains memory only of the two-point initial correlation function. The argument hinges upon the fundamental physical principle of cluster decomposition, which is valid for the ground state of a general QFT. An analogous result was already known to be valid in the case of d = 1 spatial dimensions, where it is a special case of the so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble (GGE) hypothesis, and we now generalise it to higher dimensions. Moreover, in the case of massless free evolution, despite the fact that the evolution may lead not to equilibration but instead to unbounded increase of correlations with time, the GGE gives correctly the leading-order asymptotic behaviour of correlation functions in the thermodynamic and large time limit. The demonstration is performed in the context of a bosonic relativistic QFT, but the arguments apply more generally.

  14. The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR), high efficiency, cost competitive, nuclear energy for the next century

    SciTech Connect

    Zgliczynski, J.B.; Silady, F.A.; Neylan, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a small passively safe reactor with key technology developments in the US during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines, large active magnetic bearings, and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. The GT-MHR is the only reactor concept which provides a step increase in economic performance combined with increased safety. This is accomplished through its unique utilization of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity directly with the high temperature helium primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cannot be accomplished with another reactor concept. It retains the high levels of passive safety and the standardized modular design of the steam cycle MHTGR, while showing promise for a significant reduction in power generating costs by increasing plant net efficiency to a remarkable 47%.

  15. Critical exponents for a three-dimensional O([ital n])-symmetric model with [ital n][gt]3

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, S.A.; Sokolov, A.I. )

    1995-03-01

    Critical exponents for the three-dimensional O([ital n])-symmetric model with [ital n][gt]3 are estimated on the basis of six-loop renormalization-group (RG) expansions. A simple Pade-Borel technique is used for the resummation of the RG series and the Pade approximants [[ital L]/1] are shown to give rather good numerical results for all calculated quantities. For large [ital n], the fixed point location [ital g][sub [ital c

  16. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT1–7 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT1–7 and GH3 cells. The GT1–7 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT1–7 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT1–7 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT1–7 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT1–7 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT1–7 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  17. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  18. GT-2: a transcription factor with twin autonomous DNA-binding domains of closely related but different target sequence specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Dehesh, K; Hung, H; Tepperman, J M; Quail, P H

    1992-01-01

    A triplet of adjacent, highly similar GT motifs in the phyA promoter of rice functions to support maximal expression of this gene. We have obtained a recombinant clone that encodes a full-length nuclear protein, designated GT-2, which binds specifically to these target sequences. This novel protein contains acidic, basic and proline- + glutamine-rich regions, as well as two autonomous DNA-binding domains, one NH2-terminal and the other COOH-terminal, that discriminate with high resolution between the three GT motifs. A duplicated sequence of 75 amino acids, present once in each DNA-binding domain, appears likely to mediate DNA target element recognition. Each copy of this duplicated protein sequence is predicted to form three amphipathic alpha-helices separated from each other by two short loops. The absence of sequence similarity to other known proteins suggests that this predicted structural unit, which we term the trihelix motif, might be representative of a new class of DNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:1396594

  19. Structures of complexes of a metal-independent glycosyltransferase GT6 from Bacteroides ovatus with UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) and its hydrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tram T K; Stinson, Brittany; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K Ravi

    2014-03-21

    Mammalian members of glycosyltransferase family 6 (GT6) of the CAZy database have a GT-A fold containing a conserved Asp-X-Asp (DXD) sequence that binds an essential metal cofactor. Bacteroides ovatus GT6a represents a GT6 clade found in more than 30 Gram-negative bacteria that is similar in sequence to the catalytic domains of mammalian GT6, but has an Asn(95)-Ala-Asn(97) (NXN) sequence substituted for the DXD motif and metal-independent catalytic activity. Co-crystals of a low activity mutant of BoGT6a (E192Q) with UDP-GalNAc contained protein complexes with intact UDP-GalNAc and two forms with hydrolysis products (UDP plus GalNAc) representing an initial closed complex and later open form primed for product release. Two cationic residues near the C terminus of BoGT6a, Lys(231) and Arg(243), interact with the diphosphate moiety of UDP-GalNAc, but only Lys(231) interacts with the UDP product and may function in leaving group stabilization. The amide group of Asn(95), the first Asn of the NXN motif, interacts with the ribose moiety of the substrate. This metal-independent GT6 resembles its metal-dependent homologs in undergoing conformational changes on binding UDP-GalNAc that arise from structuring the C terminus to cover this substrate. It appears that in the GT6 family, the metal cofactor functions specifically in binding the UDP moiety in the donor substrate and transition state, actions that can be efficiently performed by components of the polypeptide chain. PMID:24459149

  20. Structures of Complexes of a Metal-independent Glycosyltransferase GT6 from Bacteroides ovatus with UDP-N-Acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) and Its Hydrolysis Products*

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tram T. K.; Stinson, Brittany; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian members of glycosyltransferase family 6 (GT6) of the CAZy database have a GT-A fold containing a conserved Asp-X-Asp (DXD) sequence that binds an essential metal cofactor. Bacteroides ovatus GT6a represents a GT6 clade found in more than 30 Gram-negative bacteria that is similar in sequence to the catalytic domains of mammalian GT6, but has an Asn95-Ala-Asn97 (NXN) sequence substituted for the DXD motif and metal-independent catalytic activity. Co-crystals of a low activity mutant of BoGT6a (E192Q) with UDP-GalNAc contained protein complexes with intact UDP-GalNAc and two forms with hydrolysis products (UDP plus GalNAc) representing an initial closed complex and later open form primed for product release. Two cationic residues near the C terminus of BoGT6a, Lys231 and Arg243, interact with the diphosphate moiety of UDP-GalNAc, but only Lys231 interacts with the UDP product and may function in leaving group stabilization. The amide group of Asn95, the first Asn of the NXN motif, interacts with the ribose moiety of the substrate. This metal-independent GT6 resembles its metal-dependent homologs in undergoing conformational changes on binding UDP-GalNAc that arise from structuring the C terminus to cover this substrate. It appears that in the GT6 family, the metal cofactor functions specifically in binding the UDP moiety in the donor substrate and transition state, actions that can be efficiently performed by components of the polypeptide chain. PMID:24459149

  1. GT-MSOCC - A domain for research on human-computer interaction and decision aiding in supervisory control systems. [Georgia Tech - Multisatellite Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    The Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center (GT-MSOCC), a real-time interactive simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system for unmanned earth-orbiting satellites, is described. The GT-MSOCC program for investigating a range of modeling, decision aiding, and workstation design issues related to the human-computer interaction is discussed. A GT-MSOCC operator function model is described in which operator actions, both cognitive and manual, are represented as the lowest level discrete control network nodes, and operator action nodes are linked to information needs or system reconfiguration commands.

  2. DOE/Allison ceramic vane effort

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.; Browning, W.; Calcuttawala, S.

    1995-10-01

    An objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to develop ultra-high efficiency gas turbine systems. Rotor inlet temperatures several hundred degrees greater than for the highest temperature current industrial engines will be required to meet the ATS objectives. Consequently, new technologies need to be developed and demonstrated to achieve the required ultra-high ATS efficiencies.

  3. Allison engine ATS program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Mukavetz, D.

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines in industrial and utility applications can help meet future national and worldwide power generation requirements. Turbine systems burning natural gas offer environmentally sound and economical power generation and cogeneration. Since U.S. demand alone will require up to 15 gigawatts per year of new and replacement capacity after the year 2000, the availability of Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) to fill a share of this need will save significant amounts of fuel and benefit the environment. Implementation of the ATS Program will also keep U.S. manufacturers on the cutting ledge of turbine technology for power generation applications and enhance the nation`s economic competitiveness.

  4. Association of Anti-GT1a Antibodies with an Outbreak of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Analysis of Ganglioside Mimicry in an Associated Campylobacter jejuni Strain

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fangfang; Li, Jianjun; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qun; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis, occurred in China in 2007. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were measured in GBS patients and controls. Genome sequencing was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among three C. jejuni strains from a patient with GBS (ICDCCJ07001), a patient with gastroenteritis (ICDCCJ07002) and a healthy carrier (ICDCCJ07004), which were all associated with the outbreak. The ganglioside-like structures of the lipo-oligosaccharides of these strains were determined by mass spectrometry. Seventeen (53%) of the GBS patients had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. GT1a mimicry was found in the lipo-oligosaccharides of strain ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004; but a combination of GM3/GD3 mimics was observed in ICDCCJ07001, although this patient had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. A single-base deletion in a glycosyltransferase gene caused the absence of GT1a mimicry in ICDCCJ07001. The phylogenetic tree showed that ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004 were genetically closer to each other than to ICDCCJ07001. C. jejuni, bearing a GT1a-like lipo-oligosaccharide, might have caused the GBS outbreak and the loss of GT1a mimicry may have helped ICDCCJ07001 to survive in the host. PMID:26197476

  5. Cytotoxic effects of oxysterols produced during ozonolysis of cholesterol in murine GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, K; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Uppu, Rao M

    2007-01-01

    Ozone present in the photochemical smog or generated at the inflammatory sites is known to oxidize cholesterol and its 3-acyl esters. The oxidation results in the formation of multiple "ozone-specific" oxysterols, some of which are known to cause abnormalities in the metabolism of cholesterol and exert cytotoxicity. The ozone-specific oxysterols have been shown to favor the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and amyloid fibrils involving pro-oxidant processes. In the present communication, cultured murine GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons were studied in the context of cholesterol metabolism, formation of reactive oxygen species, intracellular Ca2 + levels and cytotoxicity using two most commonly occurring cholesterol ozonolysis products, 3beta- hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al (ChSeco) and 5beta, 6beta-epoxy-cholesterol (ChEpo). It was found that ChSeco elicited cytotoxicity at lower concentration (IC50 = 21 +/- 2.4 microM) than did ChEpo (IC50 = 43 +/- 3.7 microM). When tested at their IC50 concentrations in GT1-7 cells, both ChSeco and ChEpo resulted in the generation of ROS, the magnitude of which was comparable. N-acetyl-l-cysteine and Trolox attenuated the cytotoxic effects of ChSeco and ChEpo. The intracellular Ca2 + levels were not altered by either ChSeco or ChEpo. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrins, which cause depletion of cellular cholesterol, prevented ChSeco- but not ChEpo-induced cytotoxicity. The cell death caused by ChEpo, but not ChSeco, was prevented by exogenous cholesterol. Although oxidative stress plays a significant role, the results of the present study indicate differences in the pathways of cell death induced by ChSeco and ChEpo in murine GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons. PMID:17164181

  6. Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing (GT-seq): A cost effective SNP genotyping method based on custom amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nathan R; Harmon, Stephanie A; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-07-01

    Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing (GT-seq) is a method that uses next-generation sequencing of multiplexed PCR products to generate genotypes from relatively small panels (50-500) of targeted single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for thousands of individuals in a single Illumina HiSeq lane. This method uses only unlabelled oligos and PCR master mix in two thermal cycling steps for amplification of targeted SNP loci. During this process, sequencing adapters and dual barcode sequence tags are incorporated into the amplicons enabling thousands of individuals to be pooled into a single sequencing library. Post sequencing, reads from individual samples are split into individual files using their unique combination of barcode sequences. Genotyping is performed with a simple perl script which counts amplicon-specific sequences for each allele, and allele ratios are used to determine the genotypes. We demonstrate this technique by genotyping 2068 individual steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples with a set of 192 SNP markers in a single library sequenced in a single Illumina HiSeq lane. Genotype data were 99.9% concordant to previously collected TaqMan(™) genotypes at the same 192 loci, but call rates were slightly lower with GT-seq (96.4%) relative to Taqman (99.0%). Of the 192 SNPs, 187 were genotyped in ≥90% of the individual samples and only 3 SNPs were genotyped in <70% of samples. This study demonstrates amplicon sequencing with GT-seq greatly reduces the cost of genotyping hundreds of targeted SNPs relative to existing methods by utilizing a simple library preparation method and massive efficiency of scale. PMID:25476721

  7. Genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii gtP20b, isolated from the Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longjiang; Bo, Shiping; Chen, Huan; Ye, Wanzhi; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Baumann, Heike I; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an aerobic spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium that is a model organism and of great industrial significance as the source of diverse novel functional molecules. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain gtP20b isolated from the marine environment. A subset of candidate genes and gene clusters were identified, which are potentially involved in production of diverse functional molecules, like novel ribosomal and nonribosomal antimicrobial peptides. The genome sequence described in this paper is due to its high strain specificity of great importance for basic as well as applied researches on marine organisms. PMID:21183663

  8. 36 CFR 404.4 - Access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The need for consultation, which shall be conducted with all practicable speed, with another agency... need not be his or her sole occupation. A requester within the category (d)(1)(ii) of this section also... circumstances means: (1) The need to search for and collect the requested records from establishments that...

  9. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... awarded a DOE construction or construction management contract shall be paid a profit or fee if requested or solicited. The profit or fee objective for a construction or construction management contract... construction management contracts shall be established in accordance with the appropriate procedures...

  10. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... awarded a DOE construction or construction management contract shall be paid a profit or fee if requested or solicited. The profit or fee objective for a construction or construction management contract... construction management contracts shall be established in accordance with the appropriate procedures...

  11. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-4 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... demonstration type contracts; (2) Management and operating contracts; (3) Construction contracts; (4) Construction management contracts; (5) Contracts primarily requiring delivery of material supplied...

  12. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-4 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expected to exceed the threshold stated at 48 CFR 15.403-4(a)(1), the weighted guidelines need not be used... used— (1) Commercialization and demonstration type contracts; (2) Management and operating contracts; (3) Construction contracts; (4) Construction management contracts; (5) Contracts primarily...

  13. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... awarded a DOE construction or construction management contract shall be paid a profit or fee if requested or solicited. The profit or fee objective for a construction or construction management contract... construction management contracts shall be established in accordance with the appropriate procedures...

  14. 50 CFR 404.4 - Access to Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... defects or deficiencies that restrict maneuverability or impair normal navigation. (11) Any pollution.... (4) Any pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the reporting area, or the...

  15. 50 CFR 404.4 - Access to Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... deficiencies that restrict maneuverability or impair normal navigation. (11) Any pollution incident or goods... pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the reporting area, or the U.S. EEZ....

  16. 50 CFR 404.4 - Access to Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... defects or deficiencies that restrict maneuverability or impair normal navigation. (11) Any pollution.... (4) Any pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the reporting area, or the...

  17. 50 CFR 404.4 - Access to Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... defects or deficiencies that restrict maneuverability or impair normal navigation. (11) Any pollution.... (4) Any pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the reporting area, or the...

  18. 50 CFR 404.4 - Access to Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... defects or deficiencies that restrict maneuverability or impair normal navigation. (11) Any pollution.... (4) Any pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the reporting area, or the...

  19. 36 CFR 404.4 - Access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... office of the FOIA Officer.) (d) Expedited processing. (1) Requests and appeals will be taken out of... separated from the office processing the request; (2) The need to search for, collect, and appropriately... alleged federal government activity, if made by a person primarily engaged in disseminating...

  20. 36 CFR 404.4 - Access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... office of the FOIA Officer.) (d) Expedited processing. (1) Requests and appeals will be taken out of... separated from the office processing the request; (2) The need to search for, collect, and appropriately... alleged federal government activity, if made by a person primarily engaged in disseminating...

  1. Computational Assessment of the GT-MHR Graphite Core Support Structural Integrity in Air-Ingress Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Jong B. Lim; Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Richard R. Schultz; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to perform stress analysis for graphite support structures of the General Atomics’ 600 MWth GT-MHR prismatic core design using ABAQUS ® (ver. 6.75) to assess their structural integrity in air-ingress accident conditions where the structure weakens over time due to oxidation damages. The graphite support structures of prismatic type GT-MHR was analyzed based on the change of temperature, burn-off and corrosion depth during the accident period predicted by GAMMA, a multi-dimensional gas multi-component mixture analysis code developed in the Republic of Korea (ROK)/United States (US) International –Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) project. Both the loading and thermal stresses were analyzed, but the thermal stress was not significant, leaving the loading stress to be the major factor. The mechanical strengths are exceeded between 11 to 11.5 days after loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), corresponding to 5.5 to 6 days after the start of natural convection.

  2. GtRNAdb 2.0: an expanded database of transfer RNA genes identified in complete and draft genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Patricia P.; Lowe, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs represent the largest, most ubiquitous class of non-protein coding RNA genes found in all living organisms. The tRNAscan-SE search tool has become the de facto standard for annotating tRNA genes in genomes, and the Genomic tRNA Database (GtRNAdb) was created as a portal for interactive exploration of these gene predictions. Since its published description in 2009, the GtRNAdb has steadily grown in content, and remains the most commonly cited web-based source of tRNA gene information. In this update, we describe not only a major increase in the number of tRNA predictions (>367000) and genomes analyzed (>4370), but more importantly, the integration of new analytic and functional data to improve the quality and biological context of tRNA gene predictions. New information drawn from other sources includes tRNA modification data, epigenetic data, single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene expression and evolutionary conservation. A richer set of analytic data is also presented, including better tRNA functional prediction, non-canonical features, predicted structural impacts from sequence variants and minimum free energy structural predictions. Views of tRNA genes in genomic context are provided via direct links to the UCSC genome browsers. The database can be searched by sequence or gene features, and is available at http://gtrnadb.ucsc.edu/. PMID:26673694

  3. Analysis of systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor and GT-48 γ-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelis, V. V.

    2011-06-01

    The observational data concerning variations of light curves of supernovae remnants—the Crab Nebula, Cassiopeia A, Tycho Brahe, and pulsar Vela—over 14 days scale that may be attributed to systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor are presented. The experimental systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope in the mono mode of operation were also determined. For this the observational data of TeV J2032 + 4130 (Cyg γ-2, according to the Crimean version) were used and the stationary nature of its γ-ray emission was confirmed by long-term observations performed with HEGRA and MAGIC. The results of research allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) light curves of supernovae remnants averaged for long observing periods have false statistically significant flux variations, (2) the level of systematic errors is proportional to the registered flux and decreases with increasing temporal scale of averaging, (3) the light curves of sources may be modulated by the year period, and (4) the systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope, in the amount caused by observations in the mono mode and data processing with the stereo-algorithm come to 0.12 min-1.

  4. The Pichia pastoris transmembrane protein GT1 is a glycerol transporter and relieves the repression of glycerol on AOX1 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chunjun; Wang, Songwei; Sun, Yang; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiuxia; Harvey, Linda; McNeil, Brian; Yang, Yankun; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-06-01

    Promoter of alcohol oxidase I (PAOX1) is the most efficient promoter involved in the regulation of recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). PAOX1 is tightly repressed by the presence of glycerol in the culture medium; thus, glycerol must be exhausted before methanol can be taken up by P. pastoris and the expression of the heterologous protein can be induced. In this study, a candidate glycerol transporter (GT1, GeneID: 8197545) was identified, and its role was confirmed by further studies (e.g. bioinformatics analysis, heterologous complementation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe)). When GT1 is co-expressed with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), it localizes to the membrane and S. pombe carrying gt1 but not the wild-type strain can grow on medium containing glycerol as the sole carbon source. The present study is the first to report that AOX1 in the X-33Δgt1 mutant can achieve constitutive expression in medium containing glycerol; thus, knocking down gt1 can eliminate the glycerol repression of PAOX1 in P. pastoris These results suggest that the glycerol transporter may participate in the process of PAOX1 inhibition in glycerol medium. PMID:27189360

  5. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type a in Complex With the Cell Surface Co-Receptor GT1b-Insight Into the Toxin-Neuron Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, P.; Dupuy, J.; Inamura, A.; Kiso, M.; Stevens, R.C.

    2009-05-26

    Botulinum neurotoxins have a very high affinity and specificity for their target cells requiring two different co-receptors located on the neuronal cell surface. Different toxin serotypes have different protein receptors; yet, most share a common ganglioside co-receptor, GT1b. We determined the crystal structure of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain (residues 873-1297) alone and in complex with a GT1b analog at 1.7 A and 1.6 A, respectively. The ganglioside GT1b forms several key hydrogen bonds to conserved residues and binds in a shallow groove lined by Tryptophan 1266. GT1b binding does not induce any large structural changes in the toxin; therefore, it is unlikely that allosteric effects play a major role in the dual receptor recognition. Together with the previously published structures of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B in complex with its protein co-receptor, we can now generate a detailed model of botulinum neurotoxin's interaction with the neuronal cell surface. The two branches of the GT1b polysaccharide, together with the protein receptor site, impose strict geometric constraints on the mode of interaction with the membrane surface and strongly support a model where one end of the 100 A long translocation domain helix bundle swing into contact with the membrane, initiating the membrane anchoring event.

  6. GT0 Explosion Sources for IMS Infrasound Calibration: Charge Design and Yield Estimation from Near-source Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential

  7. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-05-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003. Petten advised GA the start of the HFR-EU2 irradiation is being delayed until late July 2004. HFR-EU1 (pebble fuel) is also delayed until February/March 2004. The reason for the delays was implementation of new financial regulations at Petten that delayed the contracts for capsule fabrication. Review of the MHR-2 Fuel Product Specification was completed. Revision of the specification to incorporate the review results is in progress. Detailed test matrices have been drafted for capsule irradiation tests and for post-irradiation heating tests proposed for development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated VHTR fuel performance requirements.

  8. Genes 55, alpha gt, 47 and 46 of bacteriophage T4: the genomic organization as deduced by sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, H; Rüger, W

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of T4 genes 55, alpha gt, 47 and 46 was determined by a combination of 'classical' procedures and a shotgun approach. Small DNA fragments generated by frequent cleavage with restriction enzymes or by sonication of restriction fragments were cloned in phage M13 vectors and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The positions of the genes were determined by marker rescue between the corresponding T4 amber mutants and the cloned T4 DNA fragments used in the sequencing experiments. The sequence gives an insight into the organization of this 7.1-kb early region of the T4 genome and shows that genetically 'silent' portions within this region are not void of genetic information. PMID:4018026

  9. GT2_proyer_3: Unveiling the evolutionary paths of the most massive stars through the study of their ejected nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, P.

    2011-05-01

    Several important questions remain open regarding the latest stages of evolution of the most massive stars, in particular regarding the exact evolutionary paths between the various subtypes of O stars, LBVs and Wolf-Rayet stars, and the mass-loss history of these objects throughout their lives. In the framework of the MESS GTKP+GT1, we have obtained or will obtain PACS imaging of 9 massive star nebulae of various types (LBV, LBV candidate, OF/WN, Of?p, WR) and PACS spectroscopy of 4 of them. In this short follow-up proposal we want to obtain PACS line spectroscopy for 3 peculiar massive and evolved objects for which spectroscopy is lacking. In particular, these observations will allow to determine the elemental abundances in the nebulae as well as the mass of the neutral gas using the fine structure lines formed in the ionized gas and in the photo-dissociation region respectively.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Bifidobacterium angulatum GT102 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis 150: Focusing on the Genes Potentially Involved in the Gut-Brain Axis

    PubMed Central

    Dyachkova, Marina S.; Klimina, Ksenia M.; Kovtun, Alexey S.; Zakharevich, Natalia V.; Nezametdinova, Venera Z.; Averina, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of Bifidobacterium angulatum GT102 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis 150 strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota are reported. Both strains are able to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Detailed genomes analysis will help to understand the role of GABA in the functioning of gut-brain axis. PMID:26139716

  11. Metabolic Thresholds and Validated Accelerometer Cutoff Points for the Actigraph GT1M in Young Children Based on Measurements of Locomotion and Play Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimmy, Gerda; Dossegger, Alain; Seiler, Roland; Mader, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine metabolic thresholds and subsequent activity intensity cutoff points for the ActiGraph GT1M with various epochs spanning from 5 to 60 sec in young children. Twenty-two children, aged 4 to 9 years, performed 10 different activities including locomotion and play activities. Energy expenditure was…

  12. Influence of Different Functional Elements of Plasmid pGT232 on Maintenance of Recombinant Plasmids in Lactobacillus reuteri Populations In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Bateup, Judith M.; Loach, Diane M.; Wu, Xiyang; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Morrison, Mark; Tannock, Gerald W.

