Science.gov

Sample records for allocates electronic attack

  1. Robust allocation of a defensive budget considering an attacker's private information.

    PubMed

    Nikoofal, Mohammad E; Zhuang, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Attackers' private information is one of the main issues in defensive resource allocation games in homeland security. The outcome of a defense resource allocation decision critically depends on the accuracy of estimations about the attacker's attributes. However, terrorists' goals may be unknown to the defender, necessitating robust decisions by the defender. This article develops a robust-optimization game-theoretical model for identifying optimal defense resource allocation strategies for a rational defender facing a strategic attacker while the attacker's valuation of targets, being the most critical attribute of the attacker, is unknown but belongs to bounded distribution-free intervals. To our best knowledge, no previous research has applied robust optimization in homeland security resource allocation when uncertainty is defined in bounded distribution-free intervals. The key features of our model include (1) modeling uncertainty in attackers' attributes, where uncertainty is characterized by bounded intervals; (2) finding the robust-optimization equilibrium for the defender using concepts dealing with budget of uncertainty and price of robustness; and (3) applying the proposed model to real data. PMID:22050276

  2. Cost of equity in homeland security resource allocation in the face of a strategic attacker.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaojun; Zhuang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of billions of dollars have been spent in homeland security since September 11, 2001. Many mathematical models have been developed to study strategic interactions between governments (defenders) and terrorists (attackers). However, few studies have considered the tradeoff between equity and efficiency in homeland security resource allocation. In this article, we fill this gap by developing a novel model in which a government allocates defensive resources among multiple potential targets, while reserving a portion of defensive resources (represented by the equity coefficient) for equal distribution (according to geographical areas, population, density, etc.). Such a way to model equity is one of many alternatives, but was directly inspired by homeland security resource allocation practice. The government is faced with a strategic terrorist (adaptive adversary) whose attack probabilities are endogenously determined in the model. We study the effect of the equity coefficient on the optimal defensive resource allocations and the corresponding expected loss. We find that the cost of equity (in terms of increased expected loss) increases convexly in the equity coefficient. Furthermore, such cost is lower when: (a) government uses per-valuation equity; (b) the cost-effectiveness coefficient of defense increases; and (c) the total defense budget increases. Our model, results, and insights could be used to assist policy making. PMID:23256552

  3. Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "Warm Up" CSF.

    PubMed

    Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "warm up" the systems. This article studies such "warm up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide numerical solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "warm up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "warm up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "warm up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "warm up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation. PMID:26713543

  4. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  5. Electronic Tool for Distribution and Allocation of Heart on Donation and Transplantation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Maqueda Tenorio, S E; Meixueiro Daza, L A; Maqueda Estrada, S

    2016-03-01

    In Mexico and globally, organs and/or tissues donated from deceased people are insufficient to cover the demand for transplants. In 2014, a rate of 3.6 organ donors per million in habitants was recorded; this is reflected in the transplants performed, including heart transplantation, with a rate of 0.4 per million population. According to the legal framework of Mexico, the National Transplant Center is responsible for coordinating National Subsystem of donation and transplantation, and one of its functions is to integrate and backup information regarding donation and transplantation through the National Transplant Registry System. In July 2015, 45 people were registered in the database of patients waiting for a heart transplant, of which 34.61% were female recipients and 65.39% male. Distribution and allocation processes are a key element to provide a fair distribution for those patients waiting for that organ; thus the creation of an electronic tool is proposed, one that aims to support the decision of the donation and/or transplants coordination committee by providing the necessary elements to make this process more efficient. PMID:27110003

  6. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD-heart attack; Coronary artery disease-heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  7. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  8. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a heart attack take part in a cardiac rehabilitation program. ... al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  9. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  10. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower “bad” cholesterol (also called LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) levels and may help increase “good” cholesterol (also called HDL, or high-density lipoprotein). If you have had a heart attack, ...

  11. Web-based Electronic Sharing and RE-allocation of Assets

    2002-09-09

    The Electronic Asses Sharing Program is a web-based application that provides the capability for complex-wide sharing and reallocation of assets that are excess, under utilized, or un-utilized. through a web-based fron-end and supporting has database with a search engine, users can search for assets that they need, search for assets needed by others, enter assets they need, and enter assets they have available for reallocation. In addition, entire listings of available assets and needed assetsmore » can be viewed. The application is written in Java, the hash database and search engine are in Object-oriented Java Database Management (OJDBM). The application will be hosted on an SRS-managed server outside the Firewall and access will be controlled via a protected realm. An example of the application can be viewed at the followinig (temporary) URL: http://idgdev.srs.gov/servlet/srs.weshare.WeShare« less

  12. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's ... few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  13. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  14. Attack optimization for unequal moderate forces

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    Attack allocation optimizations produce stability indices for unsymmetrical forces that indicate significant regions of both stability and instability and that have their minimum values roughly when the two sides have equal forces. This note derives combined stability indices for unsymmetrical offensive force configurations. The indices are based on optimal allocations of offensive missiles between vulnerable missiles and value based on the minimization of first strike cost, which is done analytically. Exchanges are modeled probabalistically and their results are converted into first and second strike costs through approximations to the damage to the value target sets held at risk. The stability index is the product of the ratio of first to second strike costs seen by the two sides. Optimal allocations scale directly on the opponent`s vulnerable missiles, inversely on one`s own total weapons, and only logarithmically on the attacker`s damage preference, kill probability, and relative target set. The defender`s allocation scales in a similar manner on the attacker`s parameters. First and second strike magnitudes increase roughly linearly for the side with greater forces and decrease linearly for the side with fewer. Conversely, the first and second strike magnitudes decrease for the side with greater forces and increase for the side with fewer. These trends are derived and discussed analytically. The resulting stability indices exhibit a minimum where the two sides have roughly equal forces. If one side has much larger forces than the other, his costs drop to levels low enough that he is relatively insensitive to whether he strikes first or second. These calculations are performed with the analytic attack allocation appropriate for moderate forces, so some differences could be expected for the largest of the forces considered.

  15. Models for incomplete nucleophilic attack on a protonated carbonyl group and electron-deficient alkenes: salts and zwitterions from 1-dimethylamino-naphthalene-8-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lari, Alberth; Pitak, Matuesz B; Coles, Simon J; Rees, Gregory J; Day, Stephen P; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V; Wallis, John D

    2012-10-14

    The X-ray crystal structures of salts and zwitterionic Knoevenagel products from 1-dimethylamino-naphthalene-8-carbaldehyde show long N-C bonds between peri-groups which provide models for incomplete nucleophilic attack on a protonated carbonyl group and electron-deficient alkenes respectively. For the salts the N-C bonds lie in the range 1.625-1.638 Å with C-OH bonds intermediate in length between single and double bonds, while for the zwitterions the N-C bonds lie in the range 1.612-1.660 Å. The structural assignment of the former is supported by solid state (13)C and (15)N NMR studies on doubly isotopically-labelled material. Several zwitterions were converted to naphtha[1,8-bc]azepines by a mechanism involving the tertiary amino effect. PMID:22910881

  16. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  17. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  18. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-05-22

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full < wane < wax < new). Similarly, they displayed higher GUDs at brighter moon phases (wax > full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator-prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase. PMID:20053649

  19. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging

    PubMed Central

    Kotler, Burt P.; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-01-01

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full < wane < wax < new). Similarly, they displayed higher GUDs at brighter moon phases (wax > full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator–prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase. PMID:20053649

  20. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  1. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...

  2. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack. Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  3. A Model of the Regulation of Nitrogenase Electron Allocation in Legume Nodules (II. Comparison of Empirical and Theoretical Studies in Soybean).

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, A. H.; Guy, R. D.; Layzell, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    In N2-fixing legumes, the proportion of total electron flow through nitrogenase (total nitrogenase activity, TNA) that is used for N2 fixation is called the electron allocation coefficient (EAC). Previous studies have proposed that EAC is regulated by the competitive inhibition of H2 on N2 fixation and that the degree of H2 inhibition can be affected by a nodule's permeability to gas diffusion. To test this hypothesis, EAC was measured in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) nodules exposed to various partial pressures of H2 and N2, with or without changes in TNA or nodule permeability to gas diffusion, and the results were compared with the predictions of a mathematical model that combined equations for gas diffusion and competitive inhibition of N2 fixation (A. Moloney and D.B. Layzell [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 421-428). The empirical data clearly showed that decreases in EAC were associated with increases in external pH2, decreases in external pN2, and decreases in nodule permeability to O2 diffusion. The model predicted similar trends in EAC, and the small deviations that occurred between measured and predicted values could be readily accounted for by altering one or more of the following model assumptions: K1(H2) of nitrogenase (range from 2-4% H2), Km(N2) of nitrogenase (range from 4-5% N2), the allocation of less than 100% of whole-nodule respiration to tissues within the diffusion barrier, and the presence of a diffusion pathway that is open pore versus closed pore. The differences in the open-pore and closed-pore versions of the model suggest that it may be possible to use EAC measurements as a tool for the study of legume nodule diffusion barrier structure and function. The ability of the model to predict EAC provided strong support for the hypothesis that H2 inhibition of N2 fixation plays a major role in the in vivo control of EAC and that the presence of a variable barrier to gas diffusion affects the H2 and N2 concentration in the infected cell and

  4. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  5. Computer Processor Allocator

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  6. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  7. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  8. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    Dressler syndrome; Post-MI pericarditis; Post-cardiac injury syndrome; Postcardiotomy pericarditis ... Two types of pericarditis can occur after a heart attack . Early pericarditis: This form most occurs within ...

  9. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  10. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  11. The allocation of the radio spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. L.

    1980-02-01

    The system of the radio spectrum (10 kHz-300 GHz) allocation is discussed in its technical, economic, and managerial aspects. Possible improvements to the system are considered, such as minimizing human management, establishing a single authority for the allocation of the spectrum, and stimulating a more efficient use of the spectrum with economic incentives. The 'anarchy band' concept, a system of dynamic allocation, is suggested as a means of replacing human management with electronic equipment. The growing importance of the satellite portion of the spectrum is also shown.

  12. A fatal elephant attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. PMID:22085093

  13. Web Forms and Untraceable DDoS Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Markus; Menczer, Filippo

    We analyze a Web vulnerability that allows an attacker to perform an email-based attack on selected victims, using standard scripts and agents. What differentiates the attack we describe from other, already known forms of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks is that an attacker does not need to infiltrate the network in any manner - as is normally required to launch a DDoS attack. Thus, we see this type of attack as a poor man's DDoS. Not only is the attack easy to mount, but it is also almost impossible to trace back to the perpetrator. Along with descriptions of our attack, we demonstrate its destructive potential with (limited and contained) experimental results. We illustrate the potential impact of our attack by describing how an attacker can disable an email account by flooding its inbox; block competition during on-line auctions; harm competitors with an on-line presence; disrupt phone service to a given victim; disconnect mobile corporate leaders from their networks; and disrupt electronic elections. Finally, we propose a set of countermeasures that are light-weight, do not require modifications to the infrastructure, and can be deployed in a gradual manner.

  14. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. PMID:24237838

  15. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  16. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to call 9-1-1 immediately for any stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent The content in this library is for educational purposes only, and therefore is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

  17. Allocation without locking

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    In a programming environment with both concurrency and automatic garbage collection, the allocation and initialization of a new record is a sensitive matter: if it is interrupted halfway through, the allocating process may be in a state that the garbage collector can't understand. In particular, the collector won't know which words of the new record have been initialized and which are meaningless (and unsafe to transverse). For this reason, parallel implementations usually use a locking or semaphore mechanism to ensure that allocation is an atomic operation. The locking significantly adds to the cost of allocation. This paper shows that allocation can run extremely quickly even in a multi-thread environment: open-coded, without locking.

  18. Protecting infrastructure networks from cost-based attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingang; Guan, Shuguang; Heng Lai, Choy

    2009-03-01

    It is well known that heterogeneous networks are vulnerable to the intentional removal of a small fraction of highly connected or loaded nodes, implying that to protect the network effectively, the important nodes should be allocated more defense resource than the others. However, if too much resource is allocated to the few important nodes, the numerous less-important nodes will be less protected, which if attacked together can still lead to devastating damage. A natural question is therefore how to efficiently distribute the limited defense resource among the network nodes such that the network damage is minimized against any attack strategy. In this paper, taking into account the factor of attack cost, the problem of network security is reconsidered in terms of efficient network defense against cost-based attacks. The results show that, for a general complex network, there exists an optimal distribution of the defense resource with which the network is best protected from cost-based attacks. Furthermore, it is found that the configuration of the optimal defense is dependent on the network parameters. Specifically, networks of larger size, sparser connection and more heterogeneous structure will more likely benefit from the defense optimization.

  19. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  20. When women attack.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart. PMID:26399945

  1. TCPL: A Defense against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul; Basappa, K. Kari

    2010-10-01

    Do In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack in ad hoc networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits) at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many sensor network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. For example, most existing ad hoc network routing protocols, without some mechanism to defend against the wormhole attack, would be unable to find routes longer than one or two hops, severely disrupting communication. We present a new, general mechanism, called packet leashes, for detecting and thus defending against wormhole attacks, and we present a specific protocol, called TIK, that implements leashes.

  2. TCPL: A Defense against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul; Basappa, K. Kari

    2010-10-26

    Do In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack in ad hoc networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits) at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many sensor network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. For example, most existing ad hoc network routing protocols, without some mechanism to defend against the wormhole attack, would be unable to find routes longer than one or two hops, severely disrupting communication. We present a new, general mechanism, called packet leashes, for detecting and thus defending against wormhole attacks, and we present a specific protocol, called TIK, that implements leashes.

  3. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  4. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    SciTech Connect

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  5. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  6. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  7. I Was Attacked Online!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Considers some of the problems posed by electronic mail systems when the identity of the user is protected by the server. Suggests that high school instructors and administrators have good reason to circulate electronic messages through a central site, as students need to be protected from exploitative users and prohibited from sending abusive…

  8. Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007488.htm Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report ... myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology ...

  9. Spectrum allocations above 40 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenstein, W. E.; Moore, R. P.; Kimball, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-79) revised the International Table of Frequency Allocations to reflect increased interest and activity in the region of the EM spectrum above 40 GHz. The total width of the spectrum allocated (235 GHz) in the region above 40 GHz indicates the extent of this new spectrum resource, made accessible by advances in the state-of-the-art of telecommunications equipment. There are some striking differences between the approach to allocation above and below 40 GHz. For example, there are not bands allocated exclusively. This reflects the characteristics of propagation and the small antenna beamwidths achievable at these frequencies. Attention is given to atmospheric window and absorption band limits, allocations to satellite services, allocations to scientific services, allocations to terrestrial services, the future refinement of the radio regulations above 40 GHz, and allocations of WARC-79 and frequency management.

