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Sample records for allocates electronic attack

  1. Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "Warm Up" CSF.

    PubMed

    Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "warm up" the systems. This article studies such "warm up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide numerical solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "warm up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "warm up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "warm up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "warm up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation.

  2. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  3. Cooperative Electronic Attack using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    categories for these problems: 1) resource allocation, 2) tightly coupled path planning, and 3) communication . This paper is structured to introduce...many RADARs are able to notch out, or cancel their sidelobes. Today’s integrated RADAR systems are complex net- worked entities that communicate with...other RADAR units to correlate information, and that communicate with missile systems to engage and destroy perceived threats. Various types of RADAR

  4. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  5. Routing and wavelength allocation algorithm based on the weighted attack probability in software-defined optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie

    2017-02-01

    A routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithm against high-power jamming based on software-defined optical networks (SDONs) is proposed. The SDON architecture is designed with power monitors at each node, which can collect the abnormal power information from each port and wavelength. Based on the abnormal power information, a metric, the weighted attack probability (WAP), can be calculated. A WAP-based RWA algorithm (WAP-RWA) is proposed considering the WAP values of each link and node along the selected lightpath. Numerical results show that the WAP-RWA algorithm can achieve a better performance in terms of blocking probability and resource utilization compared with the attack-aware dedicated path protection (AA-DPP) RWA (AA-DPP-RWA) algorithm, while providing a protection comparable with the AA-DPP-RWA algorithm.

  6. Security Attacks and Solutions in Electronic Health (E-health) Systems.

    PubMed

    Zeadally, Sherali; Isaac, Jesús Téllez; Baig, Zubair

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, healthcare has been a basic service provided by many governments to their citizens. Over the past few decades, we have witnessed a significant transformation in the quality of healthcare services provided by healthcare organizations and professionals. Recent advances have led to the emergence of Electronic Health (E-health), largely made possible by the massive deployment and adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, cybercriminals and attackers are exploiting vulnerabilities associated primarily with ICTs, causing data breaches of patients' confidential digital health information records. Here, we review recent security attacks reported for E-healthcare and discuss the solutions proposed to mitigate them. We also identify security challenges that must be addressed by E-health system designers and implementers in the future, to respond to threats that could arise as E-health systems become integrated with technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and smart cities.

  7. Sociotechnical design of an electronic tool for managing transient ischemic attack in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis; Partridge, Colin; Penn, Andrew; Stanley, Dana; Votova, Kristine; Bibok, Maximilian; Harris, Devin; Lu, Linghong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the adoption of a prototype electronic decision support tool for managing transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Emergency Department (ED) of a health region in Canada. A clinician-driven sociotechnical design approach is used to develop, test and implement the prototype with the aim to improve TIA management in the ED. In this study, we worked closely with ED staff to: identify issues and needs in TIA management; build/test/refine prototype versions of the electronic TIA decision support tool; and explore strategies to implement the tool for routine use in the ED. A blood protein biomarker test under development will also be incorporated as part of this tool in a subsequent phase. Thus far the prototype has demonstrated the potential to improve triage, risk stratification, and disposition decisions based on historical TIA and mimic cases. A prospective multi-site clinical utility study is planned for spring of 2016.

  8. Electronic Tool for Distribution and Allocation of Heart on Donation and Transplantation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Maqueda Tenorio, S E; Meixueiro Daza, L A; Maqueda Estrada, S

    2016-03-01

    In Mexico and globally, organs and/or tissues donated from deceased people are insufficient to cover the demand for transplants. In 2014, a rate of 3.6 organ donors per million in habitants was recorded; this is reflected in the transplants performed, including heart transplantation, with a rate of 0.4 per million population. According to the legal framework of Mexico, the National Transplant Center is responsible for coordinating National Subsystem of donation and transplantation, and one of its functions is to integrate and backup information regarding donation and transplantation through the National Transplant Registry System. In July 2015, 45 people were registered in the database of patients waiting for a heart transplant, of which 34.61% were female recipients and 65.39% male. Distribution and allocation processes are a key element to provide a fair distribution for those patients waiting for that organ; thus the creation of an electronic tool is proposed, one that aims to support the decision of the donation and/or transplants coordination committee by providing the necessary elements to make this process more efficient.