    1999-01-01

    Plasmid pGT232 (5.1 kb), an indigenous plasmid of Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23, was determined, on the basis of nucleotide and deduced protein sequence data, to belong to the pC194-pUB110 family of plasmids that replicate via the rolling-circle mechanism. The minimal replicon of pGT232 was located on a 1.7-kb sequence consisting of a double-strand origin of replication and a gene encoding the replication initiation protein, repA. An erythromycin-selectable recombinant plasmid containing this minimal replicon was stably maintained (>97% erythromycin-resistant cells) without antibiotic selection in an L. reuteri population under laboratory growth conditions but was poorly maintained (<33% resistant cells) in the L. reuteri population inhabiting the murine gastrointestinal tract. Stable maintenance (>90% resistant cells) of pGT232-derived plasmids in the lactobacillus population in vivo required an additional 1.0-kb sequence which contained a putative single-strand replication origin (SSO). The SSO of pGT232 is believed to be novel and functions in an orientation-specific manner. PMID:10583992

  13. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with cardiovascular mortality risk in an arsenic-exposed population in northeastern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease and mortality in humans. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter is inversely correlated with the development of coronary artery disease and restenosis after clinical angioplasty. The relationship of HO-1 genotype with arsenic-associated cardiovascular disease has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the HO-1 GT-repeat polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality in an arsenic-exposed population. A total of 504 study participants were followed up for a median of 10.7 years for occurrence of cardiovascular deaths (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Cardiovascular risk factors and DNA samples for determination of HO-1 GT repeats were obtained at recruitment. GT repeats variants were grouped into the S (< 27 repeats) or L allele ({>=} 27 repeats). Relative mortality risk was estimated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for competing risk of cancer and other causes. For the L/L, L/S, and S/S genotype groups, the crude mortalities for cardiovascular disease were 8.42, 3.10, and 2.85 cases/1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and competing risk of cancer and other causes, carriers with class S allele (L/S or S/S genotypes) had a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-carriers (L/L genotype) [OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.90]. In contrast, no significant association was observed between HO-1 genotype and cancer mortality or mortality from other causes. Shorter (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter may confer protective effects against cardiovascular mortality related to arsenic exposure.

  14. Adiponectin -11377C/G and +276G/T polymorphisms affect adiponectin levels but do not modify responsiveness to therapy in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Ana Paula C; Modolo, Rodrigo; Sabbatini, Andréa R; Barbaro, Natália R; Corrêa, Nathália B; Brunelli, Veridiana; Tanus-Santos, José E; Fontana, Vanessa; Moreno, Heitor

    2015-07-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease, frequently associated with obesity. Low plasma adiponectin levels, a hormone produced by the adipose tissue, were associated with RHTN. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -11377C/G (rs266729) and +276G/T (rs1501299) in ADIPOQ (adiponectin gene) were associated with hypertension. This study evaluated the association between two SNPs (-11377C/G and +276G/T) and adiponectin levels in RHTN. This study comprised 109 patients with RHTN genotyped for both polymorphisms. A cross-sectional study was designed to compare features of CC homozygous versus G allele carriers for -11377C/G and GG homozygous versus T allele carriers for +276G/T. Office and ambulatory BP measurements were similar among genotypes subgroups in both SNPs as well as the markers of target organ damage (arterial stiffness, left ventricular mass index and microalbuminuria). Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in CC compared to G carrier for -11377C/G (CC:7.0 (4.0-10.2) versus G allele:5.5 (2.5-7.9), p = 0.04) and lower in GG compared to T carrier for +276G/T (GG:5.3 (2.3-7.7) versus T allele:7.1 (3.6-10.5), p = 0.04). Adjusting for systolic ambulatory BP, body mass index, age, gender, race and presence of type 2 diabetes, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the minor alleles G (β-coefficient= -0.14, SE=0.07, p = 0.03) and T (β-coefficient=0.12, SE=0.06, p = 0.04) were independent predictors of adiponectin. The -11377C/G and +276G/T SNPs in ADIPOQ were associated with adiponectin levels in RHTN individuals. PMID:25546819

  15. K-FIX(GT): A computer program for modeling the expansion phase of steam explosions within complex three dimensional cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Farawila, Y.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Halvorson, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    In the development of the Severe Accident Analysis Program for the Savannah River production reactors, it was recognized that certain accidents have the potential for causing damaging steam explosions. The massive SRS reactor buildings are likely to withstand any imaginable steam explosion. However, reactor components and building structures including hatches, ventilation ducts, etc., could be at risk if such an explosion occurred. No tools were available to estimate the effects of such explosions on actual structures. To meet this need, the Savannah River Laboratory contracted with the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Institute for development of a computer-based calculational tool for estimating the effects of steam explosions. The goal for this study was to develop a computer code that could be used parametrically to predict the effects of various steam explosions on their surroundings. This would be able to predict whether a steam explosion of a given magnitude would be likely to fail a particular structure. This would require, of course, that the magnitude of the explosion be specified through some combination of judgment and calculation. The requested code, identified as the K-FIX(GT) code, was developed and delivered by the contractor, along with extensive documentation. The several individual reports that constitute the documentation are each being issued as a separate WSRC report. Documentation includes several model calculations, and representation of these in graphic form. This report gives detailed instructions for the use of the code, including identification of all input parameters required.

  16. Isolation and characterization of recombinant lambda gt11 bacteriophages expressing eight different mycobacterial antigens of potential immunological relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A B; Worsaae, A; Chaparas, S D

    1988-01-01

    A genomic lambda gt11 DNA library of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was screened for expression of mycobacterial protein antigens with murine monoclonal antibodies. The reactivity patterns of the monoclonal antibodies ranged from those showing a limited interspecies reactivity to antibodies widely cross-reactive among different mycobacterial species. Twelve recombinant bacteriophages were isolated, containing eight mycobacterial genes (paa, pab, pac, pad, paeA, paeB, pafA, and pafB) encoding protein antigens. Physical maps of the phages were generated and the products of the recombinant genes were analyzed by immunoblotting techniques. PaeA and PaeB are distinct proteins but were shown to share an epitope. A similar condition was observed between PafA and PafB. Among the phages isolated, two groups expressed epitopes specific for M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. One group of phages produced an antigenic determinant which is found in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum but not in M. bovis BCG. Images PMID:2451643

  17. GnIH plays a negative role in regulating GtH expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Li, Yongming; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In birds and mammals, the gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) effectively inhibits the expression of gonadotrophin (GtH). In teleosts, the effects of GnIH are still unclear and under much debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functions of GnIH/receptors of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIHRs) system during reproduction in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. We cloned the full cDNA sequences of GnIH /GnIHRs. Real-time PCR results showed that GnIH/GnIHRs were distributed extensively across the whole hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. We also examined the changes of GnIH/GnIHRs in the HPG axis during reproduction. GnIH mRNA expression was decreased to the minimum value in Apr, the spawning month, and increased immediately after the completion of reproduction. Expression pattern of GnIH during reproduction was the opposite to those of Gonadotrophin release hormone 3 (GnRH3) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Expression patterns of GnIHRs were similar to that of GnIH in the hypothalamus. In the pituitary, GnIHR2/3 peaked in March before spawning. In the ovaries, the GnIHR1 decreased to the minimum value in April, but GnIHR2/3 increased. By injection and incubation with synthesized GnIH-III peptide, we confirmed the negative influence of GnIH on mRNAs of the follicle-stimulating hormone-β and LH-β subunits in the common carp. These results show that the GnIH/GnIHRs system is involved in the negative regulation of reproduction in HPG axis of the common carp. PMID:27263051

  18. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  19. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C Polymorphisms Influence the Risk of Developing Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Han Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhi-Dan; Wang, Fei-Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Na; Ma, Hui-Hui; Guo, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Yuan; Qian, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Hai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4) have been recognized as susceptibility genes for numerous autoimmune diseases. Associations of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 (rs2488457 G/C and rs2476601 C/T) polymorphisms with JIA have repeatedly been replicated in several Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three polymorphisms mentioned above on the risk of developing JIA in Han Chinese patients. Genotyping was performed on a total of 137 Chinese patients with JIA (JIA group) and 150 sex and age frequency-matched healthy volunteers (Control group). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were determined by using direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were significant differences of PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C and STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms between both groups. However, no significant difference was observed in distribution frequencies of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. The association with the PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphism remained significant in the stratifications by age at onset, ANA status, splenomegaly, lymphadenectasis and involvement joints. As with the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms, the enthesitis-related arthritis and presence of hepatomegaly had strong effect on the association. Our data strengthen STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for JIA. PMID:25781893

  20. Association of two Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (+45T/G and +276G/T) of ADIPOQ Gene with Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali; Heibar, Habib; Bazyar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone, is known to have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. In the present study, the association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (+45T/G and +276G/T) of ADIOPQ gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in the subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: Genotypes of two SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 200 subjects with T2DM (100 subjects with CAD and 100 without CAD). Results: The frequency of TT genotype of +276G/T was significantly elevated in CAD compared to controls (χ2=7.967, P=0.019). A similar difference was found in the allele frequency of +276G/T between two groups (χ2=3.895, P=0.048). The increased risk of CAD was associated with +276 TT genotype when compared to reference GG genotype (OR=5.158; 95% CI=1.016-26.182, P=0.048). However, no similar difference was found in genotype and allele frequencies of SNP +45T/G between two groups. There was a CAD protective haplotype combination of +276 wild-type and +45 mutant-type allele (276G-45G) (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.16-0.86, P=0.022) in the subject population. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that T allele of SNP +276G/T is more associated with the increased risk of CAD in subjects with T2DM. Also, a haplotype combination of +45G/+276G of these two SNPs has a protective effect on the risk of CAD. PMID:26781170

  1. Association between FEN1 Polymorphisms -69G>A and 4150G>T with Susceptibility in Human Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    YING, Nanjiao; WANG, Shuo; XU, Hong; WANG, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a DNA repair protein, flap endonuclease 1 is a key enzyme in maintaining genomic instability and preventing carcinogenesis. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), -69G>A and 4150G>T are associated with DNA damage. This meta-analysis is to evaluate the genetic effects of FEN1 gene SNPs (-69G/A and 4150G/T) and the susceptibility to diseases, including glioma risk, breast cancer, lung cancer, keratoconus (KC) and fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods: A literature search of PubMed and Embase was conducted to identify all eligible published studies. Five case-control studies were included with a total of 5612 cases and 6703 controls in this meta-analysis. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. Results: The FEN1 -69G/A and 4150G/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with the disease risk. Our meta-analysis showed the FEN1 -69GG genotype was correlated to increase risk for the contained diseases compared with the -69AG genotype (OR=0.77, 95%CI=0.71∼0.83). Moreover, the FEN1 4150GG genotype could increase diseases risk compared with the 4150TG genotype (OR=0.81, 95%CI=0.75∼0.87). Conclusion: The variant genotypes of the FEN1 -69G/A and FEN1 4150G/T polymorphisms may be associated with diseases susceptibility. However, more studies are needed to detect the disease risk in different ethnic populations. PMID:26811808

  2. The Arabidopsis Family GT43 Glycosyltransferases Form Two Functionally Nonredundant Groups Essential for the Elongation of Glucuronoxylan Backbone1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanhui; Teng, Quincy; Huang, Wenlin; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    There exist four members of family GT43 glycosyltransferases in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, and mutations of two of them, IRX9 and IRX14, have previously been shown to cause a defect in glucuronoxylan (GX) biosynthesis. However, it is currently unknown whether IRX9 and IRX14 perform the same biochemical function and whether the other two GT43 members are also involved in GX biosynthesis. In this report, we performed comprehensive genetic analysis of the functional roles of the four Arabidopsis GT43 members in GX biosynthesis. The I9H (IRX9 homolog) and I14H (IRX14 homolog) genes were shown to be specifically expressed in cells undergoing secondary wall thickening, and their encoded proteins were targeted to the Golgi, where GX is synthesized. Overexpression of I9H but not IRX14 or I14H rescued the GX defects conferred by the irx9 mutation, whereas overexpression of I14H but not IRX9 or I9H complemented the GX defects caused by the irx14 mutation. Double mutant analyses revealed that I9H functioned redundantly with IRX9 and that I14H was redundant with IRX14 in their functions. In addition, double mutations of IRX9 and IRX14 were shown to cause a loss of secondary wall thickening in fibers and a much more severe reduction in GX amount than their single mutants. Together, these results provide genetic evidence demonstrating that all four Arabidopsis GT43 members are involved in GX biosynthesis and suggest that they form two functionally nonredundant groups essential for the normal elongation of GX backbone. PMID:20335400

  3. Experimental study on the characteristic of the NS-GT cut quartz crystal resonator oscillating in the sub-resonant frequency.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S; Kawashima, H

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that the dynamic photo-elastic method was a very effective measuring technique for the stress distribution of vibrating quartz crystal resonators. The existence of a twisted asymmetrical vibration mode has been verified experimentally when the NS-GT cut quartz crystal resonator was vibrating in the main resonant frequency (MRF). A MRF and a sub-resonant frequency (SRF) of the NS-GT cut quartz resonator were defined as follows. If a mechanical standing wave was in the x' or y' direction of the resonator, the former was MRF vibration and the latter was SRF vibration, respectively. In this paper, stress distributions of two samples of the NS-GT cut quartz crystal resonator, one of which had a thickness of 80 mum and the other 150 mum, were measured by the dynamic photo-elastic method when the resonators were vibrating in each SRF. Thereafter, vibration modes of those resonators were estimated by the experimental data of stress distributions. We find that the vibration mode of the 80-mum resonator had a simple mechanical standing wave on the y' direction and the vibration mode of the 150-mum resonator was combined with a shearing mode in the SRF vibration. From the experiment, we decided that vibration modes of the NS-GT cut quartz crystal resonator were composed of the longitudinal stress T(3)' belonging to the z' direction of the plate and of the shearing stress T(5)' when the plate thickness was thickened and the resonator was oscillating in the SRF. PMID:18244311

  4. FaGT2: a multifunctional enzyme from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruits involved in the metabolism of natural and xenobiotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-07-01

    Fragaria x ananassa UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase (FaGT2) catalyzes the formation of cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid glucose esters during strawberry fruit ripening. Here, the ripening and oxidative stress induced enzyme was further characterized by testing a range of structurally different substrates of natural and unnatural origin in vitro and comparing their kinetic parameters to elucidate its additional biological functions. The accepted substrates ranged from derivatives of cinnamic acid and benzoic acid to heterocyclic and aliphatic compounds resulting in the formation of O- and S-glucose esters, as well as O-glucosides. In planta assays confirmed the formation of glucose derivatives after injection of the substrates into strawberry fruits. Common chemical and structural features required for activity were the easy subtraction of a proton from the glucosylation site and the conjugation of the formed anion with pi-electrons as best realized in the simplest substrate sorbic acid. In addition to cinnamic acid, the natural compounds anthranilic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, nicotinic acid and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone were glucosylated in vitro. But FaGT2 was also capable of efficiently converting xenobiotic substances like the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and the herbicide analogue 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The results suggest that FaGT2 is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics in accordance to its induction by oxidative stress. PMID:17323078

  5. Structural basis of UDP-galactose binding by alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT): role of negative charge on aspartic acid 316 in structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Tumbale, Percy; Jamaluddin, Haryati; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K Ravi

    2008-08-19

    alpha-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to form an alpha 1-3 link with beta-linked galactosides; it is part of a family of homologous retaining glycosyltransferases that includes the histo-blood group A and B glycosyltransferases, Forssman glycolipid synthase, iGb3 synthase, and some uncharacterized prokaryotic glycosyltransferases. In mammals, the presence or absence of active forms of these enzymes results in antigenic differences between individuals and species that modulate the interplay between the immune system and pathogens. The catalytic mechanism of alpha3GT is controversial, but the structure of an enzyme complex with the donor substrate could illuminate both this and the basis of donor substrate specificity. We report here the structure of the complex of a low-activity mutant alpha3GT with UDP-galactose (UDP-gal) exhibiting a bent configuration stabilized by interactions of the galactose with multiple residues in the enzyme including those in a highly conserved region (His315 to Ser318). Analysis of the properties of mutants containing substitutions for these residues shows that catalytic activity is strongly affected by His315 and Asp316. The negative charge of Asp316 is crucial for catalytic activity, and structural studies of two mutants show that its interaction with Arg202 is needed for an active site structure that facilitates the binding of UDP-gal in a catalytically competent conformation. PMID:18651752

  6. Association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase 894G>T polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of literature studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cheng; Yan, Weiqian; Zu, Xiongbing; Chen, Minfeng; Liu, Longfei; Zhao, Shushan; Liu, Hong; Hu, Xia; Luo, Renna; Xia, Yang; Qi, Lin

    2014-12-01

    To date, several studies have been conducted to assess the association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene 894G > T polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but the results are conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between 894G > T polymorphism and PCa risk, the present meta-analysis was performed. A total of eight case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the associations. Our results suggested that 894G > T polymorphism is associated with PCa risk under codominant (GT vs. GG) (OR = 1.11, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.22, P = 0.04) and overdominant (GT vs. GG + TT) (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.23, P = 0.02) models in the overall population, while there are no associations observed under dominant (GT + TT vs. GG), recessive (TT vs. GG + GT), and allelic (T vs. G) models. Moreover, when the eligible studies were stratified according to sources of control, significant association between 894G > T polymorphism and susceptibility of PCa was also identified under codominant (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.03) and overdominant (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.25, P = 0.02) models when using healthy individuals as control. However, there are no significant associations found under any genetic models when using BPH patients as control group. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis suggested that the eNOS gene 894G > T polymorphism might be a risk factor in the onset of PCa. PMID:25374059

  7. Sensitivity of an Elekta iView GT a-Si EPID model to delivery errors for pre-treatment verification of IMRT fields.

    PubMed

    Herwiningsih, Sri; Hanlon, Peta; Fielding, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    A Monte Carlo model of an Elekta iViewGT amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (a-Si EPID) has been validated for pre-treatment verification of clinical IMRT treatment plans. The simulations involved the use of the BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo codes to predict the response of the iViewGT a-Si EPID model. The predicted EPID images were compared to the measured images obtained from the experiment. The measured EPID images were obtained by delivering a photon beam from an Elekta Synergy linac to the Elekta iViewGT a-Si EPID. The a-Si EPID was used with no additional build-up material. Frame averaged EPID images were acquired and processed using in-house software. The agreement between the predicted and measured images was analyzed using the gamma analysis technique with acceptance criteria of 3 %/3 mm. The results show that the predicted EPID images for four clinical IMRT treatment plans have a good agreement with the measured EPID signal. Three prostate IMRT plans were found to have an average gamma pass rate of more than 95.0 % and a spinal IMRT plan has the average gamma pass rate of 94.3 %. During the period of performing this work a routine MLC calibration was performed and one of the IMRT treatments re-measured with the EPID. A change in the gamma pass rate for one field was observed. This was the motivation for a series of experiments to investigate the sensitivity of the method by introducing delivery errors, MLC position and dosimetric overshoot, into the simulated EPID images. The method was found to be sensitive to 1 mm leaf position errors and 10 % overshoot errors. PMID:25182667

  8. EGFR gene polymorphisms -216G>T and -191C>A are risk markers for gastric cancer in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Torres-Jasso, J H; Marín, M E; Santiago-Luna, E; Leoner, J C; Torres, J; Magaña-Torres, M T; Perea, F J; Ibarra, B; Sánchez-López, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine-kinase activity that plays an important role in multiple cellular functions. EGFR overexpression has been observed in several types of tumors and it is significantly associated with disease stage, survival, prognosis, and progression of cancer. The polymorphisms -216G>T, -191C>A, and (CA)n first intervening sequence (IVS1) have been related to EGFR overexpression and have been studied in several types of cancer, but not in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to determine the association of these 3 polymorphisms and GC. Genomic DNA from 68 GC patients and 102 healthy blood donors were analyzed. Polymorphisms were identified by DNA-sequencing (-216G>T and -191C>A) and GeneScan (CA)n IVS1. The results showed that the distribution of the -216G>T and -191C>A genotypes differed between groups (P < 0.05). The odds ratio for the -216TT genotype was 4.59 (95% confidence interval = 1.55-13.54, P < 0.05) and 10.71 (95% confidence interval = 2.31-49.59, P < 0.05) for the -191AA genotype, both in a recessive model. The genotype and allele distributions of the (CA)n IVS1 repeat was similar in both groups. In conclusion, the -216TT and -191AA genotypes and GA haplotype of the EGFR gene were found to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer in a Mexican population. PMID:25867325

  9. Comparison of computer codes (CE-THERM, FRAP-T5, GT3-FLECHT, and TRUMP-FLECHT) with data from the NRU-LOCA thermal hydraulic tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, C.L.; Rausch, W.N.; Hesson, G.M.

    1981-07-01

    The LOCA Simulation Program in the NRU reactor is the first set of experiments to provide data on the behavior of full-length, nuclear-heated PWR fuel bundles during the heatup, reflood, and quench phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). This paper compares the temperature time histories of 4 experimental test cases with 4 computer codes: CE-THERM, FRAP-T5, GT3-FLECHT, and TRUMP-FLECHT. The preliminary comparisons between prediction and experiment show that the state-of-the art fuel codes have large uncertainties and are not necessarily conservative in predicting peak temperatures, turn around times, and bundle quench times.

  10. High-power ({gt}0.9 W cw) diffraction-limited semiconductor laser based on a fiber Bragg grating external cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.M. , Jr.; Thomas, H.J.

    1997-02-01

    We have developed a high-power ({gt}0.9 W cw) diffraction-limited semiconductor laser based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier using a fiber Bragg grating in an external cavity configuration. Frequency-selective feedback from the fiber grating is injected into the amplifier via direct butt coupling through a single mode fiber, resulting in a spectrally stable and narrow ({lt}0.3 nm) high-power laser for solid-state laser pumping, laser remote sensing, and optical communications. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. [The use of a robot-assisted Gait Trainer GT1 in patients in the acute period of cerebral stroke: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Skvortsova, V I; Ivanova, G E; Kovrazhkina, E A; Rumiantseva, N A; Staritsyn, A N; Suvorov, A Iu; Sogomonian, E K

    2008-01-01

    An aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of using Gait Trainer GT1, a robot-assisted gait trainer with a system of body-weight support, for the rehabilitation of gait in patients in the acute period of cerebral stroke. A main group included 30 patients in the acute period of ischemic and hemorrhage stroke and a control group--20 age- and sex matched patients. Patients of both groups had daily kinesitherapy sessions with a rehabilitator. Patients of the main group had additional sessions on the Gait Trainer GT1 from the moment of functional readiness to adequate orthostatic probe. Efficacy of rehabilitation was assessed in the four following phases: the first verticalization of patient in the standing position, adaptation of patient to the standing position, walking with assistance, independent walking. Muscular power (scores) in all muscles of low extremities, muscle tonus (the Ashfort scale), amplitude of tendinous reflexes on the reflexes scale, sensory disturbances and discoordination syndromes (specially elaborated scales), pathological positions in the axial muscular system and extremities, functional status (a steadiness scale, the Berg balance scale, the Barthel scale, 5 m test) were assessed in each phase. Stabilometry was conducted for objective evaluation of vertical balance function. The duration of sessions on GT1 and a number of exercises were depended on the patient's tolerability to physical activity. Percentage of relief was determined by the ability of a patient to balance in the standing position. Each patient had 8-10 sessions. A significant improvement of the functional status: ability to balance in standing position, walking, increase of self-care skills were observed in both groups. No significant differences in the level of functional improvements were found compared to the control group. However some peculiarities of the rehabilitation of primary neurologic deficit were observed during CT1-trainings: the normalization of muscle tonus

  12. The D299G/T399I Toll-Like Receptor 4 Variant Associates with Body and Liver Fat: Results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, Peter; Staiger, Harald; Stančáková, Alena; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Schäfer, Silke; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR) is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4D299G/T399I) are still lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals phenotyped for prediabetic traits as body fat composition (including magnetic resonance imaging), blood glucose levels and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance testing, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), according to TLR4 genotype determined by candidate SNP analyses (rs4986790). We analyzed N = 1482 non-diabetic individuals from the TÜF/TULIP cohort (South Germany, aged 39±13 y, BMI 28.5±7.9, mean±SD) and N = 5327 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study (Finland, males aged 58±6 y, BMI 26.8±3.8) for replication purposes. German TLR4D299G/T399I carriers had a significantly increased body fat (XG in rs4986790: +6.98%, p = 0.03, dominant model, adjusted for age, gender) and decreased insulin sensitivity (XG: −15.3%, Matsuda model, p = 0.04; XG: −20.6%, p = 0.016, clamp; both dominant models adjusted for age, gender, body fat). In addition, both liver fat (AG: +49.7%; p = 0.002) and visceral adipose tissue (AG: +8.2%; p = 0.047, both adjusted for age, gender, body fat) were significantly increased in rs4986790 minor allele carriers, and the effect on liver fat remained significant also after additional adjustment for visceral fat (p = 0.014). The analysis in METSIM confirmed increased body fat content in association with the rare G allele in rs4986790 (AG: +1.26%, GG: +11.0%; p = 0.010, additive model, adjusted for age) and showed a non-significant trend towards decreased insulin sensitivity (AG: −0.99%, GG: −10.62%). Conclusions/Significance TLR4D299G/T399

  13. Crystal structure of alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT) in a complex with p-nitrophenyl-beta-galactoside (pNPbetaGal).

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, Haryati; Tumbale, Percy; Ferns, Tyrone A; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K Ravi

    2009-08-01

    The specificities of glycosyltransferases make them useful for the synthesis of biologically active oligosaccharides, but also restrict their range of products. In substrate engineering, substrate promiscuity is enhanced by attaching removable interactive groups to weak substrates. Thus, the attachment of betap-nitrophenyl converts galactose from a poor into a good substrate of alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase. The crystallographic structure of a complex of alpha3GT containing p-nitrophenyl-beta-galactoside shows that the p-nitrophenyl binds similarly to the N-acetylglucosamine of the substrate, N-acetyllactosamine, interacting with the indole of Trp249. p-Nitrophenyl, unlike N-acetylglucosamine, makes no H-bonds but has more non-polar interactions, making it an effective monosaccharide mimetic. PMID:19486884

  14. TbGT8 is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase that elaborates N-linked glycans on a protein phosphatase AcP115 and a GPI-anchor modifying glycan in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masayuki; Karasudani, Moe; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Hashida, Kazunori; Hino, Mami; Ferguson, Michael A J; Nomoto, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    The procyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei expresses procyclin surface glycoproteins with unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor side chain structures that contain branched N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose units. The glycosyltransferase TbGT8 is involved in the synthesis of the branched side chain through its UDP-GlcNAc: βGal β1-3N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. Here, we explored the role of TbGT8 in the mammalian bloodstream form of the parasite with a tetracycline-inducible conditional null T. brucei mutant for TbGT8. Under non-permissive conditions, the mutant showed significantly reduced binding to tomato lectin, which recognizes poly-N-acetyllactosamine-containing glycans. Lectin pull-down assays revealed differences between the wild type and TbGT8 null-mutant T. brucei, notably the absence of a broad protein band with an approximate molecular weight of 110 kDa in the mutant lysate. Proteomic analysis revealed that the band contained several glycoproteins, including the acidic ecto-protein phosphatase AcP115, a stage-specific glycoprotein in the bloodstream form of T. brucei. Western blotting with an anti-AcP115 antibody revealed that AcP115 was approximately 10kDa smaller in the mutant. Enzymatic de-N-glycosylation demonstrated that the underlying protein cores were the same, suggesting that the 10-kDa difference was due to differences in N-linked glycans. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the colocalization of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged TbGT8 and the Golgi-associated protein GRASP. These data suggest that TbGT8 is involved in the construction of complex poly-N-acetyllactosamine-containing type N-linked and GPI-linked glycans in the Golgi of the bloodstream and procyclic parasite forms, respectively. PMID:24508870

  15. Neurokinin B Causes Acute GnRH Secretion and Repression of GnRH Transcription in GT1–7 GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Shao, Paul P.; Iyer, Anita K.; Grove, Anna M. H.; Meadows, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies in human patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) identified mutations in the genes that encode neurokinin B (NKB) and the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R). However, determining the mechanism whereby NKB regulates gonadotropin secretion has been difficult because of conflicting results from in vivo studies investigating the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to senktide, a NK3R agonist. NK3R is expressed in a subset of GnRH neurons and in kisspeptin neurons that are known to regulate GnRH secretion. Thus, one potential source of inconsistency is that NKB could produce opposing direct and indirect effects on GnRH secretion. Here, we employ the GT1-7 cell model to elucidate the direct effects of NKB on GnRH neuron function. We find that GT1-7 cells express NK3R and respond to acute senktide treatment with c-Fos induction and increased GnRH secretion. In contrast, long-term senktide treatment decreased GnRH secretion. Next, we focus on the examination of the mechanism underlying the long-term decrease in secretion and determine that senktide treatment represses transcription of GnRH. We further show that this repression of GnRH transcription may involve enhanced c-Fos protein binding at novel activator protein-1 (AP-1) half-sites identified in enhancer 1 and the promoter, as well as chromatin remodeling at the promoter of the GnRH gene. These data indicate that NKB could directly regulate secretion from NK3R-expressing GnRH neurons. Furthermore, whether the response is inhibitory or stimulatory toward GnRH secretion could depend on the history or length of exposure to NKB because of a repressive effect on GnRH transcription. PMID:23393128

  16. A game theory-reinforcement learning (GT-RL) method to develop optimal operation policies for multi-operator reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh; Hooshyar, Milad

    2014-11-01

    Reservoir systems with multiple operators can benefit from coordination of operation policies. To maximize the total benefit of these systems the literature has normally used the social planner's approach. Based on this approach operation decisions are optimized using a multi-objective optimization model with a compound system's objective. While the utility of the system can be increased this way, fair allocation of benefits among the operators remains challenging for the social planner who has to assign controversial weights to the system's beneficiaries and their objectives. Cooperative game theory provides an alternative framework for fair and efficient allocation of the incremental benefits of cooperation. To determine the fair and efficient utility shares of the beneficiaries, cooperative game theory solution methods consider the gains of each party in the status quo (non-cooperation) as well as what can be gained through the grand coalition (social planner's solution or full cooperation) and partial coalitions. Nevertheless, estimation of the benefits of different coalitions can be challenging in complex multi-beneficiary systems. Reinforcement learning can be used to address this challenge and determine the gains of the beneficiaries for different levels of cooperation, i.e., non-cooperation, partial cooperation, and full cooperation, providing the essential input for allocation based on cooperative game theory. This paper develops a game theory-reinforcement learning (GT-RL) method for determining the optimal operation policies in multi-operator multi-reservoir systems with respect to fairness and efficiency criteria. As the first step to underline the utility of the GT-RL method in solving complex multi-agent multi-reservoir problems without a need for developing compound objectives and weight assignment, the proposed method is applied to a hypothetical three-agent three-reservoir system.

  17. The Berry-Keating operator on L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Sebastian; Steiner, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The Berry-Keating operator H_{BK}:= -i\\hbar \\big(x\\frac{d}{dx}+\\frac{1}{2}\\big) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schrödinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of HBK defined on L^2({\\mathbb R}_\\gt,dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of HBK cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of HBK acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of HBK. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator H_{BK}^2:= -x^2\\frac{d^2}{dx^2}-2x\\frac{d}{dx}-\\frac{1}{4} which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H2BK on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both HBK and H2BK on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither HBK nor H2BK can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  18. Event-specific plasmid standards and real-time PCR methods for transgenic Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and transgenic GT73 canola.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, Isabel; Windels, Pieter; Vaïtilingom, Marc; Milcamps, Anne; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van den Eede, Guy; De Loose, Marc

    2005-04-20

    Since the 18th of April 2004, two new regulations, EC/1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed products and EC/1830/2003 on traceability and labeling of GMOs, are in force in the EU. This new, comprehensive regulatory framework emphasizes the need of an adequate tracing system. Unique identifiers, such as the transgene genome junction region or a specific rearrangement within the transgene DNA, should form the basis of such a tracing system. In this study, we describe the development of event-specific tracing systems for transgenic maize lines Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 and for canola event GT73. Molecular characterization of the transgene loci enabled us to clone an event-specific sequence into a plasmid vector, to be used as a marker, and to develop line-specific primers. Primer specificity was tested through qualitative PCRs and dissociation curve analysis in SYBR Green I real-time PCRs. The primers were then combined with event-specific TaqMan probes in quantitative real-time PCRs. Calibration curves were set up both with genomic DNA samples and the newly synthesized plasmid DNA markers. It is shown that cloned plasmid GMO target sequences are perfectly suitable as unique identifiers and quantitative calibrators. Together with an event-specific primer pair and a highly specific TaqMan probe, the plasmid markers form crucial components of a unique and straighforward tracing system for Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and GT73 canola events. PMID:15826057

  19. High School Students' Preconceptions and Conceptions about Tropical Storm Allison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belknap, Julia

    Today, many people, with no personal experience of living through a tropical storm, reside in coastal regions in harms way. This population needs to be educated about storm risks. One good venue for this is the public school system. Science educators have concluded it is important to establish a knowledge base about the ways students think and…

  20. Genetic mapping and quantitative trait loci analysis for disease resistance using F2 and F5 generation-based genetic maps derived from 'Tifrunner' x'GT-C20' in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One mapping population derived from Tifrunner × GT-C20 has shown great potential in developing a high dense genetic map and identification of QTLs for important disease resistance, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spot (LS). Both F2 and F5 generation-based genetic maps were constructed prev...

  1. A new hemoglobin variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T] with a double base mutation at the same codon.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25476778

  2. Testing models of thorium and particle cycling in the ocean using data from station GT11-22 of the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Paul; Marchal, Olivier; Lam, Phoebe J.; Anderson, Robert F.; Buesseler, Ken; Charette, Matthew A.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Hayes, Christopher T.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Lu, Yanbin; Robinson, Laura F.; Solow, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Thorium is a highly particle-reactive element that possesses different measurable radio-isotopes in seawater, with well-constrained production rates and very distinct half-lives. As a result, Th has emerged as a key tracer for the cycling of marine particles and of their chemical constituents, including particulate organic carbon. Here two different versions of a model of Th and particle cycling in the ocean are tested using an unprecedented data set from station GT11-22 of the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Section: (i) 228,230,234Th activities of dissolved and particulate fractions, (ii) 228Ra activities, (iii) 234,238U activities estimated from salinity data and an assumed 234U/238U ratio, and (iv) particle concentrations, below a depth of 125 m. The two model versions assume a single class of particles but rely on different assumptions about the rate parameters for sorption reactions and particle processes: a first version (V1) assumes vertically uniform parameters (a popular description), whereas the second (V2) does not. Both versions are tested by fitting to the GT11-22 data using generalized nonlinear least squares and by analyzing residuals normalized to the data errors. We find that model V2 displays a significantly better fit to the data than model V1. Thus, the mere allowance of vertical variations in the rate parameters can lead to a significantly better fit to the data, without the need to modify the structure or add any new processes to the model. To understand how the better fit is achieved we consider two parameters, K =k1 /(k-1 +β-1) and K/P, where k1 is the adsorption rate constant, k-1 the desorption rate constant, β-1 the remineralization rate constant, and P the particle concentration. We find that the rate constant ratio K is large (⩾ 0.2) in the upper 1000 m and decreases to a nearly uniform value of ca. 0.12 below 2000 m, implying that the specific rate at which Th attaches to particles relative to that at which it is released from

  3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (-786T>C) and Endothelin-1 (5665G>T) Gene Polymorphisms as Vascular Dysfunction Risk Factors in Sickle Cell Anemia.

    PubMed

    Vilas-Boas, Wendell; Figueiredo, Camylla V B; Pitanga, Thassila N; Carvalho, Magda O S; Santiago, Rayra P; Santana, Sânzio S; Guarda, Caroline C; Zanette, Angela M D; Cerqueira, Bruno A V; Gonçalves, Marilda S

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have vascular complications, and polymorphisms in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes were associated with ET-1 and nitric oxide disturbance. We investigate the association of ET-1 5665G>T and eNOS -786T>C polymorphisms with soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1), biochemical markers, and medical history. We studied 101 SCA patients; carriers of eNOS minor allele (C) had the highest levels of sVCAM-1, and carriers of ET-1 minor allele had more occurrence of acute chest syndrome (ACS). The multivariate analysis suggested the influence of the ET-1 gene on ACS outcome and an association of the eNOS gene with upper respiratory tract infection. We suggest that eNOS and ET-1 gene polymorphisms can influence SCA pathophysiology and that eNOS variant in SCA patients might be important to nitric oxide activity and vascular alteration. We found an association of the ET-1 minor allele in ACS, showing the importance of genetic screening in SCA. PMID:27486304

  4. G.T wobble base-pairing in Z-DNA at 1.0 A atomic resolution: the crystal structure of d(CGCGTG).

    PubMed Central

    Ho, P S; Frederick, C A; Quigley, G J; van der Marel, G A; van Boom, J H; Wang, A H; Rich, A

    1985-01-01

    The DNA oligomer d(CGCGTG) crystallizes as a Z-DNA double helix containing two guanine-thymine base pair mismatches of the wobble type. The crystal diffracts to 1 A resolution and the structure has been solved and refined. At this resolution, a large amount of information is revealed about the organization of the water molecules in the lattice generally and more specifically around the wobble base pairs. By comparing this structure with the analogous high resolution structure of d(CGCGCG) we can visualize the structural changes as well as the reorganization of the solvent molecules associated with wobble base pairing. There is only a small distortion of the Z-DNA backbone resulting from introduction of the GT mismatched base pairs. The water molecules cluster around the wobble base pair taking up all of the hydrogen bonding capabilities of the bases due to wobble pairing. These bridging water molecules serve to stabilize the base-base interaction and, thus, may be generally important for base mispairing either in DNA or in RNA molecules. PMID:4092690

  5. Detection of feral GT73 transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) along railway lines on entry routes to oilseed factories in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Mirco; Oehen, Bernadette; Schulze, Jürg; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a reference status prior to cultivation of genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland, the occurrence of feral OSR was monitored along transportation routes and at processing sites. The focus was set on the detection of (transgenic) OSR along railway lines from the Swiss borders with Italy and France to the respective oilseed processing factories in Southern and Northern Switzerland (Ticino and region of Basel). A monitoring concept was developed to identify sites of largest risk of escape of genetically modified plants into the environment in Switzerland. Transport spillage of OSR seeds from railway goods cars particularly at risk hot spots such as switch yards and (un)loading points but also incidental and continuous spillage were considered. All OSR plants, including their hybridization partners which were collected at the respective monitoring sites were analyzed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. On sampling lengths each of 4.2 and 5.7 km, respectively, 461 and 1,574 plants were sampled in Ticino and the region of Basel. OSR plants were found most frequently along the routes to the oilseed facilities, and in larger amounts on risk hot spots compared to sites of random sampling. At three locations in both monitored regions, transgenic B. napus line GT73 carrying the glyphosate resistance transgenes gox and CP4 epsps were detected (Ticino, 22 plants; in the region of Basel, 159). PMID:23917737

  6. Correlation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism (GG, TT and GT Genotype) with Proteinuria and Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Ali; Saadatmand, Saeed; Kheiri, Soleiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Nephropathy is the most important leading cause of end stage renal failure in type 2 diabetic patients, so numerous studies were done to diagnose and evaluate risk factors of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Some gene polymorphisms may be associated with progression or regression of DN, so the aim of this study was to compare prevalence of eNOS gene polymorphism in diabetic patients with controls and its association with diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 94 type 2 diabetic patients and 94 normal participants were enrolled. Patients without retinopathy were excluded from this study. For all of the patients, fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hours post-prandial (BS), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine (Cr), 24 hours urine protein were measured in the case group. Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase gene polymorphism was evaluated in the case and control groups. Results There was no significant difference based on age and sex between patients in case and control groups. GG genotype of eNOS was less common in the patient group compared to control group. There was no difference between prevalence of TT, GT or GG genotype based on age and sex. There was no correlation between diabetic retinopathy or proteinuria and genotypes of eNOs. Conclusion The study showed that in type 2 diabetic patients, NOS gene polymorphism was more common compared to normal population; however, there is no correlation between this gene polymorphism and proteinuria or retinopathy in these patients. PMID:27042499

  7. Electrokinetic and electrostatic properties of bilayers containing gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GT1. Comparison with a nonlinear theory.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, R V; Sharp, K; Brooks, D; McLaughlin, A C; Winiski, A P; Cafiso, D; McLaughlin, S

    1986-01-01

    We formed vesicles from mixtures of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and the gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GT1 to model the electrokinetic properties of biological membranes. The electrophoretic mobilities of the vesicles are similar in NaCl, CsCl, and TMACl solutions, suggesting that monovalent cations do not bind significantly to these gangliosides. If we assume the sialic acid groups on the gangliosides are located some distance from the surface of the vesicle and the sugar moieties exert hydrodynamic drag, we can describe the mobility data in 1, 10, and 100 mM monovalent salt solutions with a combination of the Navier-Stokes and nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equations. The values we assume for the thickness of the ganglioside head group and the location of the charge affect the theoretical predictions markedly, but the Stokes radius of each sugar and the location of the hydrodynamic shear plane do not. We obtain a reasonable fit to the mobility data by assuming that all ganglioside head groups project 2.5 nm from the bilayer and all fixed charges are in a plane 1 nm from the bilayer surface. We tested the latter assumption by estimating the surface potentials of PC/ganglioside bilayers using four techniques: we made 31P nuclear magnetic resonance, fluorescence, electron spin resonance, and conductance measurements. The results are qualitatively consistent with our assumption. PMID:3697476

  8. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1-7 Cells) for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Haneda, Toshihiro; Koyama, Hironari; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen). Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils. PMID:26576190

  9. A novel splicing mutation in the albumin gene (c.270+1G>T) causes analbuminaemia in a German infant.

    PubMed

    Caridi, Gianluca; Thomas, Wolfgang; Campagnoli, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Congenital analbuminaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. The clinical diagnosis may be challenging because of the absence of unambiguous symptoms and because hypoalbuminemia may have many causes different from a genetic lack of the protein. We describe the clinical and molecular characterization of a new case of congenital analbuminaemia in an infant of apparently non-consanguineous parents from Treves, Germany. For molecular diagnosis, we used our strategy, based on the screening of the albumin gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism, heteroduplex analysis and direct DNA sequencing, which revealed that the proband is homozygous and both parents are heterozygous, for a novel G > T transversion at nucleotide c.270+ 1, the first base of intron 3. The mutation inactivates the strongly conserved GT dinucleotide at the 5' splice site consensus sequence of this intron. In conclusion, we report the clinical findings and the molecular defect of this case, which contributes to a better understanding of the biological mechanism of congenital analbuminaemia. PMID:26543026

  10. [Comparative analysis of rotatory (GT) and manual root canal preparation and association of both techniques in instrumentation of flattened root canals].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Silvana Beltrami; Brosco, Viviane Haiub; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2003-03-01

    Root canal preparation has been considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy, thus many techniques and instruments have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning of the root canal through three different instrumentation techniques. Thirty mandibular incisors were selected and submitted to lingual access cavities. Afterwards, the canals were filled with India ink dye previously stored in carpules, which was inserted into the root canal by means of anesthetic syringe and anesthetic needles. After 48 hours, during which the dye was allowed to dry inside the root canal, the teeth were divided in three groups: G1- GT rotatory instrumentation; G2- manual instrumentation; G3- association of both. After instrumentation, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned. The cleaning process accomplished through the different instrumentation techniques was evidenced by dye removal at the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the root canal. The results of this study showed that were not statistically significant differences between these three instrumentation techniques for all three thirds of the root canal. PMID:21409337

  11. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (−786T>C) and Endothelin-1 (5665G>T) Gene Polymorphisms as Vascular Dysfunction Risk Factors in Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Wendell; Figueiredo, Camylla V. B.; Pitanga, Thassila N.; Carvalho, Magda O. S.; Santiago, Rayra P.; Santana, Sânzio S.; Guarda, Caroline C.; Zanette, Angela M. D.; Cerqueira, Bruno A. V.; Gonçalves, Marilda S.

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have vascular complications, and polymorphisms in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes were associated with ET-1 and nitric oxide disturbance. We investigate the association of ET-1 5665G>T and eNOS −786T>C polymorphisms with soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1), biochemical markers, and medical history. We studied 101 SCA patients; carriers of eNOS minor allele (C) had the highest levels of sVCAM-1, and carriers of ET-1 minor allele had more occurrence of acute chest syndrome (ACS). The multivariate analysis suggested the influence of the ET-1 gene on ACS outcome and an association of the eNOS gene with upper respiratory tract infection. We suggest that eNOS and ET-1 gene polymorphisms can influence SCA pathophysiology and that eNOS variant in SCA patients might be important to nitric oxide activity and vascular alteration. We found an association of the ET-1 minor allele in ACS, showing the importance of genetic screening in SCA. PMID:27486304

  12. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1–7 Cells) for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Haneda, Toshihiro; Koyama, Hironari; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1–7 cells). In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen). Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils. PMID:26576190

  13. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  14. In-silico analysis of binding site features and substrate selectivity in plant flavonoid-3-O glycosyltransferases (F3GT) through molecular modeling, docking and dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranu; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Suresh, C G

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of plant secondary metabolites that act as storage molecules, chemical messengers, as well as participate in homeostasis and defense processes. They possess pharmaceutical properties important for cancer treatment such as antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. The drug-related properties of flavonoids can be improved by glycosylation. The enzymes glycosyltransferases (GTs) glycosylate acceptor molecules in a regiospecific manner with the help of nucleotide sugar donor molecules. Several plant GTs have been characterized and their amino acid sequences determined. However, three-dimensional structures of only a few are reported. Here, phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences have identified a group of GTs with the same regiospecific activity. The structures of these closely related GTs were modeled using homologous GT structures. Their substrate binding sites were elaborated by docking flavonoid acceptor and UDP-sugar donor molecules in the modeled structures. Eight regions near the acceptor binding site in the N- and C- terminal domain of GTs have been identified that bind and specifically glycosylate the 3-OH group of acceptor flavonoids. Similarly, a conserved motif in the C-terminal domain is known to bind a sugar donor substrate. In certain GTs, the substitution of a specific glutamine by histidine in this domain changes the preference of sugar from glucose to galactose as a result of changed pattern of interactions. The molecular modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies have revealed the chemical and topological features of the binding site and thus provided insights into the basis of acceptor and donor recognition by GTs. PMID:24667893

  15. In-Silico Analysis of Binding Site Features and Substrate Selectivity in Plant Flavonoid-3-O Glycosyltransferases (F3GT) through Molecular Modeling, Docking and Dynamics Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ranu; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Suresh, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of plant secondary metabolites that act as storage molecules, chemical messengers, as well as participate in homeostasis and defense processes. They possess pharmaceutical properties important for cancer treatment such as antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. The drug-related properties of flavonoids can be improved by glycosylation. The enzymes glycosyltransferases (GTs) glycosylate acceptor molecules in a regiospecific manner with the help of nucleotide sugar donor molecules. Several plant GTs have been characterized and their amino acid sequences determined. However, three-dimensional structures of only a few are reported. Here, phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences have identified a group of GTs with the same regiospecific activity. The structures of these closely related GTs were modeled using homologous GT structures. Their substrate binding sites were elaborated by docking flavonoid acceptor and UDP-sugar donor molecules in the modeled structures. Eight regions near the acceptor binding site in the N- and C- terminal domain of GTs have been identified that bind and specifically glycosylate the 3-OH group of acceptor flavonoids. Similarly, a conserved motif in the C-terminal domain is known to bind a sugar donor substrate. In certain GTs, the substitution of a specific glutamine by histidine in this domain changes the preference of sugar from glucose to galactose as a result of changed pattern of interactions. The molecular modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies have revealed the chemical and topological features of the binding site and thus provided insights into the basis of acceptor and donor recognition by GTs. PMID:24667893

  16. G/T Substitution in Intron 1 of the UNC13B Gene Is Associated With Increased Risk of Nephropathy in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Trégouet, David-Alexandre; Groop, Per-Henrik; McGinn, Steven; Forsblom, Carol; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Tarnow, Lise; Telgmann, Ralph; Godefroy, Tiphaine; Nicaud, Viviane; Rousseau, Rachel; Parkkonen, Maikki; Hoverfält, Anna; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Cox, Roger; Kazeem, Gbenga; Farrall, Martin; Gauguier, Dominique; Brand-Herrmann, Stefan-Martin; Cambien, François; Lathrop, Mark; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Genetic and environmental factors modulate the susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy, as initiating and/or progression factors. The objective of the European Rational Approach for the Genetics of Diabetic Complications (EURAGEDIC) study is to identify nephropathy susceptibility genes. We report molecular genetic studies for 127 candidate genes for nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Polymorphisms were identified through sequencing of promoter, exon, and flanking intron gene regions and a database search. A total of 344 nonredundant SNPs and nonsynonymous variants were tested for association with diabetic nephropathy (persistent albuminuria ≥300 mg/24 h) in a large type 1 diabetes case/control (1,176/1,323) study from three European populations. RESULTS— Only one SNP, rs2281999, located in the UNC13B gene, was significantly associated with nephropathy after correction for multiple testing. Analyses of 21 additional markers fully characterizing the haplotypic variability of the UNC13B gene showed consistent association of SNP rs13293564 (G/T) located in intron 1 of the gene with nephropathy in the three populations. The odds ratio (OR) for nephropathy associated with the TT genotype was 1.68 (95% CI 1.29–2.19) (P = 1.0 × 10−4). This association was replicated in an independent population of 412 case subjects and 614 control subjects (combined OR of 1.63 [95% CI 1.30–2.05], P = 2.3 × 10−5). CONCLUSIONS— We identified a polymorphism in the UNC13B gene associated with nephropathy. UNC13B mediates apopotosis in glomerular cells in the presence of hyperglycemia, an event occurring early in the development of nephropathy. We propose that this polymorphism could be a marker for the initiation of nephropathy. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of UNC13B in nephropathy. PMID:18633107

  17. Arabidopsis miR171-Targeted Scarecrow-Like Proteins Bind to GT cis-Elements and Mediate Gibberellin-Regulated Chlorophyll Biosynthesis under Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhaoxue; Hu, Xupeng; Cai, Wenjuan; Huang, Weihua; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Jirong

    2014-01-01

    An extraordinarily precise regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis is essential for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge on the complex regulatory mechanisms of chlorophyll biosynthesis is very limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins (SCL6/22/27) negatively regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis via an unknown mechanism. Here we showed that SCLs inhibit the expression of the key gene encoding protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) in light-grown plants, but have no significant effect on protochlorophyllide biosynthesis in etiolated seedlings. Histochemical analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic plants expressing pSCL27::rSCL27-GUS revealed that SCL27-GUS accumulates at high levels and suppresses chlorophyll biosynthesis at the leaf basal proliferation region during leaf development. Transient gene expression assays showed that the promoter activity of PORC is indeed regulated by SCL27. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR assays showed that SCL27 binds to the promoter region of PORC in vivo. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that SCL27 is directly interacted with G(A/G)(A/T)AA(A/T)GT cis-elements of the PORC promoter. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that gibberellin (GA)-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis is mediated, at least in part, by SCLs. We demonstrated that SCL27 interacts with DELLA proteins in vitro and in vivo by yeast-two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis and found that their interaction reduces the binding activity of SCL27 to the PORC promoter. Additionally, we showed that SCL27 activates MIR171 gene expression, forming a feedback regulatory loop. Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. PMID:25101599

  18. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-6 - Contracts with educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts with educational... with educational institutions. In certain situations the DOE may contract with a university to manage... in standard university research or study contracts. Such operating contracts are subject to...

  19. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-6 - Contracts with educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts with educational... with educational institutions. In certain situations the DOE may contract with a university to manage... in standard university research or study contracts. Such operating contracts are subject to...

  20. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-6 - Contracts with educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts with educational... with educational institutions. In certain situations the DOE may contract with a university to manage... in standard university research or study contracts. Such operating contracts are subject to...

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-6 - Contracts with educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts with educational... with educational institutions. In certain situations the DOE may contract with a university to manage... in standard university research or study contracts. Such operating contracts are subject to...

  2. 43 CFR 404.4 - What are the goals of the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. The Principles and Guidelines are intended to ensure proper and consistent planning... address rural water supply needs that are cost-effective, and that generate national net economic...

  3. 43 CFR 404.4 - What are the goals of the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. The Principles and Guidelines are intended to ensure proper and consistent planning... address rural water supply needs that are cost-effective, and that generate national net economic...

  4. 48 CFR 915.404-4-72 - Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management and operating contracts or other contracts as determined by the Senior Procurement Executive, including those using the Construction, Construction Management, or Special Equipment Purchases/Subcontract... for construction and construction management contracts). However, the base amount should not...

  5. 48 CFR 915.404-4-72 - Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management and operating contracts or other contracts as determined by the Senior Procurement Executive, including those using the Construction, Construction Management, or Special Equipment Purchases/Subcontract... for construction and construction management contracts). However, the base amount should not...

  6. 48 CFR 915.404-4-72 - Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management and operating contracts or other contracts as determined by the Senior Procurement Executive, including those using the Construction, Construction Management, or Special Equipment Purchases/Subcontract... for construction and construction management contracts). However, the base amount should not...

  7. 48 CFR 915.404-4-72 - Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... management and operating contracts or other contracts as determined by the Senior Procurement Executive, including those using the Construction, Construction Management, or Special Equipment Purchases/Subcontract... for construction and construction management contracts). However, the base amount should not...

  8. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-6 - Contracts with educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts with educational... with educational institutions. In certain situations the DOE may contract with a university to manage... in standard university research or study contracts. Such operating contracts are subject to...

  9. 43 CFR 404.4 - What are the goals of the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... address rural water supply needs that are cost-effective, and that generate national net economic benefits as required under the “Economic Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...) and 1 CFR part 51. The Principles and Guidelines are intended to ensure proper and consistent...

  10. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reactors; atomic particle accelerators; complex laboratories or industrial units especially designed for... weight, positively or negatively, for the period of services or length of time involved in the...

  11. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-4 - Considerations affecting fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reactors; atomic particle accelerators; complex laboratories or industrial units especially designed for... weight, positively or negatively, for the period of services or length of time involved in the...

  12. 48 CFR 27.404-4 - Contractor's release, publication, and use of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... statutes. However, agencies may restrict the release or disclosure of computer software that is or is... software for purposes of established agency distribution programs, or where required to accomplish the purpose for which the software is acquired. (b) Except for the results of basic or applied research...

  13. 48 CFR 27.404-4 - Contractor's release, publication, and use of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... statutes. However, agencies may restrict the release or disclosure of computer software that is or is... applied research. Agencies may also preclude a contractor from asserting copyright in any computer software for purposes of established agency distribution programs, or where required to accomplish...

  14. The mtDNA nt7778 G/T Polymorphism Augments Formation of Lymphocytic Foci but Does Not Aggravate Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sarah; Krüger, Burkhard; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Glass, Änne; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Jaster, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphism in the ATP synthase 8 (ATP8) gene of the murine mitochondrial genome, G-to-T transversion at position 7778, has been suggested to increase susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The polymorphism also induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, secretory dysfunction and β-cell mass adaptation. Here, we have used two conplastic mouse strains, C57BL/6N-mtAKR/J (B6-mtAKR; nt7778 G; control) and C57BL/6N-mtFVB/N (B6-mtFVB; nt7778 T), to address the question if the polymorphism also affects the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, two age groups of mice (3 and 12-month-old, respectively) were subjected to up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 µg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of α-amylase and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissue. A comparison of cerulein-induced pancreatic tissue damage and increases of α-amylase and MPO activities showed no differences between the age-matched groups of both strains. Interestingly, histological evaluation of pancreatic tissue of both untreated and cerulein-treated B6-mtAKR and B6-mtFVB mice also revealed the presence of infiltrates of immune cells surrounding ducts and vessels; a finding that is compatible with an early stage of AIP. After recovery from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (day 7 after the injections), 12-month-old B6-mtFVB mice but not B6-mtAKR mice displayed aggravated lymphocytic lesions. A comparison of 12-month-old mice with other age groups of both strains revealed that lymphocytic foci were largely absent in 3-month-old mice, while 24-month-old mice were more affected. Together, our data suggest that the mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Autoimmune-like lesions, however, may progress faster if additional tissue

  15. L-type channel inhibition by CB1 cannabinoid receptors is mediated by PTX-sensitive G proteins and cAMP/PKA in GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hoddah, Hanaa; Marcantoni, Andrea; Comunanza, Valentina; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Using immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons, which express the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) and three Ca2+ channel types (T, R and L), we found that the CB1R agonist WIN 55,212-2 inhibited the voltage-gated Ca2+ currents by about 35%. The inhibition by WIN 55,212-2 (10 microM) was reversible and prevented by nifedipine (3 microM), suggesting a selective action on L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs). WIN 55,212-2 action exhibited all the features of voltage-independent Ca2+ channel modulation: (1) no changes of the activation kinetics, (2) equal depressive action at all potentials and (3) no facilitation following strong prepulses. At variance with WIN 55,212-2, the CB1R inverse agonist AM-251 (10 microM) caused 20% increase of Ca2+ currents. The inhibition of LTCCs by WIN 55,212-2 was prevented by overnight PTX-incubation and by intracellular perfusion with GDP-beta-S. The latter caused also a 20% Ca2+ current up-regulation. WIN 55,212-2 action was also prevented by application of the PKA-blocker H89 or by loading the neurons with 8-CPT-cAMP. Our results suggest that LTCCs in GT1-7 neurons are partially inhibited at rest due to a constitutive CB1R activity removed by AM-251 and GDP-beta-S. Activation of CB1R via PTX-sensitive G proteins and cAMP/PKA pathway selectively depresses LTCCs that critically control the synchronized spontaneous firing and pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in GT1-7 neurons. PMID:19818494

  16. Interspecific Utility of Microsatellites in Fish: A Case Study of (CT)(n) and (GT)(n) Markers in the Shanny Lipophrys pholis (Pisces: Blenniidae) and Their Use in Other Blennioidei.

    PubMed

    Guillemaud; Almada; Serrão Santos R; Cancela

    2000-05-01

    We report the development of new microsatellite markers that can be used for population analyses in the shanny Lipophrys pholis. The procedure involved the construction of a microsatellite-enriched genomic bank. Five (GT)(n) and (CT)(n) microsatellites have been characterized, four of which are polymorphic. The analysis of one population allowed us to verify their usefulness as markers in population studies. Moreover, interspecific amplifications have been performed using primers defined in other species to amplify Lipophrys pholis, or using the primers defined in Lipophrys pholis to amplify other species. We use these results to discuss the hypothesis that microsatellites are highly conserved in fish. PMID:10852803

  17. A spectroscopic and calorimetric study of the melting behaviors of a "bent" and a "normal" DNA duplex: [d(GA4T4C)]2 versus [d(GT4A4C)]2.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y W; Breslauer, K J

    1991-01-01

    We have calorimetrically detected and energetically characterized a premelting event in the "bent" duplex [d(GA4T4C)]2 that is absent in the "normal" duplex [d(GT4A4C)]2. This premelting may correspond to the thermally induced "unbending" of the duplex. Specifically, we have used a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to evaluate whether differences in the electrophoretic and hydrogen exchange properties of the bent duplex, [d(GA4T4C)]2, and the normal duplex, [d(GT4A4C)]2, are paralleled by differences in the equilibrium melting properties of these duplexes. Our results reveal that the bimolecular global meltings of both duplexes exhibit two-state behavior and are characterized by the expected thermodynamic changes, as well as the expected salt-dependencies. Significantly, however, at temperatures below duplex melting and over a similar temperature range in which the aberrant electrophoretic mobility is observed (approximately less than 35 degrees C), the bent duplex exhibits calorimetric premelting behavior absent in the normal duplex. Analysis of the calorimetric data in this preglobal melting domain (approximately less than 35 degrees C) allows us to estimate a lower-limit value of 1.6 kcal/(mol-base pair) for the thermally induced unbending of the decameric duplex. PMID:1996356

  18. An Open-Label Trial of 12-Week Simeprevir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 (GT1)

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Ryan, Robert; Lenz, Oliver; Scott, Jane; Van Dooren, Gino; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortening duration of peginterferon-based HCV treatment reduces associated burden for patients. Primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy against the minimally acceptable response rate 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks. Additional objectives included the investigation of potential associations of rapid viral response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods In this Phase III, open-label study in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients with F0–F2 fibrosis, patients with HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL (detectable/undetectable) at Week 2, and undetectable HCV-RNA at Weeks 4 and 8, stopped all treatment at Week 12. All other patients continued PR for a further 12 weeks. Baseline factors significantly associated with SVR12 were identified through logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients who participated in the study, 123 (75%) qualified for 12-week treatment; of these, 81 (66%) achieved SVR12. Baseline factors positively associated with SVR12 rates in patients receiving the 12-week regimen were: IL28B CC genotype: (94% SVR12); HCV RNA ≤800,000 IU/mL (82%); F0–F1 fibrosis (74%). Among all 163 patients, 94% experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE), 4% a serious AE, and 2.5% discontinued due to an AE. Reduced impairment in patient-reported outcomes was observed in the 12-week vs >12-week regimen. Conclusions Overall SVR12 rate (66%) was below the target of 80%, indicating that shortening of treatment with simeprevir plus PR to 12 weeks based on very early response is not effective. However, baseline factors associated with higher SVR12 rates were identified. Therefore, while Week 2 response alone is insufficient to predict efficacy, GT1 patients with favourable baseline factors may benefit from a shortened simeprevir plus PR regimen. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01846832 PMID:27428331

  19. Inhibitory action of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone on the signaling pathways induced by kisspeptin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in GnRH neuronal cell line, GT1-7.

    PubMed

    Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Soga, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Bentley, George E; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) acts as a negative regulator of reproduction by acting on gonadotropes and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Despite its functional significance, the molecular mechanism of GnIH action in the target cells has not been fully elucidated. To expand our previous study on GnIH actions in gonadotropes, we investigated the potential signal transduction pathway that conveys the inhibitory action of GnIH in GnRH neurons by using the GnRH neuronal cell line, GT1-7. We examined whether GnIH inhibits the action of kisspeptin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), positive regulators of GnRH neurons. Although GnIH significantly suppressed the stimulatory effect of kisspeptin on GnRH release in hypothalamic culture, GnIH had no inhibitory effect on kisspeptin stimulation of serum response element and nuclear factor of activated T-cell response element activities and ERK phosphorylation, indicating that GnIH may not directly inhibit kisspeptin signaling in GnRH neurons. On the contrary, GnIH effectively eliminated the stimulatory effect of VIP on p38 and ERK phosphorylation, c-Fos mRNA expression, and GnRH release. The use of pharmacological modulators strongly demonstrated the specific inhibitory action of GnIH on the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, suggesting a common inhibitory mechanism of GnIH action in GnRH neurons and gonadotropes.-Son, Y. L., Ubuka, T., Soga, T., Yamamoto, K., Bentley, G. E., Tsutsui, K. Inhibitory action of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone on the signaling pathways induced by kisspeptin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in GnRH neuronal cell line, GT1-7. PMID:26929433

  20. Reproductive Physiology in Young Men Is Cumulatively Affected by FSH-Action Modulating Genetic Variants: FSHR -29G/A and c.2039 A/G, FSHB -211G/T

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Žilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevičius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n = 982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2±2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P = 0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (−7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect −1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (−16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (−2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n = 641, Estonians; aged 31.5±6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs

  1. Effects of aqueous extracts of Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux and Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelim) Howe on hydrogen peroxide and methyl mercury-induced oxidative stress in GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic immortalized cells.

    PubMed

    Fallarero, A; Loikkanen, J J; Männistö, P T; Castañeda, O; Vidal, A

    2003-01-01

    The current investigation focuses attention on the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from Halimeda incrassata (Hi) and Bryothamniom triquetrum (Bt) in the mouse immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line. Under basal oxidative conditions, Hi extract reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species production, as assessed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, while Bt extract does not contribute to basal ROS generation. Both extracts, at concentrations higher than 0.20 mg/ml, exert protection against hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell death, although only Hi extract can additionally prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production. The two seaweed aqueous extracts, at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/ml, also display protection against neuronal death induced by methyl mercury chloride, as well as against methyl mercury chloride-mediated ROS generation. None of the extracts increase GSH intracellular pools, in basal conditions, after depleting its levels with either hydrogen peroxide or methyl mercury chloride. Some comments on the probable targets of the neuroprotection exerted by these two extracts are included in this paper. PMID:12622462

  2. Transcriptional up-regulation of the mouse cytosolic glutathione peroxidase gene in erythroid cells is due to a tissue-specific 3' enhancer containing functionally important CACC/GT motifs and binding sites for GATA and Ets transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    O'Prey, J; Ramsay, S; Chambers, I; Harrison, P R

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear run-on experiments have shown that the high level of expression of the mouse cytosolic glutathione peroxidase mRNA in erythroid cells is due to up-regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Studies of the chromatin structure around the cytosolic glutathione peroxidase gene have revealed a series of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSS) in the 3' flanking region of the gene in erythroid and other high-expression tissues that are lacking in low-expression cells, in addition to a DHSS over the promoter region in both high- and low-expression tissues. Functional transfection experiments have demonstrated that one of the 3' DHSS regions functions as an enhancer in erythroid cells but not in a low-expression epithelial cell line; and site-directed mutagenesis and footprinting experiments reveal that the activity of the erythroid cell-specific enhancer requires a cluster of binding sites for the CACC/GT box factors and the GATA and Ets families of transcription factors. Images PMID:8413228

  3. Novel Nonsense Variants c.58C>T (p.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) in the CHEK2 Gene Identified in Breast Cancer Patients from Balochistan.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Khosa, Ahmad Nawaz; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Shuja, Jamila; Naseeb, Hafiz Khush; Jan, Mohammad; Marghazani, Illahi Bakhsh; Kakar, MasoodulHaq; Baloch, Dost Mohammad; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is very common and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women globally. Hereditary cases account for 510% of the total burden and CHEK2, which plays crucial role in response to DNA damage to promote cell cycle arrest and repair or induce apoptosis, is considered as a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene. Our objective in the current study was to analyze mutations in related to breast cancer. A total of 271 individuals including breast cancer patients and normal subjects were enrolled and all 14 exons of CHEK2 were amplified and sequenced. The majority of the patients (>95%) were affected with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 52.1% were diagnosed with grade III tumors and 56.2% and 27.5% with advanced stages III and IV. Two novel nonsense variants i.e. c.58C>T (P.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) at exon 1 and 2 in two breast cancer patients were identified, both novel and not reported elsewhere. PMID:27510020

  4. Future Trends in G/T Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy

    1981-01-01

    The author examines future trends in the education of the gifted and talented in such terms as exemplary programs for the gifted and talented, broadening the definition of giftedness, and increases in programs for the gifted disadvantaged. (DB)

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 Expression in GT1-7 GnRH-Secreting Neurons Is Androgen-Independent, but Can Be Upregulated by the Inhibition of DNA Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Linscott, Megan L.; Chung, Wilson C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a potent morphogen that regulates the embryonic development of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. Indeed, using Fgf8 hypomorphic mice, we showed that reduced Fgf8 mRNA expression completely eliminated the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These findings suggest that FGF8 signaling is required during the embryonic development of mouse GnRH neurons. Additionally, in situ hybridization studies showed that the embryonic primordial birth place of GnRH neurons, the olfactory placode, is highly enriched for Fgf8 mRNA expression. Taken together these data underscore the importance of FGF8 signaling for GnRH emergence. However, an important question remains unanswered: How is Fgf8 gene expression regulated in the developing embryonic mouse brain? One major candidate is the androgen receptor (AR), which has been shown to upregulate Fgf8 mRNA in 60–70% of newly diagnosed prostate cancers. Therefore, we hypothesized that ARs may be involved in the regulation of Fgf8 transcription in the developing mouse brain. To test this hypothesis, we used chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to elucidate whether ARs interact with the 5′UTR region upstream of the translational start site of the Fgf8 gene in immortalized mouse GnRH neurons (GT1-7) and nasal explants. Our data showed that while AR interacts with the Fgf8 promoter region, this interaction was androgen-independent, and that androgen treatment did not affect Fgf8 mRNA levels, indicating that androgen signaling does not induce Fgf8 transcription. In contrast, inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) significantly upregulated Fgf8 mRNA levels indicating that Fgf8 transcriptional activity may be dependent on DNA methylation status. PMID:27200347

  6. Bayes Analysis Provides Evidence of Pathogenicity for the BRCA1 c.135-1G>T (IVS3-1) and BRCA2 c.7977-1G>C (IVS17-1) Variants Displaying In Vitro Splicing Results of Equivocal Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Spurdle, Amanda B.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Da Silva, Leonard M.; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Investigators, kConFab; Goldgar, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Although in vitro splicing assays can provide useful information about the clinical interpretation of sequence variants in high-risk cancer genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, results can sometimes be difficult to interpret. The BRCA1 c.135-1G>T (IVS3-1G>T) variant has been shown to give rise to an in-frame deletion of exon 5 (BRCA1 c.135_212del) that is predicted to encode 26 amino acids. BRCA2 c.7977-1G>C (IVS17-1G>C) was shown to increase the expression of two naturally occurring transcripts that contain frameshifts (BRCA2, c.7977_8311del (exon 18 deletion); BRCA2, c.7806_8331del (exon 17&18 deletion)). In this study we conducted multifactorial likelihood analysis to evaluate the clinical significance of these two variants, including assessing variant segregation in families by Bayes analysis, and breast tumor pathology features suggestive of positive mutation status. Multifactorial analysis provided strong evidence for causality for both of these variants. The Bayes scores from a single family with BRCA1 c.135-1G>T was 9528:1, and incorporation of pathology features gave an overall likelihood of causality of 28108:1. The Bayes scores from five informative families with BRCA2 c.7977-1G>C was 47401:1, and the combined Bayes-pathology odds of causality was 29389:1. Multifactorial likelihood analysis indicates that the BRCA1 c.135-1G>T and BRCA2 c.7977-1G>C variants are disease-associated mutations which should be managed clinically in the same fashion as classical truncating mutations. PMID:20020529

  7. The Rolls Royce Allison RB580 turbofan - Matching the market requirement for regional transport

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, J.H.R.; Peacock, N.J.; Snyder, L.

    1989-01-01

    The RB580 high bypass turbofan engine has a thrust growth capability to 10,000 lb and has been optimized for efficient operation in regional markets involving 50-70 seat airliners with higher-than-turboprop cruise speeds. The two-spool engine configuration achieves an overall pressure ratio of 24 and features a single-stage wide-chord fan for high efficiency/low noise operation. The highly modular design of the configuration facilitates maintenance and repair; a dual-redundant full-authority digital electronic control system is incorporated. An SFC reduction of the order of 10 percent at cruise thrust is achieved, relative to current engines of comparable thrust class.

  8. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HI absorption in nearby radio galaxies (Allison+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Meekin, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our sample selection was driven by the brightest radio sources in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array Sky Survey (NVSS, ν=1.4GHz; Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65), the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS, ν=843MHz; Mauch et al., 2003, Cat. VIII/81) and the second epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey (MGPS-2, ν=843MHz; Murphy et al., 2007, Cat. VIII/82). Together, the footprints of these three surveys fully overlap the sky coverage of HIPASS down to continuum flux densities of a few mJy. (2 data files).

  10. The Genotype of the Donor for the (GT)n Polymorphism in the Promoter/Enhancer of FOXP3 Is Associated with the Development of Severe Acute GVHD but Does Not Affect the GVL Effect after Myeloablative HLA-Identical Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Víctor; Martínez-Laperche, Carolina; Buces, Elena; Pion, Marjorie; Sánchez-Hernández, Noemí; Martín-Antonio, Beatriz; Guillem, Vicent; Bosch-Vizcaya, Anna; Bento, Leyre; González-Rivera, Milagros; Balsalobre, Pascual; Kwon, Mi; Serrano, David; Gayoso, Jorge; de la Cámara, Rafael; Brunet, Salut; Rojas-Contreras, Rafael; Nieto, José B; Martínez, Carmen; Gónzalez, Marcos; Espigado, Ildefonso; Vallejo, Juan C; Sampol, Antonia; Jiménez-Velasco, Antonio; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Solano, Carlos; Gallardo, David; Díez-Martín, José L; Buño, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    The FOXP3 gene encodes for a protein (Foxp3) involved in the development and functional activity of regulatory T cells (CD4+/CD25+/Foxp3+), which exert regulatory and suppressive roles over the immune system. After allogeneic stem cell transplantation, regulatory T cells are known to mitigate graft versus host disease while probably maintaining a graft versus leukemia effect. Short alleles (≤(GT)15) for the (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter/enhancer of FOXP3 are associated with a higher expression of FOXP3, and hypothetically with an increase of regulatory T cell activity. This polymorphism has been related to the development of auto- or alloimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes or graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, its impact in the allo-transplant setting has not been analyzed. In the present study, which includes 252 myeloablative HLA-identical allo-transplants, multivariate analysis revealed a lower incidence of grade III-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) in patients transplanted from donors harboring short alleles (OR = 0.26, CI 0.08-0.82, p = 0.021); without affecting chronic GVHD or graft versus leukemia effect, since cumulative incidence of relapse, event free survival and overall survival rates are similar in both groups of patients. PMID:26473355

  11. The Genotype of the Donor for the (GT)n Polymorphism in the Promoter/Enhancer of FOXP3 Is Associated with the Development of Severe Acute GVHD but Does Not Affect the GVL Effect after Myeloablative HLA-Identical Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Buces, Elena; Pion, Marjorie; Sánchez-Hernández, Noemí; Martín-Antonio, Beatriz; Guillem, Vicent; Bosch-Vizcaya, Anna; Bento, Leyre; González-Rivera, Milagros; Balsalobre, Pascual; Kwon, Mi; Serrano, David; Gayoso, Jorge; de la Cámara, Rafael; Brunet, Salut; Rojas-Contreras, Rafael; Nieto, José B.; Martínez, Carmen; Gónzalez, Marcos; Espigado, Ildefonso; Vallejo, Juan C.; Sampol, Antonia; Jiménez-Velasco, Antonio; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Solano, Carlos; Gallardo, David; Díez-Martín, José L.; Buño, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    The FOXP3 gene encodes for a protein (Foxp3) involved in the development and functional activity of regulatory T cells (CD4+/CD25+/Foxp3+), which exert regulatory and suppressive roles over the immune system. After allogeneic stem cell transplantation, regulatory T cells are known to mitigate graft versus host disease while probably maintaining a graft versus leukemia effect. Short alleles (≤(GT)15) for the (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter/enhancer of FOXP3 are associated with a higher expression of FOXP3, and hypothetically with an increase of regulatory T cell activity. This polymorphism has been related to the development of auto- or alloimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes or graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, its impact in the allo-transplant setting has not been analyzed. In the present study, which includes 252 myeloablative HLA-identical allo-transplants, multivariate analysis revealed a lower incidence of grade III-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) in patients transplanted from donors harboring short alleles (OR = 0.26, CI 0.08–0.82, p = 0.021); without affecting chronic GVHD or graft versus leukemia effect, since cumulative incidence of relapse, event free survival and overall survival rates are similar in both groups of patients. PMID:26473355

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON, TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960 AND 6060 (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL SPECIFICATION DATA, (2) OPTIONS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS, (3) ROAD TEST INSTRUCTIONS, (4) IDENTIFICATION AND SPECIFICATION DATA, (5) ALLISON…

  13. Molecular and comparative morphological analysis of central European parasitic flatworms of the superfamily Brachylaimoidea Allison, 1943 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida).

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    The Brachylaimoidea are digenean parasites of vertebrates, including humans, domestic animals, poultry and wild game. Numerous Brachylaimoidea, particularly adults of Brachylaima and Leucochloridium, are difficult to identify to species. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Brachylaimoidea, namely Leucochloridium holostomum, Leucochloridium paradoxum, Leucochloridium perturbatum, Leucochloridium subtilis, Leucochloridium vogtianum, Urotocus rossitensis, Urogonimus macrostomus, Michajlovia migrata, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Brachylaima arcuatus, Brachylaima fuscata and Brachylaima mesostoma. We identified three clades in the genus Leucochloridium, which do not correspond to the previously suggested subgenera Neoleucochloridium, Papilloleucochloridium and Leucochloridium. We reject classification of Urotocus and Urogonimus in Leucochloridiinae, and, instead, re-establish the subfamilies Urotocinae and Urogoniminae. We synonymize the genus Renylaima with the genus Brachylaima. We reject M. migrata as a member of Leucochloridiinae sensu stricto or Brachylaimidae suggested by some previous authors. We found that the previously sequenced Glaphyrostomum sp. does not cluster with any hitherto sequenced Brachylaimidae. We also provide comparative measurements of the examined central European Brachylaimoidea, address the the specificity of their localization in the host and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections based on the extensive dataset of birds examined in 1962-2015. PMID:26817665

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VIII, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--ALLISON TORQUMATIC SERIES 5960, 6060, AND 8860 (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPECIFIC MODELS OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL DESCRIPTION, (2) OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT, (3) TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW (SPLITTER SECTION), (4) TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW (RANGE SECTION), (5)…

  15. G&T adds versatile load management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

  16. Ceramic applications in turbine engines. [for automotive application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, J. A.; Helms, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    In the past the potential of vehicular gas engines could not be realized because component materials served to limit the turbine operating temperature, thereby restricting fuel economy and initial cost. It was, therefore, not possible for the vehicular gas turbine to compete with more conventional engines. The emergence of low-cost, high-temperature ceramic components has the potential to reverse this situation. For example, the Allison GT404 engine, operating with ceramic components at turbine inlet temperatures up to 2350 F to 2500 F, has the potential of a fuel economy which is better than that of current Diesel engines. The Allison AGT100 engine operating with ceramic components offers the possibility of a 30% improvement in fuel economy over 1985 spark ignition engines. The materials considered for an employment in the ceramic components include silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum silicate, and lithium aluminum silicate.

  17. A Faraday Rotation Investigation to Probe the Shells of HII Regions with Associated Stellar Bubbles%A Costa, Allison H.; Spangler, Steven R.; Sink, Joseph R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Allison H.; Spangler, Steven R.; Sink, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    We performed polarimetric observations with the Very Large Array of 11 extra-galactic radio sources with lines of sight through the shell of the Rosette Nebula (VLA project AS1110). This investigation supplements the study of the shell of the Rosette Nebula by Savage et al. (2013). We utilize two methods for calculating the rotation measure (RM) for the new lines of sight. The first is using the traditional method of least-squares fit to χ(λ2), and the second is using RM Synthesis (Brentjens & Bruyn 2005). We present a comparison of the two methods of obtaining RM values, and we find excellent agreement between the two methods. In addition, we discuss a plasma shell model, which is intended to reproduce the sign and magnitude of the observed RM due to the shell, with a new method of determining the model parameters, such as the inner and outer radii and the electron density, for specific lines of sight. This treatment of the model parameters allows us to extend our investigation to HII regions that do not have spherical symmetry, like the Heart Nebula/W4. We describe a new method of fitting a local shell model to specific lines of sight and then calculating the associated RM. By modeling the magnitude of the RM for specific lines of sight, we can better distinguish between a scenario where an observed excess in RM is due to an amplification of the magnetic field or one where it is exclusively due to an increase in the density of the shell. This research was supported at the University of Iowa by grant AST09-07911 and ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  18. Molecular Characterization of PoGT8D and PoGT43B, Two Secondary Wall-Associated Glycosyltransferases in Popular

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dicot wood is mainly composed of cellulose, lignin and glucuronoxylan (GX). Although the biosynthetic genes for cellulose and lignin have been studied intensively, little is known about the genes involved in the biosynthesis of GX during wood formation. Here, we report the molecular characterization...

  19. 46 CFR 125.125 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk by OSVs of at least 6,000 GT ITC (500 GRT if GT ITC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (b)(1) of this section, as defined in 46 CFR 30.10-15; and (ii) In quantities not to exceed 20... Dangerous Cargoes, as defined by 33 CFR 160.204, to or from a portable tank. ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk by OSVs...

  20. GLUT4 Defects in Adipose Tissue Are Early Signs of Metabolic Alterations in Alms1GT/GT, a Mouse Model for Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Gayle B.; Marshall, Jan D.; Stasi, Fabio; Maffei, Pietro; Vettor, Roberto; Naggert, Jürgen K.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2) and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state. PMID:25299671

  1. GLUT4 defects in adipose tissue are early signs of metabolic alterations in Alms1GT/GT, a mouse model for obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Favaretto, Francesca; Milan, Gabriella; Collin, Gayle B; Marshall, Jan D; Stasi, Fabio; Maffei, Pietro; Vettor, Roberto; Naggert, Jürgen K

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2) and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state. PMID:25299671

  2. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the 5 - gt 3 Exoribonuclease Xrn1

    SciTech Connect

    J Chang; S Xiang; K Xiang; J Manley; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    The 5' {yields} 3' exoribonucleases (XRNs) have important functions in transcription, RNA metabolism and RNA interference. The structure of Rat1 (also known as Xrn2) showed that the two highly conserved regions of XRNs form a single, large domain that defines the active site of the enzyme. Xrn1 has a 510-residue segment after the conserved regions that is required for activity but is absent from Rat1/Xrn2. Here we report the crystal structures of Kluyveromyces lactis Xrn1 (residues 1-1,245, E178Q mutant), alone and in complex with a Mn{sup 2+} ion in the active site. The 510-residue segment contains four domains (D1-D4), located far from the active site. Our mutagenesis and biochemical studies show that their functional importance results from their ability to stabilize the conformation of the N-terminal segment of Xrn1. These domains might also constitute a platform that interacts with protein partners of Xrn1.

  3. G/T Identification and Sci-Fi Matchmaking: More Similar than They Should Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartek, Mary M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a sci-fi matchmaking scenario to illustrate the fallibility of technology, this article discusses the practice of reducing a student to a series of test scores for gifted identification. The limits of testing are addressed, and student performance and behavior are urged as additional categories for identifying aptitude and achievement.…

  4. Water desalination as a possible opportunity for the GT- and H2-MHR

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, S. Locke; Schultz, Ken

    2004-07-01

    There is growing concern that many areas of the world are suffering ongoing and increasing water shortages. Much of this concern is manifested in the United Nation's World Water Assessment Programme, the results of which were published in the spring of 2003. Other researchers have corroborated the findings of this work. However, while the UN has characterized water availability as a 'crisis', this view would seem to be excessive. Nevertheless, many parts of the world, particularly in developing nations inclusive of the middle east, are experiencing severe water stress and some of these have embarked on large-scale seawater desalination projects. The current work explores, in a preliminary way, the application of high temperature helium cooled reactors in either an electricity or a hydrogen production mode for desalination. Three desalination technologies are discussed: reverse osmosis (RO) and thermal processes using either Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) or Multi-effect distillation (MED). For the latter, it is found that the waste heat rejected from a high temperature reactor comes in power levels and temperatures reasonably well suited for desalination. An economic comparison was made using the best available data and scaling to compare the processes. What was found that reverse osmosis and thermal distillation possess comparable costs within the error bars of the analysis but that the former generally resulted in slightly lower costs. Thus the choice between them can be made with other criteria such as feed salinity and product quality. It was also found that desalinated water co-produced with either electricity (RO and MED) or hydrogen (MED) are expected to cost about the same. Since hydrogen and desalinated water can be produced off the grid, this co-production architecture appears attractive for the early deployment of high temperature helium cooled reactors. (authors)

  5. GT neutrino-nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, H.; Suhonen, J.

    2015-05-01

    Gamow-Teller nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) for pairs of {{β }+/- } {{1}+}≤ftrightarrow {{0}+} ground-state-to-ground-state transitions, in particular their geometric mean NME {{M}m}, are studied. The observed means Mexp m in the medium-heavy mass region are compared with the corresponding single-quasiparticle (qp) NMEs and the means MQRPAm calculated by the proton neutron qp random-phase approximation (pnQRPA). The {{M}m} NMEs turn out to be insensitive to the nucleon occupancy/vacancy amplitudes and to the particle-particle interaction parameter {{g}pp} of the pnQRPA. The observed mean NMEs are found to be reduced by a coefficient k≈ 0.23 relative to the effective qp NMEs and by a coefficient {{k}NM}≈ 0.6 with respect to the pnQRPA NMEs. The reductions associated with the spin isospin correlations and nuclear medium effects, and their impact on nuclear double beta decays and astro-neutrino-nuclear interactions are discussed.

  6. GT2_ncox_1: Faint Extended Dust Envelopes of Young Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N.

    2011-05-01

    We propose to trace the distribution of cold dust in the extended envelopes of a selected sample of young Planetary Nebulae (PNe). Information on the mass-loss and overall envelope ejection process of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars is imprinted in the morphology of the extended dust shells formed throughout the AGB phase. In particular the origin of asymmetrical PN shapes and their relation to spherical mass-loss presumed to occur on the AGB phase can be illuminated upon. We propose to use PACS to follow-up on AKARI/FIS observations of young PNe to study their mass-loss history. Only Herschel's unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity in the far-IR can detect the faint extended cold dust emission in these objects.

  7. An Array of Services: Least Restrictive Environments for G/T Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurz, Priscilla Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    While people have learned much from special education about using an array of services, from the least restrictive to the most restrictive learning environments, public schools still base many instructional decisions on a child's chronological age. Are the child's interests best served by being grouped all day solely by the number of years lived?…

  8. GT1_lorourke_9: Herschel In-situ Asteroid & Comet Observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.

    2010-03-01

    In September 2010, 25 years will have passed since the first in-situ encounter of a space probe with a comet. This first visit occurred in September 1985 when the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), passed through the tail of P/Giacobini-Zinner. Up to that point, comet and asteroid scientific observations were always based upon remote sensing be they performed from ground or from space. The next opportunity for a comet encounter arose with the return of Halley's Comet in 1986, whereby many satellites (Giotto, Vega 1 & 2, Suisei & Sakigake) were launched to perform in-situ observations. The first asteroid flybys, Gaspra & Ida/Dactyl, occurred as part of Galileo's journey to Jupiter. Since this time, NEAR, DS1, Hayabusa, Rosetta, Deep Impact, Stardust-NExT and Dawn satellites have all been launched with the aim of performing flybys, orbiting & sample return. Remote sensing & in-situ measurements are considered highly complementary in nature: remote sensing shows the global picture, but conversion of measured fluxes in physical quantities frequently depends on poorly constrained model parameters (e.g. dust size distribution or fluorescence efficiencies). In-situ techniques measure physical quantities in a more direct way, but are limited in spatial coverage. The benefit of both combined is that we can compare surface composition, reflectance, albedos & temperatures of in-situ and remote sensing and as a result greatly improve the scientific understanding of the objects in question. This proposal focuses on using the Herschel Space Observatory to remotely observe a select set of in-situ comets/asteroids. The down-selection from 29 asteroids & comets to the final eight was made based upon many criteria, the main one being prioritisation of the most important open scientific issues existing for each of the targets for which the Herschel Space Observatory, its sensitivity & wavelength coverage, could indeed contribute in a highly significant and, in specific cases, conclusive way to their resolution.

  9. GT1_abenz_1: Completing the OH ladder for HH 46

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A.

    2010-03-01

    First results from PACS observations towards the low-mass protostar HH 46 show surprisingly bright OH lines. The hydroxyl radical OH plays important roles in the water and oxygen chemistry of star-forming regions and their cooling. Furthermore, the hydroxyl-to-water line ratios are interesting tracers for ionizing radiation. We propose a nearly complete observation of the OH ladder in low-mass star formation for the first time. Four OH transitions in the class I object HH 46 were detected by PACS. We propose complementary observations towards the source in PACS line spectroscopy mode at 53, 56, 65, 71, 96, 115 and 135 micron. We gain insight in the origin and formation of OH from the PACS spatial information. The completeness of the OH ladder allows a reliable determination of the OH abundance and thus constrains water chemistry and cooling contribution more precisely. In addition, we propose HIFI observations of the OH transition at 163.4 micron to resolve the three hyperfine components for the first time. This will allow to determine optical depths of OH and test the hypothesis of asymmetries between the two closely spaced triplets, as the second triplet will be observed within the HIFI priority science program. Note: This proposal is submitted under the Swiss part of the HIFI guaranteed time program; HIFI PI: Frank Helmich, HIFI Swiss Lead CoI: Arnold O. Benz

  10. GT1_vgeers_1: Tracing Remnant Gas in Planet Forming Debris Disk Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geers, V.

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies of gas emission lines with Spitzer and sub-millimeter telescopes have shown that 10-100 Myr old stars with debris disks have too little gas left to form Jupiter like gas giant planets. Whether enough gas remains in these systems to form ice giant planets is still unanswered. The [OI] emission line at 63 micron is one of the most sensitive tracers of gas mass in the ice-giant region of 10-50 AU in disks, and Herschel PACS is therefore uniquely suited to trace the remnant gas in planet-forming disks. We propose to obtain PACS line spectroscopy of [OI] (63 micron) for two nearby young stars, HR 8799 and HD 15115, which are two systems with detected giant planets or signs of planet formation, while still harbouring prominent debris disks that could be in the process of forming ice giants such as Neptune and Uranus. The proposed observations will probe down to gas masses of 0.01 Earth masses, and allow us to constrain prospects for ice giant formation, measure gas-to-dust ratios in evolved disks to compare with planet formation / disk evolution models, and put constraints on whether the dust dynamics in these systems is driven by the remnant gas or by the radiation. Note: this proposal is submitted under the Swiss part of the HIFI Guaranteed Time program; HIFI PI: Frank Helmich, HIFI Swiss Lead CoI: Arnold Benz.

  11. GT1_cdedes_1: Heating and cooling mechanics in massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedes, C.

    2010-03-01

    Massive stars are important constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) in our Galaxy and beyond. Their strong feedback processes influence the dynamics, energetics and chemistry of the surrounding interstellar medium both locally and on large scales. An important question to be answered is the one of cooling and heating mechanisms in regions of massive star formation. In the vicinity of massive stars, heating is provided mostly by far-UV (FUV) and infra-red radiation. Cooling is mostly provided by emission in the fine structure lines of CII. There are however other atomic and molecular lines such as OI, CO, OH and H_2O which can become significant coolants in the dense, embedded regions of massive star formation. This early phase when the forming massive star is still deeply embedded in its natal envelope, yet already interacting with, and potentially destroying, its environment through copious amounts of UV radiation, massive outflows and ultra compact HII (UCHII) regions, is an important phase in the star formation process. To understand the heating and cooling balance in this phase, one has to consider the contributions of various radiative and dynamical processes such as the FUV radiation from the young star itself, shocks created by strong stellar winds and the photon dominated regions (PDRs) where the radiation impinges on the molecular material. The tracers of these processes can be observed in the far-infrared, a wavelength range that is now accessible at unprecedented high spectral and spatial resolution with the Herschel Space Observatory. We propose to observe the aformentioned tracers of cooling and heating in the massive star forming region IRAS 12326-6245 to obtain a complete picture of the different processes, the regions they originate from and how they interact. This proposal is for time granted to the HIFI hardware team (PI: Frank Helmich) and to be accounted as part of the Swiss guaranteed time (Lead-Co-I: Arnold O. Benz).

  12. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobyzov, Oleg; Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Alexey; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Bilsky, Artur; Tsatiashvili, Vakhtang; Avgustinovich, Valery; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2016-03-01

    In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas) was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV) at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  13. GT1_mbaes_1: HERschel Observations of Edge-on Spirals (HEROES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, M.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to use PACS and SPIRE to map the dust distribution in a sample of seven large edge-on spiral galaxies with regular dust lanes. We will look for the presence of cold dust at large galactocentric radii and investigate the link between dust, gas and metallicity as a function of radius. We will also constrain the vertical distribution of the dust and particularly look for dust emission at large heights above the plane of the galaxies. We will compare the observed Herschel maps with simulated maps resulting from detailed radiative transfer models based on optical and near-infrared images. This will enable us to investigate whether we can confirm the existence of a dust energy balance problem suggested by previous observations (the dust seen in absorption in optical maps underestimates the dust seen in emission) and investigate possible ways to alleviate this potential problem.

  14. A Novel Microsatellite Array in Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) with Device HAD-GT12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites assays were performed traditionally on either high resolution MetaPhor agarose or polyacryamide gels. Gel electrophoresis methods are simple and relatively inexpensive to conduct, however they are difficult to accurately score allele sizes. Recently, capillary electrophoresis has be...

  15. CAVEAT-GT: A general topology version of the CAVEAT code

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, M. C.; Dukowicz, J. K.; Addessio, F. L.

    1990-06-01

    We describe a numerical technique for solving two-dimensional, compressible, multimaterial problems using a general topology mesh. Multimaterial problems are characterized by the presence of interfaces whose shapes may become arbitrarily complex in the course of dynamic evolution. Computational methods based on more conventional fixed-connectivity quadrilateral meshes do not have adequate flexibility to follow convoluted interface shapes and frequently fail due to excessive mesh distortion. The present method is based on a mesh of arbitrary polygonal cells. Because this mesh is dual to a triangulation, its topology is unrestricted and it is able to accommodate arbitrary boundary shapes. Additionally, this mesh is able to quickly and smoothly change local mesh resolution, thus economizing on the number of mesh cells, and it is able to improve mesh isotropy because in a region of uniform mesh the cells tend to become regular hexagons. The underlying algorithms are based on those of the CAVEAT code. These consist of an explicit, finite-volume, cell-centered, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian technique, coupled with the Godunov method, which together are readily adaptable to a general topology mesh. Several special techniques have been developed for this extension to a more general mesh. They include an interface propagation scheme based on Huygens' construction, a near-Lagrangian'' mesh rezoning algorithm that minimizes advection while enhancing mesh regularity, an efficient global remapping algorithm that is capable of conservatively transferring quantities from one general mesh to another and various mesh restructuring algorithms, such as mesh reconnection, smoothing, and point addition and deletion. 18 refs., 39 figs.

  16. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  17. Renal venogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New ... Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New ...

  18. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  19. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  20. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  1. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  2. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New ...

  3. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  4. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  5. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  6. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  7. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  8. Aortic angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  9. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  10. MODELING MONOMETHYLMERCURY AND TRIBUTYLTIN SPECIATION WITH EPA'S GEOCHEMICAL SPECIATION MODEL MINTEQA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the complexity of the various, simultaneous (and competing) equilibrium reactions governing the speciation of ionic species in aquatic systems, EPA has developed and distributed the geochemical speciation model MINTEQA2 (Brown and Allison, 1987, Allison et al., 1991; Hydrog...

  11. 75 FR 78596 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Models B200, B200GT, B300, and B300C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... March 27, 2008, we issued AD 2008-07-10, Amendment 39-15451 (73 FR 18706, April 7, 2008), for certain... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... amends Sec. 39.13 by removing airworthiness directive (AD) 2008-07-10, Amendment 39-15451 (73 FR...

  12. 78 FR 20386 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2012 Porsche GT3RS Passenger Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to....-model components to accommodate an advanced airbag system. Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash...

  13. Optical hybrid package with an 8-channel 18GT/s CMOS transceiver for chip-to-chip optical interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, E.; Liao, J.; Kern, A.; Lu, D.; Braunisch, H.; Thomas, T.; Hyvonen, S.; Palermo, S.; Young, I. A.

    2008-02-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-speed 8-channel hybrid integrated optical transceiver package with Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) circuits. The package concept has been developed to be compatible with microprocessor package technology and at the same time allow the integration of low cost, high-performance optical components. A 90nm CMOS optical transceiver chip, 850nm 10Gb/s GaAs based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array and PIN photodiode array are flip-chip mounted on a standard microprocessor Land Grid Array (LGA) package substrate. The CMOS drivers and receivers on the transceiver chip and the optical components (VCSEL and Photodiode arrays) are electrically coupled using a short transmission line routed on the top surface of the package. VCSEL and photodiode arrays are optically coupled to on-package integrated polymer waveguide arrays with metallized 45° mirrors. The waveguides, which are terminated with multi-terminal (MT) fiber optic connectors, couple out/in high-speed optical signals to/from the chip. The CMOS transceiver chip fully integrates all analog optical circuits such as VCSEL drivers, transimpedance amplifiers and clock and data recovery (CDR) retiming circuit with a low jitter LC-PLL. Digital circuits for pseudorandom bit-pattern sequence generators (PRBS) and bit-error rate test (BERT) are fully integrated. 20Gb/s electrical and 18Gb/s optical eye diagrams for the transmitter were measured out of the package. A fully packaged transmitter and receiver including clock data recovery at 10Gb/s have also been measured.

  14. Novel heterozygous mutation c.4282G>T in the SCN5A gene in a family with Brugada syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JIAN-FANG; DU, LI-LI; TIAN, YUAN; DU, YI-MEI; ZHANG, LING; ZHOU, TAO; TIAN, LI

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare, inherited arrhythmia syndrome. The most well-known gene that is responsible for causing BrS is SCN5A, which encodes the human cardiac Na+ channel (Nav1.5) α subunit. To date, it has been reported that >100 mutations in SCN5A can cause BrS. In the present study, a novel BrS-associated Nav1.5 mutation, A1428S, was identified in a proband who was successfully resuscitated from an episode of sudden collapse during walking. This mutation was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, which showed that the PCR fragment containing the mutation A1428S could be cut by the restriction enzyme Nsi1, yielding two shorter DNA fragments of 329 and 159 bp, which were not present in family members homozygous for the wild-type (WT) allele. Furthermore, the electrophysiological properties were analyzed by patch clamp technique. Current density was decreased in the A1428S mutant compared that in the WT. However, neither the steady-state activation or inactivation, nor the recovery from inactivation exhibited changes between the A1428S mutant and the WT. In conclusion, the results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduction in Nav1.5 channel function is involved in the pathogenesis of BrS. The structural-functional study of the Nav1.5 channel enhances the present understanding the pathophysiological function of the channel. PMID:26136871

  15. Development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation and with recovery of the gt 10-. mu. m fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Pauley, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) manufactured nuclear weapons' components out of plutonium (Pu) metal until 1990. The plant is now in a decontamination and disposition phase. In both the manufacturing mode and the present mode, Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Colorado have required continuous monitoring of the air to detect releases of radionuclides. The air surveillance network established around the plant in the early 1950's was replaced in 1972 with a network of high-volume (40 cfm) samplers (hivols). This network extends into the community. The hivois were patterned after the EPA total suspended particle (TSP) samplers with an approximate cutoff at 30 micrometers ({mu}m); however, the RFP version of the TSP sampler was designed to operate continuously and had to be relatively inconspicuous. After nearly 20 years of operation, the RFP air surveillance samplers are in need of updating or replacement, in part because the EPA has now established a new criterion for sampling of suspended particles; i.e., the PM-10 criterion. Only particles of less than 10-{mu}m aerodynamic diameter are considered hazardous to health through inhalation pathways. This report discusses the development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation.

  16. Development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation and with recovery of the {gt}10-{mu}m fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Pauley, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) manufactured nuclear weapons` components out of plutonium (Pu) metal until 1990. The plant is now in a decontamination and disposition phase. In both the manufacturing mode and the present mode, Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Colorado have required continuous monitoring of the air to detect releases of radionuclides. The air surveillance network established around the plant in the early 1950`s was replaced in 1972 with a network of high-volume (40 cfm) samplers (hivols). This network extends into the community. The hivois were patterned after the EPA total suspended particle (TSP) samplers with an approximate cutoff at 30 micrometers ({mu}m); however, the RFP version of the TSP sampler was designed to operate continuously and had to be relatively inconspicuous. After nearly 20 years of operation, the RFP air surveillance samplers are in need of updating or replacement, in part because the EPA has now established a new criterion for sampling of suspended particles; i.e., the PM-10 criterion. Only particles of less than 10-{mu}m aerodynamic diameter are considered hazardous to health through inhalation pathways. This report discusses the development of a PM-10 inlet for continuous operation.

  17. Effective fermion masses of order gT in high-temperature gauge theories with exact chiral invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, H.A.

    1982-11-15

    It is shown that, at finite temperature, chiral invariance does not imply that fermion propagators have poles at K/sup 2/ = 0. Instead, a zero-momentum fermion has energy K/sup 0/ = M, where M/sup 2/ = g/sup 2/C(R)T/sup 2//8 and C(R) is the quadratic Casimir of the fermion representation. The dispersion relation for Knot =0 is computed and can be crudely approximated (to within 10%) by K/sup 0/roughly-equal(M/sup 2/+K /sup 2/)/sup 1/2/. Applications to high-temperature QCD, SU(2) x U(1), and grand unified theories are discussed.

  18. Michel accretion of a polytropic fluid with adiabatic index \\gamma \\gt 5/3: global flows versus homoclinic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Mach, Patryk; Sarbach, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of a polytropic fluid that is radially accreted into a Schwarzschild black hole. The case where the adiabatic index γ lies in the range of 1\\lt γ ≤slant 5/3 has been treated in previous work. In this article, we analyze the complementary range of 5/3\\lt γ ≤slant 2. To this purpose, the problem is cast into an appropriate Hamiltonian dynamical system, whose phase flow is analyzed. While, for 1\\lt γ ≤slant 5/3, the solutions are always characterized by the presence of a unique critical saddle point, we show that, when 5/3\\lt γ ≤slant 2, an additional critical point might appear, which is a center point. For the parametrization used in this paper, we prove that, whenever this additional critical point appears, there is a homoclinic orbit. Solutions corresponding to homoclinic orbits differ from standard transonic solutions with vanishing asymptotic velocities in two aspects: they are local (i.e., they cannot be continued to arbitrarily large radii); the dependence of the density or the value of the velocity on the radius is not monotonic.

  19. Effect of Chlorotriazine Pesticides on Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone in the Neuronal GT1-7 Cell Line and Hypothalamic Explants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the release of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone. These pituitary hormones are necessary for normal reproductive function in both males and females. It is well recognized that disruption of nor...

  20. Ion-implanted GaAs JFETs with f{sub t} {gt} 45 GHz for low-power electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Shul, R.J.; Sherwin, M.E. |

    1996-12-31

    GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) are reported with gate lengths down to 0.3 micrometers. The structure is fully self-aligned and employs all ion implantation doping. p[sup +]-gate regions are formed with either Zn or Cd implants along with a P coimplantation to reduce diffusion. The source and rain implants are engineered with Si or SiF implants to minimize short channel effects. JFETs with 0.3 micrometer gate length are demonstrated with a sub-threshold slope of 110 mV/decade along with an intrinsic unity current gain cutoff frequency as high as 52 GHz.

  1. Very high efficiency small nuclear gas turbine power plant concept (HTGR-GT/BC) for special applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Cavallaro, L.; Kapich, D.; Medwid, W.A.

    1984-06-01

    To meet the energy needs of special terrestrial defense installations, where a premium is placed on high plant efficiency, conceptual studies have been performed on an advanced closed-cycle gas turbine system with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as the heat source. Emphasis has been placed on system compactness and plant simplicity. A goal of plant operation for extended periods with no environmental contact had a strong influence on the design features. To realize a high plant efficiency (over 50%) for this mode of operation, a combined cycle was investigated. A primary helium Brayton power conversion system coupled with a Freon bottoming cycle was selected. Details are presented of the reactor arrangement, power conversion system, major components, installation, and performance for a compact nuclear power plant currently in a very early stage of concept definition.

  2. GT-MHR COMMERCIALIZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1 THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY,AS

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 A copy of the original Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the US and the US for the HFR-EU2 (formally MHR-1) fuel irradiation test was sent to DOE-HQ. The startup of the HFR-EU2 test will likely be delayed until September 2004 depending on completion and check out of the fission gas sweep loop. The initial core nuclear design study using advanced fuel was completed for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This study assessed the nuclear effects of replacing the silicon carbide layer of the TRISO particle with a zirconium carbide layer (TRIZO particle). The study determined that zirconium behaves like a non-burnable poison and to achieve fuel cycle lengths equivalent to those with TRISO fuel, the fixed burnable poison would have to be adjusted. The core nuclear design study is documented in report General Atomics report number PC-000514. A test plan was completed that describes a series of screening tests to provide the technical basis for selecting and qualifying an advanced coated-particle fuel for the VHTR. The test plan is documented in General Atomics report number PC-000510.

  3. Scaling of the F{sub 2} structure function in nuclei and quark distributions at x {gt} 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, N.; Arrington, J.; Day, D. B.; Gaskell, D.; Daniel, A.; El Fassi, L.; Holt, R. J.; Potterveld, D. H.; Schulte, E.; Solvignon, P.; Zheng, X.

    2010-11-01

    We present new data on electron scattering from a range of nuclei taken in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. For heavy nuclei, we observe a rapid falloff in the cross section for x > 1, which is sensitive to short-range contributions to the nuclear wave function, and in deep inelastic scattering corresponds to probing extremely high momentum quarks. This result agrees with higher energy muon scattering measurements, but is in sharp contrast to neutrino scattering measurements which suggested a dramatic enhancement in the distribution of the 'superfast' quarks probed at x > 1. The falloff at x > 1 is noticeably stronger in {sup 2}H and {sup 3}He, but nearly identical for all heavier nuclei.

  4. TPH2 G/T Polymorphism Is Associated with Hyperphagia, IQ, and Internalizing Problems in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Roof, Elizabeth; Bittel, Douglas; Butler, Merlin G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities, growth hormone dysregulation, hyperphagia, increased risks of morbid obesity, compulsive behaviors, and irritability. As aberrant serotonergic functioning is strongly implicated in PWS, we examined associations between the…

  5. Support and power plant documentation for the gas turbine powered bus demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nigro, D. N.; Stewart, R. G.; Apple, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The operational experience obtained for the GT404-4 gas turbine engines in the intercity and intracity Bus Demonstration Programs is described for the period January 1980 through September 1981. Support for the engines and automatic transmissions involved in this program provided engineering and field service, spare parts and tools, training, and factory overhauls. the Greyhound (intercity) coaches accumulated 183,054 mi (294,595 km) and 5154 hr of total operation. The Baltimore Transit (intracity) coaches accumulated 40,567 mi (65,285 km) and 1840 hr of total operation. In service, the turbine powered Greyhound and Transit coaches achieved approximately 25% and 40% lower fuel mileage, respectively, than did the production diesel powered coaches. The gas turbine engine will require the advanced ceramic development currently being sponsored by the DOE and NASA to achieve fuel economy equivalent not only to that of today's diesel engines but also to the projected fuel economy of the advanced diesel engines of the 1990s. Sufficient experience was not achieved with the coaches prior to the start of service to identify and eliminate many of the problems associated with the startup of new equipment. Because of these problems, the mean miles between incident were unacceptably low. The future gas turbine system should be developed sufficiently to establish satisfactory durability prior to evaluation in revenue service. Commercialization of the gas turbine bus engine remains a viable goal for the future.

  6. Assessment of CO2 Sequestration and ECBM Potential of U.S. Coalbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2003-03-31

    In October, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, through contractor Advanced Resources International, launched a multi-year government-industry R&D collaboration called the Coal-Seq project. The Coal-Seq project is investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams, by performing detailed reservoir studies of two enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) field projects in the San Juan basin. The two sites are the Allison Unit, operated by Burlington Resources, and into which CO{sub 2} is being injected, and the Tiffany Unit, operating by BP America, into which N{sub 2} is being injected (the interest in understanding the N{sub 2}-ECBM process has important implications for CO{sub 2} sequestration via flue-gas injection). The purposes of the field studies are to understand the reservoir mechanisms of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} injection into coalseams, demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the ECBM and sequestration processes, an engineering capability to simulate them, and to evaluate sequestration economics. In support of these efforts, laboratory and theoretical studies are also being performed to understand and model multi-component isotherm behavior, and coal permeability changes due to swelling with CO{sub 2} injection. This report describes the results of an important component of the overall project, applying the findings from the San Juan Basin to a national scale to develop a preliminary assessment of the CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery potential of U.S. coalbeds. Importantly, this assessment improves upon previous investigations by (1) including a more comprehensive list of U.S. coal basins, (2) adopting technical rationale for setting upper-bound limits on the results, and (3) incorporating new information on CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} replacement ratios as a function of coal rank. Based on the results of the assessment, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of U

  7. Welcoming nora: a family event.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Allison J; Walsh, Paul R; Walsh, Jane M; Walsh, Gavin T

    2011-01-01

    In this column, Allison and Paul Walsh share the story of the birth of Nora, their third baby and their second child to be born at home. Allison and Paul share their individual memories of labor and birth. But their story is only part of the story of Nora's birth. Nora's birth was a family event, with Allison and Paul's other children very much part of the experience. Jane and Gavin share their own memories of their baby sister's birth. PMID:22654460

  8. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  9. Evidence that phosphorylation of threonine in the GT motif triggers activation of PknA, a eukaryotic-type serine/threonine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ravala, Sandeep K; Singh, Suruchi; Yadav, Ghanshyam S; Kumar, Sanjay; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Chakraborti, Pradip K

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorylation of the activation loop in the catalytic domain of the RD family of bacterial eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPK) induces their conformational transition from an inactive to active state. However, mechanistic insights into the phosphorylation-mediated transition of these STPKs from an inactive to active state remain unknown. In the present study, we addressed this issue with PknA, an essential STPK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that the catalytic activity of PknA is confined within the N-terminal 283 amino acids (PknA-283). The crystal structure of PknA-283 in unphosphorylated form showed an ordered activation loop and existed in an inactive state preventing the phosphorylation of its cognate substrate(s). Peptide mass finger printing studies revealed that all activation loop threonines (Thr172, Thr174 and Thr180) were phosphorylated in the activated PknA-283 protein. Substitution of Thr180 with Ala/Asp (T180A/T180D) resulted in catalytically defective mutants, whereas a double mutant replacing Thr172 and Thr174 with Ala (T172A-T174A) was deficient in kinase activity. Analysis of PknA-283 structure, together with biochemical studies, revealed the possibility of phosphorylation of Thr180 via a cis mechanism, whereas that of Thr172 and Thr174 occurs via a trans mechanism. Moreover, unlike wild-type, these mutants did not show any drastic change in cell morphology in a phenotypic assay, implicating the role of all threonines in the activation loop towards the functionality of PknA. Thus, our findings offer a model for kinase activation showing that the phosphorylation of Thr180 triggers PknA to transphosphorylate Thr172/Thr174, thereby governing its functionality. PMID:25665034

  10. Solar Technology Validation Project - Tri-State G&T: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-367-12

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, S.

    2013-08-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Participant to improve concentrating solar power system performance characterizations. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development of methods for acquiring renewable resource characterization information using site-specific measurements of solar radiation and meteorological conditions; collecting system performance data; and developing tools for improving the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar energy conversion systems. This work will be conducted at NREL and Participant facilities.

  11. Down-Regulation of PoGT47C Expression in Poplar Results in a Reduced Glucuronoxylan Content and an Increased Wood Digestibility by Cellulase

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood. Unraveling the biosynthetic pathway of xylan is important not only for our understanding of the process of wood formation but also for our rational engineering of wood for biofuel production. Although several glycosy...

  12. Interstitial Spaces: Visual Culture, Domesticity, and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James H., III; Buenger, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Allison Buenger graduated from the Ohio State University with a bachelor of fine arts degree in ceramics in December 2009. Her works morph domestic objects into vessels of meaning, sculptures displayed in larger installations of textiles and found objects. Originally from Northeast Ohio, Allison resides in Columbus, Ohio, and works at Open Door…

  13. Broadband long-wavelength operation (9700 A/approx gt//lambda//approx gt/8700 A) of Al/sub /ital y//Ga/sub 1/minus//ital y//As-GaAs-In/sub /ital x//Ga/sub 1/minus//ital x//As quantum well heterostructure lasers in an external grating cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. C.; Major, J. S., Jr.; Holonyak, N., Jr.; Gavrilovic, P.; Meehan, K.; Stutius, W.; Williams, J. E.

    1989-08-21

    Data are presented on /ital p/-/ital n/ Al/sub /ital y//Ga/sub 1/minus//ital y//As- GaAs-In/sub /ital x//Ga/sub 1/minus//ital x//As quantum well heterostructure lasers showing that the large band filling range of a combined GaAs-In/sub /ital x//Ga/sub 1/minus//ital x//As quantum well makes possible a very large tuning range in external grating operation. Continuous 300 K laser operation is demonstrated in the 8696--9711 A range (/Delta//lambda//similar to/1000 A, /Delta//h bar//omega//similar to/150 meV) and pulsed operation in the 8450--9756 A range (/Delta//lambda//similar to/1300 A, /Delta//h bar//omega//similar to/200 meV). The band filling and gain profile are shown to be continuous from the In/sub /ital x//Ga/sub 1/minus//ital x//As quantum well (/ital L//sub /ital z// /similar to/125 A, /ital x//similar to/0.2) up into the surrounding GaAs quantum well (/ital L//sub /ital z// /similar to/430 A).

  14. Research training of the effects of toxic substances on the lungs. (FY91 aasert). Annual report, 1 June 1993-31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, M.L.

    1994-05-31

    Allison and Brian will continue to work on the chronic jet fuel exposure research project. However, Allison will also participate in our magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) project. We are attempting to develop a portable MRI system for deployment on either the Space Shuttle or Space Station. In addition, we are studying the possibility of using MRI in our toxicology experiments to determine changes in blood flow and organ perfusion after exposure to environmental toxins. Both Allison and Brian are intelligent students and I expect them to maintain their high level of performance in their coursework.

  15. Welcoming Nora: A Family Event

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Allison J.; Walsh, Paul R.; Walsh, Jane M.; Walsh, Gavin T.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, Allison and Paul Walsh share the story of the birth of Nora, their third baby and their second child to be born at home. Allison and Paul share their individual memories of labor and birth. But their story is only part of the story of Nora’s birth. Nora’s birth was a family event, with Allison and Paul’s other children very much part of the experience. Jane and Gavin share their own memories of their baby sister’s birth. PMID:22654460

  16. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  17. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 3. Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ. Diagnostic imaging procedures in gastroenterology. In: Goldman L, Ausiello ...

  18. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 40. Weissleder R, ... of Diagnostic Imaging . 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  19. Upper GI and small bowel series

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 27. Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ. Diagnostic imaging procedures in gastroenterology. In: Goldman L, Schafer ...

  20. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan; Computed axial tomography scan; Computed tomography scan ... Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ...

  1. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... 2014:chap 67. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  2. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... gov/pubmed/18381118 . Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, ...

  3. 78 FR 71599 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of... Electric Association, Inc.'s application to amend its license for the Allison Creek Hydroelectric Project... field to access the document. You may also register online at...

  4. Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association Cardiology Patient Page Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Ravi V. Shah and Allison ... most common adverse effects, and recent concerns about new-onset diabetes mellitus to help patients and providers ...

  5. Advanced turbine systems program. Quarterly report, February 1--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Allison continued progress on the following tasks during this quarter: (distributed generation) market study, GFATS system definition and analysis, Castcool{trademark} blade technology demonstration, low emissions combustion system, ceramic vane design and evaluation, and program management.

  6. Task 6 -- Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-10

    The Allison Engine Company has completed the Task 6 Conceptual Design and Analysis of Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) contract. At the heart of Allison`s system is an advanced simple cycle gas turbine engine. This engine will incorporate components that ensure the program goals are met. Allison plans to commercialize the ATS demonstrator and market a family of engines incorporating this technology. This family of engines, ranging from 4.9 MW to 12 MW, will be suitable for use in all industrial engine applications, including electric power generation, mechanical drive, and marine propulsion. In the field of electric power generation, the engines will be used for base load, standby, cogeneration, and distributed generation applications.

  7. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF SLEEPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF SLEEPING PORCH, AT NORTH END CAPABLE OF SLEEPING SIX. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  8. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 6. Kramer CM, Beller GA. Noninvasive cardiac imaging. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. ...

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF GUEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF GUEST BEDROOM, UNUSUAL PARQUET FLOORS AND PINK MARBLE FIREPLACE Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  10. 78 FR 10692 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... ANTHONY BRIGGS THOMAS MARTIN BROWN LAVINA RUTH BUCHANAN ROBERT CHRISTIAN CHEUNG ALLISON CHO MICHAEL KIM DE... HIGHFIELD TUCKER M JONSSON N STEPHAN W LEUNG JANICE T L LEVY-LANG LAURENCE MARTINE MARC MICHAEL...

  11. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thomsen HS, Reimer P. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ... JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  12. University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Fatigue Clinic Geriatrics Clinic Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Looking beyond the cancer cell Looking beyond the ... Allison wins Breakthrough Prize for his innovative cancer immunology research Younger, early breast cancer patients often undergo ...

  13. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCEM key comparison CCEM.RF-K10.CL (GT-RF/99-2) 'Power in 50 Ω coaxial lines, frequency: 50 MHz to 26 GHz' measurement techniques and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Dieter; Inoue, T.; Michaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results and the measuring methods of an international key comparison between twelve national metrology institutes (NMIs) and is concerning the calibration factor of RF power sensors in the coaxial 3.5 mm line for frequencies up to 26 GHz. Two RF power travelling standards fitted with male PC 3.5 mm connectors were measured at seven frequencies. The following NMIs participated: NMIJ (Japan), NRC (Canada), NIST (USA), METAS (Switzerland), CSIR-NML (South Africa), NMIA (Australia), NPL (UK), SiQ (Slovenia), IEN (Italy), VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation), SPRING (Singapore) and PTB (Germany), as the pilot laboratory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  14. The TP53 Arg72Pro and MDM2 309G>T polymorphisms are not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Sinilnikova, O M; Antoniou, A C; Simard, J; Healey, S; Léoné, M; Sinnett, D; Spurdle, A B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Greene, M H; Loud, J T; Lejbkowicz, F; Rennert, G; Dishon, S; Andrulis, I L; Domchek, S M; Nathanson, K L; Manoukian, S; Radice, P; Konstantopoulou, I; Blanco, I; Laborde, A L; Durán, M; Osorio, A; Benitez, J; Hamann, U; Hogervorst, F B L; van Os, T A M; Gille, H J P; Peock, S; Cook, M; Luccarini, C; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Pichert, G; Davidson, R; Cole, T; Cook, J; Paterson, J; Brewer, C; Hughes, D J; Coupier, I; Giraud, S; Coulet, F; Colas, C; Soubrier, F; Rouleau, E; Bièche, I; Lidereau, R; Demange, L; Nogues, C; Lynch, H T; Schmutzler, R K; Versmold, B; Engel, C; Meindl, A; Arnold, N; Sutter, C; Deissler, H; Schaefer, D; Froster, U G; Aittomäki, K; Nevanlinna, H; McGuffog, L; Easton, D F; Chenevix-Trench, G; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D

    2009-01-01

    Background: The TP53 pathway, in which TP53 and its negative regulator MDM2 are the central elements, has an important role in carcinogenesis, particularly in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mediated carcinogenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of MDM2 (309T>G, rs2279744) and a coding SNP of TP53 (Arg72Pro, rs1042522) have been shown to be of functional significance. Methods: To investigate whether these SNPs modify breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we pooled genotype data on the TP53 Arg72Pro SNP in 7011 mutation carriers and on the MDM2 309T>G SNP in 2222 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results: No association was found between these SNPs and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 (TP53: per-allele hazard ratio (HR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.10, Ptrend=0.77; MDM2: HR=0.96, 95%CI: 0.84–1.09, Ptrend=0.54) or for BRCA2 mutation carriers (TP53: HR=0.99, 95%CI: 0.87–1.12, Ptrend=0.83; MDM2: HR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.80–1.21, Ptrend=0.88). We also evaluated the potential combined effects of both SNPs on breast cancer risk, however, none of their combined genotypes showed any evidence of association. Conclusion: There was no evidence that TP53 Arg72Pro or MDM2 309T>G, either singly or in combination, influence breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:19707196

  15. Cellular Neural Network Models of Growth and Immune of Effector Cells Response to Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yongmei; Min, Lequan

    Four reaction-diffusion cellular neural network (R-D CNN) models are set up based on the differential equation models for the growths of effector cells and cancer cells, and the model of the immune response to cancer proposed by Allison et al. The CNN models have different reaction-diffusion coefficients and coupling parameters. The R-D CNN models may provide possible quantitative interpretations, and are good in agreement with the in vitro experiment data reported by Allison et al.

  16. Lack of the Lysosomal Membrane Protein, GLMP, in Mice Results in Metabolic Dysregulation in Liver.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang Yi; Kase, Eili Tranheim; Herskedal, Anette; Schjalm, Camilla; Damme, Markus; Nesset, Cecilie Kasi; Thoresen, G Hege; Rustan, Arild C; Eskild, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Ablation of glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein (GLMP, formerly known as NCU-G1) has been shown to cause chronic liver injury which progresses into liver fibrosis in mice. Both lysosomal dysfunction and chronic liver injury can cause metabolic dysregulation. Glmp gt/gt mice (formerly known as Ncu-g1gt/gt mice) were studied between 3 weeks and 9 months of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency of Glmp gt/gt mice were comparable to wild type siblings, only at the age of 9 months the Glmp gt/gt siblings had significantly reduced body weight. Reduced size of epididymal fat pads was accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly in Glmp gt/gt mice. Blood analysis revealed reduced levels of blood glucose, circulating triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids in Glmp gt/gt mice. Increased flux of glucose, increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid accumulation were detected in Glmp gt/gt primary hepatocytes, as well as elevated triacylglycerol levels in Glmp gt/gt liver homogenates, compared to hepatocytes and liver from wild type mice. Gene expression analysis showed an increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in Glmp gt/gt liver compared to wild type. Our findings are in agreement with the metabolic alterations observed in other mouse models lacking lysosomal proteins, and with alterations characteristic for advanced chronic liver injury. PMID:26047317

  17. Advanced Turbine Systems Program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    The Allison Gas Turbine Division (Allison) of General Motors Corporation conducted the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program feasibility study (Phase I) in accordance with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) contract DE-AC21-86MC23165 A028. This feasibility study was to define and describe a natural gas-fired reference system which would meet the objective of {ge}60% overall efficiency, produce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions 10% less than the state-of-the-art without post combustion controls, and cost of electricity of the N{sup th} system to be approximately 10% below that of the current systems. In addition, the selected natural gas-fired reference system was expected to be adaptable to coal. The Allison proposed reference system feasibility study incorporated Allison`s long-term experience from advanced aerospace and military technology programs. This experience base is pertinent and crucial to the success of the ATS program. The existing aeroderivative technology base includes high temperature hot section design capability, single crystal technology, advanced cooling techniques, high temperature ceramics, ultrahigh turbomachinery components design, advanced cycles, and sophisticated computer codes.

  18. 46 CFR 11.304 - STCW deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Master on vessels of 3,000 GT or more (management level). (2) Chief mate on vessels of 3,000 GT or more...) Chief mate of vessels of 500 GT or more and less than 3,000 GT (management level). (6) Master of...

  19. Single-crystal superalloy drives turbine advances

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.

    1995-04-01

    In searching for ways to improve power-to-weight ratios and fuel efficiency, gas turbine engine manufacturers invest heavily in the development and testing of new alloys. Their goal is to find turbine airfoil materials that can handle the higher operating temperatures, increased component stresses, and faster rotational speeds that are needed to increase turbine performance. Major turbine engine manufacturers find they can achieve these objectives through ultra-high performance, single-crystal superalloys -- a group of nickel-base materials that exhibit outstanding strength and surface stability at temperatures up to 85{percent} of their melting points. One such superalloy is CMSX-4, co-engineered by ingot maker Cannon-Muskegon and turbine engine manufacturers Rolls-Royce and Allison Engine Company. It is currently being used in such applications as Allison`s advanced airfoil programs.

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling analysis of trihelix gene family in tomato.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuying; Cai, Xiaofeng; Ye, Zhibiao; Li, Hanxia

    2015-12-25

    The trihelix family, classified as GT factors due to their binding specificity for GT elements, constitutes a plant-specific transcription factor family with a conserved trihelix DNA binding domain. In the present study, the comprehensive analysis of 36 putative GT factors was performed in tomato. SlGT members can be classified into six subgroups (GT-1, GT-2, SH4, SIP1, GT-γ and GT-δ). Expression analysis of SlGT gene transcripts showed the distinct expression patterns of SlGT genes in various tomato organs. All the SlGT genes were regulated in response to various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments by the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Several SlGT genes, including SlGT-27 and SlGT-34, were highly regulated by multiple abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments. Taken together, our results presented here would be providing a useful platform for molecular clone and functional identification of SlGT genes in tomato. PMID:26612258

  1. Genomewide Screening for Genes Associated with Gliotoxin Resistance and Sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    PubMed Central

    Chamilos, Georgios; Lewis, Russell E.; Lamaris, Gregory A.; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2008-01-01

    Gliotoxin (GT) is a secondary fungal metabolite with pleiotropic immunosuppressive properties that have been implicated in Aspergillus virulence. However, the mechanisms of GT cytotoxicity and its molecular targets in eukaryotic cells have not been fully characterized. We screened a haploid library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-gene deletion mutants (4,787 strains in EUROSCARF) to identify nonessential genes associated with GT increased resistance (GT-IR) and increased sensitivity (GT-IS). The susceptibility of the wild-type parental strain BY4741 to GT was initially assessed by broth microdilution methods using different media. GT-IR and GT-IS were defined as a fourfold increase and decrease, respectively, in MIC, and this was additionally confirmed by susceptibility testing on agar yeast extract-peptone-glucose plates. The specificity of GT-IR and GT-IS mutants exhibiting normal growth compared with the wild-type strain was further tested in studies of their susceptibility to conventional antifungal agents, cycloheximide, and H2O2. GT-IR was associated with the disruption of genes acting in general metabolism (OPI1, SNF1, IFA38), mitochondrial function (RTG2), DNA damage repair (RAD18), and vesicular transport (APL2) and genes of unknown function (YGL235W, YOR345C, YLR456W, YGL072C). The disruption of three genes encoding transsulfuration (CYS3), mitochondrial function (MEF2), and an unknown function (YKL037W) led to GT-IS. Specificity for GT-IR and GT-IS was observed in all mutants. Importantly, the majority (69%) of genes implicated in GT-IR (6/10) and GT-IS (2/3) have human homologs. We identified novel Saccharomyces genes specifically implicated in GT-IR or GT-IS. Because most of these genes are evolutionarily conserved, further characterization of their function could improve our understanding of GT cytotoxicity mechanisms in humans. PMID:18212113

  2. Genomewide screening for genes associated with gliotoxin resistance and sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chamilos, Georgios; Lewis, Russell E; Lamaris, Gregory A; Albert, Nathaniel D; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2008-04-01

    Gliotoxin (GT) is a secondary fungal metabolite with pleiotropic immunosuppressive properties that have been implicated in Aspergillus virulence. However, the mechanisms of GT cytotoxicity and its molecular targets in eukaryotic cells have not been fully characterized. We screened a haploid library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-gene deletion mutants (4,787 strains in EUROSCARF) to identify nonessential genes associated with GT increased resistance (GT-IR) and increased sensitivity (GT-IS). The susceptibility of the wild-type parental strain BY4741 to GT was initially assessed by broth microdilution methods using different media. GT-IR and GT-IS were defined as a fourfold increase and decrease, respectively, in MIC, and this was additionally confirmed by susceptibility testing on agar yeast extract-peptone-glucose plates. The specificity of GT-IR and GT-IS mutants exhibiting normal growth compared with the wild-type strain was further tested in studies of their susceptibility to conventional antifungal agents, cycloheximide, and H2O2. GT-IR was associated with the disruption of genes acting in general metabolism (OPI1, SNF1, IFA38), mitochondrial function (RTG2), DNA damage repair (RAD18), and vesicular transport (APL2) and genes of unknown function (YGL235W, YOR345C, YLR456W, YGL072C). The disruption of three genes encoding transsulfuration (CYS3), mitochondrial function (MEF2), and an unknown function (YKL037W) led to GT-IS. Specificity for GT-IR and GT-IS was observed in all mutants. Importantly, the majority (69%) of genes implicated in GT-IR (6/10) and GT-IS (2/3) have human homologs. We identified novel Saccharomyces genes specifically implicated in GT-IR or GT-IS. Because most of these genes are evolutionarily conserved, further characterization of their function could improve our understanding of GT cytotoxicity mechanisms in humans. PMID:18212113

  3. 12 CFR 551.20 - Must I comply with this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association, you also must comply with 12 CFR part 550 when you effect such a transaction. If you are a State... government securities dealer transactions. See 17 CFR 404.4(a). (3) Municipal securities. If you are... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must I comply with this part? 551.20...

  4. 12 CFR 12.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...)(30) and 78o-4. This part, as well as 12 CFR part 9, applies to securities transactions effected by a... dealer transactions by national banks. See 17 CFR 404.4(a). (iii) Municipal securities. This part does... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 12.1 Section...

  5. 12 CFR 12.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...)(30) and 78o-4. This part, as well as 12 CFR part 9, applies to securities transactions effected by a... dealer transactions by national banks. See 17 CFR 404.4(a). (iii) Municipal securities. This part does... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 12.1 Section...

  6. 12 CFR 12.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...)(30) and 78o-4. This part, as well as 12 CFR part 9, applies to securities transactions effected by a... dealer transactions by national banks. See 17 CFR 404.4(a). (iii) Municipal securities. This part does... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 12.1 Section...

  7. 12 CFR 12.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...)(30) and 78o-4. This part, as well as 12 CFR part 9, applies to securities transactions effected by a... dealer transactions by national banks. See 17 CFR 404.4(a). (iii) Municipal securities. This part does... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 12.1 Section...

  8. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  9. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  10. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  11. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  12. 12 CFR 151.20 - Must I comply with this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 150 when you effect such a transaction. (b) Exceptions—(1) Small number of transactions. You... CFR 404.4(a). (3) Municipal securities. If you are registered with the SEC as a “municipal securities... acts as an employee of a registered broker-dealer (“dual employee”)....

  13. 12 CFR 551.20 - Must I comply with this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association, you also must comply with 12 CFR part 550 when you effect such a transaction. If you are a State... government securities dealer transactions. See 17 CFR 404.4(a). (3) Municipal securities. If you are...) Exceptions—(1) Small number of transactions. You are not required to comply with § 551.50(b) through...

  14. 12 CFR 151.20 - Must I comply with this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 150 when you effect such a transaction. (b) Exceptions—(1) Small number of transactions. You... CFR 404.4(a). (3) Municipal securities. If you are registered with the SEC as a “municipal securities... acts as an employee of a registered broker-dealer (“dual employee”)....

  15. 28 CFR 36.406 - Standards for new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., element, facility, space, story. 36.401(d)(1)(ii), 36.404(a)(2): shopping center or shopping mall 36.401(d...). Elevator Exemption 36.401(d) 36.404 4.1.3(5). Other Exceptions 4.1.1(5), 4.1.3(5) and...

  16. 48 CFR 570.502-2 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY Special Aspects of Contracting for Lease... retainage, when appropriate. (2) Request sufficient cost or price information to permit a price analysis. (d... applicable, any audit received. (3) Analyze profit following FAR 15.404-4. (4) Document your analysis...

  17. Phase Relations and Densities of Crustal Material Deeply Buried into the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, H.; Fockenberg, T.; Janitschke, M.

    2010-12-01

    To better approach the phase relations and corresponding densities of crustal material that is deeply buried into the mantle down to the transition zone, pseudosections were calculated for the P-T range 4-20 GPa and 600-1600°C in the system K2O-Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O. These P-T pseudosections were obtained for various rock compositions typical for oceanic or continental crust among them are those of an S-type granite (G), a quartz-diorite (QD), a mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), a common pelite (P), an anatectic metapelite with restitic character (PR), and the averages of pelagic clay (APC) and upper continental crust (AUCC). For the calculation procedure, the PERPLE_X software package by Connolly and the thermodynamic data set by Holland and Powell, including corresponding solid-solution models, were used. To this data set, we have added thermodynamic data for stishovite, TiO2 with α-PbO2 structure, OH-topaz, phase egg, K-cymrite, Si-wadeite, K-hollandite, Na-hollandite, Na-pyroxene (NaPx), and Na-garnet (NaGt). The latter two phases with composition Na2MgSi5O12 were correspondingly included in four component solid-solution models for clinopyroxene and garnet. In addition, a new non-ideal solid-solution model for Na-K-hollandite was created. With these newly added thermodynamic data, the results of previous high-pressure experiments can be well reproduced. This concerns, for instance, the experiments in the system KAlSi3O8-NaAlSi3O8 by Yagi et al. on K-hollandite and its solid-solution towards Na-hollandite. Furthermore, the characteristics of MORB, studied by Okamoto and Maruyama in experiments up to 20 GPa, could be reproduced. In our study, NaPx and NaGt start to appear in the MORB composition above 7 GPa and reach maximum contents of 7 mol% of NaPx and 19 mol% of NaGt in pyroxene and garnet, respectively, at 14 GPa (1000-1400°C). At higher pressures, clinopyroxene widely disappears with only some nearly pure jadeite being left. Hollandite

  18. HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Allison L. Naleway*?, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*.
    *University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA RTP, NC ?Curre...

  19. RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY
    Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant?
    *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...

  20. Re-Vitalizing the First Year Class through Student Engagement and Discovery Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steuter, Erin; Doyle, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The first year course in Sociology at Mount Allison University introduced students to social issues via dynamic class interactions and assignments that are designed to build conceptual and applied skills. Developments to the course organization have maximized the opportunities for discovery learning and have made the class an enjoyable teaching…

  1. Finding Center: How Learning Centers Evolved in a Secondary Student-Centered Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movitz, Allison P.; Holmes, Kerry P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors elaborate on the experience of creating for high school students effective multisensory, hands-on learning centers that address a full range of elements from the English language arts curriculum. Allison P. Movitz and Kerry P. Holmes detail the centers Movitz designed for a Mostly Medieval unit to show how learning centers can help…

  2. Renal venogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008:chap 6. Rankin S. Renal parenchymal disease, including renal failure, renovascular disease and transportation. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 39. Read ... arteriography Renal vein thrombosis Tumor Venogram Wilms ...

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Peer-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated interventions for promoting social interactions among children from birth to eight years of age diagnosed with ASD. Forty-five single-subject design studies were analyzed and the effect sizes were calculated by the regression model developed by Allison and Gorman (1993). The overall…

  4. The Transformative Power of Drama: Bringing Literature and Social Justice to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Allison L.

    2005-01-01

    Allison L. Downey, a middle school English teacher, has used dramatic tableaux to help students think critically about literature as well as social and historic episodes. It is noted that students move to more abstract thinking, going beyond plot to an understanding of theme and metaphor.

  5. Variable Perceptions of Decision: An Operationalization of Four Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Beverly P.; Kerchner, Charles T.

    Decision-making and the models of decision-making that people carry in their minds were assessed. Participants in a public policy decision involving early childhood education were mapped onto four frequently used models of decision making: the rational, the bureaucratic, organizational process (Allison, 1971) and the garbage can or organized…

  6. Talking about Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Allison; Kazemi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    By simply asking students how they got the answer to a problem, math teachers can open the door to stimulating discussions in class. But how can they make sure those discussions promote mathematical understanding? Allison Hintz and Elham Kazemi explain that teachers need to know what the goal is for a discussion and plan accordingly. The authors…

  7. Multi-Age Caregiving. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Allison, Jeanette; Clark, Marty; Bergman, Roberta; Gainer, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Presents four articles on the benefits of multi-age child care settings as being similar to a natural family setting. The workshop titles are: "The Benefits of the Mix" (Katz); "Dealing with Staff and Parent Concerns" (Allison); "Multi-Age at Riverfield Country Day School" (Clark); and "Making Multi-Age Groups Work" (Bergman and Gainer). (LBT)

  8. No Space for Girliness in Physics: Understanding and Overcoming the Masculinity of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Götschel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Allison Gonsalves' article on "women doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics" explores narratives of Canadian women physicists concerning their strategies to gain recognition as physicists. In my response to her rewarding and inspiring analysis I will reflect on her findings and…

  9. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced vehicular heat engines: Volume 2, Appendices 1 and 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, P.K.; Provenzano, N.J.; Schneider, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    The two appendices are included: I. Fast fracture testing of MOR Type- B (3x4x50 mm) specimens in air at Allison from 25 to 1400 C. II. Fast fracture tensile testing of button-head specimens in air at Southern Research Institute from 25 to 1400 C. The material is silicon nitride.

  10. X-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most experts feel that the benefits of appropriate x-ray imaging greatly outweigh any risks. Young children and babies ... be pregnant. Alternative Names ... CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014: ...

  11. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Seven articles on linguistics and language teaching, two book reviews, and four conference summaries are included in this volume. The articles include: "Laying Down the Law? Reflecting on Course Design in Progress" (Desmond Allison, Robin Corcos, Agnes Lam); "Beyond (F)utilitarianism: English as an Academic Purpose" (Alastair Pennycook); "On the…

  12. 77 FR 17566 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... December 31, 2013 so they may complete their ongoing process to secure a domestic supplier of Lithium Ion... Lithium Ion batteries. The ESU is one of five subsystems of Allison's hybrid-electric propulsion...

  13. Decision Making in a Joint Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the decision making in developing and starting a partnership between three universities using the decision-making models developed by Graham Allison in 1971 and updated in 1999. University partnerships are complicated and require more than one decision-making model to explain all the significant decisions that are make in…

  14. The Modernization of Signs: A Library Leads the Way to Networked Digital Signage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kendall; Quam, Allison

    2010-01-01

    At Winona State University's Krueger Library, where Kendall Larson is an associate professor and Allison Quam is an assistant professor, informational and directional signs are an essential part of the interior space. Yet the ubiquitous sign and media saturation has challenged them to design and maintain effective signage that is conspicuous and…

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF MAIN LOBBY. NOTE DETAIL OF MAHOGANY CARVING AND FIREPLACE MOLDINGS. STAIRWAY STILL SOLID AND WELL MAINTAINED. FLOORS PARQUET. GERMAN SILVER AND BRONZE CHANDELIER VALUED AT $10,000 WHEN PURCHASED IN 1914. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  16. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  17. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  18. A Statistical Model for Misreported Binary Outcomes in Clustered RCTs of Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2013-01-01

    In randomized control trials (RCTs) of educational interventions, there is a growing literature on impact estimation methods to adjust for missing student outcome data using such methods as multiple imputation, the construction of nonresponse weights, casewise deletion, and maximum likelihood methods (see, for example, Allison, 2002; Graham, 2009;…

  19. Aspects of Staff Development for Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Sandra; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "An LEA Example: The Changing Provision in the East Midlands" (Summers, Glazier); "Contribution of RACs (Regional Advisory Councils)" (Bailey); "The WEA" (Hull); "The Medau Society" (Weedon); "National Federation of Women's Institutes" (Hall); and "The Work of a Validating Body: The City and Guilds of London Institute" (Allison). (SK)

  20. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been the focus in an ongoing series of similar studies starting with Allison in 1981. There have been many independent variables, including, but not limited to, age, gender, ethnic background, years of experience, type of experience, and grade point average, introduced into the…

  1. 78 FR 38711 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of... Electric Association, Inc.'s application for an original license to construct the Allison Creek... docket number excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access the document....

  2. 78 FR 935 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of... Electric Association, Inc.'s application for an original license to construct the Allison Creek... excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access the document. For assistance,...

  3. 77 FR 42722 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis Preparation Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley). d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e...)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O....

  4. 78 FR 61984 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Application To Amend... 27, 2013. d. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc. e. Name of Project: Allison Creek.... Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc., P.O. Box 45, Mile 187 Glenn Highway,...

  5. Evidence of common signatures of selection in the genomes of West African cattle and the Yoruba human population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1954, Allison found that the sickle-cell anemia mutation in the beta hemoglobin gene was highly prevalent in West African people because it is protective against malaria, so carriers would thrive and leave offspring in spite of the genetic disease. This is one of the earliest evidences of an envi...

  6. A comparison of the analytical and experimental performance of the solid version of a cooled radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tirres, Lizet

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the solid version of an Allison-designed cooled radial turbine was conducted at NASA Lewis' Warm Turbine Test Facility. The resulting pressure and temperature measurements are used to calculate vane, rotor, and overall stage performance. These performance results are then compared to the analytical results obtained by using NASA's MTSB (MERIDL-TSONIC-BLAYER) code.

  7. 75 FR 9602 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... 442, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-2034: 1. Dana A. Bode, Mound City, Illinois, individually, and as a member of the Bode Family Control Group, which consists of Dana A. Bode, Carl E. Bode, the Dana A Bode Trust U/A 01/26/07 with Dana A. Bode and Carl E. Bode as trustees; the Allison L. Bode Trust U/A...

  8. Fuel cell/gas turbine integration

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, T.

    1995-10-19

    The Allison Engine Company`s very high efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle program is discussed. The power cycle has the following advantages: high system efficiency potential, reduced emissions inherent to fuel cells, unmanned operation(no boiler) particularly suited for distributed power, and existing product line matches fuel cell operating environment. Cost effectiveness, estimates, and projections are given.

  9. "In the End, Our Message Weighs": "Blood Run," NAGPRA, and American Indian Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Penelope; Carpenter, Cari M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors juxtapose Allison Hedge Coke's poetry collection "Blood Run" (2006) with the larger context in which Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) operates in order to investigate how "Blood Run" exposes the limitations of repatriation legislation, most significantly, how NAGPRA's current definition…

  10. Hongkong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Nigel J., Ed.; Crewe, William J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on linguistics and language teaching in this volume are the following: "The Revision Process in Academic Writing: From Pen and Paper to Word Processor" (Stephen Chadwick, Nigel Bruce); "Sentence Sequence and Coherence: In Search of Readers' Problems in Academic Discourse" (Desmond Allison); "Plural Marking in Hong Kong English" (Carol…

  11. Curtiss P-40E Warhawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    Curtiss P-40E Warhawk: The Curtiss P-40E Warhawk was powered by a liquid-cooled Allison V-1710 engine. Used for testing modifications to the tail, this Warhawk was used by the NACA at Langley from March to July 1942.

  12. 78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal... Making filed by Sydney Allison Sugg, proposing the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third local service. Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs...

  13. 76 FR 55459 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...-7538; and e-mail randolph.everett@fhwa.gov . Regular office hours for the FHWA Washington Division Oversight Manager are between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. (Pacific Standard Time). You may also contact Allison... Office, 600 Stewart Street, Suite 520, Seattle, Washington 98101; telephone: 206-805-2880; and...

  14. The Creative Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Jen and Michael agreed that it felt like a mixed blessing when the kindergarten teacher told them she thought their daughter was "very creative." The teacher had commented on Allison's love of dramatic and imaginative play, her bold and expressive artwork, her knack for solving problems with numbers and shapes, and her delight in finding…

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF FRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF FRENCH ROOM LOOKING AT NORTH END OF ROOM. WALLS COVERED IN SILK WITH HAND- EMBROIDERED APPLIQUES. NOTE CARVINGS AND MOLDINGS IN WHITE GUM WOODWORK. FLOORS ARE PARQUET. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  16. 78 FR 33144 - U.S. National Commission for UNESCO Notice of Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    .... National Commission for UNESCO Notice of Teleconference Meeting The U.S. National Commission for UNESCO... Commission and UNESCO activities. The public comment period will be limited to approximately 10 minutes in....gov/p/io/unesco/ . Dated: May 28, 2013. Allison Wright, Executive Director, U.S. National...

  17. Colleges Are Slashing Adjuncts' Hours to Skirt New Rules on Health-Insurance Eligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Sydni

    2013-01-01

    Allison G. Armentrout, an adjunct instructor at Stark State College, does not get paid by the hour. She earns $4,600 to teach two English composition courses. But now she carefully tracks how many hours she works on an electronic time sheet. During a recent week, she spent three hours preparing for her lectures, close to six hours in the…

  18. Early Childhood Education: Pathways to Better Health. Preschool Policy Brief Issue 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Barnett, W. Steven

    2013-01-01

    The potential health benefits of early childhood education programs are quite large, especially for children living in poverty. In this report, authors Allison Friedman-Krauss and Steve Barnett set out the evidence regarding the short and long term health benefits to children from early childhood education programs, identify the features of…

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF BREAKFAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF BREAKFAST ROOM, LOOKING EAST. WHITE GUM WOODWORK CARRIES ROSE BRANCH DESIGN. NORTH WINDOWS GIVE VIEW OF LAKE; SOUTH WINDOWS OF ROLLING FRONT LAWN. FLOORS PARQUET. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  20. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  1. Talking-Point: Books about Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Pamela J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Four children's books on learning disabilities are profiled: "Trouble with School: A Family Story about Learning Disabilities" (Kathryn and Allison Dunn); "The Don't Give-up Kid" (Jeanne Gehret); "Keeping a Head in School: A Student's Book about Learning Abilities and Learning Disorders" (Mel Levine); and "What Do You Mean I Have a Learning…

  2. Boundless Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The easy availability of both web-based communication tools and classroom internet access presents teachers with myriad ways to engage their students in projects with kids all over the globe. Two teachers--English teacher Hagit Goldstein in Israel and Spanish teacher Allison Baugher in the US--were connecting students through an online classroom…

  3. Curtiss XP-40 Warhawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1939-01-01

    Curtiss XP-40 Warhawk: The first of a long line, this Curtiss XP-40 fighter underwent drag reduction tests in the 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel in 1939. This aircraft was modified from a P-36 airframe with the addition of an Allison liquid-cooled V-1710 engine.

  4. Problematizing Literature Circles as Forums for Discussion of Multicultural and Political Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Amanda Haertling; Guise, Megan; Sloan, DeAnn Long

    2011-01-01

    In a six-week literature circle unit in a tenth-grade classroom, one group of students discussed Dorothy Allison's novel "Bastard out of Carolina." By criteria frequently used to judge the quality of discussion, this literature circle was successful. However, several key moments are highlighted that point to the limits of literature circles as…

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF LIBRARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF LIBRARY LOOKING INTO NORTHEAST OF ROOM; ROOM FEATURES INTRICATE MAHOGANY CARVINGS, ROCKWOOD POTTERY FIREPLACE, WALLS COVERED WITH CARVED DESIGNS ON PRESSED LEATHER. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  6. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF BASEMENT DEN, SLOPING GOTHIC CEILING OF CARVED, PRESSED LEATHER. WINDOWS ON SOUTH SIDE OF ROOM ARE MADE FROM MULTI-SIZED AND STAINED BOTTLES SET IN WROUGHT IRON. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  7. The Resilient Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  8. Gender Performativity in Physics: Affordances or Only Constraints?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper '"Physics and the girly girl--there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students'…

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF DINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF DINING ROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ORIGINAL VELOUR IS STILL ON WALLS AND IN GOOD CONDITION. CARVINGS ON FIREPLACE FEATURE A FRUIT MOTIF. FLOORS PARQUET Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  10. Thinking Critically about Educational Administration: A Martian View. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Derek J.; And Others

    After an introduction by Derek Allison describing the rationale of this inquiry and the preliminary research performed, three reflections on the current status of the educational administration field are presented. Goldwyn Emerson urges those in educational administration to borrow knowledge and methods from related fields and suggests that…

  11. New Media and Technology. New Directions for Youth Development, No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the following papers: (1) Beyond Computer Literacy: Supporting Youth's Positive Development through Technology (Marina Umaschi Bers); (2) Educational Technology, Reimagined (Michael Eisenberg); (3) Children as Codesigners of New Technologies: Valuing the Imagination to Transform What Is Possible (Allison Druin); (4) Content…

  12. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, A. William; Vail, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been an established line of research starting with Young and Allison (1982). Administrators were asked to rate hypothetical candidates based on the information provided by the researcher. The dependent variable in several of these studies (e.g. Young & Fox, 2002; Young & Schmidt,…

  13. Optical Probe for Semiconductor: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-206

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.

    2011-02-01

    This CRADA involves development of a new semiconductor characterization tool, Optical Probe, which can be commercialized by GT Solar. GT Solar will participate in the design and testing of this instrument that will be developed under an IPP project.

  14. Observation of low- and high-energy Gamow-Teller phonon excitations in nuclei.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Fujita, H; Adachi, T; Bai, C L; Algora, A; Berg, G P A; von Brentano, P; Colò, G; Csatlós, M; Deaven, J M; Estevez-Aguado, E; Fransen, C; De Frenne, D; Fujita, K; Ganioğlu, E; Guess, C J; Gulyás, J; Hatanaka, K; Hirota, K; Honma, M; Ishikawa, D; Jacobs, E; Krasznahorkay, A; Matsubara, H; Matsuyanagi, K; Meharchand, R; Molina, F; Muto, K; Nakanishi, K; Negret, A; Okamura, H; Ong, H J; Otsuka, T; Pietralla, N; Perdikakis, G; Popescu, L; Rubio, B; Sagawa, H; Sarriguren, P; Scholl, C; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Susoy, G; Suzuki, T; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Thies, J H; Uchida, M; Wakasa, T; Yosoi, M; Zegers, R G T; Zell, K O; Zenihiro, J

    2014-03-21

    Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions in atomic nuclei are sensitive to both nuclear shell structure and effective residual interactions. The nuclear GT excitations were studied for the mass number A = 42, 46, 50, and 54 "f-shell" nuclei in ((3)He, t) charge-exchange reactions. In the (42)Ca → (42)Sc reaction, most of the GT strength is concentrated in the lowest excited state at 0.6 MeV, suggesting the existence of a low-energy GT phonon excitation. As A increases, a high-energy GT phonon excitation develops in the 6-11 MeV region. In the (54)Fe → (54)Co reaction, the high-energy GT phonon excitation mainly carries the GT strength. The existence of these two GT phonon excitations are attributed to the 2 fermionic degrees of freedom in nuclei. PMID:24702355

  15. Genetic characterization of glucose transporter function in Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; McBride, Kathleen; Barrett, Michael P.; Modi, Govind; Sacks, David; Landfear, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Both insect and mammalian life cycle stages of Leishmania mexicana take up glucose and express all three isoforms encoded by the LmGT glucose transporter gene family. To evaluate glucose transporter function in intact parasites, a null mutant line has been created by targeted disruption of the LmGT locus that encompasses the LmGT1, LmGT2, and LmGT3 genes. This Δlmgt null mutant exhibited no detectable glucose transport activity. The growth rate of the Δlmgt knockout in the promastigote stage was reduced to a rate comparable with that of WT cells grown in the absence of glucose. Δlmgt cells also exhibited dramatically reduced infectivity to macrophages, demonstrating that expression of LmGT isoforms is essential for viability of amastigotes. Furthermore, WT L. mexicana were not able to grow as axenic culture form amastigotes if glucose was withdrawn from the medium, implying that glucose is an essential nutrient in this life cycle stage. Expression of either LmGT2 or LmGT3, but not of LmGT1, in Δlmgt null mutants significantly restored growth as promastigotes, but only LmGT3 expression substantially rescued amastigote growth in macrophages. Subcellular localization of the three isoforms was investigated in Δlmgt cells expressing individual LmGT isoforms. Using anti-LmGT antiserum and GFP-tagged LmGT fusion proteins, LmGT2 and LmGT3 were localized to the cell body, whereas LmGT1 was localized specifically to the flagellum. These results establish that each glucose transporter isoform has distinct biological functions in the parasite. PMID:12651954

  16. Characterization of Samples Identified as Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 without Subtype by Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II Assay Using the New Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO Test

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Camelia; Ebel, Anne; Reinhardt, Birgit; Merlin, Sandra; Proust, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping continues to be relevant for therapeutic strategies. Some samples are reported as genotype 1 (gt 1) without subtype by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (GT II) test. To characterize such samples further, the Abbott HCV Genotype Plus RUO (Plus) assay, which targets the core region for gt 1a, gt 1b, and gt 6 detection, was evaluated as a reflex test in reference to NS5B or 5′-untranslated region (UTR)/core region sequencing. Of 3,626 routine samples, results of gt 1 without subtype were received for 171 samples (4.7%), accounting for 11.5% of gt 1 specimens. The Plus assay and sequencing were applied to 98 of those samples. NS5B or 5′-UTR/core region sequencing was successful for 91/98 specimens (92.9%). Plus assay and sequencing results were concordant for 87.9% of specimens (80/91 samples). Sequencing confirmed Plus assay results for 82.6%, 85.7%, 100%, and 89.3% of gt 1a, gt 1b, gt 6, and non-gt 1a/1b/6 results, respectively. Notably, 12 gt 6 samples that had been identified previously as gt 1 without subtype were assigned correctly here; for 25/28 samples reported as “not detected” by the Plus assay, sequencing identified the samples as gt 1 with subtypes other than 1a/1b. The genetic variability of HCV continues to present challenges for the current genotyping platforms regardless of the applied methodology. Samples identified by the GT II assay as gt 1 without subtype can be further resolved and reliably characterized by the new Plus assay. PMID:26582834

  17. Variables Predicting Prospective Biology Teachers' Acceptance Perceptions Regarding Gene Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Mirac; Demirhan, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    The different opinions on products and applications of gene technology (GT) draw attention to the training and education activities related to GT. The purpose of this study is to review some variables predicting the acceptance perception regarding GT, and to investigate their changes at levels. The prospective teachers' subjective knowledge and…

  18. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  19. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Glossogyne tenuifolia in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lin, Wan-Teng; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2016-05-01

    Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) Cassini is a special herbal tea in the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, and has a long history of being used as an antipyretic, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from GT on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in animals. Five- to 6-week-old male Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 14) for different treatments, that is: control group (C), high-fat/cholesterol (HF) group, HF diet containing 0.5% (GT0.5) and 1.5% (GT1.5) GT extracts for 4 weeks. Hamsters fed with 0.5% GT powder as well as 1.5% GT powder exhibited reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), conjugated diene of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased serum antioxidant capacity, but 1.5% GT powder was more potent at lowering serum LDL cholesterol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations than 0.5% GT. GT extracts significantly lowered liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration by diminishing activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). In addition, fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids were increased in GT extract groups. In conclusion, GT extracts increase the antioxidative capacity, decrease serum TC, inhibit the activities of FAS and G-6-PDH, and further reduce liver TG accumulation in hamster fed on atherogenic diets. PMID:27152981

  20. Development of nanofibrous scaffolds containing gum tragacanth/poly (ε-caprolactone) for application as skin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Bahrami, S Hajir

    2015-03-01

    Outstanding wound healing activity of gum tragacanth (GT) and higher mechanical strength of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) may produce an excellent nanofibrous patch for either skin tissue engineering or wound dressing application. PCL/GT scaffold containing different concentrations of PCL with different blend ratios of GT/PCL was produced using 90% acetic acid as solvent. The results demonstrated that the PCL/GT (3:1.5) with PCL concentration of 20% (w/v) produced nanofibers with proper morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize the nanofibers. Surface wettability, functional groups analysis, porosity and tensile properties of nanofibers were evaluated. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of GT to PCL solution results in decreasing the average diameter of the PCL/GT nanofibers. However, the hydrophilicity increased in the PCL/GT nanofibers. Slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. PCL/GT nanofibers were used for in vitro cell culture of human fibroblast cell lines AGO and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. MTT assay and SEM results showed that the biocomposite PCL/GT mats enhanced the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation compared to PCL scaffolds. The antibacterial activity of PCL/GT and GT nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also examined. PMID:25579898

  1. 46 CFR 15.1103 - Employment and service within the restrictions of an STCW endorsement or of a certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certificate of training. (a) Onboard a seagoing vessel of 500 GT or more, driven by main propulsion machinery... part 11 of this subchapter. (b) Onboard a seagoing vessel of 500 GT or more, no person may employ or.... (c) As of January 1, 2017, onboard a seagoing vessel of 500 GT or more, no person may employ...

  2. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Newsletter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean; Siegle, Del, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    These two newsletters from the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) contain the following articles: (1) "NRC/GT: Professional Development--Not an Event" (E. Jean Gubbins), discusses NRC/GT research-based principles related to professional development and the importance of ongoing professional development; (2) "Williams…

  3. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research…

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SHORES 602 1 1,827 MD BRANDON SHORES 602 2 1,713 MD C P CRANE 1552 1 434 MD C P CRANE 1552 2 463 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT2 1 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT3 36 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT4 39 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT5 55 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT6 60 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —SGT1 24 MD CHALK POINT 1571 1 833 MD CHALK POINT 1571...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SHORES 602 1 1,827 MD BRANDON SHORES 602 2 1,713 MD C P CRANE 1552 1 434 MD C P CRANE 1552 2 463 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT2 1 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT3 36 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT4 39 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT5 55 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT6 60 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —SGT1 24 MD CHALK POINT 1571 1 833 MD CHALK POINT 1571...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SHORES 602 1 1,827 MD BRANDON SHORES 602 2 1,713 MD C P CRANE 1552 1 434 MD C P CRANE 1552 2 463 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT2 1 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT3 36 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT4 39 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT5 55 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT6 60 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —SGT1 24 MD CHALK POINT 1571 1 833 MD CHALK POINT 1571...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SHORES 602 1 1,827 MD BRANDON SHORES 602 2 1,713 MD C P CRANE 1552 1 434 MD C P CRANE 1552 2 463 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT2 1 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT3 36 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT4 39 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT5 55 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT6 60 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —SGT1 24 MD CHALK POINT 1571 1 833 MD CHALK POINT 1571...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SHORES 602 1 1,827 MD BRANDON SHORES 602 2 1,713 MD C P CRANE 1552 1 434 MD C P CRANE 1552 2 463 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT2 1 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT3 36 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT4 39 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT5 55 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —GT6 60 MD CHALK POINT 1571 —SGT1 24 MD CHALK POINT 1571 1 833 MD CHALK POINT 1571...

  9. 10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Water instantaneous gas 200,000 all CFR Part 430 0.62-0.0019V Heating storage oil Btuh c all 430 0.59-0.... Showerheads and lavatory faucets must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 430.32 (o)-(p). 404.4.1Lavatory faucets.... Exception: When over 70% of the annual energy for heating is obtained from a site-recovered or...

  10. 10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Water instantaneous gas 200,000 all CFR part 430 0.62-0.0019V Heating storage oil Btuh c all 430 0.59-0...-recovered or site-solar energy sources that provide 50% or more of the water heating load or off-peak.... Showerheads and lavatory faucets must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 430.32 (o)-(p). 404.4.1 Lavatory...

  11. 10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Water instantaneous gas 200,000 all CFR Part 430 0.62-0.0019V Heating storage oil Btuh c all 430 0.59-0.... Showerheads and lavatory faucets must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 430.32 (o)-(p). 404.4.1Lavatory faucets.... Exception: When over 70% of the annual energy for heating is obtained from a site-recovered or...

  12. 10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Water instantaneous gas 200,000 all CFR part 430 0.62-0.0019V Heating storage oil Btuh c all 430 0.59-0...-recovered or site-solar energy sources that provide 50% or more of the water heating load or off-peak.... Showerheads and lavatory faucets must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 430.32 (o)-(p). 404.4.1Lavatory...

  13. 10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Water instantaneous gas 200,000 all CFR part 430 0.62-0.0019V Heating storage oil Btuh c all 430 0.59-0.... Showerheads and lavatory faucets must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 430.32 (o)-(p). 404.4.1Lavatory faucets.... Exception: When over 70% of the annual energy for heating is obtained from a site-recovered or...

  14. Influence of pH and diluent on the ion-pair solvent extraction of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Takahashi, K.; Okuwaki, A.

    2006-07-01

    The influence of pH and diluent on the ion-pair solvent extraction of benzene polycarboxylic acids have been investigated for the separation of the coal oxidation products, which are formed by the treatment with alkaline solutions at high temperatures. Although the extent of the solvent extraction of benzoic acid (1BE) with a quaternary ammonium reagent (tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride) into chloroform and benzene did not change at a very acidic and alkaline solutions, those of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (12BE) and trimellitic acid (124BE) somewhat decreased at very low pH and very high pH. The magnitudes of the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex}) of 1BE using a different diluent decreased in the order benzene {gt} carbontetrachloride {gt} 1,2-dichloroethane {gt} cyclohexane {gt} hexane {gt} chloroform {gt} 1-octanol and those of 12BE decreased in the order benzene {gt} cyclohexane {gt} carbontetrachloride {gt} hexane {gt} 1,2-dichloroethane {gt} chloroform. The inspection of the correlation between the values of K{sub ex} and several parameters of the diluent implies that the magnitude of K{sub ex} can be described by using the dielectric constant and the solubility parameter of diluent.

  15. Increased Intestinal Absorption of Genistein by Coadministering Verapamil in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Baogang; Wang, Huiyun; Zou, Huiqin; Liu, Yalan; Kong, Xiangyu; Fang, Xiuzhong

    2016-10-01

    Combination of genistein (GT) and verapamil, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, can increase GT absorption in situ perfusion technology in rat. To date, little information is yet available about the effect of verapamil on oral absorption of GT in vivo. In this study, a simple and reproducible HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for determination of total GT in rat plasma. Based on this, a pharmacokinetic experiment was designed to characterize biopharmaceutical properties of GT with or without coadministration of verapamil (10.0, 20.0, 30.0 mg/kg) in rats. The coadministration of verapamil (30.0 mg/kg) with GT caused a significant increase of the maximum GT plasma concentration (1.31-fold vs. GT, P < 0.05) and area under the curve (1.39-fold vs. GT, P < 0.05). Our data show that verapamil would increase intestinal absorption of GT in rat, suggesting there is some drug-nutrition interaction between verapamil and GT. PMID:27604118

  16. Influence of metal ions on the interaction between gatifloxacin and calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-ying; Qin, Jun; Lu, Ling-ling

    2010-02-01

    To study the interaction between gatifloxacin (GT), metal ions (Cu 2+, Cd 2+, Co 2+, Mg 2+) and calf thymus DNA under condition of physiology pH, UV absorption and fluorescence methods were adopted. Result shows that metal ions and DNA are able to react with GT in ground state. In further research, by studying the influence of metal ions on binding of GT with DNA in metal ions-GT-DNA ternary system, we found that influential mechanism of Mg 2+ on the binding of GT with DNA may be different from the other three. Mg 2+ can act as a bridge in the binding of GT's carboxyl/carbonyl with DNA phosphate in certain concentration range; while Cu 2+, Cd 2+, Co 2+ can combine directly with GT by reaction between GT carboxyl/carbonyl and DNA base, and enhance the binding ability of GT with DNA. The influence extent and type depend not only on the binding site of DNA with metal ions (phosphate or base), but also the binding ability of which. The stronger the binding ability of metal ions with DNA base is, the larger their promotion to binding of GT with DNA is. The order of metal ions' influential ability on the binding of GT-DNA is identical to the binding ability order of metal ions with DNA base, that is: Cu 2+ > Cd 2+ > Co 2+ > Mg 2+.

  17. Gliotoxin - bane or boon?

    PubMed

    Scharf, Daniel H; Brakhage, Axel A; Mukherjee, Prasun K

    2016-04-01

    Gliotoxin (GT) is the most important epidithiodioxopiperazine (ETP)-type fungal toxin. GT was originally isolated from Trichoderma species as an antibiotic substance involved in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. A few isolates of GT-producing Trichoderma virens are commercially marketed for biological control and widely used in agriculture. Furthermore, GT is long known as an immunosuppressive agent and also reported to have anti-tumour properties. However, recent publications suggest that GT is a virulence determinant of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. This compound is thus important on several counts - it has medicinal properties, is a pathogenicity determinant, is a potential diagnostic marker and is important in biological crop protection. The present article addresses this paradox and the ecological role of GT. We discuss the function of GT as defence molecule, the role in aspergillosis and suggest solutions for safe application of Trichoderma-based biofungicides. PMID:26443473

  18. The effects of whole green tea infusion on mouse urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Andreia; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; I Faustino-Rocha, Ana; I Teixeira-Guedes, Catarina; Pinho-Oliveira, Jacinta; Talhada, Daniela; H Teixeira, José; Andrade, Andreia; Colaço, Bruno; N Paiva-Cardoso, Maria; J Pires, Maria; MVD Ferreira, Ana; M Nunes, Fernando; A Oliveira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Green tea (GT) is one of the most popular beverages worldwide whose beneficial effects on health have been demonstrated. Recent studies suggest that GT may contribute to reduction of cancer risk and progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole GT on urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis in male and female ICR mice. Materials and Methods: The GT characterization was performed using spectrophotometric methods. Urinary bladder lesions were induced using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) by gavage during 10 weeks and whole GT (0.5%) was provided ad libitum during 20 weeks. Results: Animals from groups BBN+GT and BBN only developed preneoplastic lesions. Conclusion: We did not observe any effects by GT infusion administration on urinary bladder cancer development. PMID:24711900

  19. Osteoinductivity of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate sponges loaded with different concentrations of mesenchymal stem cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an equine bone defect model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Fracture is one of the most life-threatening injuries in horses. Fracture repair is often associated with unsatisfactory outcomes and is associated with a high incidence of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic effects of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (GT) sponges loaded with different concentrations/ratios of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in an equine bone defect model. Seven thoroughbred horses were used in this study. Eight bone defects were created in the third metatarsal bones of each horse. Then, eight treatments, namely control, GT, GT/M-5, GT/M-6, GT/M-5/B-1, GT/M-5/B-3, GT/M-6/B-1, and GT/M-6/B-3 were applied to the eight different sites in a randomized manner (M-5: 2 × 10(5) MSCs; M-6: 2 × 10(6) MSCs; B-1: 1 μg of BMP-2; B-3: 3 μg of BMP-2). Repair of bone defects was assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and histopathological evaluation. Radiographic scores and CT values were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups, while they were significantly higher in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The amount of mature compact bone filling the defects was greater in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The present study demonstrated that the GT sponge loaded with MSCs and BMP-2 promoted bone regeneration in an equine bone defect model. The GT/MSC/BMP-2 described here may be useful for treating horses with bone injuries. PMID:24442646

  20. Clinical Resistance to Velpatasvir (GS-5816), a Novel Pan-Genotypic Inhibitor of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein.

    PubMed

    Lawitz, Eric J; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Doehle, Brian P; Worth, Angela S; McNally, John; Brainard, Diana M; Link, John O; Miller, Michael D; Mo, Hongmei

    2016-09-01

    Velpatasvir (VEL, GS-5816) is a novel pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor with activity against genotype 1 (GT1) to GT6 HCV replicons. In a phase 1b 3-day monotherapy study, patients treated with a 150-mg dose of GS-5816 had a mean maximal HCV RNA decline of ≥3.3 log10 IU/ml in GT1a, -1b, -2, -3, and -4. This report characterizes virologic resistance to VEL in these patients. NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) were detected by deep sequencing (1% cutoff) pretreatment in 22/70 patients, i.e., 10/35 (29%) patients with GT1a, 1/8 (13%) with GT1b, 4/8 (50.0%) with GT2, 5/17 (29.4%) with GT3, and 2/2 (100.0%) with GT4. In GT1a and GT3 patients, pretreatment RASs were associated with a slightly reduced HCV RNA response compared to that of patients without pretreatment RASs; among patients with GT1b, GT2, and GT4, no significant difference in response was observed in those with or without pretreatment RASs. Following treatment, the pattern of emergent RASs was more complex for GT1a than for the other genotypes. In GT1a, substitutions emerged at positions M28, Q30, L31, P32, H58, E92, and Y93, with the most prevalent substitutions at positions Y93, M28, and L31. RASs were observed at two positions in GT1b and GT2 (Y93 and L31), three positions in GT3 (Y93, L31, and E92), and four positions in GT4 (L28, M31, P32L, and Y93). RASs that were present pretreatment persisted through the 48-week follow-up period; however, RASs emerging during treatment were more likely to decline both in prevalence and in frequency within the viral population during follow-up. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01740791.). PMID:27353271