  10. Economics of spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melody, W. H.

    The effective and efficient allocation and use of the spectrum can be ensured only by a set of sharing rules that will reflect the interests, values, and power of all affected parties. What is now happening is that the new interests and different values of the developing countries are pressing to change the international sharing rules established by a small group of high-technology nations. It is noted that the latter have established a massive telecommunications infrastructure on the basis of inherited sharing rules that reflect only their interests and a much simplified scarcity problem. Once long-term goals and underlying principles of allocation are established, communication technologies and markets can be directed, through a series of adjustment policies, to achieve them. A crucial first step in the creation of an international information environment in which 'free' flows will be balanced flows is the establishment of a balanced and equitable set of sharing rules for the radio spectrum.

  11. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  12. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  13. Fuzzy-logic-based resource allocation for isolated and multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-08-01

    Modern naval battle forces generally include many different platforms each with its own sensors, radar, ESM, and communications. The sharing of information measured by local sensors via communication links across the battle group should allow for optimal or near optimal decision. The survival of the battle group or members of the group depends on the automatic real-time allocation of various resources. A fuzzy logic algorithm has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack resources in real- time. The particular approach to fuzzy logic that is used is the fuzzy decision tree, a generalization of the standard artificial intelligence technique of decision trees. The controller must be able to make decisions based on rules provided by experts. The fuzzy logic approach allows the direct incorporation of expertise forming a fuzzy linguistic description, i.e. a formal representation of the system in terms of fuzzy if-then rules. Genetic algorithm based optimization is conducted to determine the form of the membership functions for the fuzzy root concepts. The isolated platform and multi platform resource manager models are discussed as well as the underlying multi-platform communication model. The resource manager is shown to exhibit excellent performance under many demanding scenarios.

  14. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  15. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations... amounts that will be harvested, or a combination of the two. Estimates of the amount of Pacific...

  16. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  17. Presentation attack detection for face recognition using light field camera.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, R; Raja, Kiran B; Busch, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The vulnerability of face recognition systems isa growing concern that has drawn the interest from both academic and research communities. Despite the availability of a broad range of face presentation attack detection (PAD)(or countermeasure or antispoofing) schemes, there exists no superior PAD technique due to evolution of sophisticated presentation attacks (or spoof attacks). In this paper, we present a new perspective for face presentation attack detection by introducing light field camera (LFC). Since the use of a LFC can record the direction of each incoming ray in addition to the intensity, it exhibits an unique characteristic of rendering multiple depth(or focus) images in a single capture. Thus, we present a novel approach that involves exploring the variation of the focus between multiple depth (or focus) images rendered by the LFC that in turn can be used to reveal the presentation attacks. To this extent, we first collect a new face artefact database using LFC that comprises of 80 subjects. Face artefacts are generated by simulating two widely used attacks, such as photo print and electronic screen attack. Extensive experiments carried out on the light field face artefact database have revealed the outstanding performance of the proposed PAD scheme when benchmarked with various well established state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:25622320

  18. Attack vulnerability of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun; Yoon, Chang No; Han, Seung Kee

    2002-05-01

    We study the response of complex networks subject to attacks on vertices and edges. Several existing complex network models as well as real-world networks of scientific collaborations and Internet traffic are numerically investigated, and the network performance is quantitatively measured by the average inverse geodesic length and the size of the largest connected subgraph. For each case of attacks on vertices and edges, four different attacking strategies are used: removals by the descending order of the degree and the betweenness centrality, calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal procedure. It is found that the removals by the recalculated degrees and betweenness centralities are often more harmful than the attack strategies based on the initial network, suggesting that the network structure changes as important vertices or edges are removed. Furthermore, the correlation between the betweenness centrality and the degree in complex networks is studied.

  19. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-15

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  20. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  1. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  2. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  3. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  4. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  5. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  6. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  7. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  8. Attack Methodology Analysis: Emerging Trends in Computer-Based Attack Methodologies and Their Applicability to Control System Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston

    2005-06-01

    Threat characterization is a key component in evaluating the threat faced by control systems. Without a thorough understanding of the threat faced by critical infrastructure networks, adequate resources cannot be allocated or directed effectively to the defense of these systems. Traditional methods of threat analysis focus on identifying the capabilities and motivations of a specific attacker, assessing the value the adversary would place on targeted systems, and deploying defenses according to the threat posed by the potential adversary. Too many effective exploits and tools exist and are easily accessible to anyone with access to an Internet connection, minimal technical skills, and a significantly reduced motivational threshold to be able to narrow the field of potential adversaries effectively. Understanding how hackers evaluate new IT security research and incorporate significant new ideas into their own tools provides a means of anticipating how IT systems are most likely to be attacked in the future. This research, Attack Methodology Analysis (AMA), could supply pertinent information on how to detect and stop new types of attacks. Since the exploit methodologies and attack vectors developed in the general Information Technology (IT) arena can be converted for use against control system environments, assessing areas in which cutting edge exploit development and remediation techniques are occurring can provide significance intelligence for control system network exploitation, defense, and a means of assessing threat without identifying specific capabilities of individual opponents. Attack Methodology Analysis begins with the study of what exploit technology and attack methodologies are being developed in the Information Technology (IT) security research community within the black and white hat community. Once a solid understanding of the cutting edge security research is established, emerging trends in attack methodology can be identified and the gap between

  9. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  10. Detection of complex cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug

    2006-05-01

    One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.

  11. 57 Word Attack Skill Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mara, Patricia; Sorenson, Juanita

    These 57 game cards were developed to help teachers build their resource files for word-attack skills. Cards are keyed to skills suggested by the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development and are color-coded according to their appropriateness for children in kindergarten through grade three. The front of each card gives the name of the skill,…

  12. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Xin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  13. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period. PMID:25109326

  14. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  15. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  16. Intermittent hypoendorphinaemia in migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Baldi, E; Salmon, S; Anselmi, B; Spillantini, M G; Cappelli, G; Brocchi, A; Sicuteri, F

    1982-06-01

    Beta-endorphin (RIA method, previous chromatographic extraction) was evaluated in plasma of migraine sufferers in free periods and during attacks. Decreased levels of the endogenous opioid peptide were found in plasma sampled during the attacks but not in free periods. Even chronic headache sufferers exhibited significantly lowered levels of beta-endorphin, when compared with control subjects with a negative personal and family history of head pains. The mechanism of the hypoendorphinaemia is unknown: lowered levels of the neuropeptide, which controls nociception, vegetative functions and hedonia, could be important in a syndrome such as migraine, characterized by pain, dysautonomia and anhedonia. The impairment of monoaminergic synapses ("empty neuron" condition) constantly present in sufferers from serious headaches, could be due to the fact that opioid neuropeptides, because of a receptoral or metabolic impairment, poorly modulate the respective monoaminergic neurons, resulting in imbalance of synaptic neurotransmission. PMID:6290072

  17. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ... and cholesterol levels are very important for preventing heart attacks and strokes. See your doctor who treats your ...

  18. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of heart attack known as STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction). "Patients with ischemic heart disease are at the ... failure]. This includes those who have had a myocardial infarction, also called heart attack," Gho said. "Research studying ...

  19. Half of Heart Attacks Might Be 'Silent'

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158855.html Half of Heart Attacks Might Be 'Silent' Without typical symptoms, many miss ... HealthDay News) -- As many as half of all heart attacks may be "silent" -- without the typical crushing chest ...

  20. Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159557.html Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death Study points to need for better coordinated care, ... people with diabetes have a higher risk of death after a heart attack. "We knew that following ...

  1. Heart Attacks Striking Younger, Fatter Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157946.html Heart Attacks Striking Younger, Fatter Americans: Study Doctors, patients need ... 24, 2016 THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart attack victims in the United States are becoming younger ...

  2. Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159557.html Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death Study points to need for better coordinated ... are much more likely to die after a heart attack than people without the blood sugar condition, a ...

  3. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  4. Fat May Not Hike Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160179.html Fat May Not Hike Heart Attack Risk: Study But it does raise diabetes risk, ... that obesity may not increase the risk of heart attack or premature death. Their study of identical twins ...

  5. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000080.htm Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke To use the sharing features on ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ...

  6. Half of Heart Attacks Might Be 'Silent'

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158855.html Half of Heart Attacks Might Be 'Silent' Without typical symptoms, many miss ... HealthDay News) -- As many as half of all heart attacks may be "silent" -- without the typical crushing chest ...

  7. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach. PMID:25683347

  8. Deterring watermark collusion attacks using signal processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Aweke N.; van der Veen, Michiel

    2007-02-01

    Collusion attack is a malicious watermark removal attack in which the hacker has access to multiple copies of the same content with different watermarks and tries to remove the watermark using averaging. In the literature, several solutions to collusion attacks have been reported. The main stream solutions aim at designing watermark codes that are inherently resistant to collusion attacks. The other approaches propose signal processing based solutions that aim at modifying the watermarked signals in such a way that averaging multiple copies of the content leads to a significant degradation of the content quality. In this paper, we present signal processing based technique that may be deployed for deterring collusion attacks. We formulate the problem in the context of electronic music distribution where the content is generally available in the compressed domain. Thus, we first extend the collusion resistance principles to bit stream signals and secondly present experimental based analysis to estimate a bound on the maximum number of modified versions of a content that satisfy good perceptibility requirement on one hand and destructive averaging property on the other hand.

  9. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  10. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  11. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  12. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  13. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  14. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  15. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  16. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  17. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  18. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  19. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  20. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  1. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erdős-Rényi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  2. Impact of imperfect information on network attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchionna, Andrew; Caloca, Jesus; Squires, Shane; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Ott, Edward; Girvan, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of network attack when the attacker has imperfect information about the network. For Erdős-Rényi networks, we observe that dynamical importance and betweenness centrality-based attacks are surprisingly robust to the presence of a moderate amount of imperfect information and are more effective compared with simpler degree-based attacks even at moderate levels of network information error. In contrast, for scale-free networks the effectiveness of attack is much less degraded by a moderate level of information error. Furthermore, in the Erdős-Rényi case the effectiveness of network attack is much more degraded by missing links as compared with the same number of false links.

  3. Impact of imperfect information on network attack.

    PubMed

    Melchionna, Andrew; Caloca, Jesus; Squires, Shane; Antonsen, Thomas M; Ott, Edward; Girvan, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of network attack when the attacker has imperfect information about the network. For Erdős-Rényi networks, we observe that dynamical importance and betweenness centrality-based attacks are surprisingly robust to the presence of a moderate amount of imperfect information and are more effective compared with simpler degree-based attacks even at moderate levels of network information error. In contrast, for scale-free networks the effectiveness of attack is much less degraded by a moderate level of information error. Furthermore, in the Erdős-Rényi case the effectiveness of network attack is much more degraded by missing links as compared with the same number of false links. PMID:25871157

  4. Attack robustness of cascading load model in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Wu, Yuedan; Li, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Considering the weight of a node and the coupled strength of two interdependent nodes in the different networks, we propose a method to assign the initial load of a node and construct a new cascading load model in the interdependent networks. Assuming that a node in one network will fail if its degree is 0 or its dependent node in the other network is removed from the network or the load on it exceeds its capacity, we study the influences of the assortative link (AL) and the disassortative link (DL) patterns between two networks on the robustness of the interdependent networks against cascading failures. For better evaluating the network robustness, from the local perspective of a node we present a new measure to qualify the network resiliency after targeted attacks. We show that the AL patterns between two networks can improve the robust level of the entire interdependent networks. Moreover, we obtain how to efficiently allocate the initial load and select some nodes to be protected so as to maximize the network robustness against cascading failures. In addition, we find that some nodes with the lower load are more likely to trigger the cascading propagation when the distribution of the load is more even, and also give the reasonable explanation. Our findings can help to design the robust interdependent networks and give the reasonable suggestion to optimize the allocation of the protection resources.

  5. Attack optimization at moderate force levels

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    Optimal offensive missile allocations for moderate offensive and defensive forces are derived and used to study their sensitivity to force structure parameters levels. It is shown that the first strike cost is a product of the number of missiles and a function of the optimum allocation. Thus, the conditions under which the number of missiles should increase or decrease in time is also determined by this allocation.

  6. Detecting Denial of Service Attacks in Tor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Norman; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting such attacks and examine the effectiveness of the obvious approach to evading such detection. We implement a simplified version of the detection algorithm and study whether the attack may be in progress on the current Tor network. Our preliminary measurements indicate that the attack was probably not implemented during the period we observed the network.

  7. Optimal Vaccine Allocation for the Early Mitigation of Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Matrajt, Laura; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2013-01-01

    With new cases of avian influenza H5N1 (H5N1AV) arising frequently, the threat of a new influenza pandemic remains a challenge for public health. Several vaccines have been developed specifically targeting H5N1AV, but their production is limited and only a few million doses are readily available. Because there is an important time lag between the emergence of new pandemic strain and the development and distribution of a vaccine, shortage of vaccine is very likely at the beginning of a pandemic. We coupled a mathematical model with a genetic algorithm to optimally and dynamically distribute vaccine in a network of cities, connected by the airline transportation network. By minimizing the illness attack rate (i.e., the percentage of people in the population who become infected and ill), we focus on optimizing vaccine allocation in a network of 16 cities in Southeast Asia when only a few million doses are available. In our base case, we assume the vaccine is well-matched and vaccination occurs 5 to 10 days after the beginning of the epidemic. The effectiveness of all the vaccination strategies drops off as the timing is delayed or the vaccine is less well-matched. Under the best assumptions, optimal vaccination strategies substantially reduced the illness attack rate, with a maximal reduction in the attack rate of 85%. Furthermore, our results suggest that cooperative strategies where the resources are optimally distributed among the cities perform much better than the strategies where the vaccine is equally distributed among the network, yielding an illness attack rate 17% lower. We show that it is possible to significantly mitigate a more global epidemic with limited quantities of vaccine, provided that the vaccination campaign is extremely fast and it occurs within the first weeks of transmission. PMID:23555207

  8. Optimal vaccine allocation for the early mitigation of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Matrajt, Laura; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2013-01-01

    With new cases of avian influenza H5N1 (H5N1AV) arising frequently, the threat of a new influenza pandemic remains a challenge for public health. Several vaccines have been developed specifically targeting H5N1AV, but their production is limited and only a few million doses are readily available. Because there is an important time lag between the emergence of new pandemic strain and the development and distribution of a vaccine, shortage of vaccine is very likely at the beginning of a pandemic. We coupled a mathematical model with a genetic algorithm to optimally and dynamically distribute vaccine in a network of cities, connected by the airline transportation network. By minimizing the illness attack rate (i.e., the percentage of people in the population who become infected and ill), we focus on optimizing vaccine allocation in a network of 16 cities in Southeast Asia when only a few million doses are available. In our base case, we assume the vaccine is well-matched and vaccination occurs 5 to 10 days after the beginning of the epidemic. The effectiveness of all the vaccination strategies drops off as the timing is delayed or the vaccine is less well-matched. Under the best assumptions, optimal vaccination strategies substantially reduced the illness attack rate, with a maximal reduction in the attack rate of 85%. Furthermore, our results suggest that cooperative strategies where the resources are optimally distributed among the cities perform much better than the strategies where the vaccine is equally distributed among the network, yielding an illness attack rate 17% lower. We show that it is possible to significantly mitigate a more global epidemic with limited quantities of vaccine, provided that the vaccination campaign is extremely fast and it occurs within the first weeks of transmission. PMID:23555207

  9. Node ID based detection of Sybil attack in mobile wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmila, S.; Umamaheswari, G.

    2013-10-01

    Security is the major issue in wireless sensor networks and many defence mechanisms have been developed to secure the network from these alarming attacks by detecting the malicious nodes which hinder the performance of the network. Sybil attack can make the network vulnerable. Sybil attack means a node which illegitimately claims multiple identities. This attack threatens wireless sensor network in routing, voting system, fair resource allocation, data aggregation and misbehaviour detection. Hence, the research is carried out to prevent the Sybil attack and improve the network performance. The node ID-based scheme is proposed, where the detection is based on node registration, consisting of two phases and the assignment of ID to the node is done dynamically. The ID's corresponding to the nodes registered is at the base station and the node active time is monitored, any abnormalities in the above phases confirm the presence of Sybil nodes in the network. The scheme is simulated using NS2. The energy consumed for this algorithm is 2.3 J. The proposed detection scheme is analysed based on the network's PDR and found that the throughput has improved, which prove that this scheme may be used in the environment where security is needed.

  10. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  11. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands...

  12. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  13. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

  14. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  16. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  17. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  18. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  19. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  20. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  1. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  2. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  3. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  4. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a...) Cost allocation and distribution for the planning, design, development, installation and operation...

  5. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  6. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  7. The cost of attack in competing networks.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, B; Horvatic, D; Lipic, T; Perc, M; Buldú, J M; Stanley, H E

    2015-11-01

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator-prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities. PMID:26490628

  8. Preventive attack in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Prebeck, S.R.

    1993-05-28

    The decline of the Soviet Union upset the world`s balance of power and opened the door to third world proliferation since the superpowers no longer have tight control over their client-states. This increase in proliferation raised the issue of how the United States (US) should respond to a third world nation that is acquiring nuclear weapons. Should the United States depend on preventive attacks to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This is not a new issue. Proliferation and preventive war have both been issues since the end of World War II. The United States considered a preventive attack against the Soviet Union in the postwar years. The Soviet Union considered preventive attacks against the People`s Republic of China in 1969. Israel conducted a preventive attack in 1981 against the Osiraq nuclear reactor in Iraq. Preventive attacks are politically untenable and are not militarily possible. Without perfect political conditions, it is unacceptable for the only remaining superpower to attack a second-rate power. It is militarily impossible for the United States to guarantee the removal of all nuclear weapons in a single preventive attack. This study concludes that the United States should not depend on preventive attacks to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  9. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting...

  10. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  11. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  12. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  13. Symptoms of transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S

    2014-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a cerebrovascular disease with temporary (<24 h) neurological symptoms. The symptoms of TIA patients are largely similar to those of ischemic stroke patients and include unilateral limb weakness, speech disturbances, sensory symptoms, visual disturbances, and gait difficulties. As these symptoms are transient, they are frequently evaluated based on patients' subjective reports, which are less precise than those of patients with stroke whose longer-lasting symptoms and signs can be reliably assessed by physicians. Some symptoms, such as monocular blindness, are much more common in TIA than in stroke, and limb shaking occurs almost exclusively in TIA patients. On the other hand, symptoms like hemivisual field defects or limb ataxia are underappreciated in TIA patients. These transient neurological symptoms are not necessarily caused by cerebrovascular diseases, but can be produced by a variety of non-vascular diseases. Careful history taking, examination, and appropriate imaging tests are needed to differentiate these TIA mimics from TIA. Each TIA symptom has a different specificity and sensitivity, and there has been an effort to assess the outcome of the patients through the use of specific clinical features. On top of this, recent developments in imaging techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to predict the outcomes of TIA patients. Perception or recognition of TIA symptoms may differ according to the race, sex, education, and specialty of physicians. Appropriate education of both the general population and physicians with regard to TIA symptoms is important as TIAs need emergent evaluation and treatment. PMID:24157558

  14. Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2013-06-01

    Blind signature schemes allow users to obtain the signature of a message while the signer learns neither the message nor the resulting signature. Therefore, blind signatures have been used to realize cryptographic protocols providing the anonymity of some participants, such as: secure electronic payment systems and electronic voting systems. A fair blind signature is a form of blind signature which the anonymity could be removed with the help of a trusted entity, when this is required for legal reasons. Recently, a fair quantum blind signature scheme was proposed and thought to be safe. In this paper, we first point out that there exists a new attack on fair quantum blind signature schemes. The attack shows that, if any sender has intercepted any valid signature, he (she) can counterfeit a valid signature for any message and can not be traced by the counterfeited blind signature. Then, we construct a fair quantum blind signature scheme by improved the existed one. The proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme can resist the preceding attack. Furthermore, we demonstrate the security of the proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme and compare it with the other one.

  15. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  16. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  17. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  18. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  19. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  20. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  1. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  2. Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device

    DOEpatents

    Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromylis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

    2014-07-22

    Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

  3. Effect of migraine attacks on paracetamol absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Tokola, R A; Neuvonen, P J

    1984-01-01

    The absorption of effervescent paracetamol (1000 mg) was investigated in nine female patients during a migraine attack and in the same patients when headache free. Migraine attack decreased (P less than 0.05) the areas under the serum paracetamol concentration-time curves (AUC) of 0-2 h, 0-4 h and 0-6 h and the peak serum concentration. The severity of nausea correlated significantly with the decrease in the AUC values. Our results support findings of delayed gastric emptying in migraine attacks. Both a delay and an impairment of drug absorption may follow. PMID:6529526

  4. Identifying and Analyzing Web Server Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Christian; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Komisarczuk, Peter; Muschevici, Radu; Welch, Ian D.

    2008-08-29

    Abstract: Client honeypots can be used to identify malicious web servers that attack web browsers and push malware to client machines. Merely recording network traffic is insufficient to perform comprehensive forensic analyses of such attacks. Custom tools are required to access and analyze network protocol data. Moreover, specialized methods are required to perform a behavioral analysis of an attack, which helps determine exactly what transpired on the attacked system. This paper proposes a record/replay mechanism that enables forensic investigators to extract application data from recorded network streams and allows applications to interact with this data in order to conduct behavioral analyses. Implementations for the HTTP and DNS protocols are presented and their utility in network forensic investigations is demonstrated.

  5. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  6. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  7. On localization attacks against cloud infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-05-01

    One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.

  8. Heart attack - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a period of time ... muscle is damaged. It is also called a myocardial infarction (MI). Angina is pain or pressure in the ...

  9. Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159534.html Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack Prior exposure to this other mosquito-borne ... dengue fever virus may increase the severity of Zika virus, a new study says. Early stage laboratory ...

  10. Heart attack - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle is damaged. It is also called a myocardial infarction (MI). Watch this video about: Coronary artery disease ... help you take care of yourself after a heart attack. Questions What are the signs and symptoms that ...

  11. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  12. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  13. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  14. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  15. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  16. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  17. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  18. Spread spectrum watermarking: malicious attacks and counterattacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Frank H.; Su, Jonathan K.; Girod, Bernd

    1999-04-01

    Most watermarking methods for images and video have been proposed are based on ideas from spread spectrum radio communications, namely additive embedding of a (signal adaptive or non-adaptive) pseudo-noise watermark pattern, and watermark recovery by correlation. Even methods that are not presented as spread spectrum methods often build on these principles. Recently, some skepticism about the robustness of spread spectrum watermarks has arisen, specifically with the general availability of watermark attack software which claim to render most watermarks undetectable. In fact, spread spectrum watermarks and watermark detectors in their simplest form are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. However, with appropriate modifications to the embedding and extraction methods, spread spectrum methods can be made much more resistant against such attacks. In this paper, we review proposed attacks on spread spectrum watermarks are systematically. Further, modifications for watermark embedding and extraction are presented to avoid and counterattack these attacks. Important ingredients are, for example, to adapt the power spectrum of the watermark to the host signal power spectrum, and to employ an intelligent watermark detector with a block-wise multi-dimensional sliding correlator, which can recover the watermark even in the presence of geometric attacks.

  19. Allocating Railway Platforms Using A Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Hinde, C. J.; Withall, M. S.; Jackson, T. W.; Phillips, I. W.; Brown, S.; Watson, R.

    This paper describes an approach to automating railway station platform allocation. The system uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find how a station’s resources should be allocated. Real data is used which needs to be transformed to be suitable for the automated system. Successful or ‘fit’ allocations provide a solution that meets the needs of the station schedule including platform re-occupation and various other constraints. The system associates the train data to derive the station requirements. The Genetic Algorithm is used to derive platform allocations. Finally, the system may be extended to take into account how further parameters that are external to the station have an effect on how an allocation should be applied. The system successfully allocates around 1000 trains to platforms in around 30 seconds requiring a genome of around 1000 genes to achieve this.

  20. Detecting Heap-Spraying Code Injection Attacks in Malicious Web Pages Using Runtime Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younghan; Kim, Hyoungchun; Lee, Donghoon

    The growing use of web services is increasing web browser attacks exponentially. Most attacks use a technique called heap spraying because of its high success rate. Heap spraying executes a malicious code without indicating the exact address of the code by copying it into many heap objects. For this reason, the attack has a high potential to succeed if only the vulnerability is exploited. Thus, attackers have recently begun using this technique because it is easy to use JavaScript to allocate the heap memory area. This paper proposes a novel technique that detects heap spraying attacks by executing a heap object in a real environment, irrespective of the version and patch status of the web browser. This runtime execution is used to detect various forms of heap spraying attacks, such as encoding and polymorphism. Heap objects are executed after being filtered on the basis of patterns of heap spraying attacks in order to reduce the overhead of the runtime execution. Patterns of heap spraying attacks are based on analysis of how an web browser accesses benign web sites. The heap objects are executed forcibly by changing the instruction register into the address of them after being loaded into memory. Thus, we can execute the malicious code without having to consider the version and patch status of the browser. An object is considered to contain a malicious code if the execution reaches a call instruction and then the instruction accesses the API of system libraries, such as kernel32.dll and ws_32.dll. To change registers and monitor execution flow, we used a debugger engine. A prototype, named HERAD(HEap spRAying Detector), is implemented and evaluated. In experiments, HERAD detects various forms of exploit code that an emulation cannot detect, and some heap spraying attacks that NOZZLE cannot detect. Although it has an execution overhead, HERAD produces a low number of false alarms. The processing time of several minutes is negligible because our research focuses on

  1. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  2. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  3. Defending against ballistic missile attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Frelk, J.J.; Tait, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a compendium of information on the proliferation of ballistic missiles and other defense issues. This volume describes recent SDI advances in crystal clear language. It explains how the marriage of ultra-compact electronics and rocketry has created the smart bullet or brilliant pebble--a projectile with a tiny but powerful compute brain. The brilliant pebble tracks it target by sensing the heat the target emits, as a snake does when tracking a small mammal. Then, guided by its miniaturized computer brain, the brilliant pebble steers itself into the target and destroys it by force of the impact. In this latest form, the brilliant pebble even has the ability to take sightings on the stars, setting its course by celestial navigation.

  4. Performance Evaluation of AODV with Blackhole Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, Karuna

    2010-11-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network set up by a wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. These nodes maintain connectivity in a decentralized manner. Since the nodes communicate with each other, they cooperate by forwarding data packets to other nodes in the network. Thus the nodes find a path to the destination node using routing protocols. However, due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, mobile ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of these attacks is the Black Hole Attack against network integrity absorbing all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper, we simulated the black hole attack in various mobile ad-hoc network scenarios using AODV routing protocol of MANET and have tried to find a effect if number of nodes are increased with increase in malicious nodes.

  5. Individual triptan selection in migraine attack therapy.

    PubMed

    Belvís, Robert; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    About 6% of men and 18% of women suffer migraine attacks. Migraine can induce a great impact in the quality of life of the patient and the costs of medical care and lost productivity can be also high. There are two therapeutic approaches in the treatment of migraine: preventive therapy and acute treatment of migraine attack. Immediate treatment with selective serotonin [5-HT1B/1T] receptor agonists (so-called triptans) is the first-line option in the acute treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. The introduction in early nineties of triptans was a revolution in migraine therapy and evidences about their efficacy are at present irrefutable. At the moment, there are seven marketed molecules: sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan and frovatriptan. Obviously, every molecule has different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic properties and, moreover, some triptans have several formulations: tablets, dissolvable tablets, nasal and injections. The prescription of one of these seven triptans for a specified patient is based in the drug profile: efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Despite there are a lot of published studies using triptans, no clinical trial has analyzed all the molecules at the same time. Other data to take account in the final prescription are clinical characteristics of the migraine attack and patient characteristics: labour aspects, style of life and the patient medical history. We present a state-of-the-art of the triptan selection in treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. PMID:19149716

  6. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:May 24,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) • ...

  7. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  8. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...

  9. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  10. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  11. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  12. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units based on information provided by: (A) The needs assessment prepared in accordance with 24 CFR 8.25... dwelling units in the project for the year preceding the date of submission of the allocation plan to HUD... available for occupancy during the two-year period following the date of submission of the allocation...

  13. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  14. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  15. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limited entry gear is open. When the fishery for a vessel's limited entry gear has closed, groundfish caught by that vessel with open access gear will be counted against the open access allocation. All... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for...

  16. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  17. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  18. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  19. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  20. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  1. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  2. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  3. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  4. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  5. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  6. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  7. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  8. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... halibut regulations) is managed under regulations at 50 CFR part 300, subpart E. Beginning with the 2011..., the OY is reduced by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal harvest (allocations, set-asides, and...: recreational estimates are not deducted here). (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations,...

  9. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  10. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  11. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  12. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  13. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for...

  14. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  15. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  16. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  17. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  18. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  19. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  20. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  1. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  2. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  3. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  4. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  5. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.55 Allocations. (a) General. An...

  6. Attacks on public telephone networks: technologies and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2003-09-01

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.

  7. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research. PMID:25649106

  8. Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation.

    PubMed

    McKneally, M F; Dickens, B M; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1997-07-15

    Questions of resource allocation can pose practical and ethical dilemmas for clinicians. In the Aristotelian conception of distributive justice, the unequal allocation of a scarce resource may be justified by morally relevant factors such as need or likelihood of benefit. Even using these criteria, it can be difficult to reconcile completing claims to determine which patients should be given priority. To what extent the physician's fiduciary duty toward a patient should supersede the interests of other patients and society as a whole is also a matter of controversy. Although the courts have been reluctant to become involved in allocation decisions in health care, they expect physicians to show allegiance to their patients regardless of budgetary concerns. The allocation of resources on the basis of clinically irrelevant factors such as religion or sexual orientation is prohibited. Clear, fair and publicly acceptable institutional and professional policies can help to ensure that resource allocation decisions are transparent and defensible. PMID:9238146

  9. Characterization of attacks on public telephone networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Gary V.; Manes, Gavin W.; Hale, John C.; Marks, Donald; Davis, Kenneth; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Public Telephone Network (PTN) is a massively connected distributed information systems, much like the Internet. PTN signaling, transmission and operations functions must be protected from physical and cyber attacks to ensure the reliable delivery of telecommunications services. The increasing convergence of PTNs with wireless communications systems, computer networks and the Internet itself poses serious threats to our nation's telecommunications infrastructure. Legacy technologies and advanced services encumber well-known and as of yet undiscovered vulnerabilities that render them susceptible to cyber attacks. This paper presents a taxonomy of cyber attacks on PTNs in converged environments that synthesizes exploits in computer and communications network domains. The taxonomy provides an opportunity for the systematic exploration of mitigative and preventive strategies, as well as for the identification and classification of emerging threats.

  10. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  11. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-06-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  12. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  13. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  14. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  15. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  16. Discovering Collaborative Cyber Attack Patterns Using Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haitao; Yang, Shanchieh Jay

    This paper investigates collaborative cyber attacks based on social network analysis. An Attack Social Graph (ASG) is defined to represent cyber attacks on the Internet. Features are extracted from ASGs to analyze collaborative patterns. We use principle component analysis to reduce the feature space, and hierarchical clustering to group attack sources that exhibit similar behavior. Experiments with real world data illustrate that our framework can effectively reduce from large dataset to clusters of attack sources exhibiting critical collaborative patterns.

  17. Airfoil Lift with Changing Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1927-01-01

    Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.

  18. Counterfactual attack on counterfactual quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Wnang, Jian; Tang, Chao Jing

    2012-05-01

    It is interesting that counterfactual quantum cryptography protocols allow two remotely separated parties to share a secret key without transmitting any signal particles. Generally, these protocols, expected to provide security advantages, base their security on a translated no-cloning theorem. Therefore, they potentially exhibit unconditional security in theory. In this letter, we propose a new Trojan horse attack, by which an eavesdropper Eve can gain full information about the key without being noticed, to real implementations of a counterfactual quantum cryptography system. Most importantly, the presented attack is available even if the system has negligible imperfections. Therefore, it shows that the present realization of counterfactual quantum key distribution is vulnerable.

  19. Differential attack on mini-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeng Gemellia, Asadini Dwi; Indarjani, Santi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of differential attack on Mini-AES algorithm. The differential trails are constructed using all combinations of propagation ratio without repetition. To give practical results, we implement the key extraction for differential characteristics which have the highest and lowest probability as a comparison. Based on total propagation ratio and complexity resulted, Mini-AES algorithms are vulnerable to differential attack. The best differential characteristic is the differential characteristic using a single active s-box with the propagation ratio of 8 / 16.

  20. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  1. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  2. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Heart Attack - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ...

  3. Modified localized attack on complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Gaogao; Du, Ruijin; Hao, Huifang; Tian, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Since a shell structure contains a wealth of information, it is not only very important for understanding the transport properties of the network, but also essential to identify influential spreaders in complex networks. Nodes within each shell can be classified into two categories: protected nodes and unprotected nodes. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the localized attack, modified localized attack, which means that when a randomly chosen node (root node) is under attack, protected nodes will not be removed, but unprotected nodes in the nearest shells will fail. We numerically and analytically study the system robustness under this attack by taking an Erdös-Rényi (ER) network, a regular random (RR) network and a scale-free (SF) network as examples. Moreover, a fraction of nodes belonging to giant component S and a critical threshold q c , where S approaches to zero, are given. The result implies that increasing connection density has been found to be useful to significantly improve network robustness.

  4. Responses to the September 11, 2001 Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special section devoted to chronicling the responses of art therapists after the September 11th attacks. The section contains 10 articles from therapists in New York City, New Jersey, Long Island, Washington, DC, and California. Articles include stories of the reactions of the therapists as well as their work with…

  5. Union, States Wage Frontal Attack on NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess; Sack, Joetta L.

    2005-01-01

    Widespread sniping at the Bush administration's centerpiece education law escalated into a frontal attack as the nation's largest teachers' union. Several school districts sued federal officials over the measure, just a day after the Utah legislature approved a bill challenging the reach of the law. The National Education Association's suit…

  6. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection. PMID:25910268

  7. Method for detecting sophisticated cyber attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Potok, Thomas E.

    2008-11-18

    A method of analyzing computer intrusion detection information that looks beyond known attacks and abnormal access patterns to the critical information that an intruder may want to access. Unique target identifiers and type of work performed by the networked targets is added to audit log records. Analysis using vector space modeling, dissimilarity matrix comparison, and clustering of the event records is then performed.

  8. Survival of child after lion attack

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Chavez, Mario; Molina, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injuries to humans caused by attacks from large predators are very rare, especially in the United States, Europe, or Latin America. A few cases were reported on accidents in zoos or animal farms, being very uncommon in children. The purposes of this report include describing the case of a child who sustained an attack by a lion named “Bang-Bang”, which resulted in injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen, as well as the subsequent neurosurgical treatment and providing a review of the literature. Case Description: We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was attacked by a lion during a circus show. The patient underwent an emergent neurosurgical procedure, including parietal craniectomy, cleaning, and extensive surgical debridement of the wounds. Despite open severe head trauma with brain damage as well as thorax and abdomen trauma, the child survived, with minimal neurological sequelae. Conclusions: Human injury resulting from encounters with nondomesticated animals is increasingly rising throughout the world. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild mammals held in captivity. Unusual wild animal attacks and the complex injuries that result may pose a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited settings. In this sense, the best treatment in the mentioned case is the prevention of human injuries by these animals. In addition, to attend to these infrequent cases, the authors emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23869277

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  11. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  12. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with…

  13. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  14. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159007.html After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure 1 in 4 survivors develops this serious ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of heart failure appears high within a few years of ...

  15. America under attack: the "10 commandments" of responding to mass terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Everly, G S; Mitchell, J T

    2001-01-01

    On September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks caused the catastrophic collapse of the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Approximately 40 minutes after the World Trade Center was attacked, a similar terrorist attack was perpetrated against the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. Although the resultant physical devastation was beyond anything this nation has ever experienced, the psychological devastation may not be known for months, or even years. This paper discusses, not only a structure for understanding the phases of terrorism, but offers 10 recommendations for responding to acts of terrorism. PMID:11642190

  16. Linear modelling of attentional resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, B.

    1978-01-01

    Eight subjects time-shared performance of two compensatory tracking tasks under conditions when both were of constant difficulty, and when the control order of one task (designated primary) was varied over time within a trial. On line performance feedback was presented on half of the trials. The data are interpreted in terms of a linear model of the operator's attention allocation system, and suggest that this allocation is strongly suboptimal. Furthermore, the limitations in reallocating attentional resources between tasks, in response to difficulty fluctuations were not reduced by augmented performance feedback. Some characteristics of the allocation system are described, and reasons for its limitations suggested.

  17. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Error and attack vulnerability of temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovski, S.; Scellato, S.; Leontiadis, I.

    2012-06-01

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded our understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of time-varying networks under various failures and intelligent attacks. We adopt a methodology to evaluate the impact of such events on the network connectivity by employing temporal metrics in order to select and remove nodes based on how critical they are considered for the network. We also define the temporal robustness range, a new metric that quantifies the disruption caused by an attack strategy to a given temporal network. Our results show that in real-world networks, where some nodes are more dominant than others, temporal connectivity is significantly more affected by intelligent attacks than by random failures. Moreover, different intelligent attack strategies have a similar effect on the robustness: even small subsets of highly connected nodes act as a bottleneck in the temporal information flow, becoming critical weak points of the entire system. Additionally, the same nodes are the most important across a range of different importance metrics, expressing the correlation between highly connected nodes and those that trigger most of the changes in the optimal information spreading. Contrarily, we show that in randomly generated networks, where all the nodes have similar properties, random errors and intelligent attacks exhibit similar behavior. These conclusions may help us in design of more robust systems and fault-tolerant network architectures.

  19. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim. PMID:16936505

  20. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  1. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  2. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  3. Resource allocation framework for heterogeneous SPMD interactive television environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensgen, Debra A.

    2001-07-01

    A framework for autonomously controlling resource allocation at the application level in a distributed, heterogeneous multi-tasking SPMD environment called Operator-controlled, distributed resource allocation is motivated and described. The environment requiring such resource allocation is typified by the interactive television environment. In an interactive television environment, applications that are intended to execute within a virtual machine environment on a viewer's integrated receiver decoder (IRD), are encoded and broadcast with the audio-video television program. Different viewers make different choices to cause the application, which is identically downloaded to each IRD, to execute differently, hence comprising a multi-tasking SPMD environment. In current deployments, the IRDs are furnished by the operator who ensures that each IRD has sufficient resources to execute each and every program that is broadcast concurrently; hence, two viewers making exactly the same choices will execute the downloaded application identically. In the future, IRDs are expected to be available at retail stores, purchased by consumers that may choose more or less functionality so long as the IRD has the minimally acceptable functionality according to standards that are currently being developed by the middleware and consumer electronics vendors in conjunction with broadcasters and MSOs.

  4. Medical mitigation model: quantifying the benefits of the public health response to a chemical terrorism attack.

    PubMed

    Good, Kevin; Winkel, David; VonNiederhausern, Michael; Hawkins, Brian; Cox, Jessica; Gooding, Rachel; Whitmire, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The Chemical Terrorism Risk Assessment (CTRA) and Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment (CIRA) are programs that estimate the risk of chemical terrorism attacks to help inform and improve the US defense posture against such events. One aspect of these programs is the development and advancement of a Medical Mitigation Model-a mathematical model that simulates the medical response to a chemical terrorism attack and estimates the resulting number of saved or benefited victims. At the foundation of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model is the concept of stock-and-flow modeling; "stocks" are states that individuals progress through during the event, while "flows" permit and govern movement from one stock to another. Using this approach, the model is able to simulate and track individual victims as they progress from exposure to an end state. Some of the considerations in the model include chemical used, type of attack, route and severity of exposure, response-related delays, detailed treatment regimens with efficacy defined as a function of time, medical system capacity, the influx of worried well individuals, and medical countermeasure availability. As will be demonstrated, the output of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model makes it possible to assess the effectiveness of the existing public health response system and develop and examine potential improvement strategies. Such a modeling and analysis capability can be used to inform first-responder actions/training, guide policy decisions, justify resource allocation, and direct knowledge-gap studies. PMID:22744439

  5. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth...

  6. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may...

  7. The Ethics of Allocating Uterine Transplants.

    PubMed

    Bayefsky, Michelle J; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    In September 2014, a healthy male child was born in Sweden following a successful uterine transplantation (UTx). The event brought hope to many women without functional uteruses around the world. Having a child with a transplanted uterus is now possible, and as knowledge of the procedure proliferates and interest in UTx grows, it is important to begin thinking about how a scarce supply of uteruses will be allocated. This article represents a first discussion of the range of factors that must be considered in answering the allocation question. The primary issues addressed are (1) the motivation to seek treatment, (2) allocation by age, (3) child-rearing capacity, and (4) the amount of infertility treatment required. A set of eligibility and ranking criteria are presented. These criteria are not exhaustive but are intended to spark discussion about how uteruses can be allocated in a just manner. PMID:26864991

  8. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  9. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  10. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  11. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  12. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  13. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  14. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  15. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed. PMID:17746245

  16. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  17. Fractal analysis to discriminate between biotic and abiotic attacks on chalcopyrite and pyrolusite.

    PubMed

    Cardone, P; Ercole, C; Breccia, S; Lepidi, A

    1999-05-01

    In the present paper, a model describing release and mobility of copper and manganese in chalcopyrite and pyrolusite powders due to bacterial bioleaching, i.e. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Arthrobacter sp., is proposed. Sites where copper and manganese were released were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting micrographs were scanned and submitted to a point by point fractal analysis to verify if a discrimination between biological and chemical attack could be established on the basis of the distribution of the fractional part of the fractal dimension over the whole surface. We demonstrate that such a method is able to discriminate among the different attacks. PMID:10353795

  18. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  19. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  20. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  1. Differentiating seawater and groundwater sulfate attack in Portland cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanam, Manu . E-mail: manus@iitm.ac.in; Cohen, Menashi; Olek, Jan

    2006-12-15

    The study reported in this article deals with understanding the physical, chemical and microstructural differences in sulfate attack from seawater and groundwater. Portland cement mortars were completely immersed in solutions of seawater and groundwater. Physical properties such as length, mass, and compressive strength were monitored periodically. Thermal analysis was used to study the relative amounts of phases such as ettringite, gypsum, and calcium hydroxide, and microstructural studies were conducted by scanning electron microscopy. Portland cement mortars performed better in seawater solution compared to groundwater solution. The difference in performance could be attributed to the reduction in the quantity of the expansive attack products (gypsum and ettringite). The high Cl concentration of seawater could have played an important role by binding the C{sub 3}A to form chloroaluminate compounds, such as Friedel's salt (detected in the microstructural studies), and also by lowering the expansive potential of ettringite. Furthermore, the thicker layer of brucite forming on the specimens in seawater could have afforded better protection against ingress of the solution than in groundwater.

  2. The mechanism of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The mean depth of penetration rates (MDPRs) of eight polycrystalline metallic materials, Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass, phosphor bronze, Ni, Fe, Mo, and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exposed to cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil with a 20 kHz ultrasonic oscillator vibrating at 50 micron amplitude are reported. The titanium alloy followed by molybdenum have large incubation periods and small MDPRs. The incubation periods correlate linearly with the inverse of hardness and the average MDPRs correlate linearly with the inverse of tensile strength of materials. The linear relationships yield better statistical parameters than geometric and exponential relationships. The surface roughness and the ratio of pit depth to pit width (h/a) increase with the duration of cavitation attack. The ratio h/a varies from 0.1 to 0.8 for different materials. Recent investigations (20) using scanning electron microscopy to study deformation and pit formation features are briefly reviewed. Investigations with single crystals indicate that the geometry of pits and erosion are dependent on their orientation.

  3. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date. PMID:26115644

  4. Cell phone camera ballistics: attacks and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Liu, Huajian; Fan, Peishuai; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia forensics deals with the analysis of multimedia data to gather information on its origin and authenticity. One therefore needs to distinguish classical criminal forensics (which today also uses multimedia data as evidence) and multimedia forensics where the actual case is based on a media file. One example for the latter is camera forensics where pixel error patters are used as fingerprints identifying a camera as the source of an image. Of course multimedia forensics can become a tool for criminal forensics when evidence used in a criminal investigation is likely to be manipulated. At this point an important question arises: How reliable are these algorithms? Can a judge trust their results? How easy are they to manipulate? In this work we show how camera forensics can be attacked and introduce a potential countermeasure against these attacks.

  5. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  6. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  7. Making MANET secured against malicious attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kush, Ashwani; Taneja, Sunil; Kush, Shagun

    2011-12-01

    A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is characterized by mobile nodes, multihop wireless connectivity, infrastructureless environment and dynamic topology. A recent trend in Ad Hoc network routing is the reactive ondemand philosophy where routes are established only when required. Stable Routing is of major concern in Ad hoc routing. Security and Power efficiency are the major concerns in this field. This paper is an effort to use security to achieve more reliable routing. The ad hoc environment is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. The proposed scheme is intended to incorporate security aspect on existing protocols. The study will help in making protocol more robust against attacks to achieve stable routing in routing protocols.

  8. Mitigation of malicious attacks on networks

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christian M.; Moreira, André A.; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against a malicious attack? We introduce a new measure for robustness and use it to devise a method to mitigate economically and efficiently this risk. We demonstrate its efficiency on the European electricity system and on the Internet as well as on complex networks models. We show that with small changes in the network structure (low cost) the robustness of diverse networks can be improved dramatically whereas their functionality remains unchanged. Our results are useful not only for improving significantly with low cost the robustness of existing infrastructures but also for designing economically robust network systems. PMID:21368159

  9. Mitigation of malicious attacks on networks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Moreira, André A; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-03-01

    Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against a malicious attack? We introduce a new measure for robustness and use it to devise a method to mitigate economically and efficiently this risk. We demonstrate its efficiency on the European electricity system and on the Internet as well as on complex networks models. We show that with small changes in the network structure (low cost) the robustness of diverse networks can be improved dramatically whereas their functionality remains unchanged. Our results are useful not only for improving significantly with low cost the robustness of existing infrastructures but also for designing economically robust network systems. PMID:21368159

  10. Gaps in Care Can Harm Patients After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gaps in Care Can Harm Patients After Heart Attack Waiting too long for first medical apppointment after ... 23, 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart attack patients who wait a long period to have ...

  11. Brain Scans Give Clues to Stress-Heart Attack Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157945.html Brain Scans Give Clues to Stress-Heart Attack Link Fear appears to increase inflammation in the ... stress is linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Increased activity in the amygdala -- the ...

  12. Heart Attack Before 50 Ups Early Death Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160692.html Heart Attack Before 50 Ups Early Death Risk But healthy ... News) -- The risk of early death after a heart attack has lessened over the past 30 years among ...

  13. Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160722.html Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack Lack of interest a complaint of many women ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- After a heart attack, many younger adults experience sexual difficulties -- and women ...

  14. Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159504.html Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That Emergency medicine ... American Heart Association. When someone is suffering a heart attack, stroke or cardiac arrest, quick action can be ...

  15. Nonlinear optical cryptosystem resistant to standard and hybrid attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nonlinear optical cryptosystem that is resistant to amplitude-phase retrieval attacks, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. A squaring operation is introduced in the encryption path, which thwarts the iterative attacks. This nonlinear operation tends to amplify the error in the estimation during an iterative attack. The decryption process requires the use of a square-root operation. Thus, in the reverse path also, the attacks encounter the nonlinear square-root operation. These two nonlinearities make the iterative attacks unstable, thereby leading to non-convergence of the mean square error (MSE). Our technique is also resistant to hybrid attacks. The technique is general and is shown to work on a variety of images of the type grayscale and binary. Numerical simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed cryptosystem.

  16. Black Heart Attack Victims More Likely to Have Ambulance Diverted

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157879.html Black Heart Attack Victims More Likely to Have Ambulance Diverted Study ... 2016 MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Black heart attack patients are more likely than whites to have ...

  17. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Heart Attack Ataque Cardíaco - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF ...

  18. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  19. Cryptogenic Drop Attacks: An Affliction of Women

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D. L.; Matthews, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    A drop attack was defined as falling without warning, not apparently due to any malfunction of the legs, not induced by change of posture or movement of the head, and not accompanied by vertigo or other cephalic sensation. All 33 patients attending a neurological clinic with a primary complaint fulfilling these criteria were women, and a further seven examples were found by questioning 200 consecutive patients at a gynaecological clinic. No affected male was found. In all but one patient, falls occurred only when walking. They were not due to wearing high-heeled shoes. The average age at onset was 44·5 years and in younger women onset was often during pregnancy. The accepted causes of drop attacks were not found with certainty in any of these patients. The sex incidence and the circumstances of the falls suggest that the cause may lie in differences between the two sexes in the mechanism of walking rather than in any central disturbance. Drop attacks in women commonly occur as an isolated symptom for many years, and although distressing have no serious prognostic implications. PMID:4689829

  20. Ruptured Globe due to a Bird Attack

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Haitham A.; Alkhalifa, Saad K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bird attacks are in general an uncommon event. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Bahrain. There have been very few cases reported worldwide. Mainly, birds attack humans as retaliation to threats surrounding their environment. At certain occasions, bird attack frequency increases especially during mating season or in the presence of a threat toward their young. Methods A 31-year-old male presented with a history of left-eye trauma, loss of vision, pain and tearing for 2 hours. A left corneal penetrating laceration and traumatic cataract were diagnosed. The corneal laceration was closed surgically, the lens was aspirated and anterior vitrectomy performed. Results After 4 months of follow-up, penetrating keratoplasty and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were performed elsewhere. The patient's vision improved from hand motion in his left eye to 20/200 without correction. Conclusion Corneal perforation secondary to a bird injury can be treated successfully with surgical closure and broad intravenous antibiotic coverage. This rare type of ocular trauma does not require any specific additional measures. PMID:27293411

  1. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (R(n)), we propose a link-robustness index (R(l)). We show that solely enhancing R(n) cannot guarantee the improvement of R(l). Moreover, the structure of an R(l)-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the R(n) and R(l) into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved. PMID:23005185

  2. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1009440108 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (Rn), we propose a link-robustness index (Rl). We show that solely enhancing Rn cannot guarantee the improvement of Rl. Moreover, the structure of an Rl-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the Rn and Rl into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  3. Blue versus Red: Towards a Model of Distributed Security Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fultz, Neal; Grossklags, Jens

    We develop a two-sided multiplayer model of security in which attackers aim to deny service and defenders strategize to secure their assets. Attackers benefit from the successful compromise of target systems, however, may suffer penalties for increased attack activities. Defenders weigh the force of an attack against the cost of security. We consider security decision-making in tightly and loosely coupled networks and allow defense expenditures in protection and self-insurance technologies.

  4. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amounts held in reserve or distributed by base or administrative allocation times the basic State factor... available for allocation−NO reserve−total base and administrative allocations) × SF. (4) Transition formula... program section. (5) Base allocation. An amount that may be allocated to each State dependent upon...

  5. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  6. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  7. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  8. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  9. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  10. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  11. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Link to...

  12. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  13. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  14. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  17. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  18. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  19. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  20. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  1. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  2. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  4. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  7. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  8. Study on the principle and defense of buffer overflow attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wang

    2013-03-01

    Buffer overflow attacks have been the most common form in the network attacks and become a predominant problem in the system and network security area. With specific programs, this paper describes in detail the type of buffer overflow attacks and technical principles, so we have a good understanding of them, and then gives several common preventive measures.

  9. Impact of hormonal crosstalk on plant resistance and fitness under multi-attacker conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Irene A.; Moritz, Liselotte; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hormone salicylic acid (SA) generally induces plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its oxylipin derivatives together with ethylene (ET) are generally important hormonal regulators of induced plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens, whereas JAs together with abscisic acid (ABA) are implicated in induced plant defenses against herbivorous insects. Hormonal crosstalk between the different plant defense pathways has often been hypothesized to be a cost-saving strategy that has evolved as a means of the plant to reduce allocation costs by repression of unnecessary defenses, thereby minimizing trade-offs between plant defense and growth. However, proof for this hypothesis has not been demonstrated yet. In this study the impact of hormonal crosstalk on disease resistance and fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana when under multi-species attack was investigated. Induction of SA- or JA/ABA-dependent defense responses by the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae, respectively, was shown to reduce the level of induced JA/ET-dependent defense against subsequent infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. However, despite the enhanced susceptibility to this second attacker, no additional long-term negative effects were observed on plant fitness when plants had been challenged by multiple attackers. Similarly, when plants were grown in dense competition stands to enlarge fitness effects of induced defenses, treatment with a combination of SA and MeJA did not cause additional negative effects on plant fitness in comparison to the single MeJA treatment. Together, these data support the notion that hormonal crosstalk in plants during multi-attacker interactions allows plants to prioritize their defenses, while limiting the fitness costs associated with induction of defenses. PMID:26347758

  10. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  11. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  12. 78 FR 45604 - Funding Opportunity Title: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Investment Company (SSBIC) does not need to submit a CDE certification application; however, it must register...'' those QEIs that have been properly reported in the CDFI Fund's Allocation Tracking System (ATS) by the... the CDFI Fund for receipt of reports submitted electronically typically acknowledge only a...

  13. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  14. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  15. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward. PMID:20718844

  16. Allocation of Attention by Fishing Vessel Watchkeepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Malcolm

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the way in which attention is allocated by watchkeepers on fishing vessels and identifies differences in the approach displayed by individuals with different levels of training and experience. A method of analysing the way in which attention is allocated on a sample of UK fishing vessels is described. It was found that both skippers and mates allocated disproportionate amounts of attention to fishfinding equipment at certain stages of the fishing trip, while crewmen were heavily reliant upon the track plotter both while fishing and on passage. Those with more training and experience appeared to treat the array of navigation and control components as an integrated system, while untrained crewmen dealt with each aspect in isolation.

  17. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  18. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jack C.; Appel, Heidi M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Arnold, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals) to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness. PMID:23986767

  19. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework. PMID:25807571

  20. Detection of hydrogen attack in base metal and weld HAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Birring, A.S.; Elliot, J.; Hsiao, C.P.

    1995-12-01

    Hydrogen attack is known to occur in C-1/2Mo steels operating at high temperature and pressure in the hydrogen environment. The attack occurs in the base metal as well as in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) of vessels and pipes. Hydrogen attack reduces the strength and toughness of steel and, if left undetected, can lead to component failure. Failures can be avoided by timely application of reliable and sensitive nondestructive techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were developed and applied to detect hydrogen attack in both the base metal and weld HAZ attack. Ultrasonic backscatter and velocity ratio techniques were applied for detection of base metal attack. These techniques are, however, not suitable for detection of HAZ attack. Conventional shear wave examination is currently used for HAZ inspection. This method can detect large cracks but is not sensitive to detect microcracks produced by hydrogen attack. A combination of two techniques was developed for detection of HAZ attack. These techniques are: contact focused angle beam S-wave and pitch-catch L-wave. The first technique focuses the beam using an acoustic lens while the second technique uses the intersection point of the two pitch-catch beam axes to illuminate the HAZ zone. Both the focused and pitch-catch techniques were applied on samples with simulated HAZ attack. The techniques were successful in detecting simulated attack.

  1. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    PubMed

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. PMID:20804980

  2. Allocation of resources for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Praveen; Anderson, T Anthony; Vagefi, Parsia A

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 6 decades, organ transplantation has achieved great success to become standard therapy for the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With this success has emerged candidate wait lists that greatly outnumber the current supply of deceased donor organs. The increasing number of candidates and transplants performed has resulted in an organ allocation process that occurs at a local, regional, and sometimes national level. A brief description of the history is presented as well as the methodologies involved in allocation of a donor organ to a single recipient. PMID:24287345

  3. Allocation for the SANDAC multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Ravl, T.M.; Ercegovac, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an algorithm for the static allocation of tasks in a general Dataflow Multiprocessor and the SANDAC IV system in particular. Initially a model of execution and the underlying assumptions about the architecture are outlined. The authors then discuss a Graph Reduction algorithm for preprocessing the computation graph. The Graph Reduction algorithm reduces a fine grain graph to an optimal grain graph. The heuristic allocation algorithm is presented and is based on giving precedence to critical paths and minimizing the communication time between tasks. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed and the effect of varying parameters is studied. Subsequently an alternative variation with better characteristics is proposed.

  4. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  5. Explosive attack: Lessons learned in Seyed Al Shohada mosque attack, April 2008, Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Sharifian, Maryam; Parvaz, Shahram Boland; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Moradian, Mohamad javad; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Nikghbalian, Saman; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Salehi, Oveis; Dehghani, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The threat of explosive attacks has become a worldwide problem. Bombing is the preferred method of attacks. These attacks result in specific physical and psychiatric trauma. In this paper, we present an epidemiologic description of the physical injuries of patients who survived the explosive attack in Seyed Al Shohada mosque April 2008 Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: All medical records of the patients admitted at Shiraz Hospitals on April 2008 due to Seyed Al Shohada mosque bombing attacks, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed. Results: A total of 202 patients were referred to the hospitals over 24 h following the terrorist attack. One hundred sixty-four patients were admitted for short periods of observation (<24 h). Thirty-eight patients needed more than 1 day of hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 (range 2 to 51) years. One hundred thirty-five (66.8%) patients were males. Twenty-six (12.8%) were children. Burn was the most prevalent cause of admission. Five (13.5%) patients needed chest tube insertion and eight (21%) needed skin grafts due to burn. Overall, 12 patients expired (5%). Three (25%) of them were children (2 and 6, and 11 years old). Mortality rate was significantly higher among the children than adults (P value <0.05). The most important cause of death was head trauma which was seen in five (41.6%) of the expired patients followed by burn (including air way burn) in four (33%), and internal bleeding in three (25%). Patients with head trauma had significantly a higher rate of mortality than other patients (P value <0.05). Discussion: Following a bombing attack, numerous victims were brought to the emergency unit suffering from a combination of multi-organ injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries caused by shrapnel and other debris, and burns. It is important for a physician to be familiar with the clinical features and treatments of explosive attacks victims. Early management of patients at the scene and

  6. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  7. X-29 high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishmael, Stephen D.; Smith, Rogers E.; Purifoy, Dana D.; Womer, Rodney K.

    1990-01-01

    Flight test program highlights are discussed for the X-29 high angle-of-attack (AOA) aircraft. The AOA envelope extended from 10 to 66 deg; the X-29 exhibited precise pitch control, allowing AOA to be maintained within 1 deg during stabilized points as well as permitting rapid recoveries from all AOAs. Attention is given to controllability degradation above 40-deg AOA due to asymmetric yawing moments. The use of this aircraft as a fundamental research tool which complements analytical methods is powerfully justified by the obviation of scaling effects.

  8. Effects of generalist herbivory on resistance and resource allocation by the invasive plant, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Successful invasions by exotic plants are often attributed to a loss of co-evolved specialists and a re-allocation of resources from defense to growth and reproduction. However, invasive plants are rarely completely released from insect herbivory because they are frequently attacked by generalists in their introduced ranges. The novel generalist community may also affect the invasive plant's defensive strategies and resource allocation. Here, we tested this hypothesis using American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.), a species that has become invasive in China, which is native to North America. We examined resistance, tolerance, growth and reproduction of plant populations from both China and the USA when plants were exposed to natural generalist herbivores in China. We found that leaf damage was greater for invasive populations than for native populations, indicating that plants from invasive ranges had lower resistance to herbivory than those from native ranges. A regression of the percentage of leaf damage against mass showed that there was no significant difference in tolerance between invasive and native populations, even though the shoot, root, fruit and total mass were larger for invasive populations than for native populations. These results suggest that generalist herbivores are important drivers mediating the defensive strategies and resource allocation of the invasive American pokeweed. PMID:26097089

  9. Baiting Inside Attackers Using Decoy Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brian M.; Hershkop, Shlomo; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stolfo, Salvatore J.

    The insider threat remains one of the most vexing problems in computer security. A number of approaches have been proposed to detect nefarious insider actions including user modeling and profiling techniques, policy and access enforcement techniques, and misuse detection. In this work we propose trap-based defense mechanisms and a deployment platform for addressing the problem of insiders attempting to exfiltrate and use sensitive information. The goal is to confuse and confound an adversary requiring more effort to identify real information from bogus information and provide a means of detecting when an attempt to exploit sensitive information has occurred. “Decoy Documents” are automatically generated and stored on a file system by the D3 System with the aim of enticing a malicious user. We introduce and formalize a number of properties of decoys as a guide to design trap-based defenses to increase the likelihood of detecting an insider attack. The decoy documents contain several different types of bogus credentials that when used, trigger an alert. We also embed “stealthy beacons” inside the documents that cause a signal to be emitted to a server indicating when and where the particular decoy was opened. We evaluate decoy documents on honeypots penetrated by attackers demonstrating the feasibility of the method.

  10. Spontaneous subperiosteal hematoma precipitated by anxiety attack.

    PubMed

    Swanenberg, Irene M; Rizzuti, Allison E; Shinder, Roman

    2013-12-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with diplopia and left periorbital edema and pressure, which developed during an anxiety attack the previous day. Examination revealed left inferotemporal globe dystopia, periorbital edema, ecchymosis, and limitation in supraduction. Orbital MRI confirmed the diagnosis of a superior subperiosteal orbital hematoma. The patient's signs and symptoms rapidly resolved with administration of oral corticosteroids. The patient remains asymptomatic with complete resolution of orbital signs at 3-month follow-up. Subperiosteal orbital hematoma (SOH) is a rare condition in which blood accumulates between the bony orbit and separated periosteum, and is often due to blunt head trauma. Non-traumatic SOH (NTSOH) is exceedingly rare and usually associated with known coagulopathies or tendency to bleed. However, few cases of spontaneous NTSOH have been reported without any such predisposition and are thought to be caused by sudden elevations in intrathoracic and intracranial venous pressure such as vomiting, coughing, SCUBA diving, weight lifting and labor. We herein describe the presentation, radiography and outcome of a unique case of spontaneous NTSOH following an anxiety attack. PMID:24063522

  11. Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anil

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

  12. Use of the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV to assess non-clinical panic attacks and limited symptom panic attacks in student and community samples.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peter J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Cox, Brian J; Norton, G Ron

    2008-10-01

    Since its development in the mid-1980s, the Panic Attack Questionnaire (PAQ) has been one of the more, if not the most, commonly used self-report tools for assessing panic attacks. The usage of the instrument, however, has come amid potential concerns that instructions and descriptions may lead to an over-estimate of the prevalence of panic attacks. Furthermore, the instrument has not been revised since 1992, despite changes in DSM-IV criteria and more recent developments in the understanding of panic attacks. As a result, this paper describes a revision of the PAQ to improve the instruction and descriptive set, and to fully assess features of panic derived from recent conceptualizations. Students meeting DSM-IV panic attack criteria and those endorsing panic attacks, but not meeting criteria, showed few differences with the exception that those not meeting DSM-IV criteria typically reported a longer onset-to-peak intensity time than did Panickers. Results were cross-validated and extended using an independent Community Sample. A full descriptive phenomenology of panic attacks is described, and future directions for studying panic attacks using the PAQ are presented. PMID:18243647

  13. X-31 at High Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircraft's unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal

  14. X-31 at High Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircrafts unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal

  15. X-31 at High Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The X-31 aircraft on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircrafts unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal

  16. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  17. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  18. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  19. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  20. Principles of allocation of health care resources.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    1978-01-01

    The methods and principles of allocating centrally provided health care resources to regions and areas are reviewed using the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976) and the consultative document (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976a) as a basis. A range of practical problems arising from these papers (especially the report of the RAWP) is described and traced to the terms of reference. It is concluded that the RAWP misinterpreted aspects of social and administrative reality, and it failed to recognise clearly that the several principles on which it had to work conflicted with each other and demanded decisions of priority. The consequential errors led to (a) an injudicious imposition of 'objectivity' at all levels of allocation, (b) an unjustified insistence that the same method be used at each administrative level in an additive and transitive manner, (c) the exclusion of general practitioner services from their considerations, (d) a failure to delineate those decisions which are in fact political decisions, thus to concatenate them, inappropriately, with technical and professional issues. The main requirement in a revised system is for a mechanism which allocates different priorities to different principles at each appropriate administrative and distributive level, and adapts the working methods of each tier to meet separately defined objectives. PMID:262585

  1. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  2. Back to the Basics with Resource Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, John; Humphries, Frederick S.

    A resource allocation and utilization study was undertaken of Tennessee State University and the results, recommendations and policy decisions that evolved are presented. The President's Council, comprised of the President, the Vice Presidents, and the Director of Planning, Management and Evaluation, directed the study. Data from the Office of…

  3. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims...

  4. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  5. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  6. Allocation of Human Resources for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Bonita

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews personnel administration techniques that have been used to establish work-load parameters, but offer no aid in subject deployment. A model which identifies elements that must be included in a consideration of work-load measurement and subject allocation for library collection development tasks is presented. Thirty-four…

  7. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  8. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Formula allocations. 574.130 Section 574.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  9. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  10. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154

  11. controlling retained insurance costs through an allocation.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    An insurance allocation may help a hospital or health system achieve the following goals for its professional liability and workers' compensation self-insurance or large-deductible programs: Loss-control incentive. Stability. Equity. Comprehension. Ease of administration. PMID:26665334

  12. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  13. Resource Allocation in U. K. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Information on resource allocation in United Kingdom (UK) universities, which is derived from a study by a Working Party of the Conference of University administrators, is presented. Attention is directed to: structures and constitutions; the use of norms and formulas; administration and central services; minor works, maintenance, and space; and…

  14. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle a fleet or covered person acquires that exceeds the number of alternative fueled vehicles that...

  15. RESOURCES ALLOCATION TO OPTIMIZE MINING POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive model for mine drainage simulation and optimization of resource allocation to control mine acid pollution in a watershed has been developed. The model is capable of: (a) Producing a time trace of acid load and flow from acid drainage sources as a function of clima...

  16. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  17. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES General Administration-Reviews and Audits; Withholding for...

  18. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  20. 2 CFR 200.405 - Allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles Basic Considerations § 200.405 Allocable costs. (a) A cost...

  1. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  2. Rural Attitudes toward Public Welfare Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laura F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines 1984 Wyoming opinion poll. Wyoming respondents agreed welfare allocation should be based on need, but 50 percent believed welfare recipients should not receive more than minimum-wage income. Wyoming's welfare support is lower than national average. Rurality may contribute to results. Recommends ways to increase rural support for welfare…

  3. The allocation of cargo to channel missions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Harrison, G.

    1992-01-01

    Each month the armed services provide a forecast of tons of cargo by channel to MAC. The purpose of the Channels Allocation Algorithm is to allocate cargo requirements to specific Channel Missions. The objective of the allocation is algorithm is to minimize frequency and cargo requirements shortfall. The constraints on the allocation model include flying hours, channel frequencies, mission structure, mission operation days, and aircraft capacity. Cargo requirements shortfall is defined as the tonnage of cargo not moved from the airfields in the United States that are channel staging points to overseas locations. Channel frequencies are defined by the number of times a destination is served by an origin in one month. The mission structures are defined as sets of missions usually in the form of circuit. Mission operating days are determined by the operating day rules for the month, or they can be input by the user for an individual month. One of the assumptions in this model is that there is only one transshipment allowed between any origin and a destination if there is no mission that actually connects the stations. The transshipment stations are also restricted in that only certain stations can serve as transshipment stations. The Channels Allocation Algorithm consists of two linear programs that incorporate three objectives. The objectives are: (1) to minimize that number of frequency channels not met. (2) to minimize cargo shortfall, and (3) to minimize operating cost. The first linear program minimizes frequency channels not met, subject to the mission structure, number of times the mission operates, and total flying hours available. The second linear program minimizes the fleet operating cost cargo handling cost, and cargo shortfall, subject to frequency channels met by the first linear program, aircraft capacity, and total flying hours available. This document is comprised of viewgraphs.

  4. The allocation of cargo to channel missions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Harrison, G.

    1992-06-01

    Each month the armed services provide a forecast of tons of cargo by channel to MAC. The purpose of the Channels Allocation Algorithm is to allocate cargo requirements to specific Channel Missions. The objective of the allocation is algorithm is to minimize frequency and cargo requirements shortfall. The constraints on the allocation model include flying hours, channel frequencies, mission structure, mission operation days, and aircraft capacity. Cargo requirements shortfall is defined as the tonnage of cargo not moved from the airfields in the United States that are channel staging points to overseas locations. Channel frequencies are defined by the number of times a destination is served by an origin in one month. The mission structures are defined as sets of missions usually in the form of circuit. Mission operating days are determined by the operating day rules for the month, or they can be input by the user for an individual month. One of the assumptions in this model is that there is only one transshipment allowed between any origin and a destination if there is no mission that actually connects the stations. The transshipment stations are also restricted in that only certain stations can serve as transshipment stations. The Channels Allocation Algorithm consists of two linear programs that incorporate three objectives. The objectives are: (1) to minimize that number of frequency channels not met. (2) to minimize cargo shortfall, and (3) to minimize operating cost. The first linear program minimizes frequency channels not met, subject to the mission structure, number of times the mission operates, and total flying hours available. The second linear program minimizes the fleet operating cost cargo handling cost, and cargo shortfall, subject to frequency channels met by the first linear program, aircraft capacity, and total flying hours available. This document is comprised of viewgraphs.

  5. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  6. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813

  7. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    DOEpatents

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  8. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  9. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  10. On the offensive against brain attack

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Healthcare Technologies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has undertaken a stroke initiative whose purpose is to provide the medical community with the tools that will allow doctors to diagnose and treat stroke as aggressively as they do heart attack. A multidisciplinary team of stroke-initiative researchers is collaborating with academic medical centers and private companies to move these tools from the research and development stage through clinical trials, regulatory approval, and manufacture so that they can benefit many thousands of people who have strokes each year. Tools the team has developed fall into four categories: microsensors for brain and clot characterization, a catheter-based system using laser energy to break up clots in the blood vessels of the brain, laser-tissue interaction models in support of laser {open_quotes}clot busting,{close_quotes} and microtools for treating the aneurysms that cause hemorrhagic stroke.

  11. Sulfate attack on concrete with mineral admixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Irassar, E.F.; Di Maio, A.; Batic, O.R.

    1996-01-01

    The sulfate resistance of concretes containing fly ash, natural pozzolan and slag is investigated in a field test in which concrete specimens were half-buried in sulfate soil for five years. Mineral admixtures were used as a partial replacement for ordinary portland cement (C{sub 3}A = 8.5%), and the progress of sulfate attack was evaluated by several methods (visual rating, loss in mass, dynamic modulus, strength, X-ray analysis). Results of this study show that mineral admixtures improved the sulfate resistance when the concrete is buried in the soil. However, concretes with high content of mineral admixtures exhibit a greater surface scaling over soil level due to the sulfate salt crystallization. In this zone, capillary suction of concrete is the main mechanism of water and salt transportation. Concrete with 20% fly ash provides an integral solution for half-buried structures.

  12. Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-02-01

    Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

  13. Capturing the uncertainty in adversary attack simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Brooks, Traci N.; Berry, Robert Bruce

    2008-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive uncertainty technique to evaluate uncertainty, resulting in a more realistic evaluation of PI, thereby requiring fewer resources to address scenarios and allowing resources to be used across more scenarios. For a given set of dversary resources, two types of uncertainty are associated with PI for a scenario: (1) aleatory (random) uncertainty for detection probabilities and time delays and (2) epistemic (state of knowledge) uncertainty for the adversary resources applied during an attack. Adversary esources consist of attributes (such as equipment and training) and knowledge about the security system; to date, most evaluations have assumed an adversary with very high resources, adding to the conservatism in the evaluation of PI. The aleatory uncertainty in PI is ddressed by assigning probability distributions to detection probabilities and time delays. A numerical sampling technique is used to evaluate PI, addressing the repeated variable dependence in the equation for PI.

  14. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola

    2008-06-01

    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  15. An optical angle of attack sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDevitt, T. Kevin; Owen, F. Kevin

    A major source of transonic and supersonic wind-tunnel test data uncertainty is due to angle of attack (alpha) measurement errors caused by unknown sting and balance deflections under load. A novel laser-based instrument has been developed to enable continuous time-dependent alpha measurements to be made without signal dropout. Detectors capable of 0.01-deg resolution over an 18-deg range and 0.03-deg resolution over a 44-deg range with time-dependent outputs of 60 Hz have been developed. This capability is sufficient to provide accurate real-time alpha information for correlation with model balance measurements during transport and fighter model testing. Proof-of-concept experiments, along with the results of recent measurements conducted at the NASA Ames 9 x 7-ft supersonic wind tunnel, are presented. Experiments were also conducted to determine the reliable range, sensitivity, and long-term stability of the instrument.

  16. Mitigation of malicious attacks on network observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yan-Dong; Lao, Song-Yang; Hou, Lv-Lin; Bai, Liang

    2015-02-01

    In the modeling, controlling, and monitoring of complex networks, a fundamental problem concerns the determination and observation of the system's states by using measurements or sensors as few as possible, defined as network observation. This work aims to investigate the robustness of network observation when an approach of minimum dominating set is considered in observing a network. We first investigate the structural properties of the minimum dominating sets, e.g. how the size depends on the degree-degree correlations and how to assess the nodes' importance in the malicious attacks. Then, we introduce a new measurement of robustness for network observation, and implement a hill-climbing algorithm to improve its robustness by edge rewiring. Furthermore, we propose a novel rewiring strategy, called smart rewiring, which could speed up the increment of robustness index. In comparison with previous strategy of edge rewiring, the smart rewiring has been found to be successfully useful on real-world and synthetic networks.

  17. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... indirect costs of work orders for two or more associate companies shall be allocated among such...

  18. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April 1, 2005) Each inshore pollock... annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed and final BSAI harvest...

  19. Techniques for Judging Intent Behind Network Based Cyber Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J M

    2004-01-28

    This project developed a prototype system that can rapidly differentiate between undirected cyber attacks, and those that have a more specific and concerning intent behind them. The system responds to important cyber attacks in a tactically significant way as the attack is proceeding. It is also creates a prioritized list for the human analysts allowing them to focus on the threats mostly likely to be of interest. In the recent years the volume of attacks over the internet has increased exponentially, as they have become more and more automated. The result of this is that real threats are harder and harder to distinguish from the general threat. It is possible with our current systems to identify network packets that originated from thousands of IP addresses as probing a site like LLNL in a single day. Human analysis of these threats does not result in information that can be used for tactical response because most of the attacks are short and over before the human starts the analysis. Only a very small percentage of attacks can even be evaluated manually due to the volume. This project developed methods, and prototyped tools, that can identify attacks, slow the attack down and aid in the process of prioritizing detections. The project demonstrated that such methods exist, and that practical implementations exist for modern computers and networks. We call the tools created D.I.A.G. or Determining Internet Attackers Goals.

  20. Neural network classifier of attacks in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Mikulec, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Various types of monitoring mechanism allow us to detect and monitor behavior of attackers in VoIP networks. Analysis of detected malicious traffic is crucial for further investigation and hardening the network. This analysis is typically based on statistical methods and the article brings a solution based on neural network. The proposed algorithm is used as a classifier of attacks in a distributed monitoring network of independent honeypot probes. Information about attacks on these honeypots is collected on a centralized server and then classified. This classification is based on different mechanisms. One of them is based on the multilayer perceptron neural network. The article describes inner structure of used neural network and also information about implementation of this network. The learning set for this neural network is based on real attack data collected from IP telephony honeypot called Dionaea. We prepare the learning set from real attack data after collecting, cleaning and aggregation of this information. After proper learning is the neural network capable to classify 6 types of most commonly used VoIP attacks. Using neural network classifier brings more accurate attack classification in a distributed system of honeypots. With this approach is possible to detect malicious behavior in a different part of networks, which are logically or geographically divided and use the information from one network to harden security in other networks. Centralized server for distributed set of nodes serves not only as a collector and classifier of attack data, but also as a mechanism for generating a precaution steps against attacks.

  1. Finite Energy and Bounded Attacks on Control System Sensor Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) has been in securing the networks using information security techniques and protection and reliability concerns at the control system level against random hardware and software failures. However, besides these failures the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis and detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signal attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop system under optimal signal attacks are provided. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to a power network with distributed LQ controllers.

  2. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  3. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Summary Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user’s computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users. PMID:27437066

  4. Sulfate Attack of Cement-Based Material with Limestone Filler Exposed to Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Ma, Baoguo; Yang, Yingzi; Su, Anshuang

    2008-08-01

    Mortar prisms made with OPC cement plus 30% mass of limestone filler were stored in various sulfate solutions at different temperatures for periods of up to 1 year, the visual appearance was inspected at intervals, and the flexural and compressive strength development with immersion time was measured according to the Chinese standard GB/T17671-1999. Samples were selected from the surface of prisms after 1 year immersion and examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), laser-raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that MgSO4 solution is more aggressive than Na2SO4 solution, and Mg2+ ions reinforce the thaumasite sulfate attack on the limestone filler cement mortars. The increase of solution temperature accelerates both magnesium attack and sulfate attack on the limestone filler cement mortar, and leads to more deleterious products including gypsum, ettringite and brucite formed on the surface of mortars after 1 year storage in sulfate solutions. Thaumasite forms in the mortars containing limestone filler after exposure to sulfate solutions at both 5 °C and 20 °C. It reveals that the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not limited to low-temperature conditions.

  5. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user's computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users. PMID:27437066

  6. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology... Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  7. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... held in the National Office reserve and distributed by base and administrative allocation, multiplied... allocation−national reserve−base allocation−administrative allocation) × State Factor (b) To calculate the..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan...

  8. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  9. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  10. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  11. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reserve Air Fleet Program of the Department of Defense. The current listing of aircraft allocations may be... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance...

  12. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  13. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  15. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  16. Reward Allocation among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chi-Yue

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of personality and performance on reward allocation. Subjects were 89 Hong Kong senior high school students. Results showed that the subjects took into consideration the recipient's personality when they allocated reward to a relatively low performer. Personality was not a factor in allocation of reward to a high performer. (GG)

  17. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  7. Motivation and Competence as Determinants of Young Children's Reward Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Sharon A.; Dweck, Carol S.

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the effects of allocation instructions and self-interest on preschool children's use of the rule of equity in situations involving reward allocation. Results showed that when the demand for equity was explicit and self-interest was removed, all children used equity in allocating rewards. (Author/JMB)

  8. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of... facilities capacity in anticipation of the receipt of rated orders; (b) Directive: an official action...

  9. 10 CFR 470.15 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 470.15 Section 470.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.15 Allocation of funds. (a) DOE shall annually allocate fiscal year funds available for support among the 10...

  10. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  11. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  12. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  14. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of...

  16. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  17. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  18. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  19. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 96.142... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat...

  20. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  1. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  2. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 97.142... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  3. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  4. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  5. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  6. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  7. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  9. 7 CFR 1466.5 - National allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National allocation and management. 1466.5 Section... PROGRAM General Provisions § 1466.5 National allocation and management. The Chief allocates EQIP funds to... adjustments to national priorities and information about resource concerns and program performance. The...

  10. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO,...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  14. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  15. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation for use of capital shall be allocated to work orders in accordance with the service company's... indirect costs of work orders for two or more associate companies shall be allocated among such companies in the same manner. Each work order should identify the methods of allocation to associate...

  16. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be allocated to projects in accordance with the service company's applicable and currently effective methods...

  17. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be allocated to projects in accordance with the service company's applicable and currently effective methods...

  18. 12 CFR 327.53 - Allocation and payment of dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and payment of dividends. 327.53 Section 327.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.53 Allocation and payment of dividends. (a)(1) The allocation of any...

  19. 77 FR 2240 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ59 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense... guidance relating to the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. The temporary regulations provide guidance concerning the allocation and apportionment of interest expense by corporations owning...

  20. 77 FR 2225 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545- BJ84 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense AGENCY: Internal... regulations that provide guidance regarding the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. These temporary regulations provide guidance concerning the allocation and apportionment of interest expense...

  1. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and...

  2. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  3. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation and reallocation. The Secretary allocates...

  4. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    DOEpatents

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  5. The relationship between attention allocation and cheating.

    PubMed

    Pittarello, Andrea; Motro, Daphna; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Pluchino, Patrik

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attention allocation and dishonesty. The goal of the present work was to address this issue using the eyetracking methodology. We developed a novel task in which participants could honestly report seeing a particular card and lose money, or they could falsely report not seeing the card and not lose money. When participants cheated, they allocated less attention (i.e., shorter fixation durations and fewer fixations) to the card than when they behaved honestly. Our results suggest that when dishonesty pays, shifting attention away from undesirable information can serve as a self-deception strategy that allows individuals to serve their self-interests while maintaining a positive self-concept. PMID:26340847

  6. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  7. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  8. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26835560

  9. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  10. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person loses consciousness and has no pulse. Death occurs within minutes if the victim does not receive treatment. What is the link? These two distinct heart conditions are linked. Sudden cardiac arrest can occur after a heart attack, or during recovery. Heart attacks increase the risk ...

  11. Are Risk Assessments of a Terrorist Attack Coherent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined 3 types of violations of coherence criteria in risk assessments of a terrorist attack. First, the requirement that extensionally equivalent descriptions be assigned the same probability (i.e., additivity) was violated. Unpacking descriptions of an attack into subtypes led to an increase in assessed risk. Second,…

  12. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  13. The Icatibant Outcome Survey: treatment of laryngeal angioedema attacks

    PubMed Central

    Aberer, Werner; Bouillet, Laurence; Caballero, Teresa; Maurer, Marcus; Fabien, Vincent; Zanichelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the management and outcomes of life-threatening laryngeal attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) treated with icatibant in the observational Icatibant Outcome Survey (NCT01034969) registry. Methods This retrospective analysis was based on data from patients with HAE type I/II who received healthcare professional-administered or self-administered icatibant to treat laryngeal attacks between September 2008 and May 2013. Results Twenty centers in seven countries contributed data. Overall, 42 patients with HAE experienced 67 icatibant-treated laryngeal attacks. Icatibant was self-administered for 62.3% of attacks (healthcare professional-administered, 37.7%). One icatibant injection was used for 87.9% of attacks, with rescue or concomitant medication used for 9.0%. The median time to treatment was 2.0 h (n=31 attacks) and the median time to resolution was 6.0 h (n=35 attacks). Conclusions This analysis describes successful use of icatibant for the treatment of laryngeal HAE attacks in a real-world setting. PMID:27116379

  14. Detecting Distributed SQL Injection Attacks in a Eucalyptus Cloud Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebert, Alan; Barnejee, Bikramjit; Solano, Juan; Solano, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    The cloud computing environment offers malicious users the ability to spawn multiple instances of cloud nodes that are similar to virtual machines, except that they can have separate external IP addresses. In this paper we demonstrate how this ability can be exploited by an attacker to distribute his/her attack, in particular SQL injection attacks, in such a way that an intrusion detection system (IDS) could fail to identify this attack. To demonstrate this, we set up a small private cloud, established a vulnerable website in one instance, and placed an IDS within the cloud to monitor the network traffic. We found that an attacker could quite easily defeat the IDS by periodically altering its IP address. To detect such an attacker, we propose to use multi-agent plan recognition, where the multiple source IPs are considered as different agents who are mounting a collaborative attack. We show that such a formulation of this problem yields a more sophisticated approach to detecting SQL injection attacks within a cloud computing environment.

  15. Examining Willingness to Attack Critical Infrastructure Online and Offline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Thomas J.; Kilger, Max

    2012-01-01

    The continuing adoption of technologies by the general public coupled with the expanding reliance of critical infrastructures connected through the Internet has created unique opportunities for attacks by civilians and nation-states alike. Although governments are increasingly focusing on policies to deter nation-state level attacks, it is unclear…

  16. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture, construct, and operate a...

  17. Sequential defense against random and intentional attacks in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network. PMID:25768550

  18. Sequential defense against random and intentional attacks in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network.

  19. Is There Anybody There? A Psychodynamic View of Panic Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizq, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Presents a process analysis of a psychodynamic intervention for a client with panic attacks. Discusses how a psychodynamic understanding of the complex etiology of the client's panic attacks that ultimately produced improved coping skills and a subjective sense of improvement for her. Process analysis is used to illustrate the theoretical base,…

  20. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  1. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  2. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  3. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  4. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  5. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  6. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  7. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  8. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  9. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed. PMID:25527240

  10. Effects of pyridoxine supplementation on severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks in migraine patients with aura: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Omid; Nasiri, Morteza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Pahlavani, Naseh; Rezaie, Masoud; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a chronic disease that affects nearly 6% of men and 18% of women worldwide. There are various drugs, which can successfully decrease migraine symptoms and frequency of migraine attacks, but these drugs usually are expensive. Hence, this study aimed to assess the effects of pyridoxine supplementation on severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks as well as headache diary results (HDR). Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 66 patients with migraine with aura (MA) in Khorshid and Emam Mosa Sadr clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either pyridoxine supplements (80 mg pyridoxine per day) or placebo. Severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks and HDR were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: Mean age of patients was 34.24 ± 9.44 years old. Pyridoxine supplementation led to a significant decrease in headache severity (−2.20 ± 1.70 compared with −1 ± 1.50; P = 0.007), attacks duration (−8.30 ± 12.60 compared with −1.70 ± 9.60; P = 0.030) and HDR (−89.70 ± 134.60 compared with −6.10 ± 155.50; P = 0.040) compared with placebo, but was not effective on the frequency of migraine attacks (−2.30 ± 4 compared with −1.20 ± 7.80; P = 0.510). Conclusion: Pyridoxine supplementation in patients with MA was effective on headache severity, attacks duration and HDR, but did not affect the frequency of migraine attacks. PMID:26056551

  11. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  12. Optimal attack strategy of complex networks based on tabu search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ye; Wu, Jun; Tan, Yue-jin

    2016-01-01

    The problem of network disintegration has broad applications and recently has received growing attention, such as network confrontation and disintegration of harmful networks. This paper presents an optimized attack strategy model for complex networks and introduces the tabu search into the network disintegration problem to identify the optimal attack strategy, which is a heuristic optimization algorithm and rarely applied to the study of network robustness. The efficiency of the proposed solution was verified by comparing it with other attack strategies used in various model networks and real-world network. Numerical experiments suggest that our solution can improve the effect of network disintegration and that the "best" choice for node failure attacks can be identified through global searches. Our understanding of the optimal attack strategy may also shed light on a new property of the nodes within network disintegration and deserves additional study.

  13. The Application of Baum-Welch Algorithm in Multistep Attack

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxue; Zhao, Dongmei; Liu, Jinxing

    2014-01-01

    The biggest difficulty of hidden Markov model applied to multistep attack is the determination of observations. Now the research of the determination of observations is still lacking, and it shows a certain degree of subjectivity. In this regard, we integrate the attack intentions and hidden Markov model (HMM) and support a method to forecasting multistep attack based on hidden Markov model. Firstly, we train the existing hidden Markov model(s) by the Baum-Welch algorithm of HMM. Then we recognize the alert belonging to attack scenarios with the Forward algorithm of HMM. Finally, we forecast the next possible attack sequence with the Viterbi algorithm of HMM. The results of simulation experiments show that the hidden Markov models which have been trained are better than the untrained in recognition and prediction. PMID:24991642

  14. Simulated predator attacks on flocks: a comparison of tactics.

    PubMed

    Demšar, Jure; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2014-01-01

    It is not exactly known why birds aggregate in coordinated flocks. The most common hypothesis proposes that the reason is protection from predators. Most of the currently developed examples of individual-based predator-prey models assume predators are attracted to the center of a highly coordinated flock. This proposed attraction of a predator to a flock would appear to be contradictory to an alternate hypothesis that flocks evolved as a protection against predation. In an attempt to resolve this apparent conflict, in this article we use a fuzzy individual-based model to study three attack tactics (attack center, attack nearest, attack isolated) and analyze the success of predation on two types of prey (social and individualistic). Our simulations revealed that social flocking (as opposed to individualistic behavior) is the optimal anti-predatory response to predators attacking mainly isolated individuals. PMID:24730766

  15. DDoS Attack Detection Algorithms Based on Entropy Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liying; Zhou, Jianying; Xiao, Ning

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack poses a severe threat to the Internet. It is difficult to find the exact signature of attacking. Moreover, it is hard to distinguish the difference of an unusual high volume of traffic which is caused by the attack or occurs when a huge number of users occasionally access the target machine at the same time. The entropy detection method is an effective method to detect the DDoS attack. It is mainly used to calculate the distribution randomness of some attributes in the network packets' headers. In this paper, we focus on the detection technology of DDoS attack. We improve the previous entropy detection algorithm, and propose two enhanced detection methods based on cumulative entropy and time, respectively. Experiment results show that these methods could lead to more accurate and effective DDoS detection.

  16. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  17. Attacks on Bluetooth Security Architecture and Its Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Mian Muhammad Waseem; Kausar, Firdous; Wahla, Muhammad Arif

    WPANs compliment the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless networks by facilitating the clients with flexibility in network topologies, higher mobility and relaxed configuration/hardware requirements. Bluetooth, a WPAN technology, is an open standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication. However, it is also susceptible to typical security threats found in wireless LANs. This paper discuses some of the attack scenarios against the bluetooth network such as hostile intrusion, active Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack using unit key and various forms of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These threats and attacks compromise the confidentiality and availability of bluetooth data and services. This paper proposes an improved security architecture for bluetooth device which provides protection against the above mentioned attacks.

  18. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nozick, Linda Karen; Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  19. Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh

    2008-10-01

    The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571

  20. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  1. Prodromes and predictors of migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paolo; Ambrosini, Anna; Buzzi, M Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Premonitory symptoms of migraine include a wide and heterogeneous collection of cognitive, psychic and physical changes preceding and forewarning of an attack by a few hours to 2-3 days. To date, premonitory symptoms have received little attention in the literature, being treated more as a curiosity than as a primary feature of migraine. This paper provides an extensive critical review of this neglected area of migraine research in the light of the recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of migraine. Epidemiological and clinical studies that have investigated the premonitory symptoms of migraine lack scientific rigour, producing conflicting results, whilst genetic and pathophysiological investigations are still in their very early stages. There is evidence supporting the idea that premonitory symptoms could be used as a phenotypical marker to identify subgroups of migraineurs which could show correlations with specific clinical expressions of the disease, genotypes, or responses to treatments. Future studies are needed to clarify the clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic significance of premonitory symptoms. PMID:16483459

  2. Marine transducing bacteriophage attacking a luminous bacterium.

    PubMed

    Keynan, A; Nealson, K; Sideropoulos, H; Hastings, J W

    1974-08-01

    The isolation and partial characterization of a marine bacteriophage attacking a strain of luminous bacteria is described, including some physical, biological, and genetic properties. It is a DNA phage of density of 1.52 with a long flexible tail and an apparently icosohedral head. With respect to stability in suspension, it has a rather specific requirement for the sodium ion in high concentration; it is further stabilized by the addition of calcium and magnesium ions. These same ions are likewise all required for both good plating efficiency and plaque uniformity. Although it goes through a typical lytic growth cycle (about 45 min), with a burst size of 100, and no stable lysogens have been isolated, it is nevertheless a transducing phage specifically for the tryptophan region, transducing several, but not all, independently isolated Trp(-) auxotrophs to protrophy. No other auxotrophs of a variety of amino acids were transduced by this phage to prototrophy. Phage infection does not change the normal expression of the luminescent system, and light remains at near normal levels until cell lysis occurs. PMID:16789143

  3. Pirate attacks affect Indian Ocean climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn R.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Long, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia nearly doubled from 111 in 2008 to 217 in 2009 [International Maritime Bureau, 2009, International Maritime Bureau, 2010]. Consequently, merchant vessel traffic in the area around Somalia significantly decreased. Many of these merchant vessels carry instruments that record wind and other weather conditions near the ocean surface, and alterations in ship tracks have resulted in a hole sized at about 2.5 million square kilometers in the marine weather-observing network off the coast of Somalia. The data void exists in the formation region of the Somali low-level jet, a wind pattern that is one of the main drivers of the Indian summer monsoon. Further, a stable, multidecadal record has been interrupted, and consequently, long-term analyses of the jet derived from surface wind data are now showing artificial anomalies that will affect efforts by scientists to identify interannual to decadal variations in the climate of the northwestern Indian Ocean.

  4. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  5. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  6. Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2005-06-01

    Nocturnal panic (NP), waking from sleep in a state of panic, is a common occurrence among patients with panic disorder, with 44-71% reporting at least one such attack. NP is a non-REM event that is distinct from sleep terrors, sleep apnea, nightmares or dream-induced arousals. This review outlines recent advances in the characterization of NP, as well as current approaches to the assessment and treatment of NP. In contrast to earlier work, more recent studies suggest that patients with NP do not differ from patients without NP on sleep architecture, sleep physiology, self-reported sleep quality and severity of panic disorder. However, more precise measurement of physiological precipitants and features is warranted. Assessment of NP focuses on ruling out other explanations for NP, with differential diagnosis based on interviews, sleep polysomnography and ambulatory recording of sleep. Psychological treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy) targets misappraisals of anxiety sensations, hyperventilatory response, and conditioned reactions to internal, physical cues. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of this approach, however, controlled studies on pharmacological agents in the treatment of NP are lacking. Research is needed to examine the effects of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications, compared to medication alone in the treatment of NP. PMID:15893248

  7. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L; Morgan, B Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a 'multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a 'split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration. PMID:26841837

  8. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L.; Morgan, B. Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-02-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a `multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a `split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration.

  9. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L.; Morgan, B. Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a ‘multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a ‘split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration. PMID:26841837

  10. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  11. Pre-Attack Symptomatology and Temperament as Predictors of Children's Responses to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Smith, Kimberlee I.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the psychological response of children following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC and to examine prospective predictors of children's post-attack responses. Method: Children's responses were assessed in a community sample of children in Seattle, Washington,…

  12. Deformation and erosion of f.c.c. metals and alloys under cavitation attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the early stages of cavitation attack on 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, electrolytic tough pitch copper, brass, and bronze, all having polycrystalline fcc matrices. The surface profiles and scanning electron micrographs show that the pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries, while the grain surfaces are progressively roughened by multiple slip and twinning. The initial erosion is noted to have occurred from the material in the grain boundaries, as well as by fragmentation of part of the grains. Further erosion occurred by shearing and necking of the surface undulations caused by plastic deformation. The mean penetration depth, computed on the basis of mass loss, was lowest on the bronze and greatest on the copper. Attention is given to the relation of cavitation attack to grain size, glide stress and stacking fault energy.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed. PMID:27388691

  14. A dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Wu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Maode; Li, Wenming; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2008-11-01

    This paper analyses current bandwidth schemes and proposes a novel dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON. According the scheme, we define four kinds of multimedia services such as Unsolicited Request Service (URS), Realtime Service (rt-S), Non-Real-time Service (nrt-S) and Best Effort (BE). Different kinds of services have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Our scheme considers the diverse QoS request, e.g., delay for rt-S, throughput for nrt-S and fairness for BE. The simulation results show this novel scheme can ensure the quality of service (QoS) and improve bandwidth utilization.

  15. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  16. Electronic Equipment Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, R. L.; Jenkins, L. C.

    An assessment is made of the importance of thermal management in electronic equipment design, illustrating the ways in which CAD technology may be used to improve electronic equipment thermal management programs. Attention is given to the Electronic Equipment Thermal Management portion of the aircraft system-level Thermal Management Control (TMC) program. TMC establishes the process by which the airframe's environmental control system and the electronic equipment are integrated to optimize system reliability through life cycle cost minimization, by allocating available cooling capacity to system elements on the basis of derived benefits.

  17. Transient ischemic attack as a medical emergency.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Since transient ischemic attack (TIA) is regarded as a medical emergency with high risk for early stroke recurrence, the underlying mechanisms should be immediately clarified to conclude a definitive diagnosis and provide early treatment. Early risk stratification using ABCD(2) scores can predict the risk of ischemic stroke occurring after TIA. Carotid ultrasonography (US) can evaluate the degree of stenosis, plaque properties and flow velocity of ICA lesions. High-risk mobile plaques can be classified by carotid US, and aortogenic sources of emboli can be detected by transesophageal echocardiography. Cardiac monitoring and blood findings are thought to play a key role in a diagnosis of cardioembolic TIA. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-MRI and MR angiography are also indispensable to understand the mechanism of TIA and cerebral circulation. To prevent subsequent stroke arising from TIA, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies should be started immediately along with comprehensive management of life-style, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and other atherosclerotic diseases. Carotid endarterectomy and endovascular intervention are critical for treating symptomatic patients with significant stenosis of ICA. A novel concept of acute cerebrovascular syndrome (ACVS) has recently been advocated to increase awareness of TIA among citizens, patients and medical professionals. TIA should be recognized as the last opportunity to avoid irreversible ischemic stroke and its sequelae. The clinical relevance of the new concept of ACVS is advocated by early recurrence after TIA, analysis of high-risk TIA, treatment strategies and the optimal management of TIA. Raising TIA awareness should also proceed across many population sectors. PMID:24157554

  18. Possible precipitation of migraine attacks with prophylactic treatment.

    PubMed

    Donnet, A; Vuillaume De Diego, E; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of a prophylactic treatment in a migraine sufferer depends upon the stratification of the patient's frequency of attacks and the disability they cause, as well as the patient's acute consumption and comorbid diseases. We report on 14 patients who were among a group of 618 migraine sufferers who received a new preventative treatment. These 14 patients developed an increase in the frequency of their migraine attacks that was possibly induced by this new prophylactic treatment. The clinical description of the migraine attacks remained the same but the frequency of the attacks of migraine without aura was dramatically increased. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a possible precipitation of attacks of migraine without aura with a prophylactic treatment. There is no link with a specific class of prophylactic treatment. We hypothesize that the migraine sufferers who experienced aggravation after the new prophylactic drug had been introduced had a paradoxical decrease in the induction threshold for cortical spreading depression (CSD). Mechanisms of such a decrease are unknown and are probably multifactorial, but changes in serotonin neurotransmission have been experimentally demonstrated to modify cortical excitability and favour CSD. The aggravation was described only for attacks without aura. However, with only 14 patients, it is not possible to predict whether suffering from that the type of migraine is a factor that predisposes a patient to aggravation. While additional cases are necessary, physicians should be aware of the possibility that prophylactic treatment may exacerbate migraine attacks. PMID:18948696

  19. Preventing sexual attacks in healthcare facilities: risk management considerations.

    PubMed

    Banja, John D

    2014-01-01

    Reports or allegations of sexual attacks in healthcare facilities are extremely upsetting and sometimes not given the attention they deserve. In June 2011, the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a remarkable report on sexual attacks occurring in Veterans Affairs (VA) health facilities that not only raised awareness of the magnitude of the problem but that detailed numerous system weaknesses in VA facilities that might have enabled such attacks. This article discusses some of the GAO's findings as well as other instances of sexual attacks, such as occurred in the criminal prosecution of Paul Serdula, a former health professional who might have sexually assaulted hundreds of women. Some of Serdula's victims have subsequently sued in civil court, charging Serdula's employers with lack of supervision and raising the possibility of serial sexual attacks such as his evolving into large-scale patient safety disasters. This article will review certain ethical and legal considerations bearing on the liability of healthcare facilities in which sexual attacks are alleged to have occurred. Following a discussion of how two courts have used the legal construct of "foreseeability" in determining a healthcare facility's liability when an employee is charged with sexual assault, the article will conclude with a host of patient safety recommendations aimed at discouraging or deterring the occurrence of sexual attacks. PMID:24549696

  20. Optimal response to attacks on the open science grids.

    SciTech Connect

    Altunay, M.; Leyffer, S.; Linderoth, J. T.; Xie, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Cybersecurity is a growing concern, especially in open grids, where attack propagation is easy because of prevalent collaborations among thousands of users and hundreds of institutions. The collaboration rules that typically govern large science experiments as well as social networks of scientists span across the institutional security boundaries. A common concern is that the increased openness may allow malicious attackers to spread more readily around the grid. We consider how to optimally respond to attacks in open grid environments. To show how and why attacks spread more readily around the grid, we first discuss how collaborations manifest themselves in the grids and form the collaboration network graph, and how this collaboration network graph affects the security threat levels of grid participants. We present two mixed-integer program (MIP) models to find the optimal response to attacks in open grid environments, and also calculate the threat level associated with each grid participant. Given an attack scenario, our optimal response model aims to minimize the threat levels at unaffected participants while maximizing the uninterrupted scientific production (continuing collaborations). By adopting some of the collaboration rules (e.g., suspending a collaboration or shutting down a site), the model finds optimal response to subvert an attack scenario.