  9. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 −)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O2-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH4 +-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3 −-grown plants. NO3 − reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4 +-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH4 +-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3 − assimilation, an effect more significant in NO3 −-grown plants than in NH4 +-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH4 +-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO3 − reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH4 +-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4 + was supplied as the sole N source. PMID:21265044

  10. Behavioral aspects of electronic bull separation and mate allocation in multiple-sire mating paddocks.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Prayaga, K C; Fisher, A D; Henshall, J M

    2008-07-01

    Controlling spatial positioning of cattle through use of electronic collars could provide new ways to farm under extensive conditions. This study examined the potential for bulls to be controlled during mating using mild electric shocks delivered through radio-controlled collars. Eighteen Belmont Red bulls were fitted with collars containing the Global Positioning System and that were able to emit a mild electric shock (500 mW) at the top of the neck behind the poll. Eighteen Belmont Red cows were fitted with Global Positioning System collars only. The experiment was replicated 3 times in 3 paddocks. Each paddock contained 2 bulls and 1 cow in induced estrus. On d 1, the bulls were either assigned to the cow or not assigned to the cow, and on d 2, the assignments were reversed, and bulls received the other treatment using a new cow. Treatments were applied for 2 h on each day. The nonassigned bull received a mild electric shock on approach to either the cow or to a bull, whereas the assigned bull received a mild electric shock on approach to the other bull only. The electric shock was applied when the bulls were within approximately 10 m and moving toward the nonallowed animal. The electric shock was terminated when the animal responded by stopping movement toward the nonallowed animal. In the first 10 min, nonassigned bulls spent less time within 5 m of the cow (P = 0.03) than assigned bulls. Assigned bulls spent more time close to the cow during the entire 120 min on d 1 than on d 2 (P = 0.014). On d 1, the assigned bulls moved more toward the cow and the nonassigned bull than they did on d 2 (P = 0.02). Assigned bulls displayed more sexual behaviors than nonassigned bulls (P = 0.004). Nonassigned bulls were sometimes observed not to approach the cow despite a change in its location. This suggests that the bull associated the electric shock with the cow and not with the location in which it received the electric shock. Instances were observed in which the cow

  11. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  12. Mechanism and Site of Attack for Direct Damage to DNA by Low-Energy Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, X.; Sanche, L.

    2005-05-20

    We report results on the desorption of OH{sup -} induced by 0-19 eV electrons incident on self-assembled monolayer films made of single and double DNA strands of different orientations with respect to a gold substrate. Such measurements make it possible to deduce the mechanism and site of OH{sup -} formation within a biomolecule as complex as DNA. This type of damage is attributed to dissociative electron attachment to the phosphate group of DNA, when it contains the counterion H{sup +}.

  13. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  14. Channel Allocation Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert S.

    The Frequency Allocation Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee for Cable Communication Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was formed to produce a background report on the general problems of frequency allocation and assignments in cable television. The present paper, based on the subcommittee's interim report,…

  15. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  16. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Sep 19,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  17. Electronic Attack Platform Placement Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...GB DDR3) Display 10.1” (IPS, 1366 X 768) Multi-touch HD display Operating System Windows 8 Storage 256 GB SSD (SATA-III) Network Intel WLAN ...programming the GPU: 1) security and 2) determining when the GPU is advantageous. Security is a problem applicable to all software development. With the

  18. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting...: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the... page, investor letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this...

  19. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-05-22

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full < wane < wax < new). Similarly, they displayed higher GUDs at brighter moon phases (wax > full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator-prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase.

  20. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  1. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  2. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack . Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  3. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  4. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  5. What Is a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  6. Traumatic tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Chum, Marvin; Ng, Wai Pui

    2011-11-01

    Attacks on humans by large cats are uncommon occurrences and thus the principles of managing such injuries are not well documented. The authors here report the case of an 11-year-old boy who was mauled by a privately owned tiger. The attack resulted in multiple cranial lacerations and fractures, dissection of the internal carotid artery, and persistent neurological deficits. This case outlines the multiple sources of injury and pathology that can result from such an attack. Discussion is focused on the pattern of injury seen in large feline attacks and the treatment approach.

  7. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  8. Supply Chain Attack Framework and Attack Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Malware is embedded in a replacement server motherboard (e.g., in the flash memory) in order to alter server functionality from that intended. Attack...Slashdot: Dell Ships Infected Motherboards July 21, 2010(c/o Rick Dove) Threat: An adversary with access to hardware procurement, maintenance, or upgrade...control can embed malware in a critical component server motherboard . Vulnerabilities: The control processes and mechanisms for hardware

  9. Stroke following rottweiler attack.

    PubMed

    Miller, S J; Copass, M; Johansen, K; Winn, H R

    1993-02-01

    A previously healthy 50-year-old man suffered a major right cerebral infarction shortly after receiving head and neck bites in an attack by two rottweilers. Arteriography revealed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, an intimal flap and pseudoaneurysm in the high right internal carotid artery just proximal to the skull base, and an obstructed right vertebral artery. The powerful jaw mechanism of rottweilers and other large mastiff-type dogs makes their bites particularly destructive. The predilection of these animals for attacking the head and upper body makes occult crush injury to the extracranial cerebral vessels an important diagnostic consideration following such attacks.

  10. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  11. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  12. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  13. New sensitivity analysis attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Choubassi, Maha; Moulin, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    The sensitivity analysis attacks by Kalker et al. constitute a known family of watermark removal attacks exploiting a vulnerability in some watermarking protocols: the attacker's unlimited access to the watermark detector. In this paper, a new attack on spread spectrum schemes is designed. We first examine one of Kalker's algorithms and prove its convergence using the law of large numbers, which gives more insight into the problem. Next, a new algorithm is presented and compared to existing ones. Various detection algorithms are considered including correlation detectors and normalized correlation detectors, as well as other, more complicated algorithms. Our algorithm is noniterative and requires at most n+1 operations, where n is the dimension of the signal. Moreover, the new approach directly estimates the watermark by exploiting the simple geometry of the detection boundary and the information leaked by the detector.

  14. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  15. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  16. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  17. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  18. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya; Zayed, Abla . E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  19. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Symptoms in Women Updated:Jan 10,2017 Heart Attack Signs in Women Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or ...

  20. An Attack Surface Metric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Measurement of security, both qualitatively and quantitatively, has been a long standing challenge to the research community , and is of...our approach to related work in Section 2. We introduce the entry point and exit point framework in Section 3. We present the definitions of...ignores the specific system configuration that gave rise to the vulnerability, and it does not capture a system’s future attackability. Our approach

  1. TCPL: A Defense against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul; Basappa, K. Kari

    2010-10-26

    Do In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack in ad hoc networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits) at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many sensor network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. For example, most existing ad hoc network routing protocols, without some mechanism to defend against the wormhole attack, would be unable to find routes longer than one or two hops, severely disrupting communication. We present a new, general mechanism, called packet leashes, for detecting and thus defending against wormhole attacks, and we present a specific protocol, called TIK, that implements leashes.

  2. When women attack.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart.

  3. Replacement Attack: A New Zero Text Watermarking Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.

  4. Modeling Partial Attacks with Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Amerson; Bond, Mike; Clulow, Jolyon

    The automated and formal analysis of cryptographic primitives, security protocols and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) up to date has been focused on discovering attacks that completely break the security of a system. However, there are attacks that do not immediately break a system but weaken the security sufficiently for the adversary. We term these attacks partial attacks and present the first methodology for the modeling and automated analysis of this genre of attacks by describing two approaches. The first approach reasons about entropy and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the ECB|ECB|OFB triple-mode DES block-cipher. The second approach reasons about possibility sets and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the personal identification number (PIN) derivation algorithm used in the IBM 4758 Common Cryptographic Architecture.

  5. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    SciTech Connect

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  6. DNS Rebinding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    action [From 2] The same origin policy is also called Single Origin or Same Site Policy. It was originally released with Netscape Navigator 2.0 and...success Netscape 8.2.1 Windows XP / SP2 success Opera 9.0.2 Windows 2000 / SP4 success Table 6. Satoh’s attack results using Adobe Flash Player...dns/dns-rebinding.pdf. Retrieved May 2009. [4] D. Dean, E. W. Felten, and D. S. Wallach “Java Security: From HotJava to Netscape and Beyond

  7. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack can ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines Medical ...

  8. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  9. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  10. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  11. Constrained control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the allocation of several flight controls to the generation of specified body-axis moments. The number of controls is greater than the number of moments being controlled, and the ranges of the controls are constrained to certain limits. The controls are assumed to be individually linear in their effect throughout their ranges of motion, and independent of one another in their effects. The geometries of the subset of the constrained controls and of its image in moment space are examined. A direct method of allocating these several controls is presented, that guarantees the maximum possible moment is generated within the constraints of the controls. The results are illustrated by an example problem involving three controls and two moments.

  12. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  13. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  14. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  15. Scenario Graphs and Attack Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-14

    46 6.1 Vulnerability Analysis of a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.2 Sandia Red Team Attack Graph...asymptotic bound. The test machine was a 1Ghz Pentium III with 1GB of RAM, running Red Hat Linux 7.3. Figure 4.1(a) plots running time of the implemen...host scanning tools network information vulnerability Attack Graph network Red

  16. Gout attacks and lunar cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikulecký, M; Rovenský, J

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to search for periodical fluctuations in daily occurrence of gout attacks during the synodic lunar cycle. 126 gout attacks were recorded between 1972 and 1994 at known calendar dates. The synodic plexogram, displaying the number of attacks for each day of the cycle, was processed by cosinor regression. A pronounced cycling was found, with highest peaks under the new and full moon (syzygigies). Thus, the maximal occurrence of attacks coincides with the peaking lunisolar tidal effect. Similar relation of attacks to synodic moon was seen in bronchial asthma of children, and a reciprocal one in paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia. Differing pathogenetic backgrounds of these diseases substantiate the observed differences in their putative reactions on the changing cosmogeophysical environment.

  17. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Attack? Updated:Sep 16,2016 Begin the quiz Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary ... in Women “Can you recognize a heart attack?” Quiz • Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack ...

  18. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  19. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  20. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  1. High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK IN A VERY LOW TURBULENCE LEVEL AIR STREAM by B.L.Hunt and P.C.Dexter 17 WIND AND WATER TUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF...FIGURE 1. TYPICAL FIGffTER FOREBODY LENGTHS It baa been convincingly shown in small-scale wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments that the apfro...attack taken during a water tunnel test. jn asymmetric vor~ox pattern io clearly ubewn. LOW ANGLE OF ATTACKC HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK (SYMMETRIC

  2. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack Updated:Sep 16,2016 Knowledge is power, so ... medication. This content was last reviewed June 2016. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  3. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  4. Chemical processes induced by OH attack on nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Mikinori

    Recent studies concerning the chemical processes in nucleic acids starting with OH attack to produce free radicals and ending with the formation of stable products were reviewed. Using nucleosides, nucleotides and homopolynucleotides as model compounds, and DNA itself, free radicals produced by OH attack on nucleic acids have been mainly studied by a method combining ESR, spin trapping and high-performance liquid chromatography. For identification of final products in both base and sugar moieties of nucleic acids, mass and NMR spectroscopies combined with gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography are usually employed. Kinetic measurements of structural alterations in the polynucleotides and DNA after OH attack have been made by a method combining electron-pulse irradiation and laser-light scattering. From these studies, the chemical reaction processes from the generation of free radicals in nucleic acids by OH attack, through the formation of unstable intermediates, to the formation of final products can be described.

  5. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-15

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  6. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  7. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  8. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2005 FEB 2005 Selective Availability Anti- Spoofing Module (SAASM)/ GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A MAR 2005 SEP 2005 MAR 2005 Change Explanations...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  9. Duloxetine-related panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients' trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who responded to duloxetine treatment administered in the initial dose of 30 mg per day with as many as three panic attacks in two days. Upon duloxetine withdrawal, these panic attacks ceased as well. The patient continued tianeptine and alprazolam treatment during which no significant side-effects had been seen, so that she gradually recovered. Some of the available literature sources have suggested the possibility of duloxetine administration to the end of generalised anxiety disorder and panic attack treatment. However, they are outnumbered by the contributions reporting about duloxetine-related anxiety, aggressiveness and panic attacks. In line with the foregoing, further monitoring of each and every duloxetine-administered patient group needs to be pursued so as to be able to evaluate treatment benefits and weigh them against risks of anxiety or panic attack onset.

  10. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  11. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  12. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-07

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  13. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  14. Resource allocation using risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.

  15. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  16. Attack Methodology Analysis: Emerging Trends in Computer-Based Attack Methodologies and Their Applicability to Control System Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston

    2005-06-01

    Threat characterization is a key component in evaluating the threat faced by control systems. Without a thorough understanding of the threat faced by critical infrastructure networks, adequate resources cannot be allocated or directed effectively to the defense of these systems. Traditional methods of threat analysis focus on identifying the capabilities and motivations of a specific attacker, assessing the value the adversary would place on targeted systems, and deploying defenses according to the threat posed by the potential adversary. Too many effective exploits and tools exist and are easily accessible to anyone with access to an Internet connection, minimal technical skills, and a significantly reduced motivational threshold to be able to narrow the field of potential adversaries effectively. Understanding how hackers evaluate new IT security research and incorporate significant new ideas into their own tools provides a means of anticipating how IT systems are most likely to be attacked in the future. This research, Attack Methodology Analysis (AMA), could supply pertinent information on how to detect and stop new types of attacks. Since the exploit methodologies and attack vectors developed in the general Information Technology (IT) arena can be converted for use against control system environments, assessing areas in which cutting edge exploit development and remediation techniques are occurring can provide significance intelligence for control system network exploitation, defense, and a means of assessing threat without identifying specific capabilities of individual opponents. Attack Methodology Analysis begins with the study of what exploit technology and attack methodologies are being developed in the Information Technology (IT) security research community within the black and white hat community. Once a solid understanding of the cutting edge security research is established, emerging trends in attack methodology can be identified and the gap between

  17. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  18. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period.

  19. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  20. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  1. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  2. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach.

  3. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    by distributing a large amount of private goods to the selectorate—the cronies—can be termed kleptocracies . Many govern- ments do indeed resemble...where the high-private goods kleptocracy is a good model. Furthermore, while not an example of crony attack to affect policy change (as opposed to...information about those nearest to the leader. The relationships part is only the start. Kleptocracies , like orga- nized crime leaders, are clever

  4. The effect of asymmetric attack on trim angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ballistic range tests were conducted to determine the effect of an asymmetrically ablated heat shield on the trim angle of attack of an entry vehicle. The tests, which were in support of Project Galileo, were conducted in atmospheric air at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 2.0. For the results for the configuration that was tested, the deduced trim angle varied between 13 deg and 21 deg.

  5. 42 CFR 495.358 - Cost allocation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation plans. 495.358 Section 495.358 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  6. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  7. Deterring watermark collusion attacks using signal processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Aweke N.; van der Veen, Michiel

    2007-02-01

    Collusion attack is a malicious watermark removal attack in which the hacker has access to multiple copies of the same content with different watermarks and tries to remove the watermark using averaging. In the literature, several solutions to collusion attacks have been reported. The main stream solutions aim at designing watermark codes that are inherently resistant to collusion attacks. The other approaches propose signal processing based solutions that aim at modifying the watermarked signals in such a way that averaging multiple copies of the content leads to a significant degradation of the content quality. In this paper, we present signal processing based technique that may be deployed for deterring collusion attacks. We formulate the problem in the context of electronic music distribution where the content is generally available in the compressed domain. Thus, we first extend the collusion resistance principles to bit stream signals and secondly present experimental based analysis to estimate a bound on the maximum number of modified versions of a content that satisfy good perceptibility requirement on one hand and destructive averaging property on the other hand.

  8. 78 FR 45604 - Funding Opportunity Title: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the combined Calendar Year (CY) 2013 and 2014 Allocation Round of... letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details... NOAA. NMTC allocation applicants that are not yet certified as Community Development Entities...

  9. 77 FR 43418 - Funding Opportunity Title: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2012 Allocation Round of the New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC... electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. NMTC allocation applicants...

  10. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  11. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  12. Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164010.html Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues Monkey study may ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have learned where the Zika virus attacks the body in monkeys. In their ...

  13. Beware Heart Attack Risk from Shoveling Snow

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163566.html Beware Heart Attack Risk From Shoveling Snow Canadian study finds cases ... why men are more likely to suffer a heart attack after a heavy snowfall, researchers report. In a ...

  14. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  15. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  16. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    services they offer. When the attacker attempts to access system services in order to determine which are available, the scan is called a “ portscan ”. Network...Scans The following portscans were crafted using simPortScan.cc (Appendix B.2). Filename: scan V TCP fast seq small.tcp Source: Crafted...Stealthy Portscans . Journal of Computer Security, 10, 105–136. 6. Yegneswaran, V., Barford, P., and Ullrich, J. (2003). Internet Intrusions: Global

  17. Biomechanics of knife stab attacks.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C; Lane, J V; Gray, T G

    1999-10-25

    Equipment, materials and methods for the measurement of the biomechanical parameters governing knife stab attacks have been developed and data have been presented that are relevant to the improvement of standards for the testing of stab-resistant materials. A six-camera Vicon motion analysis system was used to measure velocity, and derive energy and momentum during the approach phase of the attack and a specially developed force-measuring knife was used to measure three-dimensional forces and torque during the impact phase. The body segments associated with the knife were modelled as a series of rigid segments: trunk, upper arm, forearm and hand. The velocities of these segments, together with knowledge of the mass distribution from biomechanical tables, allowed the calculation of the individual segment energy and momentum values. The instrumented knife measured four components of load: axial force (along the length of the blade), cutting force (parallel to the breadth of the blade), lateral force (across the blade) and torque (twisting action) using foil strain gauges. Twenty volunteers were asked to stab a target with near maximal effort. Three styles of stab were used: a short thrust forward, a horizontal style sweep around the body and an overhand stab. These styles were chosen based on reported incidents, providing more realistic data than had previously existed. The 95th percentile values for axial force and energy were 1885 N and 69 J, respectively. The ability of current test methods to reproduce the mechanical parameters measured in human stab attacks has been assessed. It was found that current test methods could reproduce the range of energy and force values measured in the human stab attacks, although the simulation was not accurate in some respects. Non-axial force and torque values were also found to be significant in the human tests, but these are not reproduced in the standard mechanical tests.

  18. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  19. Flashbulb memories of Paris attacks

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. Patient concerns and diagnosis: This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interventions: The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Outcomes: Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. Lessons: By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving. PMID:27861395

  20. The Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallesh, Nayantara; Wright, Matthew

    Statistical disclosure is a well-studied technique that an attacker can use to uncover relations between users in mix-based anonymity systems. Prior work has focused on finding the receivers to whom a given targeted user sends. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of statistical disclosure in finding all of a users' contacts, including those from whom she receives messages. To this end, we propose a new attack called the Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack (RSDA). RSDA uses observations of all users sending patterns to estimate both the targeted user's sending pattern and her receiving pattern. The estimated patterns are combined to find a set of the targeted user's most likely contacts. We study the performance of RSDA in simulation using different mix network configurations and also study the effectiveness of cover traffic as a countermeasure. Our results show that that RSDA outperforms the traditional SDA in finding the user's contacts, particularly as the amounts of user traffic and cover traffic rise.

  1. Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques Maria Alexandrovna Gorlatova The scientific or...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Review of Existing Wormhole Attack

  2. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  3. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  4. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  5. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  6. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  7. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  8. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  9. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  10. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...N/A Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM)/GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A Mar 2005 Mar 2005 Mar 2005

  11. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack WARNING SIGNS OF HEART ATTACK, STROKE & CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK WARNING SIGNS CHEST DISCOMFORT ... nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack STROKE WARNING SIGNS Spot a stroke F.A.S.T.: - ...

  12. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  13. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:Oct 4,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  14. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  15. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  16. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY... conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, for schools and hospitals, shall be allocated... percent of all amounts allocated in any grant program cycle. No State will be allocated more than...

  17. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  18. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  19. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  20. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  1. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  2. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  3. Attack robustness of cascading load model in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Wu, Yuedan; Li, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Considering the weight of a node and the coupled strength of two interdependent nodes in the different networks, we propose a method to assign the initial load of a node and construct a new cascading load model in the interdependent networks. Assuming that a node in one network will fail if its degree is 0 or its dependent node in the other network is removed from the network or the load on it exceeds its capacity, we study the influences of the assortative link (AL) and the disassortative link (DL) patterns between two networks on the robustness of the interdependent networks against cascading failures. For better evaluating the network robustness, from the local perspective of a node we present a new measure to qualify the network resiliency after targeted attacks. We show that the AL patterns between two networks can improve the robust level of the entire interdependent networks. Moreover, we obtain how to efficiently allocate the initial load and select some nodes to be protected so as to maximize the network robustness against cascading failures. In addition, we find that some nodes with the lower load are more likely to trigger the cascading propagation when the distribution of the load is more even, and also give the reasonable explanation. Our findings can help to design the robust interdependent networks and give the reasonable suggestion to optimize the allocation of the protection resources.

  4. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erdős-Rényi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  5. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  6. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  7. Algorithms for optimal redundancy allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenkieboom, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heuristic and exact methods for solving the redundancy allocation problem are compared to an approach based on genetic algorithms. The various methods are applied to the bridge problem, which has been used as a benchmark in earlier work on optimization methods. Comparisons are presented in terms of the best configuration found by each method, and the computation effort which was necessary in order to find it.

  8. Detecting Denial of Service Attacks in Tor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Norman; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting such attacks and examine the effectiveness of the obvious approach to evading such detection. We implement a simplified version of the detection algorithm and study whether the attack may be in progress on the current Tor network. Our preliminary measurements indicate that the attack was probably not implemented during the period we observed the network.

  9. Cougar attacks on humans: a case report.

    PubMed

    McKee, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Cougar attacks on humans are increasing. Presented is a case report of a nonfatal 2-year-old male cougar attack on an 8-year-old girl in British Columbia. Discussions of wound management, rabies postexposure prophylaxis (RPEP), and the possible psychologic ramifications of such an attack are presented. Also reviewed are recommendations on actions that may be helpful in preventing an attack following a sudden encounter with a cougar. Humans must learn to coexist with cougars, which present a small but real threat to people.

  10. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  11. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  12. Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2013-06-01

    Blind signature schemes allow users to obtain the signature of a message while the signer learns neither the message nor the resulting signature. Therefore, blind signatures have been used to realize cryptographic protocols providing the anonymity of some participants, such as: secure electronic payment systems and electronic voting systems. A fair blind signature is a form of blind signature which the anonymity could be removed with the help of a trusted entity, when this is required for legal reasons. Recently, a fair quantum blind signature scheme was proposed and thought to be safe. In this paper, we first point out that there exists a new attack on fair quantum blind signature schemes. The attack shows that, if any sender has intercepted any valid signature, he (she) can counterfeit a valid signature for any message and can not be traced by the counterfeited blind signature. Then, we construct a fair quantum blind signature scheme by improved the existed one. The proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme can resist the preceding attack. Furthermore, we demonstrate the security of the proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme and compare it with the other one.

  13. Human and Computer Task Allocation in Air Defense Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    will not even use electronic IFF challenges due to increased vulnerability to enemy exploitation of the signal. For these and other reasons, it may... exploitation (i.e., attack) by enemy aircraft. To represent this situa- tion, Ys were (randomly) exploited 10% of the times they issued an "IFF Challenge...34 If exploited , they lost 10 points and were notified in the lower left-hand corner of the display. Requesting an "HQ ID" takes time to perform in an

  14. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  15. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting...

  16. Preventive attack in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Prebeck, S.R.

    1993-05-28

    The decline of the Soviet Union upset the world`s balance of power and opened the door to third world proliferation since the superpowers no longer have tight control over their client-states. This increase in proliferation raised the issue of how the United States (US) should respond to a third world nation that is acquiring nuclear weapons. Should the United States depend on preventive attacks to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This is not a new issue. Proliferation and preventive war have both been issues since the end of World War II. The United States considered a preventive attack against the Soviet Union in the postwar years. The Soviet Union considered preventive attacks against the People`s Republic of China in 1969. Israel conducted a preventive attack in 1981 against the Osiraq nuclear reactor in Iraq. Preventive attacks are politically untenable and are not militarily possible. Without perfect political conditions, it is unacceptable for the only remaining superpower to attack a second-rate power. It is militarily impossible for the United States to guarantee the removal of all nuclear weapons in a single preventive attack. This study concludes that the United States should not depend on preventive attacks to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  17. The cost of attack in competing networks.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, B; Horvatic, D; Lipic, T; Perc, M; Buldú, J M; Stanley, H E

    2015-11-06

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator-prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities.

  18. The cost of attack in competing networks

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, B.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator–prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities. PMID:26490628

  19. Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device

    SciTech Connect

    Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromylis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

    2014-07-22

    Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

  20. Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device

    DOEpatents

    Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

    2017-02-21

    Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

  1. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  2. Importance of resin ducts in reducing ponderosa pine mortality from bark beetle attack.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jeffrey M; Kolb, Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    The relative importance of growth and defense to tree mortality during drought and bark beetle attacks is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by comparing growth and defense characteristics between 25 pairs of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees that survived and trees that died from drought-associated bark beetle attacks in forests of northern Arizona, USA. The three major findings of our research were: (1) xylem resin ducts in live trees were >10% larger (diameter), >25% denser (no. of resin ducts mm(-2)), and composed >50% more area per unit ring growth than dead trees; (2) measures of defense, such as resin duct production (no. of resin ducts year(-1)) and the proportion of xylem ring area to resin ducts, not growth, were the best model parameters of ponderosa pine mortality; and (3) most correlations between annual variation in growth and resin duct characteristics were positive suggesting that conditions conducive to growth also increase resin duct production. Our results suggest that trees that survive drought and subsequent bark beetle attacks invest more carbon in resin defense than trees that die, and that carbon allocation to resin ducts is a more important determinant of tree mortality than allocation to radial growth.

  3. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  4. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  5. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  6. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  7. Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in the investment effort, concave, convex, logistic, can increase incrementally, or can be subject to budget constraints. Contest success functions (e.g., ratio and difference forms) determine the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the relative investments of the defender and attackers on each target, and on characteristics of the contest. Targets can be in parallel, in series, interlinked, interdependent or independent. The defender minimises the expected damage plus the defence expenditures. Each attacker maximises the expected damage minus the attack expenditures. The number of free choice variables equals the number of agents times the number of targets, or lower if there are budget constraints. Each agent is interested in how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Alternative optimisation programmes are discussed, together with repeated games, dynamic games and incomplete information. An example is provided for illustration.

  8. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  9. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  10. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack? Certain risk factors make it more likely that ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  11. When You Visit Your Doctor After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... inbox ! When You Visit Your Doctor - After a Heart Attack After a Heart Attack Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Have you ... body? Did you have this pain before your heart attack? What brings it on? How frequently do you ...

  12. After Cancer, Higher Risk of Severe Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... this type of heart attack, called ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). One in 10 had a history of ... that cancer survivors had a higher rate of heart attack, not all of those attacks proved fatal. In ...

  13. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  14. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  15. Evaluation of the Single Keybit Template Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    27 v Page 3.5 Measures of Performance...17 MOP Measures of Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 x...include en- cryption standards, leakage models, correlation, classification theory, previous tem- plate attacks and measures of performance. 2.1

  16. On localization attacks against cloud infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-05-01

    One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.

  17. Identifying and Analyzing Web Server Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Christian; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Komisarczuk, Peter; Muschevici, Radu; Welch, Ian D.

    2008-08-29

    Abstract: Client honeypots can be used to identify malicious web servers that attack web browsers and push malware to client machines. Merely recording network traffic is insufficient to perform comprehensive forensic analyses of such attacks. Custom tools are required to access and analyze network protocol data. Moreover, specialized methods are required to perform a behavioral analysis of an attack, which helps determine exactly what transpired on the attacked system. This paper proposes a record/replay mechanism that enables forensic investigators to extract application data from recorded network streams and allows applications to interact with this data in order to conduct behavioral analyses. Implementations for the HTTP and DNS protocols are presented and their utility in network forensic investigations is demonstrated.

  18. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-14

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  19. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  20. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  1. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  2. Detecting Heap-Spraying Code Injection Attacks in Malicious Web Pages Using Runtime Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younghan; Kim, Hyoungchun; Lee, Donghoon

    The growing use of web services is increasing web browser attacks exponentially. Most attacks use a technique called heap spraying because of its high success rate. Heap spraying executes a malicious code without indicating the exact address of the code by copying it into many heap objects. For this reason, the attack has a high potential to succeed if only the vulnerability is exploited. Thus, attackers have recently begun using this technique because it is easy to use JavaScript to allocate the heap memory area. This paper proposes a novel technique that detects heap spraying attacks by executing a heap object in a real environment, irrespective of the version and patch status of the web browser. This runtime execution is used to detect various forms of heap spraying attacks, such as encoding and polymorphism. Heap objects are executed after being filtered on the basis of patterns of heap spraying attacks in order to reduce the overhead of the runtime execution. Patterns of heap spraying attacks are based on analysis of how an web browser accesses benign web sites. The heap objects are executed forcibly by changing the instruction register into the address of them after being loaded into memory. Thus, we can execute the malicious code without having to consider the version and patch status of the browser. An object is considered to contain a malicious code if the execution reaches a call instruction and then the instruction accesses the API of system libraries, such as kernel32.dll and ws_32.dll. To change registers and monitor execution flow, we used a debugger engine. A prototype, named HERAD(HEap spRAying Detector), is implemented and evaluated. In experiments, HERAD detects various forms of exploit code that an emulation cannot detect, and some heap spraying attacks that NOZZLE cannot detect. Although it has an execution overhead, HERAD produces a low number of false alarms. The processing time of several minutes is negligible because our research focuses on

  3. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  4. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) النوبة القلبية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Attack Srčani udar - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Heart Attack 心脏病发作 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  5. Crow Ressurection: The Future of Airborne Electronic Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    28 John R. Murray, Project Corona Harvest End-of-Tour Report (1971), 5. 29 Werrell, Archie to SAM: A Short...31 Werrell, Archie to SAM: A Short Operational History of Ground-Based Air Defense, 135. 32 Murray, Project Corona ...target envelope of the SAM threat. 39 Murray, Project Corona Harvest End-of-Tour Report

  6. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  7. Inferential Aspects of Adaptive Allocation Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donald A.

    In clinical trials, adaptive allocation means that the therapies assigned to the next patient or patients depend on the results obtained thus far in the trial. Although many adaptive allocation procedures have been proposed for clinical trials, few have actually used adaptive assignment, largely because classical frequentist measures of inference…

  8. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  9. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  10. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  11. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  12. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  13. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  14. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  15. Resource Allocation: Ration, Fashion, or Innovashun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourens, Roy

    1986-01-01

    Resource allocation is a key factor in promoting or retarding innovation. In a restrictive economic climate, it is easy to use resource allocation for decremental rationing and to stifle innovative thinking. The technique can also be used to ensure that the institution's human resources are encouraged to identify opportunities for innovation. (MSE)

  16. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  17. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  18. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  19. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  20. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  1. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Congress appropriates less than $1.5 billion of HOME funds, $335,000 is substituted for $500,000. (4) The... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a... factors. The first and sixth factors are weighted 0.1; the other four factors are weighted 0.2....

  2. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  3. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  4. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  5. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  6. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  7. Projected 1998-99 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Edward

    Designed for use in calculating the distribution of state aid to colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) and in preparing financial and enrollment reports, this document provides a summary of projected cost allocations for the WTCS for 1998-99, derived from data submitted by the colleges on cost allocation schedules. Following a…

  8. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  9. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  10. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  11. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  12. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  13. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  14. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  15. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  16. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries will be established biennially or annually for certain species and... excluding set asides for recreational or tribal Indian fisheries) minus the allocation to the open...

  17. Severe attacks by dogs: characteristics of the dogs, the victims, and the attack settings.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen incidents involving dog bites fitting the description "severe" were identified among 5,711 dog bite incidents reported to health departments in five South Carolina counties (population 750,912 in 1980) between July 1, 1979, and June 30, 1982. A "severe" attack was defined as one in which the dog "repeatedly bit or vigorously shook its victim, and the victim or the person intervening had extreme difficulty terminating the attack." Information from health department records was clarified by interviews with animal control officers, health and police officials, and persons with firsthand knowledge of the events. Investigation disclosed that the dogs involved in the 16 severe attacks were reproductively intact males. The median age of the dogs was 3 years. A majority of the attacks were by American Staffordshire terriers, St. Bernards, and cocker spaniels. Ten of the dogs had been aggressive toward people or other dogs before the incident that was investigated. Ten of the 16 victims of severe attacks were 10 years of age or younger; the median age of all 16 victims was 8 years. Twelve of the victims either were members of the family that owned the attacking dog or had had contact with the dog before the attack. Eleven of the victims were bitten on the head, neck, or shoulders. In 88 percent of the cases, the attacks took place in the owner's yard or home, or in the adjoining yard. In 10 of the 16 incidents, members of the victims' families witnessed the attacks. The characteristics of these attacks, only one of which proved fatal, were similar in many respects to those that have been reported for other dog bite incidents that resulted in fatalities. On the basis of this study, the author estimates that a risk of 2 fatalities per 1,000 reported dog bites may exist nationwide. Suggestions made for the prevention of severe attacks focus on changing the behavior of both potential canine attackers and potential victims.

  18. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research.

  19. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  20. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  1. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  2. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  3. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  4. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  5. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...

  6. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  7. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  8. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals.

  9. Defending against ballistic missile attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Frelk, J.J.; Tait, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a compendium of information on the proliferation of ballistic missiles and other defense issues. This volume describes recent SDI advances in crystal clear language. It explains how the marriage of ultra-compact electronics and rocketry has created the smart bullet or brilliant pebble--a projectile with a tiny but powerful compute brain. The brilliant pebble tracks it target by sensing the heat the target emits, as a snