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Sample records for allium cepa bulb

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37–100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  5. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp. PMID:27627679

  6. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp. PMID:27627679

  7. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  8. Complete assignment of structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of the shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) - shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) alien chromosome addition lines in order to assign the genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to chromosomes of the shallot. Two complete sets of alien monosomic additions (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) were used for determining the chromosomal locations of several partial sequences of candidate genes, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS via analyses of PCR-based markers. The results of DNA marker analyses showed that the CHS-A, CHS-B, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS genes should be assigned to chromosomes 2A, 4A, 3A, 3A, 7A, and 4A, respectively. HPLC analyses of 14 A. fistulosum - shallot multiple alien additions (2n = 2x + 2 - 2x + 7 = 18 - 23) were conducted to identify the anthocyanin compounds produced in the scaly leaves. A direct comparison between the genomic constitution and the anthocyanin compositions of the multiple additions revealed that a 3GT gene for glucosylation of anthocyanidin was located on 4A. Thus, we were able to assign all structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of A. cepa.

  9. Complete assignment of structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of the shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) - shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) alien chromosome addition lines in order to assign the genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to chromosomes of the shallot. Two complete sets of alien monosomic additions (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) were used for determining the chromosomal locations of several partial sequences of candidate genes, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS via analyses of PCR-based markers. The results of DNA marker analyses showed that the CHS-A, CHS-B, CHI, F3H, DFR, and ANS genes should be assigned to chromosomes 2A, 4A, 3A, 3A, 7A, and 4A, respectively. HPLC analyses of 14 A. fistulosum - shallot multiple alien additions (2n = 2x + 2 - 2x + 7 = 18 - 23) were conducted to identify the anthocyanin compounds produced in the scaly leaves. A direct comparison between the genomic constitution and the anthocyanin compositions of the multiple additions revealed that a 3GT gene for glucosylation of anthocyanidin was located on 4A. Thus, we were able to assign all structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis influencing bulb color to individual chromosomes of A. cepa. PMID:17038797

  10. In vitro bulb development in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum Group): effects of anti-gibberellins, sucrose and light.

    PubMed

    Le Guen-Le Saos, F; Hourmant, A; Esnault, F; Chauvin, J E

    2002-04-01

    Bulbing was studied in shallot plants cultured in vitro. Bulbing occurred under a 16 h photoperiod with fluorescent + incandescent light and 30-50 g 1(-1) sucrose in the culture medium. Exogenous gibberellin (10 microM GA3) inhibited leaf and root growth and bulbing. When added to the medium at a concentration of 10 microM, three inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis (ancymidol, flurprimidol and paclobutrazol) promoted bulb formation and the percentage of bulbing. When ancymidol was used in combination with GA3, it did not reverse the effect of GA3 applied alone. Under treatments with 30-70 g l(-1) sucrose, bulbing ratios greater than those found in control plants were achieved by addition of ancymidol, and bulb fresh weight was increased in the same way. Ancymidol caused a 66% decrease in sucrose content in leaf bases but greatly increased the glucose, fructose and fructan contents. The increase in fructan content by ancymidol could result from the three-fold rise in total [14C]sucrose uptake per plant from the culture medium associated with a marked increase in leaf base labelling at the expense of root labelling. The possible role of ancymidol is discussed and evidence supports a major regulatory role for gibberellins in bulbing.

  11. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species. PMID:24174037

  12. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species.

  13. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  14. Clastogenicity of atrazine assessed with the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bolle, Paola; Mastrangelo, Sabina; Tucci, Paolo; Evandri, Maria G

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine is classified as a restricted use pesticide and it is currently included in an international revision program for re-evaluating the human and ecological (non-human populations) health risks associated with its release into the environment. The present study was undertaken to add new data on the genotoxic potential of atrazine using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration test. The test concentrations were based on the Maximum Contaminant Levels in water intended for human consumption set by European and US regulations. Atrazine produced a concentration-related increase in the number of total somatic chromosome aberrations, although this increase was statistically significant (p<0.05) only at the highest test concentration (5 microg/L). Analysis of the categories of structural chromosome damage indicated that breaks were the predominant lesion induced; the percent of cells per bulb with breaks also increased in a concentration-related manner, and the increase was statistically significant at the two highest test concentrations (1 and 5 microg/L) (p<0.05). The Allium cepa plant assay detected the clastogenicity of atrazine at concentrations that are likely to be encountered in water, a common site of atrazine contamination.

  15. A Toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R) and fructan content (Frc) were located on

  16. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance. PMID:26218854

  17. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  18. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  19. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  20. [Chromosomal organization of centromeric Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, A V; Kirov, I V; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the centromeric region of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The paper identifies the putative Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposons (CR) among the DNA sequences of A. cepa present in the NCBI database and evaluates their copy number in the genomes of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The putative copy number of Ty3/gypsy CR constituted about 26000 for A. cepa and about 7000 for A. fistulosum. The chromosomal organization of Ty3/gypsy CR was analyzed with the help of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The 300-bp PCR products synthesized with genomic DNA of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum and primers designed for the sequence ET645811 of A. cepa (Genome Survey Sequence database), displaying similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the CR Ty3/gypsy family, served as FISH hybridization probes. On the chromosomes of A. cepa, hybridization signals were mainly localized in the centromeric region. On the chromosomes of A. fistulosum the signals were less expressed in the centromeric regions, though they were abundant in other chromosomal regions. The pathways of evolution in these closely related species are discussed. PMID:25715457

  1. Effects of cypermethrin on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Kaya, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fadime; Yalçin, Emine

    2012-10-01

    In this study, toxic effects of the cypermethrin in Allium cepa L. cells were investigated. For this aim, we investigated the changes in pigment contents, antioxidant enzymes, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormalities as indicators of toxicity. The seeds were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 ppm) of cypermethrin for 72 h. The result showed that there was a significant alteration in the tested parameters depending on treatment dose in the seeds exposed to cypermethrin when compared to the control group. Cypermethrin exposure significantly reduced the carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b pigments in all treatment groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase showed a concentration-time dependent increase and the maximum increase was observed on day 15 of treatment at 6.0 ppm cypermethrin exposure. The activity of catalase increased gradually with increasing cypermethrin concentration, but a soft decrease in CAT activity was decreased after 15 days of 1.5 ppm and 3.0 ppm cypermethrin treatment. In the roots treated with 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm cypermethrin, the level of malondialdehyde was about 1.8, 2.4, and 3.4 times higher than the control group, respectively. It was also found that cypermethrin has a mitodepressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of cyprmethrin. All of the concentrations of cypermethrin induced chromosomal abnormalities and the most common abnormality observed in the present study was chromosome bridges. PMID:21370380

  2. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  3. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  4. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5. PMID:22690373

  5. Isozyme analysis of progeny derived from (Allium fistulosum ×Allium cepa) ×Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Cryder, C M; Corgan, J N; Urquhart, N S; Clason, D

    1991-09-01

    Relatively large quantities of seed were obtained from the interspecific backcross (A. fistulosum xA. cepa) ×A. cepa allowing, for the first time, an extensive study of the heritable traits exhibited by backcross progeny. Two backcross populations, BC1034 and BC1040, distinguished by differentA. fistulosum parents, were characterized for the isozyme markersIdh-1, Adh-1, andPgi-1. Statistical methods are described to calculate cell probabilities for a mixed population of F2 and BC1 progeny, using an estimate of the fraction of F2 progeny in the population derived from the isozyme data. Cell probability distributions were calculated for a mixed population with independent pairs of loci and a mixed population with nonindependent pairs of loci. The isozyme lociIdh-1 andPgi-1 appear to be linked, with a map distance estimated at 33 centimorgans (cM) in BC1034 and 42 cM in BC1040. The probability distribution model for linked loci did not account for all of the distorted segregation ratios inIdh-1 ×Adh-1 orPgi-1 ×Adh-1. The cytological literature does not support linkage betweenIdh-1 ×Adh-1 orPgi-1 ×Adh-1. The distorted segregation ratios for these pairs of loci are likely the result of genetic incompatibilities between the two species.

  6. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (P<0.05) in Allium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  7. Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on root cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mamta; Khan, S Sudheer; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2011-06-15

    Increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) in consumer products may enhance its release into the environment. Phytotoxicity study is important to understand its possible environmental impact. Allium cepa (Onion bulb) is the best model organism to study genetic toxicology of nanoparticles. Here we have reported cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on the root cells of A. cepa. The effects of ZnO NPs on the mitotic index (MI), micronuclei index (MN index), chromosomal aberration index, and lipid peroxidation were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with the dispersions of ZnO NPs at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100 μg ml(-1)). With the increasing concentrations of ZnO NPs MI decreased with the increase of pycnotic cells, on the other hand MN and chromosomal aberration index increased. The frequency of micronucleated cells was higher in ZnO NPs treated cells as compared to control (deionized distilled water). The number of cells in each mitotic phase changed upon ZnO NPs treatment. The effect of ZnO NPs on lipid peroxidation as examined by measuring TBARS concentration was evident at all the concentrations compared to bulk ZnO. The TEM image showed internalization of ZnO NPs like particles. SEM image of treated A. cepa demonstrated that the internalized nanoparticles agglomerated depending on the physico-chemical environment inside the cell. Our results demonstrated that ZnO NPs can be a clastogenic/genotoxic and cytotoxic agent. In conclusion, the A. cepa cytogenetic test can be used for the genotoxicity monitoring of novel nanomaterials like ZnO NPs, which is used in many consumer products.

  8. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Han, Jeong Suk Hyeon; Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Subramani, Boopathi; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT) encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7) with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231) with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis) and Hd3a (rice), with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day), LD (long-day), and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101) and LM (late maturation, 36122). The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines. PMID:26891287

  9. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity. PMID:18372295

  10. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity.

  11. [Research concerning the characterization of Allium cepa based ointments].

    PubMed

    Gafiţanu, Eliza; Tătărîngă, Gabriela; Ghiciuc, Cristina; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena; Hăncianu, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Three topical formulae with Allium cepa L. extract 30% (w/w) were studied for the evaluation of their release profiles of flavonoids and for their potency on experimental wounds on mice. The rates of release were performed under occluded conditions using cellulose acetate membrane. Data obtained from the in vitro release show that the gel formula F1 is the most efficient in the membrane diffusion process. The rate of wound healing was assessed by the contracting ability and the period of epithelization. The most important effect in the contracting ability was noticed in the case of F2 formula. PMID:19292109

  12. Isolation and characterization of new onionins A2 and A3 from Allium cepa, and of onionins A1, A2, and A3 from Allium fistulosum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kudo, Rino; Yamaguchi, Koki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Takeya, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the new stable sulfur-containing compounds onionins A2 (1) and A3 (2) were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of Allium cepa L. and identified as the stereoisomers of onionin A1 discovered in our previous study. Their chemical structures, 3,4-dimethyl-5-(1E-propenyl)-tetrahydrothiophene-2-sulfenic acid-S-oxides, were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, 1 and 2 together with onionin A1 were successfully isolated from the leaves of the Welsh onion, Allium fistulosum L. The onion-extracted fractions showed good potential to inhibit the polarization of M2 activated macrophages, indicating their possible ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25366317

  13. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions.

  14. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions. PMID:19407101

  15. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26670031

  17. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products.

  18. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities. PMID:23983369

  19. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance.

  20. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

  1. Comparison of mono- and di-saccharides release in aqueous solutions by raw or fried dice of onion (Allium Cepa L.) bulbs using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR).

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Audrey; Guerez, Alice; Phana, Sidarin; de Man, Walter; This, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Although onion bulb tissues, either raw or thermally processed, are widely used as culinary ingredients in homes, in restaurants, and in the food industry, especially for sauces, little is known about the chemical constituents released from such systems. To get a straightforward and fast analysis of sugars released from onion dice soaked in model aqueous solutions, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy was applied, and the effect of a preliminary thermal processing in oil was investigated. Soaking of raw or fried onion bulb dice at room temperature was followed for 11 d as a model of long-term storage. For the Armstrong cultivar, the extracted dry matter (in milligrams per gram of fresh weight) as well as the content in 3 sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) increased up to a maximum after about 48 h of soaking. Frying induces no measurable new water-soluble compounds. However, extraction kinetics are different (about 3 times faster with frying). Using additional microscopic studies, a possible extraction mechanism is proposed: compounds from sap-including sugars-would diffuse through conductive tissue channels. PMID:19490318

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  3. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height. PMID:27074580

  4. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine. PMID:26909640

  5. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages.

  6. UV-mediated toxic bioactivity of harmine in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Hazen, M J; Gutiérrez-Gonzálvez, M G

    1988-07-01

    The photodynamic effect of harmine and UV light was studied by measuring the number of sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei induced by this treatment in Allium cepa meristematic cells. A significant increase in the frequencies of both cytogenetic events was observed when proliferating cells were treated for 4 h with harmine followed by irradiation with UV light for 3 min.

  7. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  8. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489

  9. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  11. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  12. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally.

  13. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    PubMed Central

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of humans to be predicted. Results: Alprazolam induced chromosomal (anaphase bridges, breaks, lagging and stickiness, abnormal spiralisation, multipolarity and polyploidy) and cytological aberrations, especially nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, fragmented nucleus and apoptotic bodies, cells without nucleus, binucleated and micronucleated cells), morphological alterations in shape and size of cells, spindle disturbance and polar deviation in root tip meristem cells of Allium cepa at all tested concentrations. Alprazolam also caused significant inhibition of mitotic index in these cells. Conclusion: These changes in cells are indicators of genotoxic potential of Alprazolam suggesting a need for further in vitro studies on animal and human lymphocytes as well as in vivo studies. PMID:25568504

  14. The role of Allium cepa on aluminum-induced reproductive dysfunction in experimental male rat models

    PubMed Central

    Ige, Serah F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Reproductive toxicity is a major challenge associated with aluminum (Al) exposure. Studies that associated Al with reproductive dysfunction did not account for the possible influence of Allium cepa extract. This study, therefore, investigates the influence of A. cepa on aluminum-induced reproductive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rats per group were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: The control animals were on control diet. A. cepa-treated rats received 1 ml of the extract/100 g body weight (BW), Al-treated rats received 100 mg AlCl3 /kg BW, and A.cepa+Al received 1 ml of the extract/100 g BW plus 100 mg AlCl3 /kg BW. Rats were orally administered their respective doses. A. cepa treatment was for 8 weeks, while Al treatment was for the last 3 days of the experimental period. RESULTS: Results obtained showed that Al significantly decreased (P < 0.05) plasma testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sperm count, motility, morphology and viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, while lipid peroxidation index [malondialdehyde (MDA)] was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Reproductive hormones (except testosterone), sperm qualities, and enzymatic antioxidants were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in A. cepa-treated rats and A. cepa plus Al-treated rats, while MDA was significantly (P < 0.05) improved. Weights of testes were comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: It is thus suggested that Al exerts reproductive dysfunction by oxidative damage. A. cepa antagonizes the toxic effects of AlCl3 and improves the antioxidant status and sperm quality of male rat. However, testosterone level did not increase with A. cepa treatment. PMID:23162360

  15. Cytogenetic effects of styrene and styrene oxide on human lymphocytes and Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Linnainmaa, K; Meretoja, T; Sorsa, M; Vainio, H

    1978-01-01

    Styrene and styrene oxide induce cytogenetic effects already at very low concentrations (0.01% v/v or even less); the effects are similar in both in vitro human lymphocytes and in vivo onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.). It is characteristic that styrene treatment is more potent in causing chromosome breakage in both systems. In Allium styrene induced inhibition of mitotic spindle action as revealed by a strong c-mitotic effect. Also the number of micronuclei and nuclear bridges increased in both test systems, especially after styrene oxide treatment. Furthermore, the metaphase chromosome morphology in the cells treated with styrene oxide was strongly affected. In both systems, chromosome destruction was observed, or else the chromosome material was decondensed and resulted in a characteristic fuzzy appearance of Allium chromosomes or a banded appearance of human lymphocyte chromosomes. A specific effect of styrene oxide on the chromosomal proteins is thus suggested. The data obtained from the autoradiographic studies with Allium support the idea that [7--3H] styrene oxide binds irreversibly to the cytoplasmic and nuclear macromolecules. PMID:734401

  16. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  17. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs. PMID:19420800

  18. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement.

  19. Chromosome characteristics and behavior differences in Allium fistulosum L., A. cepa L, their F1 hybrid, and selected backcross progeny.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1994-11-01

    Mitotic and meiotic studies were performed on Allium fistulosum, A. cepa, their F1 hybrid, and ten selected backcross (BC)1 plants [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x (A. cepa)]. Each BC1 plant had at least one A. cepa isozyme allele (Pgi, Idh, or Adh). Chromosome morphology and behavior differed among plants. Meiocytes were observed with one, two, or three bridges and/ or fragments, indicating at least three paracentric inversions between A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Unusual crossing over and multivalent associations suggest that the 5F subtelocentric chromosome of A. fistulosum is involved in at least one translocation. The number of bridges and fragments and multivalent associations varied between the F1 hybrid and BC1 progenies. The F1 hybrid and all BC1 progenies were either sterile or had very little seed set. Fertility was not restored in any of the selected BC1 plants.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.

  1. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  2. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. PMID:26841290

  3. Allium cepa and Tradescantia pallida bioassays to evaluate effects of the insecticide imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Yadira Ansoar; Christofoletti, Cintya Ap; Pedro, Janaína; Bueno, Odair Correa; Malaspina, Osmar; Ferreira, Rafael Alexandre Costa; Fontanetti, Carmem S

    2015-02-01

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious environmental concern. Of them, imidacloprid (IMI) is one of the most widely used worldwide. In 2010 in Brazil, 1.934 tonnes of IMI were sold and mainly used for sugarcane crops. Several studies have examined the toxicity of IMI as well as its possible ecological effects. However, few studies have examined its toxicity at the genetic level. This is one of the biggest challenges for the scientific community, which is concerned about the impacts of these contaminants on the environment and human health. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IMI above the genetic material in Allium cepa and Tradescantia pallida following exposure to different concentrations of this insecticide. The results demonstrated that the concentrations tested induced chromosomal alterations and increased the frequency of micronuclei. Therefore, IMI in these concentrations was genotoxic to the tested organisms. These factors should be taken into account when applying this pesticide. PMID:25225953

  4. Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of cold aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides by Allium cepa L test.

    PubMed

    Sabini, María C; Cariddi, Laura N; Escobara, Franco M; Bachetti, Romina A; Sutil, Sonia B; Contigiani, Marta S; Zanon, Silvia M; Sabini, Liliana I

    2011-07-01

    Achyrocline satureioides ("marcela del campo") is native to America. Numerous investigations have reported several bioactive properties such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antiviral. Nowadays, few medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated to test its safety, efficacy and potential benefits, despite the great public interest in these herbs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of cold aqueous extract obtained from A. satureioides using Allium cepa L test. The results demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of the extract. Only higher concentrations induced cytotoxicity but interestingly this effect was reversible and was not associated with mutagenicity. The contribution of this research provides assurance of safety in the application of Achyrocline satureioides in treatment of microbial diseases and other pathologies helping to define selective toxicity.

  5. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products. PMID:27457732

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27318800

  7. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.; Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K.; Torsella, J.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 mg/14-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations (MA, i.e., bridges, fragments, and lagging chromosomes). MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the Ml, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  8. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.; Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 g/l 4-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations. MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the MI, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO-induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  9. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

  11. Genotoxicity of sulcotrione pesticide and photoproducts on Allium cepa root meristem.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Sta, Chaima; Trivella, Aurélien; Goupil, Pascale; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by toxic agents in the environment has become matters of concern to agricultural countries. Sulcotrione, a triketone herbicide used to control dicotyledonous weeds in maize culture is rapidly photolyzed on plant foliage and generate two main photoproducts the xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA). The aim of this study was to analyze the potential toxicity of the herbicide and the irradiated herbicide cocktail. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione were investigated in Allium cepa test. The sulcotrione irradiation was monitored under sunlight simulated conditions to reach 50% of phototransformation. Concentrations of sulcotrione in the range 5 × 10(-)(9)-5 × 10(-)(5)M were tested. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed that both non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione caused a dose-dependent decrease of mitotic index with higher cytotoxicity for the irradiated herbicide which can lead to 24.2% reduction of mitotic index compared to water control. Concomitantly, chromosomal aberrations were observed in A.cepa root meristems. Both non irradiated sulcotrione and irradiated sulcotrione induced a dose-dependent increase of chromosomal abnormalities frequencies to a maximal value of 33.7%. A saturating effect in anomaly frequencies was observed in meristems treated with high concentrations of non irradiated sulcotrione only. These data suggest that photolyzed sulcotrione cocktail have a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule and question about the impact of photochemical process on environment. PMID:25052526

  12. Potential genotoxic effects of melted snow from an urban area revealed by the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Jelena; Stamenković, Gorana; Vujosević, Mladen

    2009-09-01

    The presence of well-known atmospheric pollutants is regularly screened for in large towns but knowledge about the effects of mixtures of different pollutants and especially their genotoxic potential is largely missing. Since falling snow collects pollutants from the air, melted snow samples could be suitable for evaluating potential genotoxicity. For this purpose the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test was used to analyse melted snow samples from Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia. Samples of snow were taken at two sites, characterized by differences in pollution intensity, in three successive years. At the more polluted site the analyses showed a very high degree of both toxicity and genotoxicity in the first year of the study corresponding to the effects of the known mutagen used as the positive control. At the other site the situation was much better but not without warning signals. The results showed that standard analyses for the presence of certain contaminants in the air do not give an accurate picture of the possible consequences of urban air pollution because the genotoxic potential remains hidden. The A. cepa test has been demonstrated to be very convenient for evaluation of air pollution through analyses of melted snow samples. PMID:19589556

  13. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  14. Aluminium induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Achary, V Mohan Murali; Jena, Suprava; Panda, Kamal K; Panda, Brahma B

    2008-06-01

    Aluminium (Al) was evaluated for induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage employing the growing roots of Allium cepa L. as the assay system. Intact roots of A. cepa were treated with different concentrations, 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 microM of aluminium chloride, at pH 4.5 for 4 h (or 2 h for comet assay) at room temperature, 25+/-1 degrees C. Following treatment the parameters investigated in root tissue were Al-uptake, cell death, extra cellular generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), viz. O(2)(*-), H(2)O(2) and (*)OH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and DNA damage, assessed by comet assay. The findings indicated that Al triggered generation of extra-cellular ROI following a dose-response. Through application of specific enzyme inhibitors it was demonstrated that extra-cellular generation of ROI was primarily due to the activity of cell wall bound NADH-PX. Generation of ROI in root tissue as well as cell death was better correlated to the levels of root Al-uptake rather than to the concentrations of Al in ambient experimental solutions. Induction of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation by Al were statistically significant. Whereas Al inhibited CAT activity, enhanced SOD, GPX and APX activities significantly; that followed dose-response. Comet assay provided evidence that Al induced DNA damage in a range of concentrations 50-200 microM, which was comparable to that induced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), an alkylating mutagen served as the positive control. The findings provided evidence that Al comparable to biotic stress induced oxidative burst at the cell surface through up- or down-regulation of some of the key enzymes of oxidative metabolism ultimately resulting in oxidative stress leading to DNA damage and cell death in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:18068230

  15. Cytogenetic studies of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Rajeshwari, A; Jadon, Pradeep Singh; Chaudhuri, Gouri; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates the cytogenetic effects of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on the root cells of Allium cepa. The root tip cells of A. cepa were treated with the aqueous dispersions of Cr2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) at five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100μg/mL) for 4hr. The colloidal stability of the nanoparticle suspensions during the exposure period were ascertained by particle size analyses. After 4hr exposure to Cr2O3 NPs, a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) from 35.56% (Control) to 35.26% (0.01μg/mL), 34.64% (0.1μg/mL), 32.73% (1μg/mL), 29.6% (10μg/mL) and 20.92% (100μg/mL) was noted. The optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses demonstrated specific chromosomal aberrations such as-chromosome stickiness, chromosome breaks, laggard chromosome, clumped chromosome, multipolar phases, nuclear notch, and nuclear bud at different exposure concentrations. The concentration-dependent internalization/bio-uptake of Cr2O3 NPs may have contributed to the enhanced production of anti oxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase to counteract the oxidative stress, which in turn resulted in observed chromosomal aberrations and cytogenetic effects. These results suggest that A. cepa root tip assay can be successfully applied for evaluating environmental risk of Cr2O3 NPs over a wide range of concentrations. PMID:26702979

  16. Sunlight decreased genotoxicity of azadirachtin on root tip cells of Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kwankua, W; Sengsai, S; Kuleung, C; Euawong, N

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) extract for pest control in agriculture has raised concerns over contamination by the residues to the environment. Such residues, particularly azadirachtin (Aza), may cause deleterious effect to non-target organisms. This investigation was conducted to find out if Aza could be inactivated through exposures to sunlight. Activity of Aza was assessed as its ability to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the forms of nuclei abnormality and chromosome aberration as measured by mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration (MA). Varying concentrations of Aza were tested on Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor. It was found that the MI of all root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa and E. bicolor treated with 0.00005%, 0.00010%, 0.00015%, and 0.00020% (w/v) Aza-containing neem extract for 24h, were significantly lower than the controls. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the Aza-treated groups showed higher MA levels in all cases investigated. Furthermore, the decreasing levels of MI and the increasing levels of MA related well with the increasing concentration of Aza. Microscopic examination of root tip meristematic cells revealed that the anomaly found most often were mitotic disturbances and chromosomal bridges. Exposures of 0.00020% (w/v) Aza to sunlight for 3 days and 7 days decreased Aza ability to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, both in terms of MI and MA, to root tip meristematic cells in A. cepa and E. bicolor. Photodegradation of Aza upon exposure to direct sunlight was confirmed by HPLC. The study implicates that Aza would unlikely cause long term deleterious effects to the environment since it would be inactivated by sunlight. PMID:20452021

  17. Physiological, anatomical, biochemical, and cytogenetic effects of thiamethoxam treatment on Allium cepa (amaryllidaceae) L.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yalçin, Emine; Türkmen, Zafer; Yapar, Kürşad; Sağir, Saffet

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, toxic effects of active substance thiamethoxam of the insecticide Eforia were investigated on Allium cepa L. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, frequency of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and mitotic index (MI) as indicators of toxicity. Also, the changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with thiamethoxam were examined. The seeds in all the treatment groups were treated with three different doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of thiamethoxam for 72 h. The results showed that there were significant alterations in the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, MDA level, MN, CAs, and MI frequency depending on application dose in the seeds exposed to thiamethoxam compared to control group. Thiamethoxam treatments significantly reduced the germination percentage, root length, and weight gain in all the treatment groups (P < 0.05). But, it caused an increase in MN and CAs formation (P < 0.05). It was also found that thiamethoxam has a mito-depressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of applied-thiamethoxam (P < 0.05). About 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses of thiamethoxam significantly enhanced the lipid peroxidation and caused an increase in MDA levels at each dose treatment (P < 0.05). Some anatomical damages such as necrotic cell death, unclear vascular tissue, unclear epidermis layer, cell deformation, and unusual form of cell nucleus were observed by using light micrographs. Each dose of thiamethoxam caused severe toxic effects on A. cepa cells, and the maximum toxic effect was observed at the dose level of 500 mg/kg. PMID:21374786

  18. Isolation and Identification of Homologues of Ajoene and Alliin from Bulb-Extracts of Allium ursinum.

    PubMed

    Sendl, A; Wagner, H

    1991-08-01

    From the chloroform extract of ALLIUM URSINUM L. (Liliaceae) bulbs, in addition to other sulfur-containing constituents ( E/Z)-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6,11-dien-9-oxide [= methylajoene) and ( E/Z)-4,5,9-trithiaocta-1,6-dien-9-oxide (= dimethylajoene) were isolated and identified by NMR and mass spectroscopy. These two compounds were also found in A. SATIVUM but in lower amounts. The higher contents of the corresponding precursors (+)- S-methyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO) and methylallyl/allylmethy] thiosulfmate in A. URSINUM water/methanol extracts correspond with the higher amounts of ajoene homologues.

  19. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. PMID:26544094

  20. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system.

  1. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:17487597

  2. Effect of processing and cooking conditions on onion (Allium cepa L.) induced antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinate content.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    Allium vegetables serve as sources of antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, onion and garlic, the major Allium species, are usually cooked before consumption. Here, we examined the effect of cooking on onion in vitro antiplatelet activity (IVAA). Two different cooking systems (convection oven and microwaves) and several time-temperature variables were tested on whole bulbs, quarters of bulbs, and completely crushed bulbs, monitoring the degradation of sulfur antiplatelet compounds (e.g., thiosulfinates) by analysis of pyruvate levels. Although heating was, in general, detrimental for onion IVAA, the extent of this effect varied greatly, from unaffected antiplatelet activity (AA) (i.e., similar to raw onion) to a complete lost of activity, depending upon the manner in which onions were prepared prior to heating, the cooking method, and the intensity of the heat treatment. "Whole", "quarters", and "crushed" onions lost their IVAA after 30, 20, and 10 min of oven heating, respectively. The longer retainment of AA in intact bulbs was attributed to a later alliinase inactivation. Proaggregatory effects observed in samples subjected to the most intense oven and microwave heat treatments suggest that extensively cooked onions may stimulate rather than inhibit platelet aggregation. The efficacy of Allium species as antiplatelet agents, as affected by preparation and cooking conditions, is discussed.

  3. Cytotoxicity and mode of action of maleic hydrazide in root tips of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2004-02-01

    Maleic hydrazide (MH) is an herbicide and is a regulator of the growth of buds in vegetables during storage. It is used in agriculture-in despite its known effect as a mutagenic and clastogenic agent. In this research the effect of MH on the root tips of Allium cepa L. was determined; correlations between the effects of different concentrations and exposure times on the mitotic index (MI) and induction of chromosomal aberrations (ChA) were also examined. Experiments were carried out in triplicate, using aqueous solutions of MH to concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3)M, at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h, with a control for each combination (with the MH substituted by distilled water). The results revealed an inhibition of the MI linked to the concentration and time of treatment (F=845.51, P<0.01 and F=427.58, P<0.01, respectively). For all the concentrations used and exposure periods longer than 12 h, different types of ChA were present, with significantly increased frequencies with increases in the concentration and time of exposure (P<0.01). To determine the mechanism through which the herbicide exerts its toxicity, ultrastructural electron microscopy was conducted. The results reveal nucleolar alterations, suggesting an inhibitory effect of biosynthetic activity. PMID:14757385

  4. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    PubMed

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

    2002-10-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed.

  5. The effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Seref; Uygur, Ramazan; Aktas, Cevat; Topcu, Birol; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Karakaya, Osman; Gedikbasi, Asuman

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa) extracts (ACE) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. The rats in the ACE-pretreated group were given a daily dose of 1 ml ACE for 14 days. To induce aortic endothelial cell apoptosis, DOX (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose and the rats were sacrificed after 48 h. To date, no such studies have been performed on antiapoptotic potential of ACE on DOX-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling in aortic endothelial cells of the DOX-treated group with ACE therapy. DOX-treated with ACE groups showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increased levels of glutathione in comparison with the DOX-treated group. Data from our study show that prevention of endothelial cell apoptosis by ACE may contribute to the restoration of aortic endothelial dysfunction that is associated with DOX treatment.

  6. Pectic polysaccharide from immature onion stick (Allium cepa): structural and immunological investigation.

    PubMed

    Patra, Pradip; Sen, Ipsita K; Bhanja, Sunil K; Nandi, Ashis K; Samanta, Surajit; Das, Debsankar; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Islam, Syed S

    2013-01-30

    The structure of a water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from immature onion stick (Allium cepa) was investigated using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC). The results of the above experiments indicated that the PS contained d-galactose, 6-O-Me-D-galactose, 3-O-acetyl-D-methyl galacturonate and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1:1 and possesses a backbone of [→4)-α-D-GalpA6Me-(1→4)-α-D-GalpA6Me-(1→] in which one methyl galacturonate was substituted at O-3 position by an acetyl group and the neighboring methyl galacturonate being substituted at O-2 with a side chain, α-D-Galp-(1→4)-6-O-Me-β-D-Galp-(1→. The probable structure of repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [formula in text] The pectic polysaccharide showed in vitro splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations.

  7. Toxicity mechanisms of onion (Allium cepa) extracts and compounds in multidrug resistant erythroleukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Votto, Ana P S; Domingues, Beatriz S; de Souza, Michele M; da Silva Júnior, Flavio M R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Filgueira, Daza M V B; Clementin, Rosilene M; Primel, Ednei G; Vallochi, Adriana L; Furlong, Eliana B; Trindade, Gilma S

    2010-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is being studied as a potential anticancer agent, but little is known regarding its effect in multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. In this work, the cytotoxicity of crude onion extract (OE) and fractioned extract (aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate), as well as some onion compounds (quercetin and propyl disulfide) were evaluated in Lucena MDR human erythroleukemic and its K562 parental cell line. The capacity of OE to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in these cells, the possible participation of oxidative stress and DNA damage were also assessed. Similar sensitivities were obtained for both tumoral cells, however only OE caused significant effects in the cells. In K562 cells, a significant increase of apoptosis was verified while the Lucena cells experienced a significant increase of necrosis. An antioxidant capacity was verified for OE discarding oxidative damage. However, OE provoked similar significant DNA damage in both cell lines. Thus, the OE capacity to overcome the MDR phenotype suggests anti-MDR action of OE.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in diploid Allium fistulosum × A. cepa F1 hybrid onions.

    PubMed

    Lu, C C; Currah, L; Peffley, E B

    1989-03-01

    Procedures were developed for disinfestation of non-dormant basal plate tissue excised from field grown basal plate tissue of diploid Allium fistulosum × A. cepa F1 hybrid onions. Contamination levels varied with the season and vegetative development of plant material. Callus initiated from basal plate tissue and immature inflorescences of the F1 hybrids was maintained on a BDS-based medium containing 0.75 mg/l picloram and 2.0 mg/l BA. When this medium was supplemented with vitamins and glycine, and with proline at 2.5 gm/1, somatic embryos began to form. Their development continued on a BDS-based shoot promotion medium containing 0.03 mg/l picloram and 0.32 mg/l 2iP supplemented with vitamins, glycine and proline. Genotypes differed significantly in the numbers of structures regenerated. Plantlets from somatic embryos were rooted into BDS or half-strength BDS medium without growth substances and were successfully transferred to sterilized potting mix in plastic commercial corsage boxes. PMID:24240465

  9. Lamin-like analogues in plants: the characterization of NMCP1 in Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Malgorzata; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2013-04-01

    The nucleoskeleton of plants contains a peripheral lamina (also called plamina) and, even though lamins are absent in plants, their roles are still fulfilled in plant nuclei. One of the most intriguing topics in plant biology concerns the identity of lamin protein analogues in plants. Good candidates to play lamin functions in plants are the members of the NMCP (nuclear matrix constituent protein) family, which exhibit the typical tripartite structure of lamins. This paper describes a bioinformatics analysis and classification of the NMCP family based on phylogenetic relationships, sequence similarity and the distribution of conserved regions in 76 homologues. In addition, NMCP1 in the monocot Allium cepa characterized by its sequence and structure, biochemical properties, and subnuclear distribution and alterations in its expression throughout the root were identified. The results demonstrate that these proteins exhibit many similarities to lamins (structural organization, conserved regions, subnuclear distribution, and solubility) and that they may fulfil the functions of lamins in plants. These findings significantly advance understanding of the structural proteins of the plant lamina and nucleoskeleton and provide a basis for further investigation of the protein networks forming these structures. PMID:23378381

  10. Determination of genotoxic effects of Imazethapyr herbicide in Allium cepa root cells by mitotic activity, chromosome aberration, and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep; Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Öztürk, Nur Serap

    2015-02-01

    Imazethapyr (IM) is an imidazolinone herbicide that is currently used for broad-spectrum weed control in soybean and other legume crops. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of IM were investigated by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phases, chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined as 20 ppm, and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of IM herbicide were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, 10 mg/L) were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. As A. cepa cell cycle is 24 hours, so, application process was carried out for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. All the applied doses decreased MIs compared to control group and these declines were found to be statistically meaningful. Analysis of the chromosomes showed that 10 ppm IM except for 48 h induced CAs but 40 ppm IM except for 72 h decreased CAs. DNA damage was found significantly higher in 20 and 40 ppm of IM compared to the control in comet assay. These results indicated that IM herbicide exhibits cytotoxic activity but not genotoxic activity (except 10 ppm) and induced DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in A. cepa root meristematic cells. PMID:25752428

  11. Effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} on the nucleus and nucleolus in root tip cells of allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Jiang, W.; Wang, W.; Zhai, L.

    1995-11-01

    Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Much importance has increasingly been attached to the problems of metal pollution with the development of modern industry and agriculture. If metals in plants are accumulated to a large extent, it might seriously affect them. The cytological effects of cobalt and mercury have been studied in Allium cepa by documentation of c-mitosis. Also, the quantification of chromosome aberration in Vicia faba root-tip cells treated by magnesium sulphate and in Allium cepa by metyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride has been reported. Cytological research on the poisoning effects of Mg, Co and Hg on the nuclei and nucleoli in root-tip cells of plants has hardly been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of magnesium, cobalt and mercury ions on root growth, and on the nuclei and nucleoli of root tip cells of Allium-cepa. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  13. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  14. Comparative analysis of crossover exchanges and chiasmata in Allium cepa x fistulosum after genomic in situ hybridization (GISH).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M; Armstrong, S J; Ford-Lloyd, B V; Jones, G H

    1998-11-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) successfully differentiated homoeologous genomes in the inter-specific hybrid Allium cepa x fistulosum, thus allowing the detection of reciprocal crossover events as label exchanges in separating anaphase I chromosomes. Three of the eight chromosome pairs were positively identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to rDNA sequences. There was a general similarity of the GISH-based label exchange frequencies and metaphase I chiasma frequencies, but with a 20% deficit of chiasmata. Reasons for this apparent deficit are discussed. The locations of chiasmata and label exchanges are in broad agreement. PMID:9886776

  15. Inhibition effect on the Allium cepa L. root growth when using hexavalent chromium-doped river waters.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Szymanski, N; Palácio, S M; Módenes, A N; Rizzutto, M A; Silva, F G; Oliveira, A P; Oro, A C P; Martin, N

    2009-06-01

    The effect of Cr(6+) on Allium cepa root length was studied using both clean and polluted river waters. Seven series of Cr(6+)-doped polluted and non-polluted river waters were used to grow onions. Chromium concentration (Cr(6+)) of 4.2 mg L(-1)(EC(50) value), doped in clean river water caused a 50% reduction of root length, while in organically polluted samples similar root growth inhibition occurred at 12.0 mg Cr(6+) L(-1). The results suggested that there was a dislocation to higher values in toxic chromium concentration in polluted river water due to the eutrophization level of river water.

  16. Construction of SSR-based chromosome map in bunching onion (Allium fistulosum).

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-Ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Masuzaki, Shinichi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yonemaru, Junichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kono, Izumi; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2008-11-01

    We have constructed a linkage map of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L., 2n = 16) using an F(2) population of 225 plants. The map consists of 17 linkage groups with 212 bunching onion SSR markers and 42 bulb onion (A. cepa L.) SSR, InDel, CAPS or dCAPS markers, covering 2,069 cM. This is the first report of a linkage map mainly based on SSR markers in the genus Allium. With the 103 anchor markers [81 bunching onion SSRs, 11 bulb onion SSRs and 11 bulb onion non-SSRs (1 InDel, 9 CAPSs and 1 dCAPS)] whose chromosome assignments were identified in A. cepa and/or A. fistulosum, via the use of several kinds of Allium alien addition lines, 16 of the 17 linkage groups were connected to the 8 basic chromosomes of A. cepa. PMID:18818898

  17. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    PubMed

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.

  18. The identification and analysis of the sequences that allow the detection of Allium cepa chromosomes by GISH in the allodiploid A. wakegi.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Fukashi; Hizume, Masahiro

    2002-09-01

    In Allium wakegi, which is an allodiploid species between Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum, each genome can be clearly distinguished using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Genomic DNA of A. cepa and A. fistulosum is differentiated both qualitatively and quantitatively. We wanted to isolate nucleotide sequences that give genome-specific signals on A. cepa chromosomes in GISH experiments in A. wakegi. We isolated 23 clones that show GISH-like signal patterns in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and analyzed their distribution in the A. cepa- and A. fistulosum-derived genomes of A. wakegi. There was considerable variation in the abundance and distribution of these cloned sequences on the chromosomes of the two species. The degree of A. cepa specificity varied among the clones. Twenty-two of the clones showed an even distribution over most chromosome arms with some clustering in the pericentromeric regions, but one clone showed very distinct terminal signals on some chromosomes. Whereas these sequences are not specific for A. cepa, changes in bases in nucleotide sequences and in their amount result in genome-specific characteristics in GISH experiments. PMID:12355208

  19. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  20. Vesicle formation in the membrane of onion cells (Allium cepa) during rapid osmotic dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Assani, Akym; Moundanga, Sylvie; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Optimization of osmotic dehydration in different plant cells has been investigated through the variation of parameters such as the nature of the sugar used, the concentration of osmotic solutions and the processing time. In micro-organisms such as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the exposure of a cell to a slow increase in osmotic pressure preserves cell viability after rehydration, while sudden dehydration involves a lower rate of cell viability, which could be due to membrane vesiculation. The aim of this work is to study cytoplasmic vesicle formation in onion epidermal cells (Allium cepa) as a function of the kinetics of osmotic pressure variation in the external medium. Methods Onion epidermal cells were submitted either to an osmotic shock or to a progressive osmotic shift from an osmotic pressure of 2 to 24 MPa to induce plasmolysis. After 30 min in the treatment solution, deplasmolysis was carried out. Cells were observed by microscopy during the whole cycle of dehydration–rehydration. Key Results The application of an osmotic shock to onion cells, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for <1 s, led to the formation of numerous exocytotic and osmocytic vesicles visualized through light and confocal microscopy. In contrast, after application of a progressive osmotic shift, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for 30 min, no vesicles were observed. Additionally, the absence of Hechtian strand connections led to the bursting of vesicles in the case of the osmotic shock. Conclusions It is concluded that the kinetics of osmotic dehydration strongly influence vesicle formation in onion cells, and that Hechtian strand connections between protoplasts and exocytotic vesicles are a prerequisite for successful deplasmolysis. These results suggest that a decrease in the area-to-volume ratio of a cell could cause cell death following an osmotic shock. PMID:19833611

  1. Vasorelaxant and hypotensive effects of Allium cepa peel hydroalcoholic extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Arabian, Maedeh; Badavi, Mohammad; Ahangarpour, Akram

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of onion (Allium cepa) peel hydroalcoholic extract (OPE) on rat hypertension induced by high-fructose diet and aorta contractility. The OPE was prepared by maceration method using 70% ethanol. The thoracic aorta from male adult rat (Wistar) was dissected and suspended in Krebs-Henseleit solution under 1 g resting tension. Tissue preparation was contracted by KCl (80 mM) or phenylephrine (Phe, 1 microM) and then the extract was applied cumulatively (0.0625-2 mg mL(-1)). Hypertension was induced in negative control and three groups of rats by adding fructose (10% WN/V) in drinking water for 6 weeks but control group received tap water. Hypertensive groups received saline or OPE at 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) daily for last 3 weeks by gavage. Results showed that OPE reduces aorta contractions induced by KCl or Phe in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.001). Removing aorta endothelium did not attenuate the OPE activity. Inhibition of nitric oxide, cGMP and prostaglandin synthesis by L-NAME (100 microM), methylene blue (10 microM) and indomethacin (10 microM), respectively, did not attenuate OPE activity. Atropine abolished ACh-induced relaxation in Phe precontracted aorta but not the OPE-induced relaxation. Although the extract did not change heart rate but after 3 weeks reduced the hypertension induced by fructose (p < 0.001). Present results indicated that OPE reduces aortic contractions possibly via inhibition of calcium influx but without involving NO, cGMP, endothelium and prostaglandins. The OPE hypotensive effect could be due to extract quercetin content, antioxidant activity and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cells Ca2+ influx. PMID:18819643

  2. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  3. [Genotoxic effects of pesticide-treated vegetable extracts using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests].

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; De Fusco, R; Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Izzo, C; Esposito, V; Nardi, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    The presence of chemical residues in vegetables and fruit is a source of human exposure to toxic and genotoxic chemicals. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is already known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause adverse health effects and that many pesticides are mutagenic/carcinogenic. In the present research we monitored concurrently the presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and 8 types of grapes sampled from the markets of a region in Southern Italy. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas-chromatography and HPLC, and for genotoxicity with two plant tests in Allium cepa roots: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test. We found 33 pesticides, some of which are outlawed. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests were sensitive for monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:15049565

  4. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction. PMID:25574484

  5. Water quality of urban streams: the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings test as a tool for surface water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P < 0.05). The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P < 0.08) and increase in micronuclei (P < 0.08) frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  6. Hospital waste incinerator bottom ash leachate induced cyto-genotoxicity in Allium cepa and reproductive toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Akinbola, Temitayo I; Adeyemi, Adetutu; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Alimba, Chibuisi G

    2011-07-01

    The potentials of hospital incinerator bottom ash leachate (HIBAL) to induce cyto-genotoxicity in Allium cepa and reproductive anomalies in the mouse were investigated. The leachate obtained from simulation of the bottom ash was analyzed for some physico-chemical parameters. The A. cepa, mouse sperm morphology and histopathological tests were carried out at concentrations ranging from 1% to 50% of the leachate sample. In A. cepa, HIBAL caused significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of root growth and induction of chromosomal aberrations. In the animal assays, there was 100% mortality at the 50% concentrations. The leachate caused insignificant (p > 0.05) concentration-dependent induction of various types of sperm morphology. There was accumulation of fluid in the seminiferous tubule lumen and necrosis of stem cells in the testes. These effects were believed to be provoked by the somatic and germ cell genotoxins, particularly the heavy metals in the leachate. Our finding is of environmental and public health significance. PMID:21343229

  7. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  8. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  9. Chromosome aberration and micronucleus frequencies in Allium cepa cells exposed to petroleum polluted water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-01-31

    In the present study, we applied Chromosome Aberration (CA) and Micronucleus (MN) tests to Allium cepa root cells, in order to evaluate the water quality of Guaecá river. This river, located in the city of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, had been affected by an oil pipeline leak. Chemical analyses of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also carried out in water samples, collected in July 2005 (dry season) and February 2006 (rainy season) in 4 different river sites. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa was observed after exposure to water sample collected during the dry season, at the spring of the river, where the oil leak has arisen. The F(1) cells from roots exposed to such sample (non-merismatic region) were also analyzed for the incidence of MN, showing a larger frequency of irregularities, indicating a possible development of CA into MN. Lastly, our study reveals a direct correlation between water chemical analyses (contamination by TPHs and PAHs) and both genotoxic and mutagenic effects observed in exposed A. cepa cells. PMID:18068420

  10. DNA replication stress induces deregulation of the cell cycle events in root meristems of Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Żabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Prolonged treatment of Allium cepa root meristems with changing concentrations of hydroxyurea (HU) results in either premature chromosome condensation or cell nuclei with an uncommon form of biphasic chromatin organization. The aim of the current study was to assess conditions that compromise cell cycle checkpoints and convert DNA replication stress into an abnormal course of mitosis. Methods Interphase-mitotic (IM) cells showing gradual changes of chromatin condensation were obtained following continuous 72 h treatment of seedlings with 0·75 mm HU (without renewal of the medium). HU-treated root meristems were analysed using histochemical stainings (DNA-DAPI/Feulgen; starch-iodide and DAB staining for H2O2 production), Western blotting [cyclin B-like (CBL) proteins] and immunochemistry (BrdU incorporation, detection of γ-H2AX and H3S10 phosphorylation). Key Results Continuous treatment of onion seedlings with a low concentration of HU results in shorter root meristems, enhanced production of H2O2, γ-phosphorylation of H2AX histones and accumulation of CBL proteins. HU-induced replication stress gives rise to axially elongated cells with half interphase/half mitotic structures (IM-cells) having both decondensed and condensed domains of chromatin. Long-term HU treatment results in cell nuclei resuming S phase with gradients of BrdU labelling. This suggests a polarized distribution of factors needed to re-initiate stalled replication forks. Furthermore, prolonged HU treatment extends both the relative time span and the spatial scale of H3S10 phosphorylation known in plants. Conclusions The minimum cell length and a threshold level of accumulated CBL proteins are both determining factors by which the nucleus attains commitment to induce an asynchronous course of chromosome condensation. Replication stress-induced alterations in an orderly route of the cell cycle events probably reflect a considerable reprogramming of metabolic functions of

  11. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments. PMID:26043852

  12. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of carrageenan fiber in cultured meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Nantes, C I; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Monreal, A C D; Ramires, A D; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-12

    In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide, and described its mode of action by using an Allium cepa assay. The results indicate that carrageenan is not mutagenic, rather it has significant chemopreventive potential that is mediated by both demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. This compound can adsorb agents that are toxic to DNA and inactivate them. Additionally, carrageenan can modulate enzymes of the DNA repair system. The percentage of damage reduction ranged from 62.54 to 96.66%, reflecting the compound's high efficiency in preventing the type of mutagenic damage that may be associated with tumor development. Based on these findings and information available in the literature, we conclude that carrageenan is an important fiber that should be considered as a possible base for functional foods and/or diets with potential anticancer activity.

  13. Factors affecting the production of SCEs by maleic hydrazide in root-tip chromosomes of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Cortés, F; Escalza, P; Mateos, S; Díaz-Recasens, M

    1987-10-01

    We have investigated the influence of pH on the induction of chromatid-type aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by maleic hydrazide (MH) in root-tip cells of Allium cepa. For both cytogenetic endpoints, the lower the pH of the treatment solution, the higher were the frequencies of chromosome alterations detected at metaphase. We have further studied the persistence of lesions giving rise to SCEs during successive cell cycles, as well as the influence of BrdU concentration in the post-treatment medium on the yield of MH-induced SCEs. Our results suggest that the cytogenetic action of MH in many respects resembles that of bifunctional alkylating agents.

  14. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume). PMID:21120531

  15. Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae) on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Lourran P; Malaquias, Geiz; Peron, Ana Paula

    2014-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic. PMID:25029361

  16. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of carrageenan fiber in cultured meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Nantes, C I; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Monreal, A C D; Ramires, A D; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide, and described its mode of action by using an Allium cepa assay. The results indicate that carrageenan is not mutagenic, rather it has significant chemopreventive potential that is mediated by both demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. This compound can adsorb agents that are toxic to DNA and inactivate them. Additionally, carrageenan can modulate enzymes of the DNA repair system. The percentage of damage reduction ranged from 62.54 to 96.66%, reflecting the compound's high efficiency in preventing the type of mutagenic damage that may be associated with tumor development. Based on these findings and information available in the literature, we conclude that carrageenan is an important fiber that should be considered as a possible base for functional foods and/or diets with potential anticancer activity. PMID:25501162

  17. Elastosis perforans serpiginosa: a case successfully treated with intralesional steroids and topical allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel.

    PubMed

    Campanati, Anna; Martina, Emanuela; Giuliodori, Katia; Ganzetti, Giulia; Marconi, Barbara; Conta, Irene; Giangiacomi, Mirella; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a rare skin disease in which abnormal elastic fibers, other connective tissue elements, and cellular debris are expelled from the papillary dermis through the epidermis. Three clinical variants of EPS can be detected: idiopathic, reactive, and drug-induced. Clinically it consists of small horny or umbilicated papules arranged in a linear, arciform, circular, or serpiginous pattern. It usually occurs in young adults and shows a predilection for the head and neck. The lesions are generally asymptomatic or slightly itching. Several treatments have been reported with poor long-term success; these include intralesional and topical corticosteroids, tazarotene, imiquimod, and cryotherapy. We report a case of 40-year-old black woman affected by elastosis perforans serpiginosa that was referred to our department and treated with intralesional injections of triamcinolone acetonide and topical application of allium cepa-allantoin-pentaglycan gel. PMID:24964949

  18. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) improved after fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  19. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) improved after fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties. PMID:26308368

  20. Central cell nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruity:a mechanism for segregation distortion in advanced backcross and selfed generations of (Allium cepa L. x Allium fistulosum L.) x A. cepa interspecific hybrid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mangum, P D; Peffley, E B

    2005-01-01

    A model is presented as an explanation for an anomaly observed in germination and establishment and isozyme segregation patterns in Allium cepa x A. fistulosum F2BC3 populations generated in an introgression-breeding program. The F1BC3 parent of these populations was selected for its heterozygous PGI phenotype, Pgi-1(2/3); Pgi-1(2) was inherited from an A. cepa (Ac) seed parent and Pgi-1(3) from an A. fistulosum (Af) pollen parent. Germination and establishment was recorded for the F2BC3 progeny population. Segregation of Ac and Af Pgi-1 alleles was investigated in F2BC3 seeds and embryo and endosperm tissue was isolated and tested for isozyme expression. A pooled goodness-of-fit test of the segregation of Pgi-1 alleles in the populations to the expected Mendelian 1:2:1 ratio using the chi-square statistic gave a chi2 = 185.9, well beyond the accepted limits at 2 degrees of freedom. The 1:2:1 ratio expected for simple Mendelian inheritance was rejected, while a pooled chi-square goodness-of-fit test of the segregation of Pgi-1 alleles in the populations fit a 1:1 ratio with a chi2 = 0.203, based on the incongruity model. We present here the central cell nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruity hypothesis to explain the observed anomalies. PMID:15753603

  1. Cellular damages in the Allium cepa test system, caused by BTEX mixture prior and after biodegradation process.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2011-09-01

    Petroleum and derivatives have been considered one of the main environmental contaminants. Among petroleum derivatives, the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) represent a major concern due to their toxicity and easy accumulation in groundwater. Biodegradation methods seem to be suitable tools for the clean-up of BTEX contaminants from groundwater. Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of BTEX prior and after biodegradation process was evaluated through analyses of chromosomal aberrations and MN test in meristematic and F(1) root cells using the Allium cepa test system. Seeds of A. cepa were germinated into five concentrations of BTEX, non-biodegraded and biodegraded, in ultra-pure water (negative control), in MMS 4×10(-4)M (positive control) and in culture medium used in the biodegradation (blank biodegradation control). Results showed a significant frequency of both chromosomal and nuclear aberrations. The micronucleus (MN) frequency in meristematic cells was significant for most of tested samples. However, MN was not present in significant levels in the F(1) cells, suggesting that there was no permanent damage for the meristematic cell. The BTEX effects were significantly reduced in the biodegraded samples when compared to the respective non-biodegraded concentrations. Therefore, in this study, the biodegradation process showed to be a reliable and effective alternative to treat BTEX-contaminated waters. Based on our results and available data, the BTEX toxicity could also be related to a synergistic effect of its compounds. PMID:21741065

  2. Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in Allium cepa and Swiss mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fedel-Miyasato, L E S; Formagio, A S N; Auharek, S A; Kassuya, C A L; Navarro, S D; Cunha-Laura, A L; Monreal, A C D; Vieira, M C; Oliveira, R J

    2014-04-30

    It is estimated that 60% of anticancer drugs are derived directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian medicine to treat inflammation, ulcers, and tumors. Because of the need to identify new antimutagenic agents and to determine their mechanism of action, this study evaluated the chemopreventive activity of the methanolic extract from leaves of S. terebinthifolius (MEST) in Allium cepa cells and in Swiss mice analyzing different protocols of MEST in association with DNA-damaging agents. The antigenotoxic and antimutagenic aspects in peripheral blood were evaluated using the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively. The percentage of damage reduction was used to compare the A. cepa and mice results. Our results showed for the first time that MEST can act as a chemopreventive compound that promotes cellular genome integrity by desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic activities in vegetal and animal models. This finding may therefore have therapeutic applications that can indirectly correlate to the prevention and/or treatment of the degenerative diseases such as cancer.

  3. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera. PMID:26387115

  4. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  5. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion. PMID:26456612

  6. Aluminum induces oxidative burst, cell wall NADH peroxidase activity, and DNA damage in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Achary, V Mohan M; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2012-08-01

    Plants under stress incur an oxidative burst that involves a rapid and transient overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS: O(2) (•-) , H(2) O(2) , (•) OH). We hypothesized that aluminum (Al), an established soil pollutant that causes plant stress, would induce an oxidative burst through the activation of cell wall-NADH peroxidase (NADH-PX) and/or plasma membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NADPH-OX), leading to DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa L. Growing roots of A. cepa were treated with Al(3+) (800 μM of AlCl(3) ) for 3 or 6 hr without or with the pretreatment of inhibitors specific to NADH-PX and NADPH-OX for 2 hr. At the end of the treatment, the extent of ROS generation, cell death, and DNA damage were determined. The cell wall-bound protein (CWP) fractions extracted from the untreated control and the Al-treated roots under the aforementioned experimental conditions were also subjected to in vitro studies, which measured the extent of activation of peroxidase/oxidase, generation of (•) OH, and DNA damage. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the cell wall-bound NADH-PX contributes to the Al-induced oxidative burst through the generation of ROS that lead to cell death and DNA damage in the root cells of A. cepa. Furthermore, the in vitro studies revealed that the CWP fraction by itself caused DNA damage in the presence of NADH, supporting a role for NADH-PX in the stress response. Altogether, this study underscores the crucial function of the cell wall-bound NADH-PX in the oxidative burst-mediated cell death and DNA damage in plants under Al stress.

  7. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  8. Purification and characterization of a mannose-specific lectin from Shallot (Allium ascalonicum) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Goldstein, I J

    1993-11-01

    A new mannose-binding lectin was isolated from shallot (Allium ascalonicum) bulbs by affinity chromatography on an immobilized D-mannose column. The lectin (A. ascalonicum agglutinin, AAA) appeared homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4.3 and gave a single protein band with an apparent M(r) of 11 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a single symmetrical peak of 11 kDa by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-200 HR column, indicating that AAA exists as a monomeric protein at neutral pH under the gel filtration condition employed. However, chemical cross-linking studies revealed that some degree of self-association of the lectin molecules occurs and that the lectin exists in solution as a mixture of monomers and oligomers. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium dialysis data showed the presence of one carbohydrate binding site for Man (alpha 1-3) Man-alpha-O-Me per monomer, with Ka = 1.62 x 10(4) M-1. The carbohydrate-binding properties of the purified AAA were investigated by quantitative precipitation and hapten inhibition assays. Purified AAA precipitated asialofetuin, asialotransferrin, asialothyroglobulin, asialoorosomucoid, as well as their agalacto derivatives, but did not precipitate either sialylated glycoproteins or mucins. AAA also reacted strongly with the highly branched yeast mannan obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of the monosaccharides tested only D-mannose was a hapten inhibitor of the AAA-asialofetuin precipitation system, whereas D-glucose, D-altrose, D-talose, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, and derivatives of D-mannose, including 2-deoxy-, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-, 3-deoxy-, and 6-deoxy-D-mannose were noninhibitors. These results suggest that the presence of equatorial hydroxyl groups at the C-3 and C-4 positions, an axial hydroxyl group at the C-2 position, and a free hydroxyl group at the C-6 position of the pyranose ring are the most important loci for the binding of D-mannose to AAA. Of the oligosaccharides

  9. Micronucleus and chromosome aberrations induced in onion (Allium cepa) by a petroleum refinery effluent and by river water that receives this effluent.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Márcia M; Marin-Morales, Maria A

    2009-11-01

    In this study, micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) tests in Allium cepa (onion) were carried out in order to make a preliminary characterization of the water quality of the Atibaia River in an area that is under the influence of petroleum refinery and also to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatments used by the refinery. For these evaluations, seeds of A. cepa were germinated in waters collected in five different sites related with the refinery in ultra-pure water (negative control) and in methyl methanesulfonate solution (positive control). According to our results, we can suggest that even after the treatments (physicochemical, biological and stabilization pond) the final refinery effluent could induce chromosome aberrations and micronucleus in meristematic cells of A. cepa and that the discharge of the petroleum refinery effluents in the Atibaia River can interfere in the quality of this river. PMID:19647317

  10. Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oils on Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Abu El Ezz, Nadia M T

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of two oils had been carried out either prior to infection or postinfection respectively in rats. Each rat in either case was orally administered with N. sativa oil or A. cepa oil in a dose 5 mg/kg body weight/day for 2 weeks. Assessment of results was by: (1) adult worm count in the intestine on 7th and 20th day post infection. (2) larval count in the muscles on the 60th day post infection. (3) Index of reproductive capacity. (4) Detection of antibodies against T. spiralis larvae by using ELISA. The results showed that, N. sativa oil as prophylactic treatment prior to T. spiralis infection is more effective than A. cepa oil on both adult worms and muscle larval count. While, A. cepa oil was showed more effectiveness than N. sativa on decline number of adult worms and muscle larvae when used as therapeutic treatment post infection. The level of antibody was recorded early in the groups that treated with N. sativa oil. In conclusion, N. sativa and A. cepa oils have anthelmintic effect in the rats infected with T. spiralis infection and increased the production of antibodies generated during life cycle of this parasite. PMID:16083064

  11. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC.

  12. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC. PMID:26993243

  13. Chromosomal aberrations in onion (Allium cepa) induced by water chlorination by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabti, K.; Kurelec, B.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently come to light that water chlorination generates mutagens and carcinogens. The mutagenicity of nonvolatile mutagenic by-products of water chlorination has been demonstrated in short-term biological testings. The predictive value of short-term tests is considerably enhanced by the use of more than one test system. A scientifically stringent approach in formulating a testing program for the assessment of genotoxins is to rely on tests that directly measure gene mutations and chromosome alterations. Chromosome aberrations (CA) become such a relevant bioassay. The CA measurement in the allium test is suitable for measuring the cytogenotoxic potential of chemicals present in water; it is simple, cheap, sensitive, and it does not require a generally undefined step of concentrating chemicals present in polluted waters. In the present investigation CA in Allium were chosen for the detection of mutagenic potential of a polluted river waters before and after the under-breakpoint chlorination.

  14. Calcium movement, graviresponsiveness and the structure of columella cells and columella tissues in roots of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. cv. Yellow are differentially responsive to gravity. Long (e.g. 40 mm) roots are strongly graviresponsive, while short (c.g. 4 mm) roots are minimally responsive to gravity. Although columella cells of graviresponsive roots are larger than those of nongraviresponsive roots, they partition their volumes to cellular organelles similarly. The movement of amyloplasts and nuclei in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the rates of organellar redistribution when graviresponsive and nongraviresponsive roots are oriented horizontally. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of longer roots correlates positively with (1) their caps being 9-6 times more voluminous, (2) their columella tissues being 42 times more voluminous, (3) their caps having 15 times more columella cells, and (4) their columella tissues having relative volumes 4.4 times larger than those of shorter, nongraviresponsive roots. Graviresponsive roots that are oriented horizontally are characterized by a strongly polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip from the upper to the lower side, while similarly oriented nongraviresponsive roots exhibit only a minimal polar transport of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that the differential graviresponsiveness of roots of A. cepa is probably not due to either (1) ultrastructural differences in their columella cells, (2) differences in the rates of organellar redistribution when roots are oriented horizontally. Rather, these results indicate the graviresponsiveness may require an extensive columella tissue, which, in turn, may be necessary for polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip.

  15. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  16. Antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Seref; Aktas, Cevat; Uygur, Ramazan; Topcu, Birol; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Karakaya, Osman; Gedikbasi, Asuman

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of onion (Allium cepa) extracts (ACE) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. The rats in the ACE-pretreated group were given a daily dose of 1 ml ACE for 14 days. To induce cardiotoxicity, DOX (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose and the rats were sacrificed after 48 h. To date, no such studies have been performed on the cardioprotective and anti-apoptotic potential of ACE on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling in cardiomyocytes of the DOX-treated group with ACE therapy. The DOX-treated with ACE groups showed a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels, and increased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the DOX-treated group. Creatine kinase, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase activities and cardiac troponin I levels were significantly decreased in the DOX + ACE group in comparison with the DOX group. These biochemical and histological disturbances were effectively attenuated on pretreatment with ACE. The present study showed that ACE may be a suitable cardioprotector against toxic effects of DOX.

  17. Inhibitory effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract on proliferation of cancer cells and adipocytes via inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Tian, Wei-Xi; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are widely used in the food industry for its nutritional and aromatic properties. Our studies showed that ethyl acetate extract of onion (EEO) had potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), and could induce apoptosis in FAS over-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, this apoptosis was accompanied by reduction of intracellular FAS activity and could be rescued by 25 mM or 50 mM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FAS catalyzed synthesis. These results suggest that the apoptosis induced by EEO occurs via inhibition of FAS. We also found that EEO could suppress lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was also related to its inhibition of intracellular FAS activity. Since obesity is closely related to breast cancer and obese patients are at elevated risk of developing various cancers, these findings suggested that onion might be useful for preventing obesity-related malignancy.

  18. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Park, Sang-Yun; Bang, Han-Yeol; Jeong, Ji Hye; So, Jai-Hyun; Rhee, In-Koo; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Yellow onion (Allium cepa) extract showed enhanced antioxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) assay after being treated with a crude enzyme extract from soybean paste fungi, Aspergillus kawachii. HPLC analysis showed two increased and two decreased peaks after enzyme treatment. The decreased peaks were identified as quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and quercetin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (2), and peaks that increased were quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and quercetin (4), respectively. It was expected that 3 and 4 were originated from the glucosidic cleavage of their glucosides, 1 and 2. Among the increased compounds, only quercetin (4) showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay. In addition, the protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was increased when treated with 25 μg/ml of fermented onion. The enhanced neuroprotective effect was also originated from the increased quercetin content. As a consequence, fermentation raised the quercetin content in onion, and subsequently increased the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities.

  19. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  20. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment.

  1. Purification and Characterization of Two Distinct NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases from Onion (Allium cepa L.) Root Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, A.; Cordoba, F.; Gonzalez-Reyes, J. A.; Navas, P.; Villalba, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified plasma membrane fractions were obtained from onion (Allium cepa L.) roots and used as a source for purification of redox proteins. Plasma membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 contained two distinct polypeptides showing NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenase activities. Dehydrogenase I was purified by gel filtration in Sephacryl S-300 HR, ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, and dye-ligand affinity chromatography in Blue-Sepharose CL-6B after biospecific elution with NADH. Dehydrogenase I consisted of a single polypeptide of about 27 kD and an isoelectric point of about 6. Dehydrogenase II was purified from the DEAE-unbound fraction by chromatography in Blue-Sepharose CL-6B and affinity elution with NADH. Dehydrogenase II consisted of a single polypeptide of about 31 kD and an isoelectric point of about 8. Purified dehydrogenase I oxidized both NADPH and NADH, although higher rates of electron transfer were obtained with NADPH. Maximal activity was achieved with NADPH as donor and juglone or coenzyme Q as acceptor. Dehydrogenase II was specific for NADH and exhibited maximal activity with ferricyanide. Optimal pH for both dehydrogenases was about 6. Dehydrogenase I was moderately inhibited by dicumarol, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and the thiol reagent N-ethyl-maleimide. A strong inhibition of dehydrogenase II was obtained with dicumarol, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and the thiol reagent p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. PMID:12232306

  2. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time.

  3. Cytotoxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip--effects of oxidative stress generation and biouptake.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwari, A; Kavitha, S; Alex, Sruthi Ann; Kumar, Deepak; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-07-01

    The commercial usage of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) has gone up significantly in the recent times, enhancing the risk of environmental contamination with these agents and their consequent adverse effects on living systems. The current study has been designed to evaluate the cytogenetic potential of Al2O3 NPs in Allium cepa (root tip cells) at a range of exposure concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL), their uptake/internalization profile, and the oxidative stress generated. We noted a dose-dependent decrease in the mitotic index (42 to 28 %) and an increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations. Various chromosomal aberrations, e.g. sticky, multipolar and laggard chromosomes, chromosomal breaks, and the formation of binucleate cells, were observed by optical, fluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the surface chemical interaction between the nanoparticles and root tip cells. The biouptake of Al2O3 in particulate form led to reactive oxygen species generation, which in turn probably contributed to the induction of chromosomal aberrations.

  4. Effects of hexavalent chromium on microtubule organization, ER distribution and callose deposition in root tip cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Melissa, Pelagia

    2012-04-01

    The subcellular targets of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were examined in Allium cepa root tips with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cr(VI) exerted dose- and time-dependent negative effects on root growth rate, the mitotic index and microtubule (MT) organization during cell division cycle. Interphase MTs were more resistant than the mitotic ones, but when affected they were shorter, sparse and disoriented. The preprophase band of MTs became poorly organized, branched or with fragmented MTs, whilst neither a perinuclear array nor a prophase spindle was formed. Metaphase spindles converged to eccentric mini poles or consisted of dissimilar halves and were unable to correctly orient the chromosomes. Anaphase spindles were less disturbed, but chromatids failed to separate; neither did they move to the poles. At telophase, projecting, lagging or bridging chromosomes and micronuclei also occurred. Phragmoplasts were unilaterally developed, split, located at unexpected sites and frequently dissociated from the branched and misaligned cell plates. Chromosomal aberrations were directly correlated with MT disturbance. The morphology and distribution of endoplasmic reticulum was severely perturbed and presumably contributed to MT disassembly. Heavy callose apposition was also induced by Cr(VI), maybe in the context of a cellular defence reaction. Results indicate that MTs are one of the main subcellular targets of Cr(VI), MT impairment underlies chromosomal and mitotic aberrations, and MTs may constitute a reliable biomonitoring system for Cr(VI) toxicity in plants. PMID:21633932

  5. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time. PMID:25639377

  6. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment. PMID:22948606

  7. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot.

  8. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot. PMID:16145834

  9. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2.

  10. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2. PMID:9080683

  11. Bioefficacy, dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of selected insecticides in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Srinivas P, Satya; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Ghaste, Manoj S; Lawande, K E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the bioefficacy of selected insecticides against thrips and their pre-harvest intervals (PHI) in onion pertaining to their recommended application rates and maximum residue limits. Profenophos, methomyl and imidacloprid showed comparatively higher bioefficacy against thrips. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based residue analysis methods in onion bulbs and composite matrix of bulbs+leaves were thoroughly validated. The residue data for bulb+leaves was assessed with reference to the EU-MRLs applicable for spring onion. Dimethoate was the most stable chemical with PHI of 52.5 days, followed by monocrotophos (24 days) and carbofuran (20.5 days). The PHIs of profenophos, chlorpyrifos, methomyl and cypermethrin were similar and within the range of 10-13 days. Imidacloprid and λ-cyhalothrin had similar PHI of 4.5 days. Spinosad was the fastest-degrading chemical with PHI of 2 days. The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of these insecticides for the management of thrips in onion, help in scheduling their applications in pest management program as per relative PHIs and minimize the residue accumulations at harvest. The dietary exposure was less than the maximum permissible intake for most of the insecticides on all sampling days except for dimethoate and monocrotophos. PMID:22560033

  12. Induction of microtubule damage in Allium cepa meristematic cells by pharmaceutical formulations of thiabendazole and griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Nancy B; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Mudry, Marta D

    2014-09-15

    Microtubules (MT) are formed by the assembly of α- and β-tubulins and MT-associated proteins. We characterized the effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing the microtubule disruptors thiabendazole (TBZ) and griseofulvin (GF) on the mitotic machinery of plant (A. cepa) meristematic cells. GF concentrations between 10 and 250 μg/ml were tested. GF induced mitotic index inhibition and genotoxic effects, including chromosome fragments, bridges, lagged chromosomes, C-metaphases, tripolar cell division, disorganized anaphases and nuclear abnormalities in interphase cells. Efects on the mitotic machinery were studied by direct immunofluorescence with β-tubulin labeling and by DNA counterstaining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Exposure of meristematic root cells to TBZ or GF, 100 μg/ml, caused microtubular damage which led to abnormal MT arrays. Our results suggest that GF induces abnormalities in spindle symmetry/polarity, while TBZ causes chromosome missegregation, polyploidy, and lack of cytokinesis.

  13. Comparative analysis of cesium and potassium uptake in onion Allium cepa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, P. Ł.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2003-01-01

    Cesium uptake in onion (from 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137CsCl) has been examined. The highest uptake occurred at pH 4-5 and it decreased with increasing pH. The intensity of Cs translocation depended on acidity of the solution. For acidic solutions, translocation of cesium into bulbs and leaves was greater than in case of alkaline solutions, where most of the cesium remained in the roots. Addition of potassium into the solutions (millimolar K concentrations) inhibits Cs uptake. The potassium pH-influx/efflux characteristic does not coincide with the Cs uptake.

  14. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  15. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-05-24

    Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS. PMID:27223486

  16. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  17. Loss of Microtubules in the Interphase Cells of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Root Tips from the Cell Cortex and Their Appearance in the Cytoplasm after Treatment with Cycloheximide.

    PubMed Central

    Mineyuki, Y.; Iida, H.; Anraku, Y.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a project to investigate the mechanism of cortical microtubule (MT) alignment, we examined the effects of cycloheximide (CHM) on cortical MTs in the root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Results show that although a preprophase band of MTs remained in the cell cortex, interphase MTs disappeared from the cortical cytoplasm and then appeared concomitantly in the inner cytoplasm when the rate of de novo protein synthesis was reduced with CHM (11-360 [mu]M for 2 h) PMID:12232080

  18. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure. PMID:26386773

  19. Water Transport in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Roots (Changes of Axial and Radial Hydraulic Conductivities during Root Development).

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, W.; Steudle, E.

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic architecture of developing onion (Allium cepa L. cv Calypso) roots grown hydroponically was determined by measuring axial and radial hydraulic conductivities (equal to inverse of specific hydraulic resistances). In the roots, Casparian bands and suberin lamellae develop in the endodermis and exodermis (equal to hypodermis). Using the root pressure probe, changes of hydraulic conductivities along the developing roots were analyzed with high resolution. Axial hydraulic conductivity (Lx) was also calculated from stained cross-sections according to Poiseuille's law. Near the base and the tip of the roots, measured and calculated Lx values were similar. However, at distances between 200 and 300 mm from the apex, measured values of Lx were smaller by more than 1 order of magnitude than those calculated, probably because of remaining cross walls between xylem vessel members. During development of root xylem, Lx increased by 3 orders of magnitude. In the apical 30 mm (tip region), axial resistance limited water transport, whereas in basal parts radial resistances (low radial hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) controlled the uptake. Because of the high axial hydraulic resistance in the tip region, this zone appeared to be "hydraulically isolated" from the rest of the root. Changes of the Lpr of the roots were determined by measuring the hydraulic conductance of roots of different length and referring these data to unit surface area. At distances between 30 and 150 mm from the root tip, Lpr was fairly constant (1.4 x 10-7 m s-1 MPa-1). In more basal root zones, Lpr was considerably smaller and varied between roots. The low contribution of basal zones to the overall water uptake indicated an influence of the exodermal Casparian bands and/or suberin lamellae in the endodermis or exodermis, which develop at distances larger than 50 to 60 mm from the root tip. PMID:12231786

  20. Induction of mitotic and chromosomal abnormalities on Allium cepa cells by pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone and the mixture of them.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Fernandes, Thais Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of low concentrations of pesticides in non-target organisms, seeds of Allium cepa were exposed for 24 h to the imidacloprid insecticide, sulfentrazone herbicide and to the mixture of them, followed by recovery periods of 48 and 72 h. Imidacloprid results indicated an indirect genotoxic effect by inducing different types of chromosome aberration (CA), mainly bridges and chromosomal adherences. Cells with micronucleus (MN) were not significant in the analyzed meristems. Moreover, the 72-h recovery tests indicated that the two lower concentrations of the insecticide (0.036 and 0.36 g L(-1)) had their genotoxic effects minimized after discontinuation of treatment, differently to the observed for the field concentration (3.6 g L(-1)). Sulfentrazone herbicide at field concentration (6 g L(-1)) caused cytotoxic effects by inducing nuclear fragmentation and inhibition of cell division. The other concentrations (0.06, 0.6 and 1.2 g L(-1)) indicated genotoxic effects for this herbicide. The concentration of 0.06 g L(-1) induced persistent effects that could be visualized both by the induction of CA in the recovery times as by the presence of MN in meristematic and F1 cells. The induction of MN by this lowest concentration was associated with the great amount of breakage, losses and chromosomal bridges. The mixture of pesticides induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, by reducing the MI of the cells. The chromosomal damage induced by the mixture of pesticides was not persistent to the cells, since such damage was minimized 72 h after the interruption of the exposure.

  1. Dissimilar effects of β-lapachone- and hydroxyurea-induced DNA replication stress in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Zabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Maszewski, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    Two anticancer drugs, β-lapachone (β-lap, a naphthoquinone) and hydroxyurea (HU, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase), differently affect nuclear morphology and cell cycle control mechanisms in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The 18 h treatment with 100 μM β-lap results in a lowered number of M-phase cells, increased occurrence of mitotic abnormalities, including over-condensation of chromosomes, their enhanced stickiness, formation of anaphase bridges, micronucleation and reduced mitotic spindles. Following prolonged incubations using high doses of β-lap, cell nuclei reveal dark-red fluorescence evenly distributed in chromatin surrounding the unstained regions of nucleoli. Both drugs generate H2O2 and induce DNA double strand breaks, which is correlated with γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones. However, the extent of H2AX phosphorylation (including the frequency of γ-H2AX foci and the relative number cells creating phospho-H2AX domains) is considerably reduced in root meristem cells treated jointly with the β-lap/HU mixture. Furthermore, various effects of caffeine (an inhibitor of ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint kinases) on β-lap- and HU-induced γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones and the protective activity of HU against β-lap suggest that their genotoxic activities are largely dissimilar. β-Lap treatment results in the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death, while HU treatment leads to cell adaptation to replication stress and promotion of abnormal nuclear divisions with biphasic interphase/mitotic states of chromatin condensation.

  2. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C-14 h and 25°C/18°C-14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb formation under 20

  3. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C–14 h and 25°C/18°C–14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb

  4. Cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning (bleaching) creams on Allium cepa root tip mitosis.

    PubMed

    Udengwu, O S; Chukwujekwu, J C

    2008-09-15

    The Allium test was used to study the cytotoxic effects of five commonly abused skin toning creams--Ikb, Tura, Top gel, Dorot and Mililo. These creams are commonly used by some black skinned people (especially the females) as skin lightening (bleaching) agents. The results showed that all the five bleaching creams were mito-depressive in action. They exhibited both chromatoclassic and mitoclassic effects. Their depressive effects were found to increase with duration of treatment. The induced abnormalities included chromosome contraction, spindle breakages, c-metaphase, star anaphase, chromosome stickiness and sticky bridges, precocious chromosome movement as well as endomitosis. It is suggested that since all eukaryotic cells are basically the same, these observed abnormalities could be similar to the effects these chemicals have on human skin when they are applied. Some of these are known to cause alteration in melanin formation as well as the biosynthesis of the enzyme tyrosinase. Furthermore, since certain points on the chromosomes called fragile sites have been implicated in oncogenesis, the observed abnormalities may be part of (or include) the switching on mechanisms of such genes, which could be responsible for the transformation of normal skin cells to malignant cells in those who abuse these creams. PMID:19137826

  5. The evaluation of surface and wastewater genotoxicity using the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Stipanicev, Drazenka; Vujcić, Valerija; Rajcić, Marija Marijanović; Sirac, Sinisa; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

    2010-02-01

    Screening for mutagens in complex environmental mixtures, such as surface water or industrial wastewater, is gradually being accepted as a routine method in environmental monitoring programs. In the present work, the simplified Alliumcepa root assay was utilized to evaluate the possible cyto- and genotoxic effects of surface and wastewaters collected near the Sava River (Croatia) over a three-month monitoring period. Physicochemical characterization of the water samples included measurements of conductivity, chemical and biological oxygen demand, levels of suspended matter and salts, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Morphological modifications of the A. cepa roots, inhibition of root growth, cell division and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations were observed. The most highly polluted water samples (industrial effluents) caused an inhibition of root growth of over 50%, a decrease in the mitotic index of over 40%, and a considerable increase in chromosomal aberrations compared to the control. The measured biological effects of some water samples appeared related to the physicochemical characteristics. Therefore, mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays should be included, along with conventional chemical analysis, in water quality monitoring programs. Their use would allow the quantification of mutagenic hazards in surface and wastewaters. PMID:20018345

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium. PMID:24221436

  7. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of the fructooligosaccharide inulin in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa culture.

    PubMed

    Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Marin-Morales, M A; Monreal, M T F D; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of inulin in a chromosomal aberration assay in cultures of the meristematic cells of Allium cepa. The treatments evaluated were as follows: negative control--seed germination in distilled water; positive control--aqueous solution of methyl methanesulfonate (10 μg/mL MMS); mutagenicity--aqueous solutions of inulin (0.015, 0.15, and 1.50 μg/mL); and antimutagenicity--associations between MMS and the different inulin concentrations. The antimutagenicity protocols established were pre-treatment, simultaneous simple, simultaneous with pre-incubation, and post-treatment. The damage reduction percentage (DR%) was 43.56, 27.77, and 55.92% for the pre-treatment; -31.11, 18.51, and 7.03% for the simultaneous simple; 30.43, 19.12, and 21.11% for the simultaneous with pre-incubation; and 64.07, 42.96, and 53.70% for the post-treatment. The results indicated that the most effective treatment for inhibiting damages caused by MMS was the post-treatment, which was followed by the pre-treatment, suggesting activity by bioantimutagenesis and desmutagenesis. The Allium cepa assay was demonstrated to be a good screening test for this type of activity because it is easy to perform, has a low cost, and shows DR% that is comparable to that reported studies that evaluated the prevention of DNA damage in mammals by inulin. PMID:24615117

  8. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  9. Evaluation of the antimutagenic activity and mode of action of the fructooligosaccharide inulin in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa culture.

    PubMed

    Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Marin-Morales, M A; Monreal, M T F D; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Oliveira, R J

    2014-02-14

    This study evaluated the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of inulin in a chromosomal aberration assay in cultures of the meristematic cells of Allium cepa. The treatments evaluated were as follows: negative control--seed germination in distilled water; positive control--aqueous solution of methyl methanesulfonate (10 μg/mL MMS); mutagenicity--aqueous solutions of inulin (0.015, 0.15, and 1.50 μg/mL); and antimutagenicity--associations between MMS and the different inulin concentrations. The antimutagenicity protocols established were pre-treatment, simultaneous simple, simultaneous with pre-incubation, and post-treatment. The damage reduction percentage (DR%) was 43.56, 27.77, and 55.92% for the pre-treatment; -31.11, 18.51, and 7.03% for the simultaneous simple; 30.43, 19.12, and 21.11% for the simultaneous with pre-incubation; and 64.07, 42.96, and 53.70% for the post-treatment. The results indicated that the most effective treatment for inhibiting damages caused by MMS was the post-treatment, which was followed by the pre-treatment, suggesting activity by bioantimutagenesis and desmutagenesis. The Allium cepa assay was demonstrated to be a good screening test for this type of activity because it is easy to perform, has a low cost, and shows DR% that is comparable to that reported studies that evaluated the prevention of DNA damage in mammals by inulin.

  10. Effect of processing conditions on the organosulfides of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lin, Yi; Huang, Dejian

    2014-06-11

    There is a growing account of the health benefits of H2S as an endogenous cell-signaling molecule. H2S from organic polysulfides, in particular, is increasingly gaining attention for their beneficial effects to cardiovascular health. Here, we studied shallot as a potential dietary source of organic polysulfides and examined the effects of processing conditions on its polysulfide profiles. Boiling, autoclaving, and freeze-drying were tested on whole and crushed shallot bulbs, analyzing their effect on the yield of organosulfides. Seventeen organosulfides, including disulfides, trisulfides, and cyclic polysulfides, were identified. Significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative profiles of organosulfides in the hydrodistilled and solvent extracted oils were observed. Freeze-drying retained the majority of the organosulfides, but the whole-autoclaved and whole-boiled shallots lost more than 95% of their organic polysulfides. Crushed-boiled and crushed-autoclaved shallot lost 76-80% of their organosulfides, likely due to the thermal sensitivity of these compounds. The organosulfide profiles are sensitive to the pH values of the processing media. In general, disulfides increased at basic pH (pH 9.0) while trisulfides and cyclic organosulfides are much higher at the acidic to neutral pH values (pH 3.0-5.0). Our results provide important information on the effects of processing conditions that are relevant for optimizing extraction of organosulfides from shallot for further studies evaluating their H2S-releasing activity.

  11. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds.

  12. Conservation of Arabidopsis thaliana photoperiodic flowering time genes in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Massiah, Andrea Juliet; Thomas, Brian

    2010-10-01

    The genetics underlying onion development are poorly understood. Here the characterization of onion homologs of Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway genes is reported with the end goal of accelerating onion breeding programs by understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different latitudes. The expression of onion GI, FKF1 and ZTL homologs under short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of AcGI and AcFKF1 was examined in onion varieties which exhibit different daylength responses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm the identity of the homologs. AcGI and AcFKF1 showed diurnal expression patterns similar to their Arabidopsis counterparts, while AcZTL was found to be constitutively expressed. AcGI showed similar expression patterns in varieties which exhibit different daylength responses, whereas AcFKF1 showed differences. It is proposed that these differences could contribute to the different daylength responses in these varieties. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the genes isolated are very closely related to their proposed homologs. The results presented here show that key genes controlling photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis are conserved in onion, and a role for these genes in the photoperiodic control of bulb initiation is predicted. This theory is supported by expression and phylogenetic data.

  13. Effect of processing conditions on the organosulfides of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lin, Yi; Huang, Dejian

    2014-06-11

    There is a growing account of the health benefits of H2S as an endogenous cell-signaling molecule. H2S from organic polysulfides, in particular, is increasingly gaining attention for their beneficial effects to cardiovascular health. Here, we studied shallot as a potential dietary source of organic polysulfides and examined the effects of processing conditions on its polysulfide profiles. Boiling, autoclaving, and freeze-drying were tested on whole and crushed shallot bulbs, analyzing their effect on the yield of organosulfides. Seventeen organosulfides, including disulfides, trisulfides, and cyclic polysulfides, were identified. Significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative profiles of organosulfides in the hydrodistilled and solvent extracted oils were observed. Freeze-drying retained the majority of the organosulfides, but the whole-autoclaved and whole-boiled shallots lost more than 95% of their organic polysulfides. Crushed-boiled and crushed-autoclaved shallot lost 76-80% of their organosulfides, likely due to the thermal sensitivity of these compounds. The organosulfide profiles are sensitive to the pH values of the processing media. In general, disulfides increased at basic pH (pH 9.0) while trisulfides and cyclic organosulfides are much higher at the acidic to neutral pH values (pH 3.0-5.0). Our results provide important information on the effects of processing conditions that are relevant for optimizing extraction of organosulfides from shallot for further studies evaluating their H2S-releasing activity. PMID:24840922

  14. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P ≤ 0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  15. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  16. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  17. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  18. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.

  19. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum. PMID:15599056

  20. Encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum don extract in β-cyclodextrin for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhiying; Wu, Min; Guo, Qiushi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Bingren

    2013-05-22

    This work aims to evaluate the encapsulation of a flavonoid-rich Allium cepa L. var. agrogatum Don extract (ACADFE) in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by analyzing the percutaneous penetration in vitro and in vivo, leading to an explanation of the physical mechanism during transdermal transport. The optimal inclusion compound containing ACADFE in β-CD was prepared in a 1:3 molar ratio. The physicochemical characterization of the inclusion complex was performed using IR, UV-vis, simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies. It was concluded that the inclusion complex could improve the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of ACADFE. The inclusion complex exhibited significant enhancement of percutaneous absorption both in vitro and in vivo. The dorsal skins of hairless mice were photographed using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that penetration of the ACADFE-β-CD inclusion complex proceeds across skin via both follicular and transcellular routes. PMID:23581706

  1. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp.

  2. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed.

  3. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed. PMID:25715446

  4. Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Camargo, Bruna de Campos; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized. PMID:27441992

  5. Action mechanisms of petroleum hydrocarbons present in waters impacted by an oil spill on the genetic material of Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2008-07-30

    Chromosomal aberration (CA) assays have been widely used, not only to assess the genotoxic effects of chemical agents, but also to evaluate their action mechanisms on the genetic material of exposed organisms. This is of particular interest, since such analyses provide a better knowledge related to the action of these agents on DNA. Among test organisms, Allium cepa is an outstanding species due to its sensitivity and suitable chromosomal features, which are essential for studies on chromosomal damage or disturbances in cell cycle. The goal of the present study was to analyze the action mechanisms of chemical agents present in petroleum polluted waters. Therefore, CA assay was carried out in A. cepa meristematic cells exposed to the Guaecá river waters, located in the city of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil, which had its waters impacted by an oil pipeline leak. Analyses of the aberration types showed clastogenic and aneugenic effects for the roots exposed to the polluted waters from Guaecá river, besides the induction of cell death. Probably all the observed effects were induced by the petroleum hydrocarbons derived from the oil leakage.

  6. Oxidative potential of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of titanium dioxide or silicon dioxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Koce, Jasna Dolenc; Drobne, Damjana; Klančnik, Katja; Makovec, Darko; Novak, Sara; Hočevar, Matej

    2014-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of agglomerates of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticles on roots of the onion (Allium cepa) has been studied. The reactive potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles, which have photocatalytic potential, and the nonphotocatalytic SiO(2) nanoparticles with the same size of agglomerates was compared. The authors measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation to assess the oxidative stress in exposed A. cepa roots. A wide range of concentrations of nanoparticles was tested (0.1-1000 µg/mL). The sizes of agglomerates ranged in both cases from 300 nm to 600 nm, and the exposure time was 24 h. Adsorption of SiO(2) nanoparticles on the root surface was minimal but became significant when roots were exposed to TiO(2) agglomerates. No significant biological effects were observed even at high exposure concentrations of SiO(2) and TiO(2) nanoparticles individually. Plants appear to be protected against nanoparticles by the cell wall, which shields the cell membrane from direct contact with the nanoparticles. The authors discuss the need to supplement conventional phytotoxicity and stress end points with measures of plant physiological state when evaluating the safety of nanoparticles.

  7. Oxidative potential of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of titanium dioxide or silicon dioxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa roots.

    PubMed

    Koce, Jasna Dolenc; Drobne, Damjana; Klančnik, Katja; Makovec, Darko; Novak, Sara; Hočevar, Matej

    2014-04-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of agglomerates of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) nanoparticles on roots of the onion (Allium cepa) has been studied. The reactive potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles, which have photocatalytic potential, and the nonphotocatalytic SiO(2) nanoparticles with the same size of agglomerates was compared. The authors measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation to assess the oxidative stress in exposed A. cepa roots. A wide range of concentrations of nanoparticles was tested (0.1-1000 µg/mL). The sizes of agglomerates ranged in both cases from 300 nm to 600 nm, and the exposure time was 24 h. Adsorption of SiO(2) nanoparticles on the root surface was minimal but became significant when roots were exposed to TiO(2) agglomerates. No significant biological effects were observed even at high exposure concentrations of SiO(2) and TiO(2) nanoparticles individually. Plants appear to be protected against nanoparticles by the cell wall, which shields the cell membrane from direct contact with the nanoparticles. The authors discuss the need to supplement conventional phytotoxicity and stress end points with measures of plant physiological state when evaluating the safety of nanoparticles. PMID:24812678

  8. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa.

  9. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa. PMID:25462968

  10. Effects of aluminum on nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters in Allium cepa var. agrogarum L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased Al concentration causes reduction of mitotic activity, induction of nucleolar alteration, increase of the production of ROS and alteration of several antioxidant enzyme activities in plant cells. Allium cepa is an excellent plant and a useful biomarker for environmental monitoring. Limited information is available about the effects of Al on nucleoli, antioxidant enzyme system, contents of MDA and soluble protein in A. cepa. Therefore, we carried out the investigation in order to better understand the effects of Al on the growth, nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters. Results The results showed that the root growth exposed to 50 μM Al was inhibited significantly. 50 μM Al could induce some particles of argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and extruded from the nucleoli into the cytoplasm. The nucleolus did not disaggregate normally and still remained its characteristic structure during metaphase. Nucleolar reconstruction was inhibited. 50 μM Al induced high activities of SOD and POD in leaves and roots significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with control, whereas the level of CAT was low significantly (P < 0.05). At 50 μM Al the content of MDA in leaves was high significantly (P < 0.05) at 9th day and in roots increased (P < 0.05) with prolonging the treatment time during 6-12 days. The soluble protein content in leaves treated with 50 μM Al was high significantly (P < 0.05) at 6th day and increased with prolonging the treatment time. Conclusions We suggest that variations in nucleoli and the alterations of antioxidant enzyme activities, MDA and soluble protein contents in Allium cepa can serve as useful biomarkers, which can provide valuable information for monitoring and forecasting effects of exposure to Al in real scenarios conditions. Among the antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD appear to play a key role in the antioxidant defense mechanism under Al toxicity condition. Data from MDA

  11. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A.

  12. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A. PMID:16411131

  13. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S J; Henken, B; Sofiari, E; Jacobsen, E; Krens, F A; Kik, C

    2001-06-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66 bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration.

  14. Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator to measure cytotoxicity of surface water of the Quatorze River, located in Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; Luzza, Michel; Savegnago, Leoberto; Lauxen, Daiana; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta; Tonial, Ivane Benedetti; Sauer, Ticiane Pokrywiecki

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increase in water consumption in the industrial sector and within the Brazilian population, surface water that receives wastewater from industries, domestic sewage, agricultural industries, and sewage treatment stations can pollute water bodies when not properly treated. The water quality has been linked to catchment characteristics and intensity of agricultural activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor the cytotoxic potential of the water of the Quatorze River, located in the town of Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil, along its route in the rural area, using the root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The results showed that the water at points 2, 3, and 4 were not cytotoxic because the rates of A. cepa cell division were unaltered. Point 1 had presented a mitotic index that was statistically larger than the negative control, indicating that this water contained substances with mitogenic capacity, as demonstrated by elevated values in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, the mitotic index values decreased along the route of the river (point 1 to point 4), possibly indicating a mechanism of self-purification, despite having received other sources of pollution. Thus, the results of this study show that the water of the Quatorze River should undergo periodic environmental monitoring at different times of the year, including cytotoxicity analysis, to evaluate the principal sources of contamination to maintain the quality of the river water and, consequently, to maintain human health and equilibrium of the entire ecosystem. PMID:24162370

  15. Effect of selenium treatment on mineral nutrition, bulb size, and antioxidant properties of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Põldma, Priit; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Viitak, Anu; Luik, Anne; Moor, Ulvi

    2011-05-25

    Foliar selenium (Se) treatment of garlic at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg of Se/mL was carried out in open field conditions in 2008 and 2009 in Estonia. Bulb weight and yield structure, content of total Se, S, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, ascorbic acid content (AAC), pungency, total phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. The highest level of Se decreased total S, K, and Ca in both years; no negative impact on bulb weight was observed. In 2009 Se10 treatment had significantly more bulbs with the largest diameter compared to the other treatments. In 2008, the AAC was decreased by Se50 and the content of total phenolics by all Se treatments; however, TAC was increased. Foliar Se fertilization of garlic at rates of 10-50 μg of Se/mL can be recommended to increase the number of large bulbs and increase bulb antioxidant capacity.

  16. Energy-dependent RBE of neutrons to induce micronuclei in root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyi; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Endo, Satoru; Ishikawa, Masayori; Ohtaki, Megu; Ikeda, Hideo; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2003-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of various energy neutrons produced from a Schenkel-type accelerator at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University (HIRRAC), compared with 60Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The neutron radiations and gamma-ray radiation produced good linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in the root-tip cells of Allium cepa onion irradiated as dry dormant seeds (seed assay) and seedlings (seedling assay) with varying radiation doses. Therefore the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei can be calculated as the ratio of the slopes of the fitted linear dose response for the neutron radiations and the 60Co gamma-ray radiation. The RBE values by seed assay and seedling assay decreased to 174 +/- 7, from 216 +/- 9, and to 31.4 +/- 1.0, from 45.3 +/- 1.3 (one standard error), respectively, when neutron energies increased to 1.0 MeV, from 0.2 MeV, in the present study. Furthermore, the ratio of the micronucleus induction rates of seed assay to seedling assay by gamma-ray radiation was much lower than that by neutron radiations.

  17. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure. PMID:25794577

  18. Effect of single alien chromosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) on carbohydrate production in leaf blade of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-12-01

    We used a complete set of Allium fistulosum - shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines (FF+1A - FF+8A) to identify shallot chromosomes affecting the production of sugars. In the alien addition lines grown over two years in an experimental field at Yamaguchi University (34 degrees N, 131 degrees E), shallot chromosomes 2A and 8A altered sugar contents in leaf-bunching onion (A. fistulosum). Except for FF+2A, every monosomic addition accumulated non-reducing sugars in winter leaf blades. FF+8A caused an increase in the amounts of non-reducing sugars in the winter. FF+2A hardly produced non-reducing sugar throughout the two-year study. These results indicated that genes related to non-reducing sugar metabolism are located on the 2A and 8A chromosomes. The results of regression analyses using 2002 data on A. fistulosum and the monosomic addition set revealed a correlation (r = 0.63 +/- 0.07; mean +/- SE., n = 9) between reducing sugar and monosaccharide (Glc+Fru) contents but no correlation between non-reducing sugar and sucrose contents. This result indicates the existence of other polysaccharides (e.g., scorodose) as non-reducing sugars in the leaf blade.

  19. Investigation of volatiles emitted from freshly cut onions (Allium cepa L.) by real time proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).

    PubMed

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Edelenbos, Merete; Larsen, Erik; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-11-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cut onions (Allium cepa L.) were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor) and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0-10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  20. Consumption of brown onions (Allium cepa var. cavalier and var. destiny) moderately modulates blood lipids, haematological and haemostatic variables in healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Ewa; Gabler, Nicholas K; Sterling, Sam J; Tatham, Brendan G; Jones, Rodney B; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Dunshea, Frank R

    2004-02-01

    Although garlic and onions have long been associated with putative cardiovascular health benefits, the effects of different commercially available onions and level of intake have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of raw onions using the pig as a biomedical model. Twenty-five female (Large White x Landrace) pigs were used in a (2 x 2)+1 factorial experiment. Pigs were fed a standard grower diet supplemented with 100 g tallow/kg with the addition of Allium cepa var. cavalier or var. destiny at 0, 10 or 25 g/MJ digestible energy for 6 weeks. Overall, the consumption of onions resulted in significant reductions in plasma triacylglycerol; however, the reductions were most pronounced in pigs fed destiny onions (-26 %, P=0.042). Total plasma cholesterol and LDL:HDL ratios were not significantly different. Onion supplementation, regardless of the variety, resulted in dose-dependent reductions in erythrocyte counts and Hb levels, while the white blood cell concentrations, particularly lymphocytes, were increased in pigs that consumed onions. Furthermore, indices of blood clotting were largely unaffected by onion consumption. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with raw brown onions has moderate lipid-modulating and immunostimulatory properties. However, daily onion intake >25 g/MJ digestible energy could be detrimental to erythrocyte numbers.

  1. Effect of single alien chromosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) on carbohydrate production in leaf blade of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-12-01

    We used a complete set of Allium fistulosum - shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines (FF+1A - FF+8A) to identify shallot chromosomes affecting the production of sugars. In the alien addition lines grown over two years in an experimental field at Yamaguchi University (34 degrees N, 131 degrees E), shallot chromosomes 2A and 8A altered sugar contents in leaf-bunching onion (A. fistulosum). Except for FF+2A, every monosomic addition accumulated non-reducing sugars in winter leaf blades. FF+8A caused an increase in the amounts of non-reducing sugars in the winter. FF+2A hardly produced non-reducing sugar throughout the two-year study. These results indicated that genes related to non-reducing sugar metabolism are located on the 2A and 8A chromosomes. The results of regression analyses using 2002 data on A. fistulosum and the monosomic addition set revealed a correlation (r = 0.63 +/- 0.07; mean +/- SE., n = 9) between reducing sugar and monosaccharide (Glc+Fru) contents but no correlation between non-reducing sugar and sucrose contents. This result indicates the existence of other polysaccharides (e.g., scorodose) as non-reducing sugars in the leaf blade. PMID:15729002

  2. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  3. Effects of lead on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in the root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-07-31

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1-10 μM) there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM) many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress.

  4. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  5. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27668036

  6. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–10 μM) there were persistent nucleoli in some cells during mitosis, and at high concentration (100 μM) many of the nucleolar organizing regions were localized on sticky chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase cells. Pb induced the release of particles containing argyrophilic proteins to be released from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. These proteins contained nucleophosmin and nucleolin. Pb also caused the extrusion of fibrillarin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated the increased expression of these three major nucleolar proteins under Pb stress. PMID:25089875

  7. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Confined direct analysis in real time ion source and its applications in analysis of volatile organic compounds of Citrus limon (lemon) and Allium cepa (onion).

    PubMed

    Li, Yue

    2012-05-30

    The DART (direct analysis in real time) ion source is a novel atmospheric pressure ionization technique that enables efficient ionization of gases, liquids and solids with high throughput. A major limit to its wider application in the analysis of gases is its poor detection sensitivity caused by open-air sampling. In this study, a confined interface between the DART ion source outlet and mass spectrometer sampling orifice was developed, where the plasma generated by the atmospheric pressure glow discharge collides and ionizes gas-phase molecules in a Tee-shaped flow tube instead of in open air. It leads to significant increase of collision reaction probability between high energy metastable molecules and analytes. The experimental results show that the ionization efficiency was increased at least by two orders of magnitude. This technique was then applied in the real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Citrus Limon (lemon) and wounded Allium Cepa (onion). The confined DART ion source was proved to be a powerful tool for the studies of plant metabolomics.

  9. Comparative investigation of concentrations of major and trace elements in organic and conventional Danish agricultural crops. 1. Onions (Allium cepa Hysam) and peas (Pisum sativum ping pong).

    PubMed

    Gundersen, V; Bechmann, I E; Behrens, A; Stürup, S

    2000-12-01

    210 samples of onions (Allium cepa Hysam) from 11 conventionally and 10 organically cultivated sites and 190 samples of peas (Pisum sativum Ping Pong) from 10 conventionally and 9 organically cultivated sites in Denmark were collected and analyzed for 63 and 55 major and trace elements, respectively, by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. Comparative statistical tests of the element concentration mean values for each site show significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of Ca, Mg, B, Bi, Dy, Eu, Gd, Lu, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, U, and Y between the organically and conventionally grown onions and significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of P, Gd, and Ti between the organically and conventionally grown peas. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the 63 elements measured in the individual onion samples from the 21 sites split up the sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the first and third principal components were plotted against each other. Correspondingly, for peas, a PCA applied to the 55 elements measured as mean values for each site split up the 19 sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the third and fourth principal component were plotted against each other. The methodology may be used as authenticity control for organic cultivation after further method development. PMID:11312781

  10. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up. PMID:24392578

  11. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Prakki, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50-1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26273314

  12. Identification of a novel chimeric gene, orf725, and its use in development of a molecular marker for distinguishing among three cytoplasm types in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Lee, Eul-Tai; Cho, Dong Youn; Han, Taeho; Bang, Haejeen; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Ahn, Yul Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung

    2009-02-01

    A novel chimeric gene with a 5' end containing the nearly complete sequence of the coxI gene and a 3' end showing homology with chive orfA501 was isolated by genome walking from two cytoplasm types: CMS-S and CMS-T, both of which induce male-sterility in onion (Allium cepa L.). In addition, the normal active and variant inactive coxI genes were also isolated from onions containing the normal and CMS-S cytoplasms, respectively. The chimeric gene, designated as orf725, was nearly undetectable in normal cytoplasm, and the copy number of the normal coxI gene was significantly reduced in CMS-S cytoplasm. RT-PCR results showed that orf725 was not transcribed in normal cytoplasm. Meanwhile, the normal coxI gene, which is essential for normal mitochondrial function, was not expressed in CMS-S cytoplasm. However, both orf725 and coxI were transcribed in CMS-T cytoplasm. The expression of orf725, a putative male-sterility-inducing gene, was not affected by the presence of nuclear restorer-of-fertility gene(s) in male-fertility segregating populations originating from the cross between a male-sterile plant containing either CMS-T or CMS-S and a male-fertile plant whose genotypes of nuclear restorer gene(s) might be heterozygous. The specific stoichiometry of orf725 and coxI in the mtDNA of the three cytoplasm types was consistent among diverse germplasm. Therefore, a molecular marker based on the relative copy numbers of orf725 and coxI was designed for distinguishing among the three cytoplasm types by one simple PCR. The reliability and applicability of the molecular marker was shown by testing diverse onion germplasm.

  13. Change in Flavonoid Composition and Antioxidative Activity during Fermentation of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with Different Salt Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Young-Min; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in flavonoid composition and antioxidative activity during fermentation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with different NaCl concentrations. In order to qualify and quantify the flavonoids during fermentation of onion, 7 flavonoids, [quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,7G), quercetin 3,4'-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,4'G), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G), quercetin 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q4'G), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IR3G), quercetin (Q), and isorhamnetin (IR)], were isolated and identified from onion. During fermentation, the contents of flavonoid glucosides (Q3,7G, Q3,4'G, Q3G, Q4'G, and IR3G) gradually decreased, whereas the contents of flavonoid aglycones (Q, IR) gradually increased. Decline rates of the flavonoid glucosides increased with the addition of L. mesenteroides. Furthermore, the activity of β-glucosidase, which is produced by L. mesenteroides, is dose-dependently inhibited with different NaCl concentrations during fermentation. The presence of L. mesenteroides enhanced the antioxidative activity of onion as demonstrated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and reducing power assays. The enhancement of antioxidative activity was considered because the content of flavonoid aglycones increased during fermentation. However, the addition of NaCl may decrease the antioxidative activity; we surmise that this phenomenon occurs because of the inhibition of β-glucosidase by NaCl. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of NaCl may be useful for the regulation of antioxidative activity via the control of β-glucosidase action, during the fermentation of flavonoid glucoside-rich foods. PMID:27175820

  14. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Prakki, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26273314

  15. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  16. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  18. Vavilosides A1/A2-B1/B2, new furostane glycosides from the bulbs of Allium vavilovii with cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sadeghi, Masoud; Troiano, Raffaele; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the bulbs of Allium vavilovii M. Pop. & Vved. was attained for the first time extensively, affording to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named vavilosides A1/A2-B1/B2 (1a/b-2a/2b), as two couple of isomers in equilibrium, together with ascalonicoside A1/A2 (3a/3b) and 22-O-methyl ascalonicoside A1/A2 (4a/4b), previously isolated from shallot, Allium ascalonicum. High concentrations of kaempferol, kaempferide, and kaempferol 4(I)-glucoside were also isolated. The chemical structures of the new compounds, established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses, were identified as (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1β,3β,22α,26-tetraol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl 26-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (vaviloside A1), (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1β,3β,22β,26-tetraol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl 26-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (vaviloside A2), (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1β,3β,22α,26-tetraol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl 26-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (vaviloside B1), (25R)-furost-5(6)-en-1β,3β,22β,26-tetraol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl 26-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (vaviloside B2). The isolated saponins showed cytotoxic activity on J-774, murine monocyte/macrophage, and WEHI-164, murine fibrosarcoma, cell lines with the following rank: vaviloside B1/B2>ascalonicoside A1/A2>vaviloside A1/A2. PMID:23415085

  19. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these.

  20. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these. PMID:20938763

  1. Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Linn.) Bulbs Ameliorated Pituitary-Testicular Injury and Dysfunction in Wistar Rats with Pb-Induced Reproductive Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ayoka, Abiodun O.; Ademoye, Aderonke K.; Imafidon, Christian E.; Ojo, Esther O.; Oladele, Ayowole A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs (AEASAB) on pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with lead-induced reproductive disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups such that the control group received propylene glycol at 0.2 ml/100 g intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days, the toxic group received lead (Pb) alone at 15 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 10 days while the treatment groups were pretreated with lead as the toxic group after which they received graded doses of the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day via oral route for 28 days. RESULTS: Pb administration induced significant deleterious alterations in the antioxidant status of the brain and testis, sperm characterization (counts, motility and viability) as well as reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) of exposed rats (p < 0.05). These were significantly reversed in the AEASAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was marked improvement in the Pb-induced vascular congestion and cellular loss in the pituitary while the observed Pb-induced severe testicular vacuolation was significantly reversed in the representative photomicrographs, following administration of the extract. CONCLUSION: AEASAB treatment ameliorated the pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with Pb-Induced reproductive disturbances. PMID:27335588

  2. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 μl in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 μg/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated.

  3. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests. PMID:27517141

  4. Cytotoxicity of Spent Pot Liner on Allium cepa root tip cells: A comparative analysis in meristematic cell type on toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Marcel José; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Dos Santos Gedraite, Leonardo; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-11-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a waste generated during the production of aluminum. It is comprised of a mixture of substances most of which, like cyanide, aluminum and fluoride, are toxic. Previous studies indicate the highly toxic nature of SPL. However studies using cells of the differentiation/elongation zone of the root meristem (referred as M2 cells in this study) after a proper recovery period in water were never considered. Using these cells could be useful to further understanding the toxicity mechanisms of SPL. A comparative approach between the effects on M2 cells and meristematic cells of the proximal meristem zone (referred as M1 cells in this study) could lead to understanding how DNA damage caused by SPL behaves on successive generations of cells. Allium cepa cells were exposed to 4 different concentrations of SPL (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10gL(-1)) mixed with soil and diluted in a CaCl2 0.01M to simulate the ionic forces naturally encountered on the environment. A solution containing only soil diluted on CaCl2 0.01M was used as control. M1 and M2 cells were evaluated separately, taking into account four different parameters: (1) mitotic alterations (MA); (2) presence of condensed nuclei (CN); (3) mitotic index (MI); (4) presence of micronucleus (MCN). Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 roots tip cells for these four parameters accessed. M1 cells was more prompt to reveal citogenotoxicity through the higher frequency of MA observed. Meanwhile, for M2 cells higher frequencies of MCN and CN was noticed, followed by a reduction of MI. Also, it was possible to detect significant differences between the tested treatments and the control on every case. These results indicate SPL toxic effects carries on to future cells generations. This emphasizes the need to properly manage this waste. Joint evaluation of cells from both M1 and M2 regions was proven valuable for the evaluation of a series of parameters on all toxicity tests.

  5. Storage life of field-grown garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) as influenced by nitrogen and sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Schnug, Ewald

    2011-05-11

    The most important active compound in garlic is alliin. Sulfur (S) fertilization was shown to significantly increase the alliin concentration in garlic cloves, while high nitrogen (N) levels had an adverse effect. The effect of graded N and S application on the storage life of garlic has been paid little attention so far. A bifactorial field trial with 4 levels of N and S was conducted in a randomized block design. At harvest, 40 bulbs per treatment were stored under terms comparable to the storage conditions in average households (20 °C, dry, and dim) for 83 days. Every 3 weeks, samples were analyzed for their alliin and water content. The alliin concentration in peeled garlic cloves increased during storage from on average 9.2 mg g(-1) dry weight at harvest to 21.4 mg g(-1) dry weight after 83 days of storage. S fertilization increased the alliin concentration by a factor of 2.3 from 11.4 mg g(-1) in the control treatment to 26.6 mg g(-1) dry weight at the highest S level of 45 kg ha(-1) after 83 days of storage. N fertilization decreased by a trend of the alliin content. Fertilizer rates had only a minor influence on water losses from bulbs at short-term storage. After 83 days of storage, water losses were by trend lower at higher S levels, and this relationship proved to be significant when no N was applied. Best quality in terms of high alliin contents was obtained during the entire storage time at an S level of at minimum 30 kg ha(-1) S if no N was applied. The results show that the physiological S demand of 15 kg ha(-1) S for optimum yield is lower than the S requirement of 30 kg ha(-1) S for a longer storage life. PMID:21417465

  6. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of wild growing and cultivated Allium species.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Igić, R; Popović, B M; Malencić, Dj

    2008-01-01

    Allium species are cultivated for the edible bulb, which is used mainly as flavoring in foods. Besides that, they could prevent tumor promotion and some processes that are associated with free radicals, such as cardiovascular diseases and aging. Therefore, different Allium species, both cultivated (Allium nutans L., A. fistulosum L., A. vineale L., A. pskemense B. Fedtsch, A. schoenoprasum L., A. cepa L. and A. sativum L.) and wild (A. flavum L., A. sphaerocephalum L., A. atroviolaceum Boiss, A. vineale L., A. ursinum L., A. scorodoprasum L., A. roseum L. and A. subhirsutum L.), were investigated in order to evaluate the antioxidant properties of their bulbs. This study reports on the results obtained for the bulb antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), the quantities of non-enzymatic plant antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total flavonoids), the contents of soluble proteins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, as well as for the quantities of malonyldialdehyde and .OH and O2.- radicals. PMID:17726730

  7. Polyphenols Isolated from Allium cepa L. Induces Apoptosis by Induction of p53 and Suppression of Bcl-2 through Inhibiting PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in AGS Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Sup; Yi, Sang Mi; Yun, Jeong Won; Jung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, GonSup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extract of Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as adjuvant food for cancer therapy. We assumed that it includes a potential source of anti-cancer properties. Methods: We investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in AGS human cancer cells. Results: PEAL inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. It was related to caspase-dependent apoptosis. We confirmed this finding with annexin V staining. PEAL up-regulated p53 expression, and subsequent Bax induction, down regulated Bcl-2 protein, anti-apoptotic protein. In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and PEAL-induced apoptosis were significantly accentuated with Akt inhibitor (LY294002). Conclusions: Our data suggested that PEAL induce caspase-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by up-regulating p53 protein, and subsequent Bax protein as well as by modulating Bcl-2 protein, and that PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25337568

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction and DNA repair network are involved in aluminum-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Brahma B.; Achary, V. Mohan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we studied the role of signal transduction in aluminum (Al3+)-induced DNA damage and adaptive response in root cells of Allium cepa L. The root cells in planta were treated with Al3+ (800 μM) for 3 h without or with 2 h pre-treatment of inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein phosphatase. Also, root cells in planta were conditioned with Al3+ (10 μM) for 2 h and then subjected to genotoxic challenge of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS; 5 mM) for 3 h without or with the pre-treatment of the aforementioned inhibitors as well as the inhibitors of translation, transcription, DNA replication and repair. At the end of treatments, roots cells were assayed for cell death and/or DNA damage. The results revealed that Al3+ (800 μM)-induced significant DNA damage and cell death. On the other hand, conditioning with low dose of Al3+ induced adaptive response conferring protection of root cells from genotoxic stress caused by EMS-challenge. Pre-treatment of roots cells with the chosen inhibitors prior to Al3+-conditioning prevented or reduced the adaptive response to EMS genotoxicity. The results of this study suggested the involvement of MAPK and DNA repair network underlying Al-induced DNA damage and adaptive response to genotoxic stress in root cells of A. cepa. PMID:24926302

  9. Exploring Allium species as a source of potential medicinal agents.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Milić, N; Canadanović-Brunet, J; Kapor, A; Stajner, M; Popović, B M

    2006-07-01

    It has been shown that Allium species may help to prevent tumor promotion, cardiovascular diseases and aging; all processes that are associated with free radicals. Therefore the Allium species of both cultivated species (Allium nutans L., Allium fistulosum L., Allium vineale L., Allium psekemense B. Fedtsch, Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.) and wild species (Allium flavum L., Allium sphaerocephalum L., Allium atroviolaceum Boiss, Allium schenoprasum L., Allium vineale L., Allium ursinum L., Allium scorodoprasum L.) from various locations were investigated for their antioxidative properties. The leaves were examined for activities of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase), non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total flavonoids), content of soluble proteins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, as well as the quantities of malonyldialdehyde and *OH and O2*- radicals. Using a contemporary spectroscopic fluorescent method, lipofuscin, 'plant age pigments' were determined. ESR spectroscopy was used to follow the decrease of oxygen radicals in the presence of extracts of Allium species in phosphate buffer (pH 7). The results showed that all Allium species had strong antioxidative properties due to their high concentration of total flavonoids, high content of carotenoids and chlorophylls, and very low concentrations of toxic oxygen radicals. ESR signals of DMPO-OH radical adducts, in the presence of Allium extracts in phosphate buffer (pH 7), were reduced by up to 94.3%. PMID:16676298

  10. Identification of bacteria pathogenic to or associated with onion (Allium cepa) based on sequence differences in a portion of the conserved gyrase B gene.

    PubMed

    Bonasera, Jean M; Asselin, Jo Ann E; Beer, Steven V

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a method for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly members of the Enterobacteriaceae, based on sequence variation in a portion of the gyrB gene. Thus, we identified, in most cases to species level, over 1000 isolates from onion bulbs and leaves and soil in which onions were grown.

  11. Tyramide-FISH mapping of single genes for development of an integrated recombination and cytogenetic map of chromosome 5 of Allium cepa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome 5 of onion carries major quantitative trait loci (QTL) of interest to breeders that control dry-matter content, pungency and storability of bulbs, amounts and types of epicuticular waxes, and resistances to abiotic factors. SNPs, SSRs and RFLPs in expressed regions of the onion genome hav...

  12. The cytotoxic effect of wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak (Quercus robur L.) and shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum).

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Besendorfer, V; Rosa, J; Papes, D

    2000-11-01

    The effect of wastewater from a phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak, Quercus robur L., at cytogenetical level was studied. Allium-test was used as a control. The treatment of common oak seedlings with wastewater under laboratory conditions caused mitodepressive effect. Chromosome aberrations and mitotic irregularities were found. Cytogenetic analysis of common oak seedlings grown from acorns collected near the depot did not show changes in mitotic activity in comparison to control but the number of aberrations was higher than in control. In comparison to Alliumtest common oak was found to be more tolerant to wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot.

  13. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    PubMed Central

    Aşkin Çelik, Tülay; Aslantürk, Özlem Sultan

    2010-01-01

    I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (2 · 10−2 M) has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P < .05) inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa. PMID:20617136

  14. Cytotoxicity on Allium cepa of the two main sulcotrione photoproducts, xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Richard, Claire; Goupil, Pascale; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2015-10-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA) and xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulphonyl (XDD), the two main photoproducts of sulcotrione, were investigated on Allium root meristematic cells at different concentrations. Degradation of sulcotrione was correlated to mitotic index decrease, together with increasing anomaly and c-mitosis frequencies. Mitotic index significantly decreased with increasing XDD and CMBA concentrations. Cell frequency with abnormal chromosomes increased with CMBA or XDD application rates. In contrast, CMBA induced a low micronucleus rate even for high concentrations while XDD increased the micronucleus ratio. C-mitoses, chromosomal aberrations due to an inactivation of the spindle, were enhanced by CMBA treatments but not by XDD. The photochemical degradation process of the pesticide can change the risk for the environment. PMID:26453228

  15. The effects of anti-DNA topoisomerase II drugs, etoposide and ellipticine, are modified in root meristem cells of Allium cepa by MG132, an inhibitor of 26S proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), a highly specialized nuclear enzyme, resolves various entanglement problems concerning DNA that arise during chromatin remodeling, transcription, S-phase replication, meiotic recombination, chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. The genotoxic effects of two Topo II inhibitors known as potent anti-cancer drugs, etoposide (ETO) and ellipticine (EPC), were assayed in root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. Despite various types of molecular interactions between these drugs and DNA-Topo II complexes at the chromatin level, which have a profound negative impact on the genome integrity (production of double-strand breaks, chromosomal bridges and constrictions, lagging fragments of chromosomes and their uneven segregation to daughter cell nuclei), most of the elicited changes were apparently similar, regarding both their intensity and time characteristics. No essential changes between ETO- and EPC-treated onion roots were noticed in the frequency of G1-, S-, G2-and M-phase cells, nuclear morphology, chromosome structures, tubulin-microtubule systems, extended distribution of mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites of histone H3, and the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). However, the important difference between the effects induced by the ETO and EPC concerns their catalytic activities in the presence of MG132 (proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavage complexes) and relates to the time-variable changes in chromosomal aberrations and AL-PCD rates. This result implies that proteasome-dependent mechanisms may contribute to the course of physiological effects generated by DNA lesions under conditions that affect the ability of plant cells to resolve topological problems that associated with the nuclear metabolic activities. PMID:26233708

  16. Disintegration efficiency of pulsed electric field induced effects on onion (Allium cepa L.) tissues as a function of pulse protocol and determination of cell integrity by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Ersus, Seda; Oztop, Mecit Halil; McCarthy, Michael J; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The influence of electrical pulse protocol parameters on cell rupture of onion tissues was investigated in order to improve fundamental understanding and to enhance the processing of plant tissues with pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The impact of PEF parameters on cell integrity of 20 mm dia, 4-mm thick disks of Don Victor onions (Allium cepa L.) was determined by ion leakage measurements. Electric field strength, pulse width, total pulse duration, and frequency effects were determined in relation to their effects on cell damage as a function of pulse protocol. Electric field strengths up to 500 V/cm increased the damage efficiency but there was no significant difference in efficiency beyond this field strength. Larger pulse widths increased the degree of tissue disintegration at a constant pulse number. Higher PEF efficiency was achieved with shorter pulse widths and a larger number of pulses at a constant total treatment time. Lower frequencies caused a greater degree of disintegration at constant number of pulses. ¹H-NMR experiments were performed to determine the proton relaxation components of the PEF-treated onion samples and to obtain cell damage information nondestructively. Paramagnetic ion uptake by the onion sample was used to identify different proton relaxation components. Five different proton relaxation components were observed and changes in the 2 components representing different proton environments showed high correlations with ion leakage results (R²= 0.99), indicating that T(2) distributions can be used to obtain information about cell membrane integrity in PEF-treated samples. 1H-NMR proved to be an effective method for nondestructive quantification of cell membrane rupture in onions.

  17. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure.

  18. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure. PMID:25515665

  19. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Br-containing oxaphosphole on Allium cepa L. root tip cells and mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The continuous production and release of chemicals into the environment has led to the need to assess their genotoxicity. Numerous organophosphorus compounds with different structures have been synthesized in recent years, and several oxaphosphole derivatives are known to possess biological activity. Such chemical compounds may influence proliferating cells and cause disturbances of the genetic material. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of 4-bromo-N,N-diethyl-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide (Br-oxph). In A. cepa cells, Br-oxph (10-9 M, 10 -6 M and 10 -3 M) reduced the mitotic index 48 h after treatment with the two highest concentrations, with no significant effect at earlier intervals. Mitotic cells showed abnormalities 24 h and 48 h after treatment with the two lowest concentrations but there were no consistent changes in interphase cells. Bone marrow cells from mice treated with Br-oxph (2.82 x 10 -3 μg/kg) also showed a reduced mitotic index after 48 h and a greater percentage of cells with aberrations (principally chromatid and isochromatid breaks). These findings indicate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Br-oxph in the two systems studied. PMID:21637696

  20. Tyramide-FISH mapping of single genes for development of an integrated recombination and cytogenetic map of chromosome 5 of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Dmitry; Divashuk, Mikhail; Havey, Michael J; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-03-01

    Chromosome 5 of onion carries major quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control dry-matter content, pungency and storability of bulbs, amounts and types of epicuticular waxes, and resistances to abiotic factors, all of which are of interest to breeders. SNPs, SSRs, and RFLPs in expressed regions of the onion genome have been genetically mapped, and we used these clones and sequences from the NCBI database to develop DNA probes for in situ hybridization to integrate the genetic and physical maps of onion chromosome 5. We produced genomic amplicons from expressed regions of the onion genome that carried both exons and introns in order to increase the hybridization specificity of the probes and to enlarge the target DNA sizes. Tyramide-FISH technique was used to increase the detection sensitivity of relatively short target DNA regions, which range from 950 to 2100 bp. Through the integration of genetic and chromosomal maps, we were able to estimate the distribution of recombination events along onion chromosome 5. We demonstrated the efficiency of chromosomal in situ mapping of exon-intron genomic clones for the extremely large genome of onion. PMID:26158384

  1. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids from Two Southern Italian Cultivars of Allium cepa L., Tropea (Red Onion) and Montoro (Copper Onion), and Their Capacity to Protect Human Erythrocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Carbone, Virginia; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Minasi, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2015-06-01

    Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates, and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called Ramata di Montoro (coppery onion from Montoro), grown in a niche area in southern Italy, and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, Tropea, also present in southern Italy. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the four anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations 20-230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO by about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, glutathione concentration in erythrocytes was reduced about 50% and pretreatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of glutathione level by about 15-22%. Qualitative

  2. Bulb Miser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Bulb-Miser was developed during NASA's Apollo program to protect the Saturn launch vehicle from electrical current surge. It is now being produced for the commercial market by Bulb-Miser, Inc., Houston, Texas. Technically known as a "temperature compensating thermistor," the Bulb-Miser is a simple, inexpensive device which looks like a washer about the size of a quarter. It is slipped between bulb and socket and can be used with any incandescent bulb that screws into a standard socket. In addition to delaying burnout, the Bulb-Miser also offers some reduction of electrical energy. But the economy of the device goes beyond energy use or bulb cost; to big users of bulbs, it makes possible substantially lower maintenance labor costs. One field test involving an apartment complex showed that it took two men 30 man hours monthly to replace light bulbs; after Bulb-Miser installation only nine man hours a month were needed. Bulb-Misers are used not only in private homes but also by hospitals, schools, hotels and motels, restaurants, banks and firms providing contract maintenance for large outdoor electric signs. The broadest use is in industrial facilities; the list of big companies which have purchased the Bulb-Miser reads like a Who's Who of American industry.

  3. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    PubMed

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies. PMID:11681618

  4. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries.

  5. DNA base composition of Allium genomes with different chromosome numbers.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, A; Brown, S C

    1997-12-31

    The present report examines whether the presence of an additional chromosome can be detected as modifying the nuclear DNA amount and base composition of the cell, determined here by flow cytometry of interphasic nuclei, using four monosomic additions (chromosomes 3C, 4C, 7C and 8C transmitted from Allium cepa to Allium fistulosum L.). A. cepa differs significantly from A. fistulosum in genome size (2C DNA = 33.2 pg in A. cepa and 23.3 pg in A. fistulosum) as well as in GC content (38.7% and 39.8%, respectively). The presence of an extra chromosome of A. cepa obviously increases the nuclear DNA amount above the A. fistulosum value but also alters the apparent mean GC content. By comparing the monosomic additions and the parental background, the DNA amount and base composition of each of the four single chromosomes were calculated to quantify the GC content per chromosome and therefore to deduce their initial contribution to the A. cepa genome. Taken individually, some chromosomes are atypical in terms of GC content: the single chromosome 3C is AT-rich, having only about only 25% GC. However, the three other chromosomes examined are typical of the A. cepa genome in base composition. Indeed, this biological panel gives access to chromosomal features via a cytometric assay of nuclei. It should facilitate quantification of GC-rich repetitive sequences forming heterochromatic domains located mainly at the telomeres in the monocotyledonous A. cepa genome. PMID:9461399

  6. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    PubMed

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  7. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    PubMed

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  8. Electrophoretic analysis of Allium alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Peffley, E B; Corgan, J N; Horak, K E; Tanksley, S D

    1985-12-01

    Meiotic pairing in an interspecific triploid of Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, 'Delta Giant', exhibits preferential pairing between the two A. cepa genomes, leaving the A. fistulosum genome as univalents. Multivalent pairing involving A. fistulosum chromosomes occurs at a low level, allowing for recombination between the genomes. Ten trisomies were recovered from the backcross of 'Delta Giant' x A. cepa cv., 'Temprana', representing a minimum of four of the eight possible alien addition lines. The alien addition lines possessed different A. fistulosum enzyme markers. Those markers, Adh-1, Idh-1 and Pgm-1 reside on different A. fistulosum chromosomes, whereas Pgi-1 and Idh-1 may be linked. Diploid, trisomic and hyperploid progeny were recovered that exhibited putative pink root resistance. The use of interspecific plants as a means to introgress A. fistulosum genes into A. cepa appears to be successful at both the trisomic and the diploid levels. If introgression can be accomplished using an interspecific triploid such as 'Delta Giant' to generate fertile alien addition lines and subsequent fertile diploids, or if introgression can be accomplished directly at the diploid level, this will have accomplished gene flow that has not been possible at the interspecific diploid level.

  9. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Tabanelli, G; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Sharifi-Rad, M; Yousaf, Z; Vallone, L; Setzer, W N; Iriti, M

    2016-08-29

    Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A. ampeloprasum (Leek), A. schoenoprasum (Chive) and A. ascalonicum (Shallot), focusing both on their ethnonutritional uses and potential as promising food biopreservative agents. Noteworthy, recent research has demonstrated Allium derivatives to be novel components in active edible coatings as well as nanoformulates.

  10. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Tabanelli, G; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Sharifi-Rad, M; Yousaf, Z; Vallone, L; Setzer, W N; Iriti, M

    2016-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A. ampeloprasum (Leek), A. schoenoprasum (Chive) and A. ascalonicum (Shallot), focusing both on their ethnonutritional uses and potential as promising food biopreservative agents. Noteworthy, recent research has demonstrated Allium derivatives to be novel components in active edible coatings as well as nanoformulates. PMID:27585263

  11. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  12. Inhibitory effect of seven Allium plants upon three Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Yin, M C; Tsao, S M

    1999-08-01

    Antifungal activity and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of extracts of garlic, bakeri garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese chive, scallion, onion bulb and shallot bulb against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were examined. These Allium plants possessed antifungal activity, with garlic showing the lowest MFC. With the exception of scallion, the inhibitory effect of Allium plants against three Aspergillus species decreased with increasing incubation and heating temperature (P < 0.05). Acetic acid treatments of the extracts increased the inhibitory effect for all plants against three fungi (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in this effect among the three pH (2, 4, 6) treatments (P > 0.05) investigated. Acetic acid, at pH = 4, plus heat treatments of the extracts resulted in a greater inhibitory effect for all Allium plants against the three fungi than heat treatment alone (P < 0.05). Treatments of the extracts with NaCl, at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 M, did not affect the inhibitory effect of the plant extracts. The combination of acetic acid plus Allium plants was indicated to be an effective way to inhibit fungal growth. PMID:10477070

  13. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  14. Residual behavior of quizalofop ethyl on onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Gurmail; Kumar, Rajinder; Chahil, G S; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-02-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide, is used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the dissipation kinetics of quizalofop ethyl on onion for two seasons. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in onion and soil was developed and validated. The recoveries of quizalofop ethyl residues from onion and soil at different spiking level range from 84.81 to 92.68 %. The limit of quantification of this method was found to be 0.01 μg g(-1). The risk assessment through consumption of the onion in comparison to its acceptable daily intake which is an important parameter for the safety of the consumer was also evaluated. Standardized methodology supported by recovery studies was adopted to estimate residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil. The average initial deposits of quizalofop ethyl on onion were observed to be 0.25 and 0.33 mg kg(-1), following single application of the herbicide at 50 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The half-life values (T (1/2)) of quizalofop ethyl on onion crop were worked out to be 0.85 and 0.79 days, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods.

  15. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  16. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  17. Experimenting with Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth M.

    1998-04-01

    What questions come about as learners explore physical materials? How does their learning deepen through inventing experiments and making and testing their own interpretations? I present episodes from the investigatory work of three adult learners who met regularly with me to explore batteries, bulbs and wires. I taught by engaging the learners' interest in these materials and by interactively researching their developing understandings. As both teacher and researcher, I used what I learned about their understandings to support their efforts to extend the body of experimental knowledge they were developing. Development is evident in experimental details. Initially, by hand-holding, they light a bulb with a wire and battery. Later, in soldering connections, they wonder about the bulb's internal structure. They research thoughts about this through dissecting a bulb -- and lighting its exposed filament. Such experimenting changed thinking: from imagining sequential loops, to questioning electrical contacts, to inferring circuital paths.

  18. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  19. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  20. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  1. Solar light bulb

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.

    1983-07-26

    A system for generating light directly using solar energy is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. A distributor shaft is provided for distributing the beam of visible solar radiation. A fork is provided in the distributor shaft to define a plurality of branch lines, each provided with a mirror at the intersection to direct the beam down the respective branch line to permit parallel fractions of the beam to be reflected off the respective mirrors and to pass down the respective branch line. A solar bulb is provided including a double walled upper bulbous portion including the inlet from the branch line and a pair of heat outlet tubes, and a double walled lower bulbous portion, the upper portion thereof being divergently reflective, with the lower portion having walls which are either transparent or translucent to provide greater light diffusion, and the space between the two walls being maintained under vacuum to provide heat insulation values. A structure is provided within the solar bulb for the absorption and radiation of the concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. Preferably structure is provided connected to the solar bulb to draw in outside air in the summer to direct it past the solar bulb and to air vent hot air produced at the solar bulb to the outside, thereby providing light with minimal heat in the summer. The same structure is operated in the winter to draw in household air to direct it past the solar bulb and to recirculate such heated air produced at the solar bulb to the house, thereby providing light and heat in the winter.

  2. Allium telomeres unmasked: the unusual telomeric sequence (CTCGGTTATGGG)n is synthesized by telomerase.

    PubMed

    Fajkus, Petr; Peška, Vratislav; Sitová, Zdeňka; Fulnečková, Jana; Dvořáčková, Martina; Gogela, Roman; Sýkorová, Eva; Hapala, Jan; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic divergence in Asparagales plants is associated with switches in telomere sequences. The last switch occurred with divergence of the genus Allium (Amaryllidaceae) from the other Allioideae (formerly Alliaceae) genera, resulting in uncharacterized telomeres maintained by an unknown mechanism. To characterize the unknown Allium telomeres, we applied a combination of bioinformatic processing of transcriptomic and genomic data with standard approaches in telomere biology such as BAL31 sensitivity tests, terminal restriction fragment analysis, the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Using these methods, we characterize the unusual telomeric sequence (CTCGGTTATGGG)n present in Allium species, demonstrate its synthesis by telomerase, and characterize the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit of Allium cepa. Our findings open up the possibility of studying the molecular details of the evolutionary genetic change in Allium telomeres and its possible role in speciation. Experimental studies addressing the implications of this change in terms of the interplay of telomere components may now be designed to shed more light on telomere functions and evolution in general. PMID:26716914

  3. Applications of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. (Z)-butanethial S-oxide and 1-butenyl thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-butenylcysteine S-oxide precursor from Allium siculum.

    PubMed

    Kubec, Roman; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A; Schraml, Jan; Vattekkatte, Abith; Block, Eric

    2010-01-27

    Lachrymatory (Z)-butanethial S-oxide along with several 1-butenyl thiosulfinates was detected by DART mass spectrometry upon cutting Allium siculum , a popular ornamental Allium species used in some cultures as a spice. (Z)-Butanethial S-oxide isolated from the plant was shown to be identical to a synthetic sample. Its likely precursor, (R(S),R(C),E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine S-oxide (homoisoalliin), was isolated from homogenates of A. siculum, and a closely related species Allium tripedale , and fully characterized. Through use of LC-MS, a series of related gamma-glutamyl derivatives were tentatively identified in A. siculum and A. tripedale homogenates, including gamma-glutamyl-(E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine and its S-oxide, gamma-glutamyl-S-butylcysteine and its S-oxide, and gamma-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and its S-oxide. Because compounds containing the 1-butenyl group have not been previously identified in genus Allium species, this work extends the range of known Allium sulfur compounds. The general applicability of DART mass spectrometry in identifying naturally occurring, thermally fragile thial S-oxides and thiosulfinates is illustrated with onion, Allium cepa , as well as a plant from a different genus, Petiveria alliacea .

  4. Illuminating Physics with Light Bulbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents ideas on how common household light bulbs can be used to develop interest in learning physics. Focuses on supermarket data taking and analyses, filament temperatures, detective work with three-way bulbs, and lifetime statistics. (YP)

  5. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  6. Nuclear light bulb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  7. First Report of Iris yellow spot virus on Onion and Leek in Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium porrum) are grown on approximately 600 ha in western Oregon annually for bulb and seed production. Plants with elongated to diamond-shaped, straw-colored lesions characteristic of those caused by Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) were observed on onion bulb crops an...

  8. Chemical composition of shallot (Allium ascalonicum Hort.).

    PubMed

    Fattorusso, Ernesto; Iorizzi, Maria; Lanzotti, Virginia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2002-09-25

    An extensive phytochemical analysis of the polar extracts from bulbs of shallot, Allium ascalonicum Hort., led to the isolation of two new furostanol saponins, named ascalonicoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and ascalonicoside B (4), respectively, along with compounds 2a and 2b, most likely extraction artifacts. On the basis of 2D NMR and mass spectrometry data, the structures of the novel compounds were elucidated as furost-5(6)-en-3beta,22alpha-diol 1beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl 26-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (1a), its epimer at position 22 (1b), and furost-5(6),20(22)-dien-3beta-ol 1beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl 26-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (4). This is the first report of furostanol saponins in A. ascalonicum. High concentrations of quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their glycosides were also isolated and described.

  9. Shedding Some Light on Fluorescent Bulbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilbert, Nicholas R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores some of the principles behind the working of fluorescent bulbs using a specially prepared fluorescent bulb with the white inner fluorescent coating applied along only half its length. Discusses the spectrum, the bulb plasma, and light production. (JRH)

  10. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  11. Antifungal effects of the volatile oils from Allium plants against Trichophyton species and synergism of the oils with ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Pyun, M-S; Shin, S

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to develop stable and safe antifungal agents from natural products (daily foodstuffs in particular), the activities of essential oils from Allium sativum for. pekinense, A. cepa, and A. fistulosum against three Trichophyton species responsible for severe mycoses in humans were investigated and compared with activity of allicin in this study. The fungistatic activities of Allium oils were evaluated by the broth dilution method and disk diffusion assay. The combined effects of Allium oils with ketoconazole were tested by the checkerboard titer test. Among the tested oils, A. sativum for. pekinense oil exhibited the strongest inhibition of growth of T. rubrum, T. erinacei, and T. soudanense with MICs (minimum inhibiting concentrations) of 64microg/ml, while the activities of A. cepa and A. fistulosum were relatively mild. The inhibiting activities of the oils on Sabouraud agar plates were dose dependent against Trichophyton species. Additionally, these oils showed significant synergistic antifungal activity when combined with ketoconazole in the checkerboard titer test and disk diffusion test. PMID:16716908

  12. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  13. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  14. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Izrail; Shanks, Bruce; Sumner, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  15. What Is the Real Efficiency of Bulbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacek, Lubos

    2012-01-01

    Bulbs are considered to be very inefficient sources of light. Bulbs give light and heat. As we use them for a long time, especially in winter, a large part of the heat produced by bulbs lowers the power consumption of the heating system. In this paper the problem of the real efficiency of a bulb is solved when both the lighting and heating effects…

  16. Bioactive S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide metabolites in the genus Allium: the chemistry of potential therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Rose, Peter; Whiteman, Matt; Moore, Philip K; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2005-06-01

    S-Alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides are odourless, non-protein sulfur amino acids typically found in members of the family Alliaceae and are the precursors to the lachrymatory and flavour compounds found in the agronomically important genus Allium. Traditionally, Allium species, particularly the onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (A. sativum), have been used for centuries in European, Asian and American folk medicines for the treatment of numerous human pathologies, however it is only recently that any significant progress has been made in determining their mechanisms of action. Indeed, our understanding of the role of Allium species in human health undoubtedly comes from the combination of several academic disciplines including botany, biochemistry and nutrition. During tissue damage, S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides are converted to their respective thiosulfinates or propanethial-S-oxide by the action of the enzyme alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4). Depending on the Allium species, and under differing conditions, thiosulfinates can decompose to form additional sulfur constituents including diallyl, methyl allyl, and diethyl mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexasulfides, the vinyldithiins and (E)- and (Z)-ajoene. Recent reports have shown onion and garlic extracts, along with several principal sulfur constituents, can induce phase II detoxification enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases (EC 2.5.1.18) and quinone reductase (QR) NAD(P)H: (quinine acceptor) oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2) in mammalian tissues, as well as also influencing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in numerous in vitro cancer cell models. Moreover, studies are also beginning to highlight a role of Allium-derived sulfur compounds in cardiovascular protection. In this review, we discuss the chemical diversity of S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide metabolites in the context of their biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms.

  17. Allium ekimianum: a new species (Amaryllidaceae) from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ekşi, Gülnur; Koyuncu, Mehmet; Özkan, Ayşe Mine Gençler

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Allium ekimianum is described here as a new species. This taxon belongs to the genus Allium section Allium and grows in Elazığ Province (East Anatolia, Turkey). It is a narrowly distributed species and morphologically most similar to Allium asperiflorum and Allium sintenisii, and Allium erzincanicum but it is clearly differentiated due to the curved stem, smooth pedicel surfaces, bracteole arrangements at pedicel bases, tepal lengths and surfaces. In this study, a comprehensive description, distribution map of Allium ekimianum, identification key, and detailed illustrations are provided for Allium ekimianum and related taxa. PMID:27212884

  18. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  19. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others. PMID:27393431

  20. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  1. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts. PMID:25764851

  2. Differentiation of Allium carlaviruses isolated from different parts of the world based on the viral coat protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, T; Matsumi, T; Deng, T C; Sako, I; Sumi, S

    1998-01-01

    Common primers which amplify the 3' terminal genomic RNAs of Allium carlaviruses were designed based on the nucleotide sequence of shallot latent virus (SLV), garlic latent virus (GLV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV). A total of fifteen cDNAs encoding the coat protein (CP) of the carlaviruses, including the biologically identified isolates SLV, GLV and GCLV as well as viruses from infected Allium plants cultivated in different parts of the world, were amplified by RT-PCR with the common primers. The cDNAs were then cloned and sequenced. The predicted viral CP amino acid sequence as well as the nucleotide sequence revealed that SLV and GLV, previously considered as separate viruses on the basis of their biological and physical properties, belong to the same species of the genus Carlavirus. Both viruses are clearly differentiated from GCLV. In addition, every SLV and GLV isolate from the Allium plants in Taiwan showed characteristic and common variations in their CP sequences, suggesting the possible presence of geographical variants. However, no apparent sequence variations of SLV and GLV related to their host plant species, including A. sativum, A. wakegi, A. chinense, A. fistulosum, A. cepa and A. ampeloprasum, were observed. These findings suggested that the sequence variations observed in the respective virus isolates do not correlate with the specificity of their infectivities for Allium species. PMID:9687867

  3. The role of diallyl sulfides and dipropyl sulfides in the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L.

    PubMed

    Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Melai, Bernardo; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from fresh bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L. ( Alliaceae), was studied. A. sativum (garlic) EO showed a good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone 14.8 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 21.1 mm), and Escherichia coli (inhibition zone 11.0 mm), whereas the EO of A. porrum (leek) had no antimicrobial activity. The main constituents of the garlic EO were diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide. The EO of A. porrum was characterized by the presence of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), dipropyl trisulfide, and dipropyl tetrasulfide. The antimicrobial activities of the DADS and DPDS were also studied. The results obtained suggest that the presence of the allyl group is fundamental for the antimicrobial activity of these sulfide derivatives when they are present in Allium or in other species (DADS inhibition zone on S. aureus 15.9 mm, P. aeruginosa 21.9 mm, E. coli 11.4 mm).

  4. Ascalin, a new anti-fungal peptide with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase-inhibiting activity from shallot bulbs.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2002-06-01

    An isolation procedure comprising ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and gel filtration on Superdex 75 was used to isolate an anti-fungal peptide from the bulbs of the shallot Allium ascalonicum. The peptide demonstrated a molecular weight of 9.5kDa, and possessed an N-terminal sequence YQCGQGG somewhat similar to chitinases from other Allium species which are however much larger in molecular weight. The peptide designated ascalin manifested a unique specific anti-fungal activity. It inhibited mycelial growth in the fungus Botrytis cinerea but not in the fungi Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Fusarium oxysporum. Ascalin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 10 microM, much more potently than Allium tuberosum anti-fungal protein and other anti-fungal proteins.

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from the Tunisian Allium nigrum L.

    PubMed Central

    Rouis-Soussi, Lamia Sakka; Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma El; Mahjoub, Aouni; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of different Allium nigrum L. organs and the antibacterial activity were evaluated. The study is particularly interesting because hitherto there are no reports on the antibacterial screening of this species with specific chemical composition. Therefore, essential oils from different organs (flowers, stems, leaves and bulbs) obtained separately by hydrodistillation were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc and microdilution assays. In total, 39 compounds, representing 90.8-96.9 % of the total oil composition, were identified. The major component was hexadecanoic acid (synonym: palmitic acid) in all the A. nigrum organs oils (39.1-77.2 %). We also noted the presence of some sesquiterpenes, mainly germacrene D (12.8 %) in leaves oil) and some aliphatic compounds such as n-octadecane (30.5 %) in bulbs oil. Isopentyl isovalerate, 14-oxy-α-muurolene and germacrene D were identified for the first time in the genus Allium L. All the essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity, especially against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The oil obtained from the leaves exhibited an interesting antibacterial activity, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 62.50 µg/mL against these two latter strains. The findings showed that the studied oils have antibacterial activity, and thus great potential for their application in food preservation and natural health products. PMID:26417280

  6. No-Light Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  7. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant.

  8. Quercetin from shallots (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) is more bioavailable than its glucosides.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Romaszko, Jerzy; Bucinski, Adam; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Honke, Joanna; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz K

    2008-05-01

    The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low bioavailability of quercetin aglycone provided to humans as a pure substance is the result of its low solubility in the digestive tract, we studied its bioavailability from dietary sources in which quercetin was dispersed in the food matrix. In a randomized crossover study, 9 volunteers took a single dose of either shallot flesh (99.2% quercetin glucosides and 0.8% quercetin aglycone) or dry shallot skin (83.3% quercetin aglycone and 16.7% quercetin glucosides), providing 1.4 mg quercetin per kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected before and after consumption of shallot preparations. Plasma quercetin was measured on HPLC with electrochemical detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The maximum plasma quercetin concentration of 1.02 +/- 0.13 micromol/L was reached at 2.33 +/- 0.50 h after shallot flesh consumption compared with 3.95 +/- 0.62 micromol/L at 2.78 +/- 0.15 h after dry skin consumption. The area under the concentration-time curve after dry skin consumption was 47.23 +/- 7.53 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1) and was significantly higher than that after shallot flesh intake (22.23 +/- 2.32 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1)). When provided along with dietary sources, quercetin aglycone is more bioavailable than its glucosides in humans. Results point to the food matrix as a key factor.

  9. Effect of different storage temperature on chemical composition of onion (Allium cepa L.) and its enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-03-01

    Onion stored at 4, 10, and 25 °C for 9 months were analyzed for changes in quercetin and its glucosidase content, enzymes, pyruvic acid, and sugar content. During storage, concentration of quercetin and its glucosidase showed an irregular variation at all studied temperature but at 4 °C the rate was high as compared to 10 and 25 °C. The enzymatic activity of Q4'G glucosidase and Q4'glucosyltransferase increased progressively until six months at 4, 10 and 25 °C, but later it started to decrease. At 4 and 10 °C, peroxidase activity increased during the first five weeks then decreased, while at 25 °C peroxidase activity decreased progressively after two months storage. Fructose, glucose and sucrose showed a different although more regular pattern by decreasing progressively at 4, 10 °C. At 4 °C fructose and glucose accumulated in the initial 3 to 4 months of storage while sucrose was unchanged. However, at 10 and 25 °C, fructose and glucose concentration continuously decreased, while sucrose increased consistently. Onion pyruvic acid increased at 4 and 10 °C during the first six months, while at 25 °C the fluctuation was observed during the whole storage period. Overall, we conclude that storage at 4 °C maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the positive changes. PMID:27570287

  10. Human exposure modelling of quercetin in onions (Allium cepa L.) following thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Brunton, N; Tiwari, U; Cummins, E

    2015-11-15

    Post-harvest treatment can influence levels of secondary metabolites in fruits and vegetables. Onions contain high levels of quercetin but are commonly heat-treated before consumption. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cooking treatments on the flavonoid (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) concentrations in onion and to determine, by simulation modelling, probable human exposure. Onion samples (n=3) were cooked using three processes (fry, bake and steam) for three time intervals (5, 10 and 15 min). Frying (<10 min) was the ideal cooking method which retained concentrations of 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg at >50%. Thermal processing (>10 min) was shown to decrease quercetin content in all samples. The simulation model predicted human absorption and exposure. Steaming (15 min) resulted in the lowest quercetin exposure, with mean values of 4000 and 400 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. Untreated onions had mean exposures of 14,000 and 3000 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively.

  11. Onion (Allium cepa L.) peel extract has anti-platelet effects in rat platelets.

    PubMed

    Ro, Ju-Ye; Ryu, Jin-Hyeob; Park, Hwa-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of onion peel extract (OPE) in collagen (5 μg/mL)-stimulated washed rat platelet aggregation were investigated. OPE inhibited platelet aggregation via inhibition of aggregation-inducing molecules, intracellular Ca(2+) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by blocking cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS) activities in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, OPE elevated the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), aggregation-inhibiting molecule, but not cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of OPE revealed that OPE contains quercetin, one of the major flavonoids, which has anti-platelet effect. In conclusion, we suggest that OPE is an effective inhibitor of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, it can be a promising and safe strategy for anti-cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25628983

  12. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia; Tang, Shouwei; Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I-V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  13. Identification of an NAC Transcription Factor Family by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Siyuan; Dai, Qiuzhong; Liu, Touming

    2016-01-01

    Although onion has been used extensively in the past for cytogenetic studies, molecular analysis has been lacking because the availability of genetic resources is limited. NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific proteins, and they play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. However, none of the onion NAC (CepNAC) genes had been identified thus far. In this study, the transcriptome of onion leaves was analyzed by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 102.9 million clean sequence reads were produced and used for de novo assembly, which generated 117,189 non-redundant transcripts. Of these transcripts, 39,472 were annotated for their function. In order to mine the CepNAC TFs, CepNAC genes were searched from the transcripts assembled, resulting in the identification of all 39 CepNAC genes. These 39 CepNAC proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analysis together with 47 NAC proteins of known function that were previously identified in other species. The results showed that they can be divided into five groups (NAC-I–V). Interestingly, the NAC-IV and -V groups were found to be likely related to the processes of secondary wall synthesis and stress response, respectively. The transcriptome analysis generated a substantial amount of transcripts, which will aid immensely in identifying important genes and accelerating our understanding of onion growth and development. Moreover, the discovery of 39 CepNAC TFs and the identification of the sequence conservation between them and NAC proteins published will provide a basis for further characterization and validation of their functions in the future. PMID:27331904

  14. Quercetin from shallots (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) is more bioavailable than its glucosides.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Romaszko, Jerzy; Bucinski, Adam; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Honke, Joanna; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz K

    2008-05-01

    The lipophilic character of quercetin suggests that it can cross enterocyte membranes via simple diffusion. Therefore, it should be more bioavailable than its glucosides, which require preliminary hydrolysis or active transport for absorption. However, the published human studies show that quercetin is less bioavailable than its glucosides. Assuming that low bioavailability of quercetin aglycone provided to humans as a pure substance is the result of its low solubility in the digestive tract, we studied its bioavailability from dietary sources in which quercetin was dispersed in the food matrix. In a randomized crossover study, 9 volunteers took a single dose of either shallot flesh (99.2% quercetin glucosides and 0.8% quercetin aglycone) or dry shallot skin (83.3% quercetin aglycone and 16.7% quercetin glucosides), providing 1.4 mg quercetin per kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected before and after consumption of shallot preparations. Plasma quercetin was measured on HPLC with electrochemical detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The maximum plasma quercetin concentration of 1.02 +/- 0.13 micromol/L was reached at 2.33 +/- 0.50 h after shallot flesh consumption compared with 3.95 +/- 0.62 micromol/L at 2.78 +/- 0.15 h after dry skin consumption. The area under the concentration-time curve after dry skin consumption was 47.23 +/- 7.53 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1) and was significantly higher than that after shallot flesh intake (22.23 +/- 2.32 micromol x h(-1) x L(-1)). When provided along with dietary sources, quercetin aglycone is more bioavailable than its glucosides in humans. Results point to the food matrix as a key factor. PMID:18424596

  15. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant. PMID:24138065

  16. Effect of turgor pressure on water permeability of Allium cepa epidermis cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Palta, J P; Stadelmann, E J

    1977-05-12

    Using onion epidermis layer a very accurate method for measuring the permeability of epidermis cells to water was standardized. In this method a 1.4 cm diameter epidermis disc was soaked in tritiated water (50 micronCi/ml) for about 1 hr. Next the disc was mounted in a specially designed elution chamber where it was held flat and washed on the noncuticular side with ordinary water. A constant flow rate, high enough to minimize unstirred layer effect, was used. Permeability was calculated in the usual way after separating different exponentials from the efflux curve of tritiated water. Turgor pressure of the cell was regulated by soaking thedisc in mannitol solutions containing tritiated water and washing it in the chamber with same concentration mannitol solution containing no radioactivity. Water permeability values were found to decrease less than 8% when the turgor pressure was decreased from 8 atm (full turgor) to zero. Turgor pressure had no significant effect on the water permeability of onion epidermal cells. Our results are contradictory to the findings of Zimmerman and Steudle (1974, J Membrane Biol. 16:331) but aresimilar to the findings of Tazawa and Kamiya (1966, Aust J. Biol. Sci. 19:399) and Kiyosawa and Tazawa (1972, Protoplasma 74:257).

  17. Interactions Between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the Center Rot Epidemic of Onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Barman, Apurba; Avci, Utku; Marasigan, Kathleen; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2016-09-01

    An Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, is the causal agent of an economically important disease of onion, center rot. P. ananatis is transmitted by an onion-infesting thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). However, interactions between F. fusca and P. ananatis as well as transmission mechanisms largely remain uncharacterized. This study investigated P. ananatis acquisition by thrips and transstadial persistence. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial acquisition on thrips fitness were also evaluated. When thrips larvae and adults were provided with acquisition access periods (AAP) on peanut leaflets contaminated with the bacterium, an exponentially positive relationship was observed between AAP and P. ananatis acquisition (R(2) ≥ 0.77, P = 0.01). P. ananatis persisted in thrips through several life stages (larvae, pupae, and adult). Despite the bacterial persistence, no significant effects on thrips fitness parameters such as fecundity and development were observed. Immunofluorescence microscopy of adult thrips with P. ananatis-specific antibody after 48 h AAP on contaminated food revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut. These results suggested that the pathogen is not circulative and could be transmitted through feces. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates produced center rot symptoms, whereas inoculation with rinsates potentially containing salivary secretions did not. These results provide evidence for stercorarian transmission (transmission through feces) of P. ananatis by F. fusca. PMID:27135678

  18. RAPDs and noncoding chloroplast DNA reveal a single origin of the cultivated Allium fistulosum from A. altaicum (Alliaceae).

    PubMed

    Friesen, N; Pollner, S; Bachmann, K; Blattner, F R

    1999-04-01

    The origin of the crop species Allium fistulosum (bunching onion) and its relation to its wild relative A. altaicum were surveyed with a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of five noncoding cpDNA regions and with a random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) analysis of nuclear DNA. Sixteen accessions of A. altaicum, 14 accessions of A. fistulosum, representing the morphological variability of the species, and five additional outgroup species from Allium section Cepa were included in this study. The RFLP analysis detected 14 phylogenetically informative character transformations, whereas RAPD revealed 126 polymorphic fragments. Generalized parsimony, neighbor-joining analysis of genetic distances, and a principal co-ordinate analysis were able to distinguish the two species, but only RAPD data allowed clarification of the interrelationship of the two taxa. The main results of this investigation were: (1) A. fistulosum is of monophyletic origin, and (2) A. fistulosum originated from an A. altaicum progenitor, making A. altaicum a paraphyletic species. Compared with A. altaicum the cultivated accessions of the bunching onion show less genetic variability, a phenomenon that often occurs in crop species due to the severe genetic bottleneck of domestication. Allium altaicum and A. fistulosum easily hybridize when grown together, and most garden-grown material is of recent hybrid origin. PMID:10205076

  19. Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation

    PubMed Central

    Chieregato, A; Calzolari, F; Trasforini, G; Targa, L; Latronico, N

    2003-01-01

    Background: Normal values of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation were obtained in 1942 and in 1963. Correct catheter positioning was not confirmed radiologically. Objectives: To replicate the measurements during angiographic catheterisation of the jugular bulb. Methods: Oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb (SjO2), inferior petrosal sinus (SipsO2), and internal jugular vein was bilaterally measured in 12 patients with Cushing's syndrome undergoing selective bilateral catheterisation of the inferior petrosal sinus. In addition, data from the two old series were reanalysed for comparison. Results: SjO2 values (44.7%) were significantly lower than in the two old series, particularly concerning the normal lower limit (54.6% and 55.0% respectively). Comparative analysis suggests that contamination with the extracerebral blood of the facial veins and inferior petrosal sinuses was responsible for falsely high SjO2 values in the two old series. Conclusions: The normal lower SjO2 limit is lower than previously recognised. This may have practical implications for treating severe head trauma patients. PMID:12754351

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Benodanil by using Allium and Micronucleus assays.

    PubMed

    Akyıl, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza; Eren, Yasin; Konuk, Muhsin; Sağlam, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of Benodanil fungicide by employing both mitotic index (MI) and mitotic phases on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and genotoxic effects by using in vitro micronucleus assay (MN) in human peripheral blood lymphocyte. In the Allium root growth inhibition test, the EC50 value was first determined as 25 ppm. Then, 2 × EC50 value (50 ppm), EC50 value (25 ppm), and 1/2 × EC50 value (12.5 ppm) were tested with different treatment periods (24, 48, and 72 h). Both negative and positive controls were also used in parallel experiments. We obtained that mitotic index and prophase index decreased when compared with the control in all concentrations. In the micronucleus assay, lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (250, 500, 750, and 1000 µg/ml) of Benodanil for 24 and 48 h. The results showed that Benodanil did not induce MN frequency in all concentrations of both treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased nuclear division index (NDI) significantly. It was concluded that Benodanil has a cytotoxic effects depending on decreasing of MI and NDI. PMID:26333298

  1. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid by Allium test and micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Özkara, Arzu; Akyıl, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza; Konuk, Muhsin; Sağlam, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid using both micronuleus (MN) assay, in human lymphocytes, and Allium cepa assay, in the root meristem cells. In Allium test, EC50 value was determined in order to selecting the test concentrations for the assay and the root tips were treated with 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations of pyracarbolid. One percent of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In the micronucleus assay, the cultures were treated with four concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) of pyracarbolid for 24 and 48 h, negative and positive controls were also used in the experiment parallely. The results showed that mitotic index (MI) significantly reduced with increasing the pyracarbolid concentration at each exposure time. It was also obtained that prophase and metaphase index decreased significantly in all concentration at each exposure time. Anaphase index decreased as well and results were found to be statistically significant, except 24 h. A significant increase was observed in MN frequency in all concentrations and both treatment periods when compared with the controls. Pyracarbolid also caused a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) in all concentration and both exposure time. PMID:25275653

  2. Chemical and Genetic Evaluation of Somaclonal Variants of Egyptian Garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Badria, F A; Ali, A A

    1999-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is used in the household and as an ingredient in many pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture technique provides an excellent source for induction of both chemical and genetic variation in garlic. A callus was induced on root meristem cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in the presence of kinetin, indole acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Shoots with a small bulb were produced on medium containing MS salts, B vitamins, and naphthalene acetic acid. Regenerated plants were transplanted into soil, and a nondivided bulb was formed in the first somaclonal generation (SCI). Plants were normal in their phenotypes in SC2. After four cycles of field cultivation, the selected somaclones (variants) in the fourth generation showed significant differences in bulb character compared with the original plants. Mitotic division and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated in meristimic root tip cells of regenerated plants for the first and fourth regeneration and for control plants. Somaclonal variant metaphase cells had the same chromosome number (2n = 16) as those of the controls. Allicin was measured quantitatively in the regenerated clones by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that some clones contained as much as 14.50 mg/g allicin, compared with 3.80 mg/g in the control plant. This finding suggests that this technique may be useful to improve the allicin content of Egyptian garlic, which could be utilized as a good source for garlic-containing pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:19281347

  3. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is the second most valuable vegetable crop in the world and the third most valuable in the USA. Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb r...

  4. Applications of thin-layer chromatography in extraction and characterisation of ajoene from garlic bulbs.

    PubMed

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Novel and inexpensive methods of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were employed for the extraction, characterisation and mechanism of quorum sensing inhibition by ajoene, a component from toluene garlic bulb (Allium sativum L.) extract (TGE). TLC profiling of TGE was carried out using ethyl acetate as solvent. Out of total spots extracted from TLC, four spots exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential. Among those, spot 5 was identified as Z-ajoene by TLC and confirmed by NMR and MS. HPLC analysis indicated 97.7% purity for purified ajoene. TLC densitometric analysis quantified 221.08 μmol/g of ajoene in TGE and indicated that ajoene is stable at 4°C and at acidic pH. HPTLC profiling showed that ajoene exhibits QSI effect by inhibiting the production of both long-chain acyl homoserine lactones and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) by P. aeruginosa and also by inactivating PQS molecules.

  5. Transmission of alien chromosomes from selfed progenies of a complete set of Allium monosomic additions: the development of a reliable method for the maintenance of a monosomic addition set.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Wako, T; Kojima, A; Yamauchi, N; Tashiro, Y

    2003-12-01

    Selfed progeny of a complete set of Allium fistulosum - Allium cepa monosomic addition lines (2n = 2x + 1 = 17, FF+1A-FF+8A) were produced to examine the transmission rates of respective alien chromosomes. All eight types of the selfed monosomic additions set germinable seeds. The numbers of chromosomes (2n) in the seedlings were 16, 17, or 18. The eight extra chromosomes varied in transmission rate (%) from 9 (FF+2A) to 49 (FF+8A). The complete set of monosomic additions was reproduced successfully by self-pollination. A reliable way to maintain a set of Allium monosomic additions was developed using a combination of two crossing methods, selfing and female transmission. FF+8A produced two seedlings with 18 chromosomes. Cytogenetical analyses, including GISH, showed that the seedlings were disomic addition plants carrying two entire homologous chromosomes from A. cepa in an integral diploid background of A. fistulosum. Flow cytometry analysis showed that a double dose of the alien 8A chromosome caused fluorescence intensity values spurring in DNA content, and isozyme analysis showed increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity at the gene locus Gdh-1.

  6. Transmission of alien chromosomes from selfed progenies of a complete set of Allium monosomic additions: the development of a reliable method for the maintenance of a monosomic addition set.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Wako, T; Kojima, A; Yamauchi, N; Tashiro, Y

    2003-12-01

    Selfed progeny of a complete set of Allium fistulosum - Allium cepa monosomic addition lines (2n = 2x + 1 = 17, FF+1A-FF+8A) were produced to examine the transmission rates of respective alien chromosomes. All eight types of the selfed monosomic additions set germinable seeds. The numbers of chromosomes (2n) in the seedlings were 16, 17, or 18. The eight extra chromosomes varied in transmission rate (%) from 9 (FF+2A) to 49 (FF+8A). The complete set of monosomic additions was reproduced successfully by self-pollination. A reliable way to maintain a set of Allium monosomic additions was developed using a combination of two crossing methods, selfing and female transmission. FF+8A produced two seedlings with 18 chromosomes. Cytogenetical analyses, including GISH, showed that the seedlings were disomic addition plants carrying two entire homologous chromosomes from A. cepa in an integral diploid background of A. fistulosum. Flow cytometry analysis showed that a double dose of the alien 8A chromosome caused fluorescence intensity values spurring in DNA content, and isozyme analysis showed increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity at the gene locus Gdh-1. PMID:14663528

  7. Antiproliferative activity of chloroformic extract of Persian Shallot, Allium hirtifolium, on tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghodrati Azadi, Hamideh; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Ahmadian, Shahin; Vahedi, Fatemeh

    2008-03-01

    Allium hirtifolim (Persian Shallot) belongs to Allium genus (Alliaceae family). We investigated the in vitro effects of chloroformic extract of A. hirtifolium and its Allicin on the proliferation of HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF7 (human, caucasion, breast, adenocarcinoma) and L929 (mouse, C3H/An, connective) cell lines. Our results showed that components of A. hirtifolium might inhibit proliferation of tumor cell lines. This inhibition in HeLa and MCF-7 cells was dose-dependent. The presence of Allicin was evaluated by TLC method in bulbs and the extract of A. hirtifolium was analyzed by HPLC. MTT test was performed 24, 48 and 72 h after cell culture. A significant decrease in cell lines was observed in HeLa and MCF-7 as compared to L929 cell lines. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed a large number of apoptotic cells in treated HeLa and MCF-7 cell groups, but no effects in L929 cells. Therefore A. hirtifolium might be a candidate for tumor suppression.

  8. Antiproliferative activity of chloroformic extract of Persian Shallot, Allium hirtifolium, on tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghodrati Azadi, Hamideh; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Ahmadian, Shahin; Vahedi, Fatemeh

    2008-03-01

    Allium hirtifolim (Persian Shallot) belongs to Allium genus (Alliaceae family). We investigated the in vitro effects of chloroformic extract of A. hirtifolium and its Allicin on the proliferation of HeLa (cervical cancer), MCF7 (human, caucasion, breast, adenocarcinoma) and L929 (mouse, C3H/An, connective) cell lines. Our results showed that components of A. hirtifolium might inhibit proliferation of tumor cell lines. This inhibition in HeLa and MCF-7 cells was dose-dependent. The presence of Allicin was evaluated by TLC method in bulbs and the extract of A. hirtifolium was analyzed by HPLC. MTT test was performed 24, 48 and 72 h after cell culture. A significant decrease in cell lines was observed in HeLa and MCF-7 as compared to L929 cell lines. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed a large number of apoptotic cells in treated HeLa and MCF-7 cell groups, but no effects in L929 cells. Therefore A. hirtifolium might be a candidate for tumor suppression. PMID:19002856

  9. From Batteries and Bulbs to High Tech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Maurice L.; Schwartz, Ivan C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a new, high-technology approach to making bulbs light in series and parallel circuits. Contains diagrams that illustrate the circuit patterns. Provides suggestions for applying the electronic principles that were addressed in the activities. (ML)

  10. Light On the Behavior of Light Bulbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a problem (on page 523 of "College Physics," by Sears, Zemansky, and Young, published by Addison-Wesley, 1980) concerning light bulbs and resistance. Shows why the assumption of constant resistance is unrealistic and provides guidelines for revision. (DH)

  11. The Amaryllis--From Bulb to Blossom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radue, Anna K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the life cycle of the Amaryllis plant from bulb to blossom. Suggests 12 activities in which students monitor plant growth, examine plant parts, make drawings of the plant, and eat flowers of other plants. (MDH)

  12. Collection and seed production of Allium acuminatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a component of Greater Sage-Grouse and Southern Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restoration projects and conservation. Before a native plant can be used in large or small projects in the landscape quantities of propagules nee...

  13. The integration of recombination and physical maps in a large-genome monocot using haploid genome analysis in a trihybrid allium population.

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, L I; de Melo, P E; van Heusden, A W; Kik, C

    2005-03-01

    Integrated mapping in large-genome monocots has been carried out on a limited number of species. Furthermore, integrated maps are difficult to construct for these species due to, among other reasons, the specific plant populations needed. To fill these gaps, Alliums were chosen as target species and a new strategy for constructing suitable populations was developed. This strategy involves the use of trihybrid genotypes in which only one homeolog of a chromosome pair is recombinant due to interspecific recombination. We used genotypes from a trihybrid Allium cepa x (A. roylei x A. fistulosum) population. Recombinant chromosomes 5 and 8 from the interspecific parent were analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization visualization of recombination points and the physical positions of recombination were integrated into AFLP linkage maps of both chromosomes. The integrated maps showed that in Alliums recombination predominantly occurs in the proximal half of chromosome arms and that 57.9% of PstI/MseI markers are located in close proximity to the centromeric region, suggesting the presence of genes in this region. These findings are different from data obtained on cereals, where recombination rate and gene density tends to be higher in distal regions. PMID:15654085

  14. Fluorescent light bulbs - energy saver or environmental hazard?

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    Businesses and homeowners have installed millions of fluorescent light bulbs in buildings around the country in the last few decades. Because fluorescent light bulbs are energy efficient and save electricity, environmentalists and governmental officials - including U.S. EPA - have promoted their use. Yet, fluorescent bulbs raise environmental concerns of their own. When these bulbs burn out, environmental and facility managers face complex issues about whether the old bulbs are regulated as hazardous waste.

  15. Tumorigenesis, metabolism, speciation, bioavailability, and tissue deposition of selenium in selenium-enriched ramps (Allium tricoccum).

    PubMed

    Whanger, P D; Ip, C; Polan, C E; Uden, P C; Welbaum, G

    2000-11-01

    Ramps (Allium tricoccum) were grown either in a mixture of vermiculite and peat moss or hydroponically with various concentrations of selenium as sodium selenate. The concentrations used were from 30 to 300 mg of selenium/kg of vermiculite-peat moss or from 10 to 120 mg/L in the hydroponic solutions. Levels as high as 784 mg of selenium/kg were obtained in the ramp bulbs when grown with high levels of selenium in the vermiculite-peat moss, and up to 600 mg of selenium/kg was obtained hydroponically. The predominant form of selenium in the ramp bulbs at all concentrations of selenium was Se-methylselenocysteine, with lower amounts of selenate, Se-cystathionine, and glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine. There was a approximately 43% reduction in chemically induced mammary tumors when rats were fed a diet with Se-enriched ramps. Dietary Se-enriched ramps for rats did not result in excessive tissue selenium accumulation or undesirable side effects. Bioavailability studies with rats indicated that selenium in ramps was 15-28% more available for regeneration of glutathione peroxidase activity than inorganic selenium as selenite. Therefore, Se-enriched ramps appear to have potential for the reduction of cancer in humans. PMID:11087545

  16. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  17. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. PMID:26607106

  18. Genetic analysis of the interaction between Allium species and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Galván, Guillermo A; Kuyper, Thomas W; Burger, Karin; Keizer, L C Paul; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Kik, Chris; Scholten, Olga E

    2011-03-01

    The response of Allium cepa, A. roylei, A. fistulosum, and the hybrid A. fistulosum × A. roylei to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices was studied. The genetic basis for response to AMF was analyzed in a tri-hybrid A. cepa × (A. roylei × A. fistulosum) population. Plant response to mycorrhizal symbiosis was expressed as relative mycorrhizal responsiveness (R') and absolute responsiveness (R). In addition, the average performance (AP) of genotypes under mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal conditions was determined. Experiments were executed in 2 years, and comprised clonally propagated plants of each genotype grown in sterile soil, inoculated with G. intraradices or non-inoculated. Results were significantly correlated between both years. Biomass of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants was significantly positively correlated. R' was negatively correlated with biomass of non-mycorrhizal plants and hence unsuitable as a breeding criterion. R and AP were positively correlated with biomass of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. QTLs contributing to mycorrhizal response were located on a linkage map of the A. roylei × A. fistulosum parental genotype. Two QTLs from A. roylei were detected on chromosomes 2 and 3 for R, AP, and biomass of mycorrhizal plants. A QTL from A. fistulosum was detected on linkage group 9 for AP (but not R), biomass of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and the number of stem-borne roots. Co-segregating QTLs for plant biomass, R and AP indicate that selection for plant biomass also selects for enhanced R and AP. Moreover, our findings suggest that modern onion breeding did not select against the response to AMF, as was suggested before for other cultivated species. Positive correlation between high number of roots, biomass and large response to AMF in close relatives of onion opens prospects to combine these traits for the development of more robust onion cultivars. PMID:21222096

  19. Centrifugal innervation of the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Shinji; Yamamoto, Noboru

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been known for decades that the mammalian olfactory bulb receives a substantial number of centrifugal inputs from other regions of the brain, relatively few data have been available on the function of the centrifugal olfactory system. Knowing the role of the centrifugal projection and how it works is of critical importance to fully understanding olfaction. The centrifugal fibers can be classified into two groups, a group that release neuromodulators, such as noradrenaline, serotonin, or acetylcholine, and a group originating in the olfactory cortex. Accumulating evidence suggests that centrifugal neuromodulatory inputs are associated with acquisition of odor memory. Because the distribution of the terminals on these fibers is diffuse and widespread, the neuromodulatory inputs must affect diverse subsets of bulbar neurons at the same time. In contrast, knowledge of the role of centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortical areas is limited. Judging from recent morphological evidence, these fibers may modify the activity of neurons located in sparse and discrete loci in the olfactory bulb. Given the modular organization of the olfactory bulb, centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortex may help coordinate the activities of restricted subsets of neurons belonging to distinct functional modules in an odor-specific manner. Because the olfactory cortex receives inputs from limbic and neocortical areas in addition to inputs from the bulb, the centrifugal inputs from the cortex can modulate odor processing in the bulb in response to non-olfactory as well as olfactory cues.

  20. REGULATOR OF BULB BIOGENESIS1 (RBB1) Is Involved in Vacuole Bulb Formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Won; Alonso, Jose M; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Vacuoles are dynamic compartments with constant fluctuations and transient structures such as trans-vacuolar strands and bulbs. Bulbs are highly dynamic spherical structures inside vacuoles that are formed by multiple layers of membranes and are continuous with the main tonoplast. We recently carried out a screen for mutants with abnormal trafficking to the vacuole or aberrant vacuole morphology. We characterized regulator of bulb biogenesis1-1 (rbb1-1), a mutant in Arabidopsis that contains increased numbers of bulbs when compared to the parental control. rbb1-1 mutants also contain fewer transvacuolar strands than the parental control, and we propose the hypothesis that the formation of transvacuolar strands and bulbs is functionally related. We propose that the bulbs may function transiently to accommodate membranes and proteins when transvacuolar strands fail to elongate. We show that RBB1 corresponds to a very large protein of unknown function that is specific to plants, is present in the cytosol, and may associate with cellular membranes. RBB1 is involved in the regulation of vacuole morphology and may be involved in the establishment or stability of trans-vacuolar strands and bulbs.

  1. Allium acuminatum Seed Production: First Look at Cultural Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a report on the first year data for a two year project assessing seed production parameters for the native forb Allium acuminatum. As a component of greater sage-grouse and Southern Idaho ground squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restor...

  2. Antioxidant role of oils isolated from garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and onion (Allium cepa Linn) on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Helen, A; Rajasree, C R; Krishnakumar, K; Augusti, K T; Vijayammal, P L

    1999-10-01

    Nicotine, a major component of tobacco, is partly responsible for the development of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that antioxidant nutrients are protective against degenerative diseases. So we have studied the antioxidant effect of oils isolated from onion and garlic on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissues. The lipid peroxidation products and scavenging enzymes were assessed in liver, lungs, heart and kidney. The rats were treated with 0.6 mg nicotine/kg bw and simultaneously given 100 mg garlic or onion oils/kg bw for 21 d. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides concentrations were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine-treated rats. Both the garlic oil and onion oil supplementation to nicotine-treated rats increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in nicotine-treated rats, but there was a trend to increased glutathione content. With garlic oil or onion oil supplementation, nicotine-treated rats had increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of glutathione. These results indicate that oils of garlic and onion are effective antioxidants against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine. PMID:10509436

  3. Demonstrating Absorption Spectra Using Commercially Available Incandescent Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.

    In introductory astronomy courses, I typically introduce the three types of spectra: continuous, absorption line, and emission line. It is standard practice to use an ordinary incandescent light bulb to demonstrate the production of a continuous spectrum, and gas discharge tubes to demonstrate the production of an emission line spectrum. The concept of an absorption spectrum is more difficult for students to grasp. A variety of commercially available light bulbs can be used to demonstrate absorption spectra. Here I discuss the use of specialty incandescent light bulbs to demonstrate the phenomenon of absorption of the continuous spectrum produced by a hot tungsten filament. The bulbs examined include the GE Reveal bulb, yellow anti-insect lights, colored party bulbs, and an incandescent "black light" bulb. The bulbs can be used in a lecture or laboratory setting.

  4. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  5. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  6. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  7. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    SciTech Connect

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  8. Clastogenicity of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-D and butachlor evaluated by Allium root tip test.

    PubMed

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul Farah, M; Niamat Ali, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2002-02-15

    The meristematic mitotic cells of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. For assessing genotoxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor), 50% effective concentration (EC(50)), c-mitosis, stickiness, chromosome breaks and mitotic index (MI) were used as endpoints of genotoxicity. EC(50) values for PCP and butachlor are 0.73 and 5.13 ppm, respectively. 2,4-D evidently induced morphological changes at higher concentrations. Some changes like crochet hooks, c-tumours and broken roots were unique to 2,4-D at 5-20 ppm. No such abnormalities were found in PCP and butachlor treated groups, however, root deteriorated and degenerated at higher concentrations (<3 ppm) in PCP. MI in 2,4-D showed a low average of 14.32% followed by PCP (19.53%), while in butachlor it was recorded 71.6%, which is near to the control value. All chemicals induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant level. The highest chromosome aberration frequency (11.90%) was recorded in PCP at 3 ppm. Large number of c-mitotic anaphases indicated that butachlor acts as potent spindle inhibitor, whereas, breaks, bridges, stickiness and laggards were most frequently found in PCP showing that it is a potent clastogen. PMID:11815249

  9. Clastogenicity of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-D and butachlor evaluated by Allium root tip test.

    PubMed

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul Farah, M; Niamat Ali, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2002-02-15

    The meristematic mitotic cells of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. For assessing genotoxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor), 50% effective concentration (EC(50)), c-mitosis, stickiness, chromosome breaks and mitotic index (MI) were used as endpoints of genotoxicity. EC(50) values for PCP and butachlor are 0.73 and 5.13 ppm, respectively. 2,4-D evidently induced morphological changes at higher concentrations. Some changes like crochet hooks, c-tumours and broken roots were unique to 2,4-D at 5-20 ppm. No such abnormalities were found in PCP and butachlor treated groups, however, root deteriorated and degenerated at higher concentrations (<3 ppm) in PCP. MI in 2,4-D showed a low average of 14.32% followed by PCP (19.53%), while in butachlor it was recorded 71.6%, which is near to the control value. All chemicals induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant level. The highest chromosome aberration frequency (11.90%) was recorded in PCP at 3 ppm. Large number of c-mitotic anaphases indicated that butachlor acts as potent spindle inhibitor, whereas, breaks, bridges, stickiness and laggards were most frequently found in PCP showing that it is a potent clastogen.

  10. Saponins isolated from Allium chinense G. Don and antitumor-promoting activities of isoliquiritigenin and laxogenin from the same drug.

    PubMed

    Baba, M; Ohmura, M; Kishi, N; Okada, Y; Shibata, S; Peng, J; Yao, S S; Nishino, H; Okuyama, T

    2000-05-01

    Investigation of the Chinese crude drug "Xiebai," the bulbs of Allium chinense G. Don (Liliaceae), led to the isolation of 2 saponins, xiebai-saponin I (laxogenin 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-[alpha-arabinopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside) (1) and laxogenin 3-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and the aglycone, laxogenin (3), together with 2 chalcones, isoliquiritigenin (4) and isoliquiritigenin-4-O-glucoside (5), and beta-sitosterol glucoside (6). Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro for their inhibitory effect on the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated 32Pi-incorporation into phospholipids of HeLa cells. In addition to this, laxogenin (3) was proven to have an antitumor-promoting activity in a two-stage lung carcinogenesis experiment. PMID:10823685

  11. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1973-01-01

    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  12. If the Sun Were a Light Bulb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adney, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students compare the sun's brightness with that of a light bulb of known luminosity (in watts) to determine the luminosity of the sun is presented. As an extension, the luminosity value that the student obtains for the sun can also be used to estimate the sun's surface temperature. (KR)

  13. Spectroscopic Analysis of Today's Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluhar, Edward

    2012-03-01

    In today's consumer market, there are many different light bulbs that claim to produce `natural' light. In my research, I both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed this claim. First, utilizing a spectroscope, I compared the spectra emitted by different brands and types of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs to the spectra emitted by the Sun. Once the bulbs were quantitatively analyzed, I proceeded to qualitatively analyze them by exposing subjects to the different bulbs. The subjects were asked to rate the quality of color in different pictures illuminated by each type of CFL. From these tests, I was able to determine the ``best'' CFL bulbs, and conclude whether the health risks associated with CFL bulbs outweigh the cost savings, longevity of the bulbs, and/or quality of light benefits.

  14. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting.

  15. Influence of Sulfur Induced Stress on Oxidative Status and Antioxidative Machinery in Leaves of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Neelam; Pandey, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the effect of sulfur stress on growth, oxidative status, and antioxidative metabolism. Onion plants were treated with three different levels of sulfur, namely, 1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mM S L(-1). Plants raised with 4.0 mM S L(-1) represent sufficient growth for the best vegetative yield. Plants supplied with 1.0 and 8.0 mM S L(-1) showed retarded growth, chlorosis, and reduction in biomass and photoassimilatory pigments. Tissue sulfur concentration and cysteine were increased with increasing sulfur supply. Carbohydrates (sugars and starch) were accumulated in sulfur stressed plants. Hydrogen peroxide levels were increased in sulfur stressed plants. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were also increased which was an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and nonenzymatic (asorbate) antioxidative components were enhanced in sulfur stressed plants. Glutathione was increased with increasing sulfur supply. The present study showed that the adverse effects of inadequate sulfur supply result in irregular metabolic activities and antioxidant machinery. PMID:27379315

  16. Characterisation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by-products as food ingredients with antioxidant and antibrowning properties.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Eduvigis; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2008-06-01

    Processing and stabilising onion wastes (residues and surpluses of onion) could solve the environmental problem derived from a great onion wastes disposal. Moreover, obtaining stabilised onion by-products as natural antioxidant food ingredients could be advantageous to food industry, not only to improve the use of onion wastes but also to obtain new natural and functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to characterise onion by-products - juice, paste and bagasse - from two Spanish onion cultivars - 'Figueres' and 'Recas' - that have been stabilised by thermal treatments - freezing, pasteurisation and sterilisation - in order to evaluate the effect of the processing and stabilisation treatment on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme inhibition capacity. The results obtained triggered to choose one onion by-product offering better characteristics for its potential development as a food ingredient: source of antioxidant and antibrowning bioactive compounds. In this study it was shown that processing of 'Recas' onion wastes to obtain a paste (mixture content) and applying a mild pasteurisation were the best alternatives to obtain an interesting stabilised onion by-product with good antioxidant properties that made useful its use as functional food ingredient.

  17. Potassium chloride as stomatal osmoticum in Allium cepa L. , a species devoid of starch in guard cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabl, H.; Raschke, K.

    1980-01-01

    KCl was, in general, the major osmoticum in guard cells, irrespective of whether stomata had opened on leaves or in epidermal strips floating on solutions. The solute requirement varied between 50 and 110 femtomoles KCl per micrometer increase in aperture per pair of guard cells. Stomata did not open on solutions of K iminodiacetate, presumably because its anion could not be taken up. Stomata opened if KCl or KBr was provided. Taken together, the results indicate that the absence of starch from guard cells deprived them of the ability to produce malate in amounts of osmotic consequence and that the presence of absorbable Cl/sup -/ (or Br/sup -/) was necessary for stomatal opening. Previous nutrient supply of the plants determined whether the charges of K/sup +/ in guard cells were completely balanced by Cl/sup -/ or only partially. Addition of K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the nutrient solution reduced the participation of Cl/sup -/ in stomatal ion transfer, even if epidermal strips of these plants were later exposed to KCl solution. Although malate appeared not to participate in stomatal ion transfer in onion, epidermal samples of this species did contain malate. Malate accumulated in the epidermis of leaves put into the light but disappeared from illuminated epidermal strips floating on solutions. In whole leaves, epidermal malate content was positively correlated with stomatal opening; in epidermal strips floating on solutions, the correlation was negative or absent.

  18. Proteomic changes associated with freeze-thaw injury and post-thaw recovery in onion (Allium cepa L.) scales.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keting; Renaut, Jenny; Sergeant, Kjell; Wei, Hui; Arora, Rajeev

    2013-04-01

    The ability of plants to recover from freeze-thaw injury is a critical component of freeze-thaw stress tolerance. To investigate the molecular basis of freeze-thaw recovery, here we compared the proteomes of onion scales from unfrozen control (UFC), freeze-thaw injured (INJ), and post-thaw recovered (REC) treatments. Injury-related proteins (IRPs) and recovery-related proteins (RRPs) were differentiated according to their accumulation patterns. Many IRPs decreased right after thaw without any significant re-accumulation during post-thaw recovery, while others were exclusively induced in INJ tissues. Most IRPs are antioxidants, stress proteins, molecular chaperones, those induced by physical injury or proteins involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, these observations suggest that while freeze-thaw compromises the constitutive stress protection and energy supply in onion scales, it might also recruit 'first-responders' (IRPs that were induced) to mitigate such injury. RRPs, on the other hand, are involved in the injury-repair program during post-thaw environment conducive for recovery. Some RRPs were restored in REC tissues after their first reduction right after thaw, while others exhibit higher abundance than their 'constitutive' levels. RRPs might facilitate new cellular homeostasis, potentially by re-establishing ion homeostasis and proteostasis, cell-wall remodelling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, defence against possible post-thaw infection, and regulating the energy budget to sustain these processes.

  19. Polyphenolics from various extracts/fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    In order to determine antioxidant activity, the five extracts/fractions of red onion peel were studied for their total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), assayed by DPPH radical in the terms of anti-radical power (ARP) and reducing power (RP), expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml. High TPC (384.7 +/- 5.0 mg GAE/g), TFC (165.2+/- 3.2 mg QE/g), AOA (97.4 +/- 7.6%), ARP (75.3 +/-4.5) and RP (1.6 +/-0.3 ASE/ml) were found for the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. EA fraction had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventive or scavenging capacities against FeCl3-induced lipid peroxidation, protein fragmentation, hydroxyl (site-specific and non-site-specific), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. EA fraction also showed dose dependent antimutagenic activity by following the inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA102) and hydroxyl radical-induced nicking in plasmid pUC18 DNA. HPLC and MS/MS analysis showed the presence of ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. The large amount of polyphenols contained in EA fraction may cause its strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. This information shows that EA fraction of red onion peel can be used as natural antioxidant in nutraceutical preparations. PMID:19425188

  20. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  1. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    PubMed Central

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P.; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2–3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20–23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis efficiency. PMID:26074944

  2. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on Cyanide-induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, K F; Maduagwu, E N

    2014-12-29

    The protective effects of onion was assessed in the Kidney of rats following sub-acute exposure to cyanide. These effects were compared to those of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), a classical antidote of cyanide toxicity. The rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Group 1 was administered distilled water, Group 2,3,4, 5, and 6 were administered 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day, 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 300 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7 mg KCN/kg bwt/day, 600 mg onion/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day, 600mg Na2S2O3/kg bwt/day+ 7mgKCN/kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Group 3, 4 and 5 were pre-administered with 300mg onion/kg bwt/day, 600mg onion/kg bwt/day and 600mg Na2S2O3 /kg bwt/day respectively for 2 weeks. Serum and urine creatinine and urea level were assessed as a measure of kidney function. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters were estimated in Kidney. Serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly higher in the cyanide treated rats compared with control. This was accompanied by significant reduction in the urine level of creatinine and urea. Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 reverse the situation in both the serum and urine. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats treated with cyanide (3.846±0.20μg/g) was significantly increased in the kidney relative to control (0.691±0.15μg/g). This was accompanied with a decreased in antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (2.0±0.09U/mg), Catalase (CAT) (0.014±0.001katf),Glutathione-S-Tranferase (GST) (0.015±0.009nMol/mg) and non-enzymatic antioxidant Reduced Glutathione (GSH) (4.006±0.09μg/ml) compared with control (4.8±0.13 U/mg, 0.047±0.001 katf, 0.022±0.0013 nMol/mg, 6.802±0.2 μg/ml respectively). Co-administration with onion extract and Na2S2O3 significantly increased these antioxidant enzymes and significantly decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde in the kidney. The results indicate that onion extract reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and increased antioxidant status of animals exposed to cyanide in a dose dependent manner.

  3. Nutrient content and yield in relation to top breakover in onion developed from greenhouse-grown transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) generally are harvested based on percentage of tops broken over. Since plant metabolism changes over time, percentage of tops broken over may be used to determine a harvest time to deliver marketable bulbs with the best nutrient content. The cultivars Candy and Texas Grano ...

  4. Economics of supplemental weed control applications on spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research conducted to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) measured weed control efficacy, impact of herbicides on crop injury, and the resulting weed competition on crop yields and marketable bulb size. Weed competition produ...

  5. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  6. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  7. Hearing light from an incandescent bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Du, Li; Zhang, Youtian; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun; Gao, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting experiment to turn the vibratory light from an incandescent light bulb into audible sound. Inspired by research on the photoacoustic effect (PAE) using lasers, we construct a similar device in an undergraduate physics laboratory with everyday articles including light bulbs, glass beakers and soot. Using our device, a distinct sound is detected and analysed experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the attenuation effect of the acoustic signal, which can be explained by modifying the existing theory and using the adiabatic boundary condition according to the incident light source we use. This demonstration is a comprehensive experiment with the combination of sound, light and heat. The modification on the model can help undergraduate students gain an intuitive understanding of different boundary conditions.

  8. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Alister U.; Sanchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Collado, Paloma; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odors and whether they can be investigated under anesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odor smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odor under anesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes) electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odor was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odor during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odor. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50%) of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odors prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odor many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odors as well as in evoked glutamate and GABA

  9. The Allium Test--A Simple, Eukaryote Genotoxicity Assay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Segall, M. A.; Fox, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the allium test in which roots are excised from onion bulblets grown in aqueous solutions of a test agent. Root tips are then isolated and stained with aceto-orcein, and chromosomal aberrations are microscopically observed. (Author/AIM)

  10. Characterisation of some carla- and potyviruses from bulb crops in China. Brief report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiong; Chen, Jien Ping; Adams, M J

    2002-01-01

    Conserved carla- and potyvirus primers were used in RT-PCR to amplify virus fragments from garlic and other bulb crops in China and the fragments were subsequently sequenced and compared in phylogenetic analyses. Garlic plants from Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shangdong and Yunnan provinces all contained at least one isolate each of Garlic latent virus (genus Carlavirus), Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, genus Potyvirus) and Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV, genus Potyvirus). The complete sequence of a Zhejiang isolate of LYSV was also determined, providing the first complete sequence of this virus. The genome was 10142 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and had the typical features of the genus Potyvirus, although some of the amino acids surrounding the polyprotein cleavage sites were unusual. Shallot yellow stripe virus (SYSV) was amplified from bunching onion (Allium fistulosum var. caespitosum) in Zhejiang province, providing the first record of SYSV in China. Lily mottle virus was amplified from dragon-teeth lily (Lilium brownii var. viridulum). PMID:11890533

  11. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  12. Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) extract

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Alliumplants are an important part of the diet of many populations and there is a long-held belief in their health-enhancing properties such as cancer prevention. In this study, the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of the Allium ascalonicum bulbs have been studied. Material and methods The antiproliferative and anti-growth activity of the aqueous extract of A. ascalonicum was examined in vitro on different tumor cell lines. Furthermore, the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability as an in vivo assay was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Results The aqueous extract of A. ascalonicum had the most anti-growth activity on the cancer cell lines; Jurkat and K562 against Wehi 164 with lower cytotoxic preference. The extract also showed much less cytotoxicity against the normal cell (HUVEC) line and significant anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Conclusions It is of interest that the extract of this plant has shown much less cytotoxicity against the normal cell line, and, if this also occurs in vivo, the use of this plant clinically for the treatment of cancer patients would have some scientific support. The results of these assays indicated that A. ascalonicum can be a candidate for prevention and treatment of many diseases related to inflammation and malignancy. PMID:22291731

  13. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  14. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  15. Identification of pathogenicity‐related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae

    PubMed Central

    Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C.; Harrison, Richard J.; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non‐pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non‐pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. PMID:26609905

  16. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C; Harrison, Richard J; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non-pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific.

  17. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  18. Broadcasting of cortical activity to the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alison M; Kato, Hiroyuki K; Komiyama, Takaki; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2015-02-24

    Odor representations are initially formed in the olfactory bulb, which contains a topographic glomerular map of odor molecular features. The bulb transmits sensory information directly to piriform cortex, where it is encoded by distributed ensembles of pyramidal cells without spatial order. Intriguingly, piriform cortex pyramidal cells project back to the bulb, but the information contained in this feedback projection is unknown. Here, we use imaging in awake mice to directly monitor activity in the presynaptic boutons of cortical feedback fibers. We show that the cortex provides the bulb with a rich array of information for any individual odor and that cortical feedback is dependent on brain state. In contrast to the stereotyped, spatial arrangement of olfactory bulb glomeruli, cortical inputs tuned to different odors commingle and indiscriminately target individual glomerular channels. Thus, the cortex modulates early odor representations by broadcasting sensory information diffusely onto spatially ordered bulbar circuits.

  19. Broadcasting of cortical activity to the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alison M; Kato, Hiroyuki K; Komiyama, Takaki; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2015-02-24

    Odor representations are initially formed in the olfactory bulb, which contains a topographic glomerular map of odor molecular features. The bulb transmits sensory information directly to piriform cortex, where it is encoded by distributed ensembles of pyramidal cells without spatial order. Intriguingly, piriform cortex pyramidal cells project back to the bulb, but the information contained in this feedback projection is unknown. Here, we use imaging in awake mice to directly monitor activity in the presynaptic boutons of cortical feedback fibers. We show that the cortex provides the bulb with a rich array of information for any individual odor and that cortical feedback is dependent on brain state. In contrast to the stereotyped, spatial arrangement of olfactory bulb glomeruli, cortical inputs tuned to different odors commingle and indiscriminately target individual glomerular channels. Thus, the cortex modulates early odor representations by broadcasting sensory information diffusely onto spatially ordered bulbar circuits. PMID:25704808

  20. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  1. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bidhan; Hughes, E Richard; Kumar Singh, Raj; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Sharma, Arati; Adhikari, Galav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  2. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bidhan; Hughes, E. Richard; Kumar Singh, Raj; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Sharma, Arati; Adhikari, Galav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration. PMID:26491575

  3. Effect of Atmospheric Press on Wet Bulb Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stasiak, Michael A.; Lawson, Jamie; Wehkamp, Cara Ann P.; Dixon, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Our measurements of wet bulb depression at different pressures matched the modeled adiabatic saturation temps reasonably well. At a dry bulb temp of 25 C, the normal wet bulb temp for 30% RH and 100 kPa is approx.15 C, but this dropped to approx.8 C at 10 kPa. The results suggest that psychrometers need direct calibration at the target pressures or that pressure corrected charts are required. For a given vapour pressure deficit, any moist surfaces, including transpiring plant leaves, will be cooler at lower pressures due to the increased evaporation rates.

  4. Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagdish, G K

    2011-12-01

    Residue persistence of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves (spring onion), mature onion bulb and soil was studied following their spray applications 3 times. The applications were untreated control; tebuconazole @ 187.5 and 375 g a.i. ha(-1); quinalphos @ 300 and 600 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of tebuconazole in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.628 and 1.228 mg kg(-1). The residues of tebuconazole dissipated with the half-life of 5 and 7.7 days. The safe pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for consumption of immature onion bulb with leaves were 16 and 35 days, respectively. Initial residue deposits of quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.864 and 2.283 mg kg(-1). Loss of quinalphos residues from immature onion bulb with leaves was very fast. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 1.7 and 2.6 days and the required PHI was 5 and 11 days, respectively. At harvest mature onion bulbs were free from residues of both tebuconazole and quinalphos.

  5. Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard S.; Hu, Ruilong; DeSouza, Andre; Eberly, Christian L.; Krahe, Krista; Chan, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation of olfactory circuits by acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in odor discrimination and learning. Early processing of chemosensory signals occurs in two functionally and anatomically distinct regions, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB and AOB), which receive extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain. Here, we explore the regulation of AOB and MOB circuits by ACh, and how cholinergic modulation influences olfactory-mediated behaviors in mice. Surprisingly, despite the presence of a conserved circuit, activation of muscarinic ACh receptors revealed marked differences in cholinergic modulation of output neurons: excitation in the AOB and inhibition in the MOB. Granule cells (GCs), the most abundant intrinsic neuron in the OB, also exhibited a complex muscarinic response. While GCs in the AOB were excited, MOB GCs exhibited a dual muscarinic action in the form of a hyperpolarization and an increase in excitability uncovered by cell depolarization. Furthermore, ACh influenced the input–output relationship of mitral cells in the AOB and MOB differently showing a net effect on gain in mitral cells of the MOB, but not in the AOB. Interestingly, despite the striking differences in neuromodulatory actions on output neurons, chemogenetic inhibition of cholinergic neurons produced similar perturbations in olfactory behaviors mediated by these two regions. Decreasing ACh in the OB disrupted the natural discrimination of molecularly related odors and the natural investigation of odors associated with social behaviors. Thus, the distinct neuromodulation by ACh in these circuits could underlie different solutions to the processing of general odors and semiochemicals, and the diverse olfactory behaviors they trigger. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT State-dependent cholinergic modulation of brain circuits is critical for several high-level cognitive functions, including attention and memory. Here, we provide new evidence that cholinergic

  6. Topographical representation of odor hedonics in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Kermen, Florence; Midroit, Maëllie; Kuczewski, Nicola; Forest, Jérémy; Thévenet, Marc; Sacquet, Joëlle; Benetollo, Claire; Richard, Marion; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Hedonic value is a dominant aspect of olfactory perception. Using optogenetic manipulation in freely behaving mice paired with immediate early gene mapping, we demonstrate that hedonic information is represented along the antero-posterior axis of the ventral olfactory bulb. Using this representation, we show that the degree of attractiveness of odors can be bidirectionally modulated by local manipulation of the olfactory bulb's neural networks in freely behaving mice. PMID:27273767

  7. Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnessen, W.W. Jr.; McMahon, K.J.; Baser, M.

    1987-05-01

    Medical attention was sought for a 23-month-old toddler because of anorexia, weight loss, irritability, profuse sweating, peeling and redness of his fingers and toes, and a miliarial rash. The diagnosis was mercury poisoning, and an investigation of his environment disclosed that he had been exposed to mercury from broken fluorescent light bulbs. Acrodynia resulting from fluorescent bulbs has not been previously reported.

  8. Isolation of alliumin, a novel protein with antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities from multiple-cloved garlic bulbs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lixin; Ng, T B

    2005-02-01

    A protein designated alliumin, with a molecular mass of 13 kDa and an N-terminal sequence similar to a partial sequence of glucanase, and demonstrating antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola, but not against Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated from multiple-cloved garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs. The protein, designated as alliumin, was purified using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Mono S, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Alliumin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, but was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, CM-cellulose and Mono S. Its antifungal activity was retained after boiling for 1 h and also after treatment with trypsin or chymotrypsin (1:1, w/w) for 30 min at room temperature. Alliumin was inhibitory to the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and exerted antiproliferative activity toward leukemia L1210 cells. However, it was devoid of ribonuclease activity, protease activity, mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, and antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma Hep G2 cells. PMID:15629528

  9. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended.

  10. Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium Test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Kuraś, Mieczysław; Nowakowska, Julita; Sliwińska, Elwira; Pilarski, Radosław; Ilasz, Renata; Tykarska, Teresa; Zobel, Alicja; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-09-19

    The influence of water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC bark on the meristematic cells of the root tips of Allium cepa L., e.g. cells of Allium Test, was investigated. The experiment was carried out in two variants: (1) continuous incubation at different concentrations (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/ml) of the extract for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h; and (2) 24-h incubation in three concentrations of the extract (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), followed by post-incubation in distilled water for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. During the continuous incubation, the mitotic activity was reduced (2 and 4 mg/ml) or totally inhibited (8 and 16 mg/ml), depending on the concentration of the extract. All the concentrations resulted in gradual reduction of the mitotic activity. In the concentration of 2 mg/ml, the mitotic activity reached its lowest value after 12h (2 mg/ml) and after 24h in 4 mg/ml, followed by spontaneous intensification of divisions during further incubation. Instead, in higher concentrations of the extracts (8 and 16 mg/ml), the mitotic activity was totally inhibited within 24h and did not resume even after 72h. Incubation caused changes in the phase index, mainly as an increase in the number of prophases. After 24h of incubation, in all phases, condensation and contraction of chromosomes were observed. During post-incubation, divisions resumed in all concentrations, reaching even higher values than the control. Cytometric analysis showed that the extract caused inhibition of the cell cycle at the border between gap(2) and beginning of mitosis (G(2)/M).

  11. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, KAZUKI; WADA, RITSUKO; YAGUCHI, SHIGENORI; MAEDA, TOSHIMICHI; DATE, RIE; TOKUNAGA, TAKUSHI; KAZUMURA, KIMIKO; SHIMADA, KAZUKO; MATSUMOTO, MISATO; WAKO, TADAYUKI; YAMAUCHI, NAOKI; SHIGYO, MASAYOSHI

    2013-01-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  12. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  13. Density-dependence in the establishment of juvenile Allium ursinum individuals in a monodominant stand of conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morschhauser, Tamás; Rudolf, Kinga; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Oborny, Beáta

    2009-09-01

    We studied the establishment of new genets in a wild garlic population ( Allium ursinum L.) in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest. We tested whether establishment could be successful in relatively small gaps (25 cm) surrounded by adult individuals. Furthermore, we asked whether more empty space in the neighborhood would increase the success. Newly germinated individuals were selected, and observed throughout the growth season. The success of establishment was characterized by the biomass of the bulb at the end of the season. The surrounding vegetation cover was recorded in a 25 cm resolution. We found that the success of establishment had a peak at intermediate neighborhood density. At higher densities, a significant, linear decline was found, indicating competition with the neighbors. At lower values, this trend did not continue, but a plateau was observed, indicating the effect of inverse density-dependence (an Allee effect). The results suggest that a rather broad radius (>25 cm) should be considered when predicting the establishment of new genets in A. ursinum, and beside competition, facilitative interactions should also be taken into consideration. This may explain the tendency of the species for maintaining high, often monodominant cover in the herb layer. Due to the observed efficiency of gap-filling and lateral spreading by sexual reproduction, we predict considerable genetic diversity even in high-cover A. ursinum patches.

  14. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  15. The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign's Light Bulb Oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. P.; Tietema, D.; Ferre, T. P.; Nijssen, B.; Washburne, J.

    2003-12-01

    The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign (SMC) (www.hwr.arizona.edu/globe/sci/SM/SMC) has developed a light bulb oven to provide a low budget, low-technology method for drying soil samples. Three different soils were used to compare the ability of the light bulb oven to dry soils against a standard laboratory convection oven. The soils were: 1) a very fine sandy loam (the "Gila" soil); 2) a silty clay (the "Pima" soil); and 3) a sandy soil (the "Sonoran" soil). A large batch of each soil was wetted uniformly in the laboratory. Twelve samples of each soil were placed in the light bulb oven and twelve samples were placed in the standard oven. The average gravimetric soil moisture of the Gila soil was 0.214 g/cm3 for both ovens; the average Pima soil moisture was 0.332 g/cm3 and 0.331 g/cm3 for the traditional and light bulb ovens, respectively; and the Sonoran soil moisture was 0.077 g/cm3 for both ovens. These results demonstrate that the low technology light-bulb oven was able to dry the soil samples as well as a standard laboratory oven, offering the ability to make gravimetric water content measurements when a relatively expensive drying oven is not available.

  16. Antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months) produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE) containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic. PMID:23292331

  17. Management of maxillectomy defect with a hybrid hollow bulb obturator.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamleshwar; Singh, Saumyendra V; Mishra, Niraj; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor

    2013-01-01

    A woman having already undergone maxillectomy came to the department complaining of difficulty in eating and speech. During the construction of an obturator, the bulb area should be hollowed to reduce weight so that the teeth and supporting tissues are not stressed unnecessarily. The conventional open design drains fluid from the adjacent mucosa, possibly increasing the weight of the prosthesis, and is difficult to clean. The closed bulb design does not drain secretions and may cause obstruction and susceptibility to infection in the paranasal and pharyngeal regions, though it is easier to maintain. An alternative to the two designs, combining their advantages, is presented in this report. As the open hollow part of the obturator was shallow, it was easy to clean. Making the inferior part of the bulb hollow and closed led to a reduction in the overall weight of the prosthesis while increasing its resonance. PMID:23436886

  18. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack; Nam, Jiho; Gagliardi, Giovanna; El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques.

  19. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly control olfactory bulb output

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki K.; Gillet, Shea N.; Peters, Andrew J.; Isaacson, Jeffry S.; Komiyama, Takaki

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In the olfactory bulb, odor representations by principal mitral cells are modulated by local inhibitory circuits. While dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells are typically thought to be a major source of this modulation, the contributions of other inhibitory neurons remain unclear. Here we demonstrate the functional properties of olfactory bulb parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells) and identify their important role in odor coding. Using paired recordings, we find that PV cells form reciprocal connections with the majority of nearby mitral cells, in contrast to the sparse connectivity between mitral and granule cells. In vivo calcium imaging in awake mice reveals that PV cells are broadly tuned to odors. Furthermore, selective PV cell inactivation enhances mitral cell responses in a linear fashion while maintaining mitral cell odor preferences. Thus, dense connections between mitral and PV cells underlie an inhibitory circuit poised to modulate the gain of olfactory bulb output. PMID:24239124

  20. Atomic hydrogen maser active oscillator cavity and bulb design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Washburn, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance characteristics and reliability of the active oscillator atomic hydrogen maser depend upon oscillation parameters which characterize the interaction region of the maser, the resonant cavity and atom storage bulb assembly. With particular attention to use of the cavity frequency switching servo (1) to reduce cavity pulling, it is important to maintain high oscillation level, high atomic beam flux utilization efficiency, small spin exchange parameter and high cavity quality factor. It is also desirable to have a small and rigid cavity and bulb structure and to minimize the cavity temperature sensitivity. Curves for a novel hydrogen maser cavity configuration which is partially loaded with a quartz dielectric cylinder and show the relationships between cavity length, cavity diameter, bulb size, dielectric thickness, cavity quality factor, filling factor and cavity frequency temperature coefficient are presented. The results are discussed in terms of improvement in maser performance resulting from particular design choices.

  1. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly control olfactory bulb output.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki K; Gillet, Shea N; Peters, Andrew J; Isaacson, Jeffry S; Komiyama, Takaki

    2013-12-01

    In the olfactory bulb, odor representations by principal mitral cells are modulated by local inhibitory circuits. While dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells are typically thought to be a major source of this modulation, the contributions of other inhibitory neurons remain unclear. Here we demonstrate the functional properties of olfactory bulb parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells) and identify their important role in odor coding. Using paired recordings, we find that PV cells form reciprocal connections with the majority of nearby mitral cells, in contrast to the sparse connectivity between mitral and granule cells. In vivo calcium imaging in awake mice reveals that PV cells are broadly tuned to odors. Furthermore, selective PV cell inactivation enhances mitral cell responses in a linear fashion while maintaining mitral cell odor preferences. Thus, dense connections between mitral and PV cells underlie an inhibitory circuit poised to modulate the gain of olfactory bulb output. PMID:24239124

  2. [Isolation of sperm cells of Allium tub rosum Roxb].

    PubMed

    Ye, Lv; Lv, Dan; Jian, Ming Xia; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2008-08-01

    Pollen grains of Allium tuberosum Roxb broke and released their content including generative cells using osmotic shock method. In a medium containing 0.05% CaCl2, 0.01% Boric acid, 0.01%KH2PO4, 15%PEG 10% sucrose (710 mOsmol/kg H2O) 86% pollen grains germinated and grew out pollen tubes, which broke after transferred into 6% mannitol solution, and released tube content including generative cell. When pollen grains were cultured in the same medium but adding 0.1% casein, a few generative cells divided into two sperm cells. Stigmas of Allium tuberosum Roxb were pollinated at second day after anthesis and the styles grow 3 h in vivo. Then the styles were cut and cultured in a medium for about 6-8 h, some pollen tubes grew out of the cut end of the style. The cut end of the style was transferred into a solution containing 6% mannitol to burst pollen tubes. Pairs of sperm cells of Allium tuberosum Roxb were released and collected using a micromanipulator.

  3. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  4. [Structure characteristics of the chloroplast rpS16 intron in Allium sativum and related Allium species].

    PubMed

    Ryzhova, N N; Kholda, O A; Kochieva, E Z

    2009-01-01

    For the first time the chloroplast rpS16 intron sequences in A. sativum accessions with different ecologo-geographical origins and related Allium species have been characterized. The main stem-loop consensus sequences and boundaries ofsix domains have been identified and the most probable secondary structure model of the intron pre-RNA has been predicted. Allium rpS16 introns have been characterized by mutation rate heterogeneity between structure regions of all six domains. Domains II and IV of the intron are shown to be more variable with transition predominance in I, III, V and VI domain sequences. In addition to structure elements typical for group IIB introns the Allium specific micro- and macrostructural alterations have been revealed. The 290 nucleotide deletion of domains III-IV sequences and of the part of the domain V has been revealed in A. altaicum, A. fistulosum, A. schoenoprasum rpS16 intron sequences. Several nucleotide substitutions and extensive length mutations result in secondary structure deviation from the consensus model of group II introns. PMID:19899630

  5. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  6. Factors contributing to bacterial bulb rots of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of bacterial rots of onion bulbs is increasing and has become a serious problem for growers. This increase is likely due to a combination of factors, such as high bacterial populations in soils and irrigation water, heavy rains flooding production fields, higher temperatures, etc. It m...

  7. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  8. The ``Green Lab'': Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-09-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations compare? Even if the CFLs are more energy efficient, they still add to our pollution problem because of the mercury inside them. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be the answer, but they are not available at our local stores. Can LEDs be made to screw right into a standard socket? How expensive are they? What are the power consumptions of so-called "60-W" and "100-W" CFL and LED light bulbs? These are the questions that are answered during this lab activity. Students measure the voltage and current for each of the three types of bulbs, and then calculate the electrical power required by each. An optional experiment is to set the light outputs of each bulb so they are equal in intensity, and then determine the power consumed. While not practical in the home, this experiment gives students an understanding of value for their buck.

  9. Integrating temperature with odor processing in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Kludt, Eugen; Okom, Camille; Brinkmann, Alexander; Schild, Detlev

    2015-05-20

    Temperature perception has long been classified as a somesthetic function solely. However, in recent years several studies brought evidence that temperature perception also takes place in the olfactory system of rodents. Temperature has been described as an effective stimulus for sensory neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion located at the entrance of the nose. Here, we investigate whether a neuronal trace of temperature stimulation can be observed in the glomeruli and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, using calcium imaging and fast line-scanning microscopy. We show in the Xenopus tadpole system that the γ-glomerulus, which receives input from olfactory neurons, is highly sensitive to temperature drops at the olfactory epithelium. We observed that thermo-induced activity in the γ-glomerulus is conveyed to the mitral cells innervating this specific neuropil. Surprisingly, a substantial number of thermosensitive mitral cells were also chemosensitive. Moreover, we report another unique feature of the γ-glomerulus: it receives ipsilateral and contralateral afferents. The latter fibers pass through the contralateral bulb, cross the anterior commissure, and then run to the ipsilateral olfactory bulb, where they target the γ-glomerulus. Temperature drops at the contralateral olfactory epithelium also induced responses in the γ-glomerulus and in mitral cells. Temperature thus appears to be a relevant physiological input to the Xenopus olfactory system. Each olfactory bulb integrates and codes temperature signals originating from receptor neurons of the ipsilateral and contralateral nasal cavities. Finally, temperature and chemical information is processed in shared cellular networks.

  10. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  11. Electrophysiological differentiation of new neurons in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Belluzzi, Ottorino; Benedusi, Mascia; Ackman, James; LoTurco, Joseph J

    2003-11-12

    The subventricular zone produces neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and differentiate into interneurons throughout postnatal life (Altman and Das, 1966; Hinds, 1968; Altman, 1969; Kishi et al., 1990; Luskin, 1993; Lois and Alvarez-Buylla, 1994). Although such postnatally generated interneurons have been characterized morphologically, their physiological differentiation has not been thoroughly described. Combining retroviral-mediated labeling of newly generated neurons with patch-clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrated that soon after new cells enter the layers of the olfactory bulb, they display voltage-dependent currents typical of more mature neurons. We also show that these "newcomers" express functional GABA and glutamate receptor channels, respond synaptically to stimulation of the olfactory nerve, and may establish both axodendritic and dendrodendritic synaptic contacts within the olfactory bulb. These data provide a basic description of the physiology of newly generated cells in the OB and show that such new cells are functional neurons that synaptically integrate into olfactory bulb circuitry soon after their arrival.

  12. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on Wet Bulb Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Stasiak, Michael; Lawson, Jamie; Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Dixon, Mike

    Future space exploration missions will likely operate at pressures less than 1 atm ( 100 kPa) to reduce gas leakage and structural mass, and facilitate rapid EVAs. Understanding environmental monitoring, control, and physiological responses to reduced pressures will be required to assure mission success. Wet / dry bulb psychrometers are useful devices for monitoring humidity and provide insights into cooling phenomena for wet, evaporating surfaces. To study the effects of pressure on psychrometers we conducted a series of tests in a hypobaric chamber. Chamber RH monitoring and control were based on capacitance type devices, which previous testing and manufacturer's specifications have shown to be unaffected by pressure. Test data were gathered using an Enercorp model HT-WD-A psychrometer with matched platinum RTD temperature probes positioned side-by-side with a dew point (chilled mirror) device and two capacitance RH sensors. The chamber was kept dark and measurements were taken at three RHs (30, 50, and 70) and four pressures (10, 25, 50, and 97 kPa). Results showed an increase in wet bulb depression (i.e., a drop in wet bulb temperature) for a given RH as the pressure decreased, with the largest changes occurring as pressure dropped from 25 and 10 kPa. At a dry bulb temperature of 25 C, the normal wet bulb temperature for 30 RH and 97 kPa is 15 C, but this dropped to 8 C at 10 kPa. These observations are consistent with previous reports of increased evaporation rates at reduced pressure and match recently published psychrometric models for different pressures. The results suggest that psychrometers need direct calibration at the target pressures or that pressure corrected charts are required. Moreover, for a given vapor pressure deficit, any moist surfaces, including transpiring plant leaves, will be cooler at lower pressures due to the increased evaporation rates.

  13. Antifungal constituents from the seeds of Allium fistulosum L.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shengmin; Lao, Aina; Wang, Yanseng; Chin, Chee-Kok; Rosen, Robert T; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2002-10-23

    A new unsaturated fatty acid monoglyceride (1), glycerol mono-(E)-8,11,12-trihydroxy-9-octadecenoate, was isolated from the seeds of Allium fistulosum L. along with five known compounds: tianshic acid (2), 4-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethylpyrrol-1-yl) butyric acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), vanillic acid (5), and daucosterol (6). The structures of 1-3 were established by interpretation and full assignments of NMR spectroscopic data. Both 1 and 2 were found to inhibit the growth of Phytophtohora capsici on V8 media. PMID:12381110

  14. Neuronal circuits and computations: pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Rainer W; Wiechert, Martin T

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal circuits in the olfactory bulb transform odor-evoked activity patterns across the input channels, the olfactory glomeruli, into distributed activity patterns across the output neurons, the mitral cells. One computation associated with this transformation is a decorrelation of activity patterns representing similar odors. Such a decorrelation has various benefits for the classification and storage of information by associative networks in higher brain areas. Experimental results from adult zebrafish show that pattern decorrelation involves a redistribution of activity across the population of mitral cells. These observations imply that pattern decorrelation cannot be explained by a global scaling mechanism but that it depends on interactions between distinct subsets of neurons in the network. This article reviews insights into the network mechanism underlying pattern decorrelation and discusses recent results that link pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb to odor discrimination behavior.

  15. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  16. Localization of single-copy T-DNA insertion in transgenic shallots (Allium cepa) by using ultra-sensitive FISH with tyramide signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, L I; Kik, C

    2001-03-01

    The sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping plant chromosomes of single-copy DNA sequences is limited. We have adapted for plant cytogenetics a new signal-amplification method termed tyramide-FISH (Tyr-FISH). Until present this technique has only been applied to human chromosomes. The method is based on enzymatic deposition of fluorochrome-conjugated tyramide. With Tyr-FISH it was possible to detect target T-DNA sequences on plant metaphase chromosomes as small as 710 bp without using a cooled CCD camera. Short detection time and high sensitivity, in combination with a low background, make the Tyr-FISH method very suitable for routine application in plant cytogenetic research. With Tyr-FISH we analysed the position of T-DNA inserts in transgenic shallots. We found that the inserts were preferentially located in the distal region of metaphase chromosomes. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 375 bp satellite sequence suggested that a specific T-DNA insert was located within the satellite sequence hybridization region on a metaphase chromosome. Analysis of less-condensed prophase and interphase chromosomes revealed that the T-DNA was integrated outside the satellite DNA-hybridization region in a more proximal euchromatin region.

  17. Antioxidant effect of onion oil (Allium cepa. Linn) on the damages induced by nicotine in rats as compared to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Helen, A; Krishnakumar, K; Vijayammal, P L; Augusti, K T

    2000-07-27

    The beneficial effects of onion oil as an antioxidant has been assessed in nicotine administered rats by studying whether the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine can be effectively combated with the onion oil and the effects compared to vitamin E, a highly efficient antioxidant. Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant defence system have been studied in liver, lungs, and heart. The rats were injected with nicotine (0.6 mg/kg body wt.) and simultaneously given onion oil (100 mg/kg body wt.) or vitamin E (100 mg/kg body wt.) for 21 days. Concentration of free fatty acids, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine treated rats as compared to normal rats. Onion oil supplemented to nicotine treated rats showed increased resistance to lipid peroxidation and the effect was near to that of vitamin E fed rats. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased in nicotine treated rats. Antioxidants-glutathione content, vitamin C and retinol showed no significant difference but liver vitamin E content significantly decreased in nicotine treated rats. On onion oil or vitamin E supplementation, the concentration of antioxidants were significantly raised in all the tissues studied, however, a significantly increased concentration of glutathione, vitamin E and retinol was noticed in vitamin E+nicotine treated rats. Thus, these results indicate that onion oil is an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine as compared to vitamin E. PMID:10906423

  18. Fructan of the inulin neoseries is synthesized in transgenic chicory plants (Cichorium intybus L.) harbouring onion (Allium cepa L.) fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Vijn, I; van Dijken, A; Sprenger, N; van Dun, K; Weisbeek, P; Wiemken, A; Smeekens, S

    1997-03-01

    Fructan (polyfructosylsucrose) is an important storage carbohydrate in many plant families. fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) is a key enzyme in the formation of the inulin neoseries, a type of fructan accumulated by members of the Liliales. We have cloned the 6G-FFT from onion by screening a cDNA library using barley sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with plant invertases and 6-SFT. Incubation of protein extracts from transgenic tobacco plants with the trisaccharide 1-kestose and sucrose resulted in the formation of neokestose and fructans of the inulin neoseries with a degree of polymerization up to six. Introduction of the onion 6G-FFT into chicory resulted in the synthesis of fructan of the inulin neoseries, in addition to the synthesis of linear inulin.

  19. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (P<0.05) fewer parameters (S. Typhimurium, mesophiles, yeasts and molds, headspace CO2, weight loss, and pH), in-package atmosphere had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters evaluated. Two-way interactions between sanitizer and atmosphere that affected S. Typhimurium and pH were identified whereas 3-way interactions (sanitizer, atmosphere and time) were only observed for headspace CO2. Sodium hypochlorite and elevated CO2/reduced O2 was the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels.

  20. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile.

  1. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  2. First insights into the mode of action of a "lachrymatory factor synthase"--implications for the mechanism of lachrymator formation in Petiveria alliacea, Allium cepa and Nectaroscordum species.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit P; Musah, Rabi A

    2011-11-01

    A study of an enzyme that reacts with the sulfenic acid produced by the alliinase in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) to yield the P. alliacea lachrymator (phenylmethanethial S-oxide) showed the protein to be a dehydrogenase. It functions by abstracting hydride from sulfenic acids of appropriate structure to form their corresponding sulfines. Successful hydride abstraction is dependent upon the presence of a benzyl group on the sulfur to stabilize the intermediate formed on abstraction of hydride. This dehydrogenase activity contrasts with that of the lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) found in onion, which catalyzes the rearrangement of 1-propenesulfenic acid to (Z)-propanethial S-oxide, the onion lachrymator. Based on the type of reaction it catalyzes, the onion LFS should be classified as an isomerase and would be called a "sulfenic acid isomerase", whereas the P. alliacea LFS would be termed a "sulfenic acid dehydrogenase".

  3. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (P<0.05) fewer parameters (S. Typhimurium, mesophiles, yeasts and molds, headspace CO2, weight loss, and pH), in-package atmosphere had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters evaluated. Two-way interactions between sanitizer and atmosphere that affected S. Typhimurium and pH were identified whereas 3-way interactions (sanitizer, atmosphere and time) were only observed for headspace CO2. Sodium hypochlorite and elevated CO2/reduced O2 was the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels. PMID:26656528

  4. LEDs Illuminate Bulbs for Better Sleep, Wake Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Life on the International Space Station (ISS) wreaks havoc on an astronaut’s biological rhythms, and one way NASA mitigates the problem is through the use of LED lighting to alternately stimulate energy and focus and induce relaxation. Satellite Beach, Florida-based Lighting Science partnered with Kennedy Space Center to commercialize an LED system designed for the ISS, resulting in its DefinityDigital product line of light bulbs now used in numerous homes, hotel chains, and resorts.

  5. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, F; Vainio, H

    2001-01-01

    Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect against cancer at other sites, including the breast, is still insufficient. The protective effect appears to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds and mainly allyl derivatives, which inhibit carcinogenesis in the forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland, and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans. PMID:11673117

  6. Chemical constituents of three Allium species from Romania.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Parvu, Marcel; Parvu, Elena Alina; Toiu, Anca

    2012-12-21

    The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of Allium obliquum L., A. senescens L. subsp. montanum (Fries) Holub, and A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum. Sulphur-containing compounds analysis was performed by an LC-MS method, the identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds through a HPLC-UV-MS method, and the presence of five sterols was simultaneously assessed by HPLC-MS-MS. Alliin was identified only in A. obliquum and A. senescens subsp. montanum extracts, whilst allicin was present in all extracts, with higher amounts in A. schoenoprasum and A. obliquum. The pattern of phenol carboxylic acids shows the presence of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in all species. Isoquercitrin was identified in A. obliquum and A. schoenoprasum, and rutin in A. senescens subsp. montanum and A. schoenoprasum. Luteolin and apigenin were identified only in A. obliquum. All three species contain glycosides of kaempferol and quercetol. β-Sitosterol and campesterol were identified in all species. The results obtained showed significant differences in the composition of the three Allium species.

  7. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer?

    PubMed

    Bianchini, F; Vainio, H

    2001-09-01

    Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect against cancer at other sites, including the breast, is still insufficient. The protective effect appears to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds and mainly allyl derivatives, which inhibit carcinogenesis in the forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland, and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans. PMID:11673117

  8. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of untreated bilateral cleft lip and palate associated with palatal insufficiency treated by means of palate friendly innovative speech bulb. This modified speech bulb is a combination of hard acrylic and soft lining material. The hard self-curing acrylic resin covers only the hard palate area and a permanent soft silicone lining material covering the soft palate area. A claw-shaped wire component was extended backwards from acrylic and was embedded in soft silicone to aid in retention and approximation of two materials. The advantage of adding the soft lining material in posterior area helped in covering the adequate superior extension and margins for maximal pharyngeal activity. This also improved the hypernasality, speech, comfort and overall patient acceptance. PMID:27790589

  9. Optical and thermal design of light emitting diodes omnidirectional bulb.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi Ting; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2015-10-01

    The penetration of LED light bulbs into the lighting market is growing quickly in recent years due to significant increase of LED efficiency and reduction of cost. One major issue to be improved is the overall light bulb efficiency, which can fulfill "Energy Star for Lamps" while keeping sufficiently high efficiency. The efficiency issue results mainly from the high directionality of the LED sources and the corresponding solutions to make the emission more diverse. In this paper, a diffusion white reflection sheet (DWRS) with an array of holes is proposed as a high efficiency solution for modulating a light emission profile with SMD type LED source. The hole size is adjusted with fixed hole pitch to both maximize the efficiency and meet the omnidirectional specification. In addition, the concept of thermal plastic insertion molding metal is proposed for thermal management without fins for cooling. The prototype demonstrates the efficiency (Ef.) of 87.6% and LED pad temperature of 85°C, which shows the feasibility as a total solution for high efficiency LED omnidirectional bulbs. PMID:26479672

  10. Bioavailability of selenium from selenium-enriched green onions (Allium fistulosum) and chives (Allium schoenoprasum) after 'in vitro' gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Kápolna, Emese; Fodor, Péter

    2007-06-01

    Three sample preparation methods--proteolysis to determine the initial species distribution, and an in vitro gastric and gastrointestinal digestion to assess the bioavailability of selenium--were applied to extract the selenium from selenized green onion and chive samples. Ion exchange chromatography was coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS system to analyze the selenium species of Allium samples. The difference in the selenium accumulation capability of green onions and chives was significant. Chive accumulated a one order of magnitude higher amount of selenium than did green onion. After proteolysis of both types of Allium plants, high amounts of organic selenium species such as MeSeCys, SeCys2 and SeMet became accessible. In the case of Se(VI)-enrichment, selenate was the main species in the proteolytic extract. After simulating the human digestion, the organic species were just slightly bioavailable compared with the results from proteolysis. The inorganic selenium content of the selenized samples increased significantly and SeOMet could be detected from the extracts. As an effect of the significant pH change between the gastric and the intestinal tracts, two oxidation processes took place: selenite oxidized to selenate, while SeMet oxidized to SeOMet. PMID:17566890

  11. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Methods Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. Results The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides. PMID:24731297

  12. Development and validation of a thin-layer chromatography-densitometric method for the quantitation of alliin from garlic (Allium sativum) and its formulations.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Niranjan S; Rajani, M

    2005-01-01

    A selective, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been proposed for the analysis of garlic and its formulations for their alliin content. The method involves densitometric evaluation of alliin after resolving it by HPTLC on silica gel plates with n-butanol-acetic acid-water (6 + 2 + 2, v/v) as the mobile phase. For densitometric evaluation, peak areas were recorded at 540 nm after derivatizing the resolved bands with ninhydrin reagent. The relation between the concentration of alliin and corresponding peak areas was found to be linear within the range of 250 to 1500 ng/spot. The method was validated for precision (interday and intraday), repeatability, and accuracy. Mean recovery was 98.36%. The method was applied for the quantitation of alliin in bulbs of Allium sativum Linn. (garlic) and its formulations. The proposed TLC method was found to be precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine quality control of garlic and its formulations. PMID:16386011

  13. Method of producing a storage bulb for an atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erpenbach, H. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A storage bulb for an atomic hydrogen maser is produced by coating its internal surface with an emulsion containing both TFE and FEP particles. The emulsion is produced by mixing a first quantity of TFE in an aqueous dispersion with a second quantity of FEP in an aqueous dispersion, with a third quantity of distilled water. The emulsion is poured into the bulb to coat it uniformly so as to form a thin film of emulsion on the bulb's internal surface. After excess emulsion is drained out of the bulb the emulsion in the bulb is dried to remove the water and most of the aqueous matter therefrom. The remaining emulsion is then cured by heating the bulb to a temperature of at least 380 C.

  14. Surgical treatment of the high jugular bulb by compressing sinus sigmoideus: two cases.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Katilmiş, Hüseyin; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Erdoğan, Nezahat; Başoğlu, Sinan; Tayfun, Mehmet Ali

    2008-08-01

    If the jugular bulb normally surrounded by a bony layer in jugular fossa is anatomically over the inferior surface of the bony annulus, in the middle ear or over the basal turn of cochlea, it is then named as high jugular bulb (HJB). It may be dehiscent or aberrant. It is reported to occur in 5% of the temporal bone specimens. In accordance with the literature jugular bulb compression, jugular vein ligation and embolization are suggested in such cases. In both of the presented cases, there was bleeding from jugular bulb during surgery and jugular bulb was compressed with bone wax and Surgicel, but sigmoid sinus has been compressed after failure to stop bleeding through jugular bulb compression. Venous MR angiographies showed no flow in postoperative controls. Although it is very rarely seen clinically, we present two HJB cases and different treatment perspectives accompanied by literature. PMID:18046566

  15. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    PubMed

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. PMID:26833779

  16. Endoscopic mucosal resection of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features: An extremely rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming-Yao; Wang, Yu; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Hua-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma, especially duodenal bulb with neuroendocrine features (NEF), is extremely rare. Here, we report one such case of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features. A 63-year-old Han Chinese woman was admitted to our department with the diagnosis of a duodenal bulb polyp and underwent an endoscopic mucosal resection. The pathological findings confirmed it as duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with NEF. The patient remains curative after one and half a years of follow-up. Duodenal adenocarcinoma with NEF might be a low malignant neuroendocrine tumor rather than a conventional adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic treatment, including endoscopic mucosal resection, might be an ideal option for the adenocarcinomas with NEF. PMID:26140012

  17. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    PubMed

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production.

  18. Effect of environmental factors and bulb mass on the invasive geophyte Oxalis pes-caprae development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer, Dolors; Sala, Anna; Vilà, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Oxalis pes-caprae is an invasive pseudoannual plant that reproduces exclusively via offspring bulbs in the introduced range. It is most abundant in disturbed, fertile sites such as agricultural fields, but it is also found in undisturbed shrublands and shadier forest habitats. Oxalis infestation depends on long distance bulb dispersal (mainly anthropogenic) and on the ability of bulbs to grow and reproduce successfully. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to test the effects of parent bulb size on Oxalis growth and offspring production as a function of light availability (ambient and shade), planting depth (surface vs. 9 cm deep), and soil volume (full pots and pots with reduced soil volume). Oxalis grew and reproduced prolifically in all treatments. However, plant development and final offspring bulb production were sensitive to environmental conditions. Shading and reduced soil volume reduced maximum plant biomass relative to control and planting depth treatments, which produced either higher number of offspring bulbs (control) or larger offspring bulbs and higher total offspring bulb biomass (planting depth). Parent bulb size and vegetative reproductive organs had little effect on plant growth and offspring production. Our results are consistent with the lower abundance of Oxalis in undisturbed soils and shadier habitats in the field but indicate that even in these marginal habitats Oxalis can reproduce prolifically and contribute to further spread.

  19. Allium sativum-induced death of African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Nok, A J; Williams, S; Onyenekwe, P C

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Allium sativum (Liliacea) on trypanosome-infected mice was examined. At a dose of 5.0 mg/ml, the oily extract from the pulp completely suppressed the ability of the parasites to be infective in the host. Column chromatography of the extract gave four fractions: ethylacetate/methanol, ethylacetate/ethanol, benzene/methanol, and acetic acid/methanol. Among these fractions, the acetic acid/methanol fraction retained the trypanocidal features of the crude extract. It cured experimentally infected mice of trypanosomiasis in 4 days when given at a dose of 120 mg/kg per day. The extract also manifested inhibition of procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and phospholipases from T. congolense, T. b. brucei, T. vivax. The extract appears to be diallyl-disulfide (DAD) and may interfere with the parasites' synthesis of membrane lipids. PMID:8875572

  20. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. Methods: The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. Results: The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. Conclusions: AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:25337587

  1. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the

  2. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light intensity of these sources displays modulation at twice the ac power supply frequency. The familiarity of ac line power supply, commonplace light sources, and simplicity of the setup encourage student confidence, allowing them to think deeper and continually reassess their notions, and if managed can lead to a satisfactory explanation of the observations.

  3. Hydraulic model studies on bulb turbine intakes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Intakes for bulb and rim generator turbines are very large in relation to their runner diameters. Because the water velocity is low in the intake area, the losses are small. This report describes research on the effect that simplifying the intake design has on energy losses and flow distribution. Using straight surfaces in place of curved bellmouth entrances and shortening the length of the intake could significantly reduce construction costs. In addition, reducing the intake size would reduce the size of trashracks, gates, and associated operating equipment.

  4. To forget is human: the case of the retained bulb.

    PubMed

    Sakhel, Khaled; Hines, James

    2009-03-01

    The scenario of a forgotten instrument or foreign body has plagued surgical procedures from the early days. It has been estimated that the incidence of retained foreign bodies is around one in every 1,000-1,500 intra-abdominal operations and can be expected to occur at least once per year in hospitals where 8,000-18,000 major surgeries are performed annually. We report a case of a forgotten asepto bulb in the vagina following a robot-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. PMID:27628453

  5. Status of nuclear light bulb engine design and performance analyses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic response is discussed of a nuclear light bulb engine to perturbations at full-power operating conditions, both with and without control systems. Start-up and shutdown procedures are described, along with the provisions for residual afterheat removal. Problems associated with uprated engine designs are examined. The results of some analytical studies indicate that satisfactory control can be obtained by varying the fuel injection rate by means of a control valve which responds to the rate of change of neutron flux, or to the difference between the instantaneous and steady-state neutron fluxes.

  6. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  7. Anticancer Active Homoisoflavone from the Underground Bulbs of Ledebouria hyderabadensis

    PubMed Central

    Chinthala, Yakaiah; Chinde, Srinivas; kumar, Arigari Niranjana; Srinivas, K.V.N. Satya; Kumar, Jonnala Kotesh; Sastry, Kakaraparthy Pandu; Grover, Paramjit; Ramana, M. Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ledebouria is a genus of deciduous or weakly evergreen bulbs in the Hyacinthaceae family. This is recognized as the first collection made of the new taxon Ledebouria hyderabadensis, exist in the Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh, India. Objective: The goal of this work was to investigate the phytochemical constituents present in the new specifies and also to evaluate the cytotoxic properties of the extracts and pure compounds against human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity was evaluated in in vitro mode by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results: Phytochemical investigation of underground bulbs of indigenous, rare, and recently identified herb L. hyderabadensis yielded a bioactive homoisoflavanone, Scillascillin 1. The structure of the compound was established on the basis of various nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data. The compound Scillascillin was isolated for the first time from L. hyderabadensis. In vitro anticancer activity, performed using MTT assay, showed compound 1 as significantly active against human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values 9.59 and 11.32 μg/ml respectively when compared with herb methanol extract (IC50 values 36.21 and 44.86 μg/ml respectively). PMID:25276067

  8. Vibration analysis of obturator prostheses with different bulb height designs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makio; Oki, Meiko; Ozawa, Shogo; Inoue, Takaaki; Mukohyama, Hitoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on the vibratory characteristics of a cast hollow obturator prosthesis retainer when varying its bulb height. Bulb parts with high (H), middle (M), and low (L) lateral walls were prepared. A Vibration Generator was used to excite the three obturators, while a Laser-Doppler Vibrometer was employed to detect the vibrations at specified measurement points. The frequency response functions of each obturator were recorded on an FFT analyzer to enable their modal shapes to be identified. In addition, transient response simulations were carried out and the decay rate (DR) and the maximum amplitude (MA) of the rest and clasp parts of each obturator were obtained. These were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p < 0.01). The modal shapes were almost the same in all obturators. Significant differences were found in DR in all pairs among the three obturator prostheses, with the DR of the L type being the highest. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in MA. We conclude that the L type is preferable from the standpoint of its vibratory characteristics.

  9. Construction of odor representations by olfactory bulb microcircuits.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Like other sensory systems, the olfactory system transduces specific features of the external environment and must construct an organized sensory representation from these highly fragmented inputs. As with these other systems, this representation is not accurate per se, but is constructed for utility, and emphasizes certain, presumably useful, features over others. I here describe the cellular and circuit mechanisms of the peripheral olfactory system that underlie this process of sensory construction, emphasizing the distinct architectures and properties of the two prominent computational layers in the olfactory bulb. Notably, while the olfactory system solves essentially similar conceptual problems to other sensory systems, such as contrast enhancement, activity normalization, and extending dynamic range, its peculiarities often require qualitatively different computational algorithms than are deployed in other sensory modalities. In particular, the olfactory modality is intrinsically high dimensional, and lacks a simple, externally defined basis analogous to wavelength or pitch on which elemental odor stimuli can be quantitatively compared. Accordingly, the quantitative similarities of the receptive fields of different odorant receptors (ORs) vary according to the statistics of the odor environment. To resolve these unusual challenges, the olfactory bulb appears to utilize unique nontopographical computations and intrinsic learning mechanisms to perform the necessary high-dimensional, similarity-dependent computations. In sum, the early olfactory system implements a coordinated set of early sensory transformations directly analogous to those in other sensory systems, but accomplishes these with unique circuit architectures adapted to the properties of the olfactory modality.

  10. Numerical investigation of cavitation performance on bulb tubular turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. G.; Guo, P. C.; Zheng, X. B.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The cavitation flow phenomena may occur in the bulb tubular turbine at some certain operation conditions, which even decrease the performance of units and causes insatiably noise and vibration when it goes worse. A steady cavitating flow numerical simulations study is carried out on the bulb tubular unit with the same blade pitch angle and different guide vane openings by using the commercial code ANSYS CFX in this paper. The phenomena of cavitation induction areas and development process are obtained and draws cavitation performance curves. The numerical results show that the travelling bubble cavity is the main types of cavitation development over a wide operating range of discharge and this type of cavitation begins to sensitive to the value of cavitation number when the discharge exceeding a certain valve, in this condition, it can lead to a severe free bubble formation with the gradually decrement of cavitation number. The reported cavitation performance curves results indicate that the flow blockage incident would happen because of a mount of free bubble formation in the flow passage when the cavity developed to certain extend, which caused head drop behavior and power broken dramatically and influenced the output power.

  11. Multitargeted prevention and therapy of cancer by diallyl trisulfide and related Allium vegetable-derived organosulfur compounds

    PubMed Central

    Powolny, Anna A.; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2008-01-01

    Allium vegetables, such as garlic, have been used for medicinal purposes throughout the recorded history. The known health benefits of Allium vegetables constituents include cardiovascular effects, improvement of the immune function, lowering of blood glucose level, radioprotection, protection against microbial infections, and anticancer effects. Initial evidence for the anticancer effect of Allium vegetables was provided by population-based case-control studies. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that the Allium vegetable constituents, such as diallyl disulfide, S-allylcysteine, and ajoene can not only offer protection against chemically-induced cancer in animal models by altering carcinogen metabolism, but also suppress growth of cancer cells in culture and in vivo by causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Suppression of angiogenesis and experimental metastasis by Allium constituents has also been reported. Defining the mechanism by which sulfur compounds derived from Allium vegetables inhibit cancer cell growth has been the topic of intense research in the last two decades. Some Allium vegetable constituents have also entered clinical trials to assess their safety and anticancer efficacy. This article summarizes preclinical and limited clinical data to warrant further clinical evaluation of Allium vegetable constituents for prevention and therapy of human cancers. PMID:18579286

  12. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  13. Light Bulb Presentations in a Mathematics for the Liberal Arts Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging students to make independent discoveries is an effective way to get them excited about mathematics, and sharing their triumphant moments (their light bulb moments) helps to spread this excitement to their peers. A Mathematics for the Liberal Arts course is a perfect venue for the sharing of light bulb moments, as it helps to correct…

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effect of Some Allium Species

    PubMed Central

    Lorigooini, Zahra; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdolmajid; Amidi, Salimeh; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show that the cardiovascular diseases are associated with multiple factors such as raised serum total cholesterol, increased LDL, increased platelet aggregation, hypertension and smoking. In-vitro studies have confirmed the ability of some plants of Allium species to reduce these parameters. Therefore, we evaluated anti-platelet aggregation effect of some Allium species (Allium ampeloprasum, A. hirtifolium, A. haemanthoides, A. vavillovi, A. atroviolaceum, A. jesdianum, A. shelkovnikovii) using arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as platelet aggregation inducers. The screening results for methanolic extract of Allium species showed that the maximum effect of anti-platelet aggregation was related to A. atroviolaceum. This extract inhibited the in-vitro platelet aggregation induced by AA and ADP with IC50 values of 0.4881 (0.4826-0.4937) mg/ml and 0.4945 (0.4137-0.5911) mg/ml respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the dietary intake of Allium could be beneficial for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26664390

  15. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. PMID:27379342

  16. Postnatal neurogenesis in the olfactory bulbs of a lizard. A tritiated thymidine autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Verdugo, J M; Llahi, S; Ferrer, I; Lopez-Garcia, C

    1989-04-10

    Autoradiographically labelled cells were observed in the olfactory bulbs of perinatal, young and adult specimens of the lizard Podarcis hispanica following intraperitoneal injection of tritiated thymidine (5 muCi/g b.wt). After survival times of 7, 18 and 28 days labelled cells were found in the granular layer of both main and accessory bulbs. A few labelled cells were observed in the ependyma, mitral and glomerular layer. In the main olfactory bulb, one week of survival time resulted in labelling of cells in the innermost part of the granular layer. Longer survival times (up to 4 weeks), resulted in labelling of cells mainly in the outermost part of the granular layer. This spatio-temporal gradient was not observed in the accessory bulb. Nevertheless, longer survival times resulted in greater number of labelled cells located in the dorsal and ventral parts of the granular layer of the accessory bulb.

  17. Massive normalization of olfactory bulb output in mice with a 'monoclonal nose'.

    PubMed

    Roland, Benjamin; Jordan, Rebecca; Sosulski, Dara L; Diodato, Assunta; Fukunaga, Izumi; Wickersham, Ian; Franks, Kevin M; Schaefer, Andreas T; Fleischmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations in neural circuits can provide mechanistic understanding of the neural correlates of behavior. In M71 transgenic mice with a "monoclonal nose", glomerular input patterns in the olfactory bulb are massively perturbed and olfactory behaviors are altered. To gain insights into how olfactory circuits can process such degraded inputs we characterized odor-evoked responses of olfactory bulb mitral cells and interneurons. Surprisingly, calcium imaging experiments reveal that mitral cell responses in M71 transgenic mice are largely normal, highlighting a remarkable capacity of olfactory circuits to normalize sensory input. In vivo whole cell recordings suggest that feedforward inhibition from olfactory bulb periglomerular cells can mediate this signal normalization. Together, our results identify inhibitory circuits in the olfactory bulb as a mechanistic basis for many of the behavioral phenotypes of mice with a "monoclonal nose" and highlight how substantially degraded odor input can be transformed to yield meaningful olfactory bulb output. PMID:27177421

  18. Paraesophageal hernia with incarceration of the gastric antrum and duodenal bulb: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In cases of esophageal hernia, incarceration of peritoneal organs other than the stomach is rare. Case presentation An 84-year-old female was admitted to our institution with a complaint of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an esophageal hiatal hernia with incarceration of the gastric antrum and duodenal bulb. Gastrofluorography under gastroendoscopy confirmed prolapse of the antrum and duodenal bulb into the esophageal hernial sac. Although gastroendoscopy guided repositioning of the prolapsed organs was successful, reprolapse occurred immediately. Therefore, surgical treatment was indicated. The gastric antrum and duodenal bulb were associated with a paraesophageal hernia. Therefore, they were repositioned, and passage from the duodenal bulb to the descending portion of the duodenum was improved. Conclusion We report a rare case of paraesophageal hernia with incarceration of the gastric antrum and duodenal bulb. PMID:24207166

  19. Evaluation of Hot Water Treatments for Management of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Fungi in Daffodil Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, J.; Westerdahl, B. B.; Giraud, D.; Anderson, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) bulbs in a 0.37% formaldehyde water solution at 44 C for 240 minutes is a standard practice in California for management of the stem and bulb nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci. Recent concern over the safety of formaldehyde and growers' requests for a shorter treatment time prompted a reevaluation of the procedure. The time (Y, in minutes) required to raise the temperature at the bulb center from 25 to 44 C was related to bulb circumference (X, in cm) and is described by the linear regression Y = -15 + 3.4X. The time required for 100% mortality of D. dipsaci in vitro without formaldehyde was 150, 60, and 15 minutes at 44, 46, and 48 C, respectively. Hot water treatment (HWT) with 0.37% formaldehyde at 44 C for 150 minutes controlled D. dipsaci and did not have a detrimental effect on plant growth and flower production. Shorter formaldehyde-HWT of 90, 45, and 30 minutes at 46, 48, and 50 C, respectively, controlled D. dipsaci but suppressed plant growth and flower production. Fungal genera commonly isolated from the bulbs in association with D. dipsaci were Penicillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi, and Mucor plumbeus, representing 60, 25, and 5%, respectively, of the total fungi isolated. These fungi caused severe necrosis in daffodil bulbs. HWT at 44 C for 240 minutes reduced the number of colonies recovered from bulbs. The effects of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and sodium hypochlorite in reducing the population of fungi within bulbs were variable. Satisfactory control of D. dipsaci within bulbs can be achieved with HWT of bulbs at 44 C for 150 minutes with 0.37% formaldehyde or at 44 C for 240 minutes without chemicals. PMID:19279827

  20. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  2. 75 FR 44946 - Spirotetramat; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Dry Bulb Onions in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY Spirotetramat; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Dry Bulb Onions in... the pesticide spirotetramat (CAS No. 203313-25-1) to treat up to 275 acres of dry bulb onions to... on dry bulb onions to control thrips. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted...

  3. Determination of some polyphenolic compounds from Allium species by HPLC-UV-MS.

    PubMed

    Parvu, Marcel; Toiu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Alina Parvu, Elena

    2010-09-01

    Five Allium species (Allium obliquum L., A. senescens L. subsp. montanum (Fries) Holub, A. schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum, A. fistulosum L. and A. ursinum L.) were analysed in order to determine the presence of 19 polyphenolic compounds through an HPLC method coupled with UV and mass spectrometry detection. The pattern of phenol carboxylic acids indicates the presence of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in all species. Isoquercitrin was found in A. obliquum, A. schoenoprasum and A. fistulosum, rutin in A. senescens subsp. montanum and A. schoenoprasum, whereas quercitrin was found only in A. fistulosum, so they represent potential taxonomic markers that differentiate the four plants. Luteolin and apigenin were identified before and after hydrolysis only in A. obliquum. The amounts of all polyphenols were higher in hydrolysed samples, suggesting that these substances are present both as unbonded and bonded glycosides and/or esters. Our study showed large differences between the five Allium species, both qualitative and quantitative. PMID:20419559

  4. Neuronal fate determinants of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hack, Michael A; Saghatelyan, Armen; de Chevigny, Antoine; Pfeifer, Alexander; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Götz, Magdalena

    2005-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis in mammals is restricted to two small regions, including the olfactory bulb, where GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons are newly generated throughout the entire lifespan. However, the mechanisms directing them towards a specific neuronal phenotype are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate the dual role of the transcription factor Pax6 in generating neuronal progenitors and also in directing them towards a dopaminergic periglomerular phenotype in adult mice. We present further evidence that dopaminergic periglomerular neurons originate in a distinct niche, the rostral migratory stream, and are fewer derived from precursors in the zone lining the ventricle. This regionalization of the adult precursor cells is further supported by the restricted expression of the transcription factor Olig2, which specifies transit-amplifying precursor fate and opposes the neurogenic role of Pax6. Together, these data explain both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms controlling neuronal identity in adult neurogenesis.

  5. Light bulb heat exchanger for magnetohydrodynamic generator applications - Preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Hwang, C. C.; Seikel, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The light-bulb heat-exchanger concept is investigated as a possible means of using a combustion heat source to supply energy to an inert gas MHD power generator system. In this concept, combustion gases flow through a central passage which consists of a duct with transparent walls through which heat is transferred by radiation to a radiation receiver which in turn heats the inert gas by convection. The effects of combustion-gas emissivity, transparent-wall-transmissivity, radiation-receiver emissivity, and the use of fins in the inert gas coolant passage are studied. The results indicate that inert gas outlet temperatures of 2500 K are possible for combustion temperatures of 3200 K and that sufficient energy can be transferred from the combustion gas to reduce its temperature to approximately 2000 K. At this temperature more conventional heat exchangers can be used.

  6. Investigation of the corona current in a vacuum bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyhin, Vasyl

    2014-05-01

    The dependence of the negative corona current on the gas pressure was studied experimentally and theoretically in view of designing a gas-pressure sensor to be applied in the production of light bulbs. The gas pressure was varied in the range 1×10-2 Torr - 7.4×102 Torr. The dependence of the current on the gas pressure is characterized by a strong heterogeneity. This allowed the implementation of a prototype of a high-speed sensor for a wide range of gas pressures. A mathematical model was developed of the negative corona current behavior by taking into account the ionization of the gas molecules, the attachment and detachment of electrons, the charge drift and the surface ion-electron emission. The results of the numerical simulations describe satisfactorily the experimental dependences.

  7. Rauwolfia vomitoria inhibits olfaction and modifies olfactory bulb cells.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Moses B; Peter, Aniekan I; Edagha, Innocent A; Ekpene, Ubong U; Friday, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    The rising cost of orthodox medication has endeared so many to the use of herbs for the management of neurological conditions. Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) one of such herbs is a rainforest shrub whose parts are used locally in the management of psychiatry and other medical issues. Its usefulness though not in doubt is wrapped with adverse reports as its active constituents depletes brain monoamine and dopamine stores. This motivated this research on the effects of the root bark extract on olfaction and the olfactory bulb of adult Wistar rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats (220g average) were divided into three groups (n=6); control (placebo), 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg RV root bark extract, respectively. The oral administration lasted for seven days and on day 8, test of olfaction was carried out and the animals immediately anaesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (i.p.) and perfuse-fixed with 10% neutral buffered formalin. All the brains were processed for histology and immunoreactivity. Results showed loss of body weights and olfaction in the 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg RV groups. There was hypertrophy and atrophy of mitral cells respectively, in the 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg RV groups, while there was hyperplasia of cells in the internal granular and plexiform layers of both groups. There was decreased neuron specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament (NF) expression in the 200mg/kg RV group, while NF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was decreased in the 400mg/kg RV group. However, NSE expression was enhanced in the 400mg/kg group, while GFAP expression was enhanced in the 200mg/kg RV group. These results suggest that these doses of RV affect olfaction and appetite, and stimulate adverse cellular changes in the olfactory bulb.

  8. Rauwolfia vomitoria inhibits olfaction and modifies olfactory bulb cells.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Moses B; Peter, Aniekan I; Edagha, Innocent A; Ekpene, Ubong U; Friday, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    The rising cost of orthodox medication has endeared so many to the use of herbs for the management of neurological conditions. Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) one of such herbs is a rainforest shrub whose parts are used locally in the management of psychiatry and other medical issues. Its usefulness though not in doubt is wrapped with adverse reports as its active constituents depletes brain monoamine and dopamine stores. This motivated this research on the effects of the root bark extract on olfaction and the olfactory bulb of adult Wistar rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats (220g average) were divided into three groups (n=6); control (placebo), 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg RV root bark extract, respectively. The oral administration lasted for seven days and on day 8, test of olfaction was carried out and the animals immediately anaesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (i.p.) and perfuse-fixed with 10% neutral buffered formalin. All the brains were processed for histology and immunoreactivity. Results showed loss of body weights and olfaction in the 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg RV groups. There was hypertrophy and atrophy of mitral cells respectively, in the 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg RV groups, while there was hyperplasia of cells in the internal granular and plexiform layers of both groups. There was decreased neuron specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament (NF) expression in the 200mg/kg RV group, while NF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was decreased in the 400mg/kg RV group. However, NSE expression was enhanced in the 400mg/kg group, while GFAP expression was enhanced in the 200mg/kg RV group. These results suggest that these doses of RV affect olfaction and appetite, and stimulate adverse cellular changes in the olfactory bulb. PMID:27208729

  9. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquesne, P.; Fraser, R.; Maciel, Y.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2014-03-01

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves.

  10. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  11. Warming during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with jugular bulb desaturation.

    PubMed

    Croughwell, N D; Frasco, P; Blumenthal, J A; Leone, B J; White, W D; Reves, J G

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize cerebral venous effluent during normothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. Thirty-one (23%) of 133 patients met desaturation criteria (defined as jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation less than or equal to 50% or jugular bulb venous oxygen tension less than or equal to 25 mm Hg) during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (after hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass at 27 degrees to 28 degrees C). Cerebral blood flow, calculated using xenon 133 clearance methodology, was significantly (p less than 0.005) higher in the saturated group (33.7 +/- 10.3 mL.100 g-1.min-1) than in the desaturated group (26.2 +/- 6.9 mL.100 g-1.min-1), whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen was significantly lower (p less than 0.005) in the saturated group (1.28 +/- 0.39 mL.100 g-.min-1) than in the desaturated group (1.52 +/- 0.36 mL.100 g-1.min-1) at normothermia. The arteriovenous oxygen difference at normothermia was lower in the saturated group (3.92 +/- 1.12 mL/dL) than in the desaturated group (5.97 +/- 1.05 mL/dL). Neuropsychological testing was performed in 74 of the 133 patients preoperatively and on day 7 postoperatively. There was a general decline in mean scores of all tests postoperatively in both groups with no significant difference between the groups. We conclude that cerebral venous desaturation represents a global imbalance in cerebral oxygen supply-demand that occurs during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and may represent transient cerebral ischemia. These episodes, however, are not associated with impared neuropsychological test performance as compared with the performance of patients with no evidence of desaturation.

  12. Functional properties of dopaminergic neurones in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Angela; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okano, Hideyuki; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory bulb of mammals contains a large population of dopaminergic interneurones within the glomerular layer. Dopamine has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to modulate several aspects of olfactory information processing, but the functional properties of dopaminergic neurones have never been described due to the inability to recognize these cells in living preparations. To overcome this difficulty, we used a transgenic mouse strain harbouring an eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter construct under the promoter of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cathecolamine synthesis. As a result, we were able to identify dopaminergic neurones (TH-GFP cells) in living preparations and, for the first time, we could study the functional properties of such neurones in the olfactory bulb, in both slices and dissociated cells. The most prominent feature of these cells was the autorhythmicity. In these cells we identified five main voltage-dependent conductances: the two having largest amplitude were a fast transient Na+ current and a delayed rectifier K+ current. In addition, we observed three smaller inward currents, sustained by Na+ ions (persistent type) and by Ca2+ ions (LVA and HVA). Using pharmacological tools and ion substitution methods we showed that the pacemaking process is supported by the interplay of the persistent Na+ current and of a T-type Ca2+ current. We carried out a complete kinetical analysis of the five conductances present in these cells, and developed a Hodgkin-Huxley model of TH-GFP cells, capable of reproducing accurately the properties of living cells, including autorhytmicity, and allowing a precise understanding of the process. PMID:15731185

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium).

    PubMed

    Soroush, Setareh; Taherikalani, Morovat; Asadollahi, Parisa; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Taran, Mojtaba; Emaneini, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium is a Persian native plant grown in cool mountain slopes of Iran. It has been used as a spice in Iran for many years. According to the literature review, there are no considerable reports on the antimicrobial properties of this plant. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot hydroalcoholic extract and F1 fraction of the plant (containing amino acid derivatives and/or other cationic compounds) was investigated on some Gram positive cocci and bacilli, Gram negative bacilli, two protozoa, a yeast and a fungus. Excellent activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 64 microg/ml, MBC = 128 microg/ml), Leishmania infantum (MIC = 0.2 mg/ml on the first day of study) and Trichomonas vaginalis (MIC = 5 microg/ml in PSDE form) and a moderate activity against Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 128 microg/ml) was observed. The results showed that this plant contains some anti-trichomonas and anti-leishmania components.

  14. Structure and cytotoxicity of steroidal glycosides from Allium schoenoprasum.

    PubMed

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Allium schoenoprasum, has led to the isolation of four spirostane-type glycosides (1-4), and four known steroidal saponins. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,12β,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,11α,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), laxogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,11α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4). Four of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against the HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines. PMID:23357597

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium).

    PubMed

    Soroush, Setareh; Taherikalani, Morovat; Asadollahi, Parisa; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Taran, Mojtaba; Emaneini, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium is a Persian native plant grown in cool mountain slopes of Iran. It has been used as a spice in Iran for many years. According to the literature review, there are no considerable reports on the antimicrobial properties of this plant. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot hydroalcoholic extract and F1 fraction of the plant (containing amino acid derivatives and/or other cationic compounds) was investigated on some Gram positive cocci and bacilli, Gram negative bacilli, two protozoa, a yeast and a fungus. Excellent activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 64 microg/ml, MBC = 128 microg/ml), Leishmania infantum (MIC = 0.2 mg/ml on the first day of study) and Trichomonas vaginalis (MIC = 5 microg/ml in PSDE form) and a moderate activity against Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 128 microg/ml) was observed. The results showed that this plant contains some anti-trichomonas and anti-leishmania components. PMID:23210319

  16. Increasing olfactory bulb volume due to treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gudziol, V; Buschhüter, D; Abolmaali, N; Gerber, J; Rombaux, P; Hummel, T

    2009-11-01

    Differentiation of progenitor cells into neurons in the olfactory bulb depends on olfactory stimulation that can lead to an increase in olfactory bulb volume. In this study, we investigated whether the human olfactory bulb volume increases with increasing olfactory function due to treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Nineteen patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were investigated before and after treatment. For comparison, additional measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers. Volumetric measurements of the olfactory bulb were based on planimetric manual contouring of magnetic resonance scans. Olfactory function was evaluated separately for each nostril using tests for odour threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification. Measurements were performed on two occasions, 3 months apart. In healthy controls, the olfactory bulb volume did not change significantly between the two measurements. In contrast, the olfactory bulb volume in patients increased significantly from the initial 64.5 +/- 3.2 to 70.0 +/- 3.5 mm(3) on the left side (P = 0.02) and from 60.9 +/- 3.5 to 72.4 +/- 2.8 mm(3) on the right side (P < 0.001). The increase in olfactory bulb volume correlated significantly with an increase in odour thresholds (r = 0.60, P = 0.006, left side; r = 0.49, P = 0.03, right side), but not with changes in odour discrimination or odour identification. Results of this study support the idea that stimulation of olfactory receptor neurons impacts on the cell death in the olfactory bulb, not only in rodents but also in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study that describes an enlargement of the human olfactory bulb due to improvement of peripheral olfactory function. PMID:19773353

  17. Olfactory bulb recovery following reversible deafferentation with repeated detergent application in the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Paskin, T R; Iqbal, T R; Byrd-Jacobs, C A

    2011-11-24

    The neuroplasticity and regenerative properties of the olfactory system make it a useful model for studying the ability of the nervous system to recover from damage. We have developed a novel method for examining the effects of long-term deafferentation and regeneration of the olfactory organ and resulting influence on the olfactory bulb in adult zebrafish. To test the hypothesis that repeated damage to the olfactory epithelium causes reduced olfactory bulb afferent input and cessation of treatment allows recovery, we chronically ablated the olfactory organ every 2-3 days for 3 weeks with the detergent Triton X-100 while another group was allowed 3 weeks of recovery following treatment. Animals receiving chronic treatment showed severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ, although small pockets of epithelium remained. These pockets were labeled by anti-calretinin, indicating the presence of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Following a recovery period, the epithelium was more extensive and neuronal labeling increased, with three different morphologies of sensory neurons observed. Repeated peripheral exposure to Triton X-100 also affected the olfactory bulb. Bulb volumes and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity, which is an indicator of afferent activity, were diminished in the olfactory bulb of the chronically treated group compared to the control side. In the recovery group, there was little difference in bulb volume or antibody staining. These results suggest that repeated, long-term nasal irrigation with Triton X-100 eliminates a substantial number of mature OSNs and reduces afferent input to the olfactory bulb. It also appears that these effects are reversible and regeneration will occur in both the peripheral olfactory organ and the olfactory bulb when given time to recover following cessation of treatment. We report here a new method that allows observation not only of the effects of deafferentation on the olfactory bulb but also

  18. Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe Temperature Algorithm for White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaQuay, Ryan Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe temperature, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe temperature is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe temperature, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile Range. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe temperature algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point temperature is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe temperature. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe temperature algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile Range, except for when there are increased dew point temperatures and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe temperature instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30

  19. Linear halogen bulb as a powerful light source for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochníček, Zdeněk

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the usage of a conventional lamp equipped with a linear halogen bulb for physics experiments. The irradiance gain and limitation of spectral resolution are treated in detail theoretically and verified experimentally. The analysis shows that, in comparison with a standard bulb and slit arrangement, the linear bulb can increase irradiance of the spectrum image by an order of magnitude without a significant loss of spectral resolution in comparable experimental arrangements. Some concrete examples of experiments with a white light spectrum and diffraction are presented.

  20. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety. PMID:24964572

  1. Testing the utility of matK and ITS DNA regions for discrimination of Allium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Allium L. has been mainly based on the nucleotide sequences of ITS region. In 2009 matK and rbcL were accepted as a two-locus DNA barcode to classify plant species by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group. MatK region has been ...

  2. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  3. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

  4. Formaldehyde exposure alters miRNA expression profiles in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifa; Yang, Jing; Ling, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that inhaling formaldehyde (FA) causes damage to the central nervous system. However, it is unclear whether FA can disturb the function of the olfactory bulb. Using a microarray, we found that FA inhalation altered the miRNA expression profile. Functional enrichment analysis of the predicted targets of the changed miRNA showed that the enrichment canonical pathways and networks associated with cancer and transcriptional regulation. FA exposure disrupts miRNA expression profiles within the olfactory bulb.

  5. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs.

    PubMed

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  6. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  7. Closed hollow bulb obturator--one-step fabrication: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-10-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture without additional laboratory investing, flasking, and processing.

  8. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur species in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and shallot (Allium ascalonicum) by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-(octopole reaction system)-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Iwashita, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2005-11-01

    The simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and a weakly odorous Allium plant, shallot (Allium ascalonicum), was performed by means of a hyphenated technique, a HPLC coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS). The aqueous extracts of them contained the common seleno compound that was identified as gamma-glutamylmethylselenocysteine by an electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Normal garlic contains alliin as the major sulfur-containing compound, which is the biological precursor of the garlic odorant, allicin. Alliin, however, was not detected in the extracts of the selenized odorless garlic. At least, four unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were detected in odorless garlic and shallot. Moreover, these Allium plants showed chemopreventive effects against human leukemia cells.

  9. Organization of the main olfactory bulb of lesser hedgehog tenrecs.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Katsuko; Künzle, Heinz; Kosaka, Toshio

    2005-12-01

    Using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and an electron microscope, we investigated the organization of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of tenrecs, which were previously included into insectivores but now considered to be in a new order "Afrosoricida" in the superclade 'Afrotheria'. We confirmed that the overall structural organization of the tenrec MOB was similar to that of rodents: (1) the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed as the common organizational principles were present; (2) there were characteristic dendrodendritic and axo-dendritic synapses in the glomerulus and external plexiform layer (EPL) and gap junctions in glomeruli; and (3) no nidi, particular synaptic regions reported only in laboratory musk shrew and mole MOBs, were encountered. However, instead of nidi, we often observed a few tangled olfactory nerves (ONs) with large irregular boutons in the glomerular-external plexiform layer border zone, with which dendrites of various displaced periglomerular cells were usually found to be intermingled. Electron microscopic (EM) examinations confirmed characteristic large mossy terminal-like ON terminals making asymmetrical synapses to presumed mitral/tufted cell and displaced periglomerular cell dendrites. In addition, gap junctions were also encountered between dendritic processes in these tiny particular regions, further showing their resemblance to glomeruli.

  10. Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liu-jing; Li, Rong; Wang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Responses of 302 mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb were recorded from 42 anesthetized freely breathing rats using a 16-channel microwire electrode array. Saturated vapors of four pure chemicals, anisole, carvone, citral and isoamyl acetate were applied. After aligning spike trains to the initial phase of the inhalation after odor onset, the responses of M/T cells showed transient temporal features including excitatory and inhibitory patterns. Both odor-evoked patterns indicated that mammals recognize odors within a short respiration cycle after odor stimulus. Due to the small amount of information received from a single cell, we pooled results from all responsive M/T cells to study the ensemble activity. The firing rates of the cell ensembles were computed over 100 ms bins and population vectors were constructed. The high dimension vectors were condensed into three dimensions for visualization using principal component analysis. The trajectories of both excitatory and inhibitory cell ensembles displayed strong dynamics during odor stimulation. The distances among cluster centers were enlarged compared to those of the resting state. Thus, we presumed that pictures of odor information sent to higher brain regions were depicted and odor discrimination was completed within the first breathing cycle. PMID:23225857

  11. Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Adam, Yoav; Livneh, Yoav; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Groysman, Maya; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). This map is then modulated by distinct types of local neurons and transmitted to higher brain areas via mitral and tufted cells. Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for large scale functional mapping of distinct neuronal populations in the mouse OB, at single cell resolution. Specifically, we imaged odor responses of mitral cells (MCs), tufted cells (TCs) and glomerular interneurons (GL-INs). Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. In contrast, population activity profiles of TCs were dense, and highly correlated with the odor inputs in both space and time. Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. Temporally, upon persistent odor exposure, TCs quickly adapted. In contrast, both MCs and GL-INs showed diverse temporal response patterns, suggesting that GL-INs could contribute to the transformations MCs undergo at slow time scales. Our data suggest that sensory odor maps are transformed by TCs and MCs in different ways forming two distinct and parallel information streams.

  12. Electrical properties of periglomerular cells in the frog olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Magherini, P C; Bardoni, R; Belluzzi, O

    1997-03-01

    Whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques were applied to periglomerular (PG) cells in slices of the frog olfactory bulb (OB) preparation to study the basic electrical properties of these inhibitory interneurons. The cells were intracellularly stained with Lucifer Yellow for precise identification. Under current-clamp conditions PG cells showed rich spontaneous excitatory synaptic activity at rest, usually leading to overshooting, TTX-sensitive action potentials. The passive cable properties of the cell membrane have been carefully characterised. Depolarisation of this neurone under voltage-clamp conditions activated a complex pattern of current flow, that has been dissected into its main components. The currents have been isolated resorting to their different kinetic and pharmacological properties. Four main voltage dependent ionic currents have been isolated, two inward currents, I(Na) and I(Ca), and two outward currents carried by potassium ions, one fast transient, I(A)-type and another similar to the delayed rectifier type. These currents have been characterised kinetically and pharmacologically. The functional implications of their properties are discussed.

  13. Learning Mechanism for Column Formation in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, M.; Inzirillo, Carlo; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2007-01-01

    Sensory discrimination requires distributed arrays of processing units. In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic interactions between mitral and granule cells. There is increasing anatomical evidence that these cells are organized in columns, and that the columns processing a given odor are arranged in widely distributed arrays. Experimental evidence is lacking on the underlying learning mechanisms for how these columns and arrays are formed. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we have used a simplified realistic circuit model to test the hypothesis that distributed connectivity can self-organize through an activity-dependent dendrodendritic synaptic mechanism. The results point to action potentials propagating in the mitral cell lateral dendrites as playing a critical role in this mechanism. The model predicts that columns emerge from the interaction between the local temporal dynamics of the action potentials and the synapses that they activate during dendritic propagation. The results suggest a novel and robust learning mechanism for the development of distributed processing units in a cortical structure. PMID:18958240

  14. Chromosome Dynamics Visualized with an Anti-Centromeric Histone H3 Antibody in Allium

    PubMed Central

    Nagaki, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Maki; Yamaji, Naoki; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Murata, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ease with which chromosomes can be observed, the Allium species, and onion in particular, have been familiar materials employed in cytogenetic experiments in biology. In this study, centromeric histone H3 (CENH3)-coding cDNAs were identified in four Allium species (onion, welsh onion, garlic and garlic chives) and cloned. Anti-CENH3 antibody was then raised against a deduced amino acid sequence of CENH3 of welsh onion. The antibody recognized all CENH3 orthologs of the Allium species tested. Immunostaining with the antibody enabled clear visualization of chromosome behavior during mitosis in the species. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) observation of mitotic cell division was achieved by subjecting root sections to immunohistochemical techniques. The 3D dynamics of the cells and position of cell-cycle marker proteins (CENH3 and α-tubulin) were clearly revealed by immunohistochemical staining with the antibodies. The immunohistochemical analysis made it possible to establish an overview of the location of dividing cells in the root tissues. This breakthrough in technique, in addition to the two centromeric DNA sequences isolated from welsh onion by chromatin immuno-precipitation using the antibody, should lead to a better understanding of plant cell division. A phylogenetic analysis of Allium CENH3s together with the previously reported plant CENH3s showed two separate clades for monocot species tested. One clade was made from CENH3s of the Allium species with those of Poaceae species, and the other from CENH3s of a holocentric species (Luzula nivea). These data may imply functional differences of CENH3s between holocentric and monocentric species. Centromeric localization of DNA sequences isolated from welsh onion by chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) using the antibody was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and ChIP-quantitative PCR. PMID:23236469

  15. Effect of garlic and allium-derived products on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens.

    PubMed

    Millet, Coralie O M; Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin; Williams, David; Evans, Gareth; Saunders, Robert A; Cable, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    Spironucleus is a genus of small, flagellated parasites, many of which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and are a significant problem in aquaculture. Following the ban on the use of metronidazole in food fish due to toxicity problems, no satisfactory chemotherapies for the treatment of spironucleosis are currently available. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and automated optical density monitoring of growth, we investigated in vitro the effect of Allium sativum (garlic), a herbal remedy known for its antimicrobial properties, on the growth and metabolism of Spironucleus vortens, a parasite of tropical fish and putative agent of hole-in-the-head disease. The allium-derived thiosulfinate compounds allicin and ajoene, as well as an ajoene-free mixture of thiosulfinates and vinyl-dithiins were also tested. Whole, freeze-dried garlic and allium-derived compounds had an inhibitory effect on gas metabolism, exponential growth rate and final growth yield of S. vortens in Keister's modified, TY-I-S33 culture medium. Of all the allium-derived compounds tested, the ajoene-free mixture of dithiins and thiosulfinates was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 107 μg ml(-1) and an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC(50%)) of 58 μg ml(-1). It was followed by ajoene (MIC = 83 μg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 56 μg ml(-1)) and raw garlic (MIC >20 mg ml(-1), IC(50%) = 7.9 mg ml(-1)); allicin being significantly less potent with an MIC and IC(50%) above 160 μg ml(-1). All these concentrations are much higher than those reported to be required for the inhibition of most bacteria, protozoa and fungi previously investigated, indicating an unusual level of tolerance for allium-derived products in S. vortens. However, chemically synthesized derivatives of garlic constituents might prove a useful avenue for future research.

  16. Thaw bulb dimensions determined using electrical imaging across thermokarst lakes, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, J. T.; Slater, L. D.; Parsekian, A.; Plug, L. J.; Grosse, G.; Walter Anthony, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Geophysical imaging of thaw bulb dimensions underlying thermokarst lakes may provide data required to validate models for thaw bulb evolution and to quantify availability of previously frozen soil carbon to atmospheric emission. Direct measurements by drilling are costly in remote arctic regions and are limited by poor spatial resolution. We report the results of an experiment to test the use of electrical resistivity imaging for determining thaw bulb dimensions of thermokarst lakes on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Continuous resistivity measurements were collected using a floating array of electrodes pulled by a motorized inflatable boat. The inversion of the resistivity data was conducted using a one dimensional laterally constrained inversion routine that solves for thickness and resistivity based on three layer model. Since the water layer is partly constrained in terms of thickness (from depth sounder measurements) and resistivity (from measurements made with a conductance probe), and the thaw bulb and permafrost resistivity are known from coring, the only totally unconstrained parameter is the thickness of the thaw bulb sediments. This overdetermined inverse problem yields a high degree of confidence in the resulting model, as evident from low model residuals and parameter covariance analysis. Results from this experiment show that electrical resistivity imaging is a relatively low cost method for determining the thaw bulb dimensions along a laterally continuous survey line.

  17. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  18. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  19. Adult neurogenesis restores dopaminergic neuronal loss in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Lazarini, Françoise; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; Moigneu, Carine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2014-10-22

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis continuously provides new GABA- and dopamine (DA)-containing interneurons for the olfactory bulb (OB) in most adult mammals. DAergic interneurons are located in the glomerular layer (GL) where they participate in the processing of sensory inputs. To examine whether adult neurogenesis might contribute to regeneration after circuit injury in mice, we induce DAergic neuronal loss by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the dorsal GL or in the right substantia nigra pars compacta. We found that a 6-OHDA treatment of the OB produces olfactory deficits and local inflammation and partially decreases the number of neurons expressing the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) near the injected site. Blockade of inflammation by minocycline treatment immediately after the 6-OHDA administration rescued neither TH(+) interneuron number nor the olfactory deficits, suggesting that the olfactory impairments are most likely linked to TH(+) cell death and not to microglial activation. TH(+) interneuron number was restored 1 month later. This rescue resulted at least in part from enhanced recruitment of immature neurons targeting the lesioned GL area. Seven days after 6-OHDA lesion in the OB, we found that the integration of lentivirus-labeled adult-born neurons was biased: newly formed neurons were preferentially incorporated into glomerular circuits of the lesioned area. Behavioral rehabilitation occurs 2 months after lesion. This study establishes a new model into which loss of DAergic cells could be compensated by recruiting newly formed neurons. We propose that adult neurogenesis not only replenishes the population of DAergic bulbar neurons but that it also restores olfactory sensory processing. PMID:25339754

  20. Cyclic tests of P-bulb end-seal designs for a shuttle-type wing-elevon cove membrane seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Four P-bulb end seal designs were tested at room temperature in a cyclic seal test apparatus. Test results show that all the P-bulb end seals have the durability required for a 100 mission life (neglecting possible elevated-temperature effects) and three of the four P-bulbs provide an adequate seal against a 7.0-kPa air pressure differential. Antifriction material attached to the P-bulb rub surface reduced friction slightly but could degrade the sealing effectiveness. A flat rub surface molded into the P-bulb discouraged wrinkling and rolling and thereby reduced leakage. However, the P-bulbs lacked resilience, as indicated by increased leakage when P-bulb compression was reduced. The best P-bulb design tested included an antifriction interface bonded to a flat surface molded into the P-bulb.

  1. Report on the CEPA activities [Consorcio Educativo para la Proteccion Ambiental/Educational Consortium for Environmental Preservation] [Final report of activities from 1998 to 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Miriam

    2003-02-01

    This report compiles the instances of scientific, educational, and institutional cooperation on environmental issues and other activities in which CEPA was engaged during the past five years, and includes several annual reports and meeting summaries. CEPA is a collaborative international consortium that brings together higher education institutions with governmental agencies, research laboratories, and private sector entities. CEPA's mission is to strengthen the technical, professional, and educational environmental infrastructure in the United States and Latin America. The CEPA program includes curriculum development, student exchange, faculty development, and creation of educational materials, joint research, and other cooperative activities. CEPA's goals are accomplished by actively working with Hispanic-serving institutions of higher education in the United States, in collaboration with institutions of higher education in Latin America and other Consortium members to deliver competitive environmental programs.

  2. The olfactory bulb structure of African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840) I: cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Olude, M A; Ogunbunmi, T K; Olopade, J O; Ihunwo, A O

    2014-09-01

    The olfactory system typically consists of two parallel systems: the main olfactory system and the accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory bulb (MOB) acts as the initial processing site for volatile chemical stimuli and receives input from the olfactory receptor cells located in the olfactory epithelium. The African giant rat is reputed to have abilities to detect landmines and tuberculosis samples by sniffing. This study therefore is a preliminary study on the histological and immunohistochemical anatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse). Nissl and Klüver-Barrera histological staining of the olfactory bulb revealed a cytoarchitecture typical of most mammals with 6 cell layers, and 1-2-layered glomeruli measuring approximately 150 μm each in diameter. Immunohistochemical staining with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) revealed cellular conformations relative to most mammals. GFAP immunohistochemistry also revealed cell bodies and processes within the periglomerular area which may potentiate signaling from the olfactory receptor cells, while CNPase largely showed soma and evidence of myelin sheath deposition, confirming myelination at different layers of the bulb. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in all layers of the MOB with DCX and in most layers with Ki-67. The anatomy of the olfactory bulb is described as relatively large in the African giant rat, having a neuroarchitecture similar to most rodents.

  3. Massive normalization of olfactory bulb output in mice with a 'monoclonal nose'

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Benjamin; Jordan, Rebecca; Sosulski, Dara L; Diodato, Assunta; Fukunaga, Izumi; Wickersham, Ian; Franks, Kevin M; Schaefer, Andreas T; Fleischmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations in neural circuits can provide mechanistic understanding of the neural correlates of behavior. In M71 transgenic mice with a “monoclonal nose”, glomerular input patterns in the olfactory bulb are massively perturbed and olfactory behaviors are altered. To gain insights into how olfactory circuits can process such degraded inputs we characterized odor-evoked responses of olfactory bulb mitral cells and interneurons. Surprisingly, calcium imaging experiments reveal that mitral cell responses in M71 transgenic mice are largely normal, highlighting a remarkable capacity of olfactory circuits to normalize sensory input. In vivo whole cell recordings suggest that feedforward inhibition from olfactory bulb periglomerular cells can mediate this signal normalization. Together, our results identify inhibitory circuits in the olfactory bulb as a mechanistic basis for many of the behavioral phenotypes of mice with a “monoclonal nose” and highlight how substantially degraded odor input can be transformed to yield meaningful olfactory bulb output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16335.001 PMID:27177421

  4. An arterially perfused nose-olfactory bulb preparation of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Stanić, Davor; Farmer, David; Dutschmann, Mathias; Egger, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    A main feature of the mammalian olfactory bulb network is the presence of various rhythmic activities, in particular, gamma, beta, and theta oscillations, with the latter coupled to the respiratory rhythm. Interactions between those oscillations as well as the spatial distribution of network activation are likely to determine olfactory coding. Here, we describe a novel semi-intact perfused nose-olfactory bulb-brain stem preparation in rats with both a preserved olfactory epithelium and brain stem, which could be particularly suitable for the study of oscillatory activity and spatial odor mapping within the olfactory bulb, in particular, in hitherto inaccessible locations. In the perfused olfactory bulb, we observed robust spontaneous oscillations, mostly in the theta range. Odor application resulted in an increase in oscillatory power in higher frequency ranges, stimulus-locked local field potentials, and excitation or inhibition of individual bulbar neurons, similar to odor responses reported from in vivo recordings. Thus our method constitutes the first viable in situ preparation of a mammalian system that uses airborne odor stimuli and preserves these characteristic features of odor processing. This preparation will allow the use of highly invasive experimental procedures and the application of techniques such as patch-clamp recording, high-resolution imaging, and optogenetics within the entire olfactory bulb. PMID:26108959

  5. An arterially perfused nose-olfactory bulb preparation of the rat.

    PubMed

    Pérez de los Cobos Pallarés, Fernando; Stanić, Davor; Farmer, David; Dutschmann, Mathias; Egger, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    A main feature of the mammalian olfactory bulb network is the presence of various rhythmic activities, in particular, gamma, beta, and theta oscillations, with the latter coupled to the respiratory rhythm. Interactions between those oscillations as well as the spatial distribution of network activation are likely to determine olfactory coding. Here, we describe a novel semi-intact perfused nose-olfactory bulb-brain stem preparation in rats with both a preserved olfactory epithelium and brain stem, which could be particularly suitable for the study of oscillatory activity and spatial odor mapping within the olfactory bulb, in particular, in hitherto inaccessible locations. In the perfused olfactory bulb, we observed robust spontaneous oscillations, mostly in the theta range. Odor application resulted in an increase in oscillatory power in higher frequency ranges, stimulus-locked local field potentials, and excitation or inhibition of individual bulbar neurons, similar to odor responses reported from in vivo recordings. Thus our method constitutes the first viable in situ preparation of a mammalian system that uses airborne odor stimuli and preserves these characteristic features of odor processing. This preparation will allow the use of highly invasive experimental procedures and the application of techniques such as patch-clamp recording, high-resolution imaging, and optogenetics within the entire olfactory bulb.

  6. Subicular and CA1 hippocampal projections to the accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Prieto, C; Ubeda-Banon, I; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Saiz-Sanchez, D; Insausti, R; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2009-02-01

    The hippocampal formation is anatomically and functionally related to the olfactory structures especially in rodents. The entorhinal cortex (EC) receives afferent projections from the main olfactory bulb; this constitutes an olfactory pathway to the hippocampus. In addition to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory (or vomeronasal) system. The relationships between the hippocampal formation and the vomeronasal system are virtually unexplored. Recently, a centrifugal projection from CA1 to the accessory olfactory bulb has been identified using anterograde tracers. In the study reported herein, experiments using anterograde tracers confirm this projection, and injections of retrograde tracers show the distribution and morphology of a population of CA1 and ventral subicular neurons projecting to the accessory olfactory bulb of rats. These results extend previous descriptions of hippocampal projections to the accessory olfactory bulb by including the ventral subiculum and characterizing the morphology, neurochemistry (double labeling with somatostatin), and distribution of such neurons. These data suggest feedback hippocampal control of chemosensory stimuli in the accessory olfactory bulb. Whether this projection processes spatial information on conspecifics or is involved in learning and memory processes associated with chemical stimuli remains to be elucidated.

  7. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew J. Eckelman; Paul T. Anastas; Julie B. Zimmerman

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. 46 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Evidence of a novel allergenic protein Narcin in the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mau; Singh, Amar; Shokeen, Akshita; Sharma, Pradeep; Kaushik, Sanket; Mitra, Dipendra K; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2013-01-01

    Several plant-derived allergens have been identified which result in the formation of immunoglobulin E antibodies. Primarily, these allergens belong to the protein families including seed storage proteins, structural proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Several allergens are also reported from flower bulbs which cause contact dermatitis. Such symptoms are highly common with the bulb growers handling different species of Narcissus. Narcissus toxicity is also reported if the bulbs are consumed accidentally. The present study aimed to characterize the protein from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta responsible for its allergenic response. A 13 kDa novel allergenic protein, Narcin was isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The protein was further purified by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation. The allergenicity of the protein was measured by cytokine production using flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further estimation of total IgE was performed by ELISA method. This novel protein was found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus induce allergy by elevating total IgE level. The novel protein, Narcin isolated from Narcissus tazetta was found to exhibit allergenic properties. PMID:23936740

  9. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed.

  10. Phylogeny and biogeography of Allium (Amaryllidaceae: Allieae) based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast rps16 sequences, focusing on the inclusion of species endemic to China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin-Qin; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Xian-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Allium comprises more than 800 species, placing it among the largest monocotyledonous genera. It is a variable group that is spread widely across the Holarctic region. Previous studies of Allium have been useful in identifying and assessing its evolutionary lineages. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of infrageneric taxonomy and evolution of Allium. Further understanding of its phylogeny and biogeography will be achieved only through continued phylogenetic studies, especially of those species endemic to China that have often been excluded from previous analyses. Earlier molecular studies have shown that Chinese Allium is not monophyletic, so the goal of the present study was to infer the phylogeny and biogeography of Allium and to provide a classification of Chinese Allium by placement of Chinese species in the context of the entire phylogeny. Methods Phylogenetic studies were based on sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast rps16 intron, analysed using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Biogeographical patterns were conducted using statistical dispersal–vicariance analysis (S-DIVA). Key Results Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Allium is monophyletic and consists of three major clades. Optimal reconstructions have favoured the ancestors of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum as originating in eastern Asia. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Allium is monophyletic but that some subgenera are not. The large genetic distances imply that Allium is of ancient origin. Molecular data suggest that its evolution proceeded along three separate evolutionary lines. S-DIVA indicates that the ancestor of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum originated from eastern Asia and underwent different biogeographical pathways. A taxonomic synopsis of Chinese Allium at sectional level is given, which divides Chinese

  11. Jack bean urease inhibition by crude juices of Allium and Brassica plants. Determination of thiosulfinates.

    PubMed

    Olech, Zofia; Zaborska, Wiesława; Kot, Mirosława

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was the elucidation of the inhibitory influence of Allium (garlic, onion, leek) and Brassica (cabbage, Brussels sprouts) plants juices, on jack bean urease activity. Concentrations of thiosulfinates, the compounds responsible for the inhibition, were determined in studied materials. The kinetics and mechanism of the inhibitions were investigated. Biphasic, time-dependent courses of the inhibition reactions were observed for all tested Allium and Brussels sprouts from Brassica. The cabbage material caused the monophasic course of the inhibition. In the presence of dithiothreitol, a total reactivation of the inhibited urease proceeded for the tested plants except for the onion. The onion juice modified urease, regained only half of the initial activity. The irreversible contribution was related to the presence of 1-propanethial-S-oxide, cepaenes and zwiebelanes formed in the onion juice. It was found that the thermal processing of the plant juices, results in the decrease of thiosulfinates concentration, as well as the efficiency of urease inhibition.

  12. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  13. Study on the stability and antioxidant effect of the Allium ursinum watery extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organosulfur compounds usually present a reduced stability especially in the presence of oxygen. This research aimed to study the stability and antioxidant potential of the Allium ursinum watery extract. Results The decrease of the antioxidant capacity verifies an exponential relation which may be formally associated to a kinetically pseudomonomolecular process. The exponential regression equation allows the half-life of the degradation process to be determined, this being 14 hours and 49 minutes in a watery environment at room temperature. Conclusions The watery extract of Allium ursinum changes its proprieties in time. This might be explained by the network of hydrogen bonds in a watery environment which has a protective effect on the dissolved allicin molecule. PMID:23369571

  14. Anti-ischemia steroidal saponins from the seeds of Allium fistulosum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei; Wu, Zhijun; Lin, Houwen; Li, Tiejun; Sun, Lianna; Chai, Yifeng; Chen, Wansheng

    2010-06-25

    Six new furostanol saponins (1-6), named fistulosaponins A-F, three known furostanol saponins (7-9), and seven known aromatic compounds were isolated from seeds of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum). The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and acid hydrolysis. The protective effect of the saponins on hypoxia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury was evaluated. PMID:20515043

  15. Evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of infusions and essential oil of Aloysia gratissima.

    PubMed

    Hister, C A L; Laughinghouse, H D; Da Silva, C B; Dorow, T S Do C; Tedesco, S B

    2009-12-15

    Aloysia gratissima is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases. The infusions (6 and 24 g L-1) and essential oils (0.25%, on ethanol) were prepared and we used groups of five Allium cepa bulbs for each treatment. A total of 2500 cells per treatment were analyzed and the mitotic indexes were calculated. The antiproliferative effect of infusions and essential oils of Aloysia gratissima on the Allium cepa (onion) cell cycle was evaluated using the leaves of studied specimens. The infusions presented a significant decrease in the mitotic index (4.55% at 6 g L-1 and 2.04% at 24 g L-1) compared to the control-water (6.83%), as well as for the essential oil (2.58%), in comparison to the control-ethanol (3.65%). This investigation showed that the infusions and essential oil of Aloysia gratissima present important antiproliferative effects on the Allium cepa cell cycle. PMID:20334120

  16. A rare cause of conductive hearing loss: High lateralized jugular bulb with bony dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Barr, James G; Singh, Pranay K

    2016-06-01

    We present a rare case of pediatric conductive hearing loss due to a high lateralized jugular bulb. An 8-year-old boy with a right-sided conductive hearing loss of 40 dB was found to have a pink bulge toward the inferior part of the right eardrum. Computed tomography showed a high, lateralized right jugular bulb that had a superolaterally pointing diverticulum that bulged into the lower mesotympanum and posterior external auditory meatus. It was explained to the child's parents that it is important never to put any sharp objects into the ears because of the risk of injury to the jugular vein. A high, lateralized jugular bulb with a diverticulum is a rare anatomic abnormality. Correct diagnosis of this abnormality is important so that inappropriate intervention does not occur.

  17. Light bulbs and complete circuits: what ones says about the other

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Paula V.; Gray, Kara; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2004-05-01

    Students' conceptual difficulties of dc circuits have been well documented. Research [1] suggests that students who have difficulty lighting a flashlight bulb with a 1.5 V battery and a single wire are having difficulty understanding the concept of a complete circuit. Although this may be part of the story, our research indicates that many students do not understand how a light bulb is wired internally. This talk will present evidence of how students believe a light bulb is internally wired and a key experiment that helps them alter their incorrect image. An additional experiment will be presented that helps students develop a more comprehensive definition of complete circuits. [1] Lillian C. McDermott and Peter S. Shaffer, Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory electricity. Part 1: Investigation of student understanding, Am. J. Phys. 60, 996 (Nov. 1992).

  18. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models.

  19. A rare cause of conductive hearing loss: High lateralized jugular bulb with bony dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Barr, James G; Singh, Pranay K

    2016-06-01

    We present a rare case of pediatric conductive hearing loss due to a high lateralized jugular bulb. An 8-year-old boy with a right-sided conductive hearing loss of 40 dB was found to have a pink bulge toward the inferior part of the right eardrum. Computed tomography showed a high, lateralized right jugular bulb that had a superolaterally pointing diverticulum that bulged into the lower mesotympanum and posterior external auditory meatus. It was explained to the child's parents that it is important never to put any sharp objects into the ears because of the risk of injury to the jugular vein. A high, lateralized jugular bulb with a diverticulum is a rare anatomic abnormality. Correct diagnosis of this abnormality is important so that inappropriate intervention does not occur. PMID:27304441

  20. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models. PMID:27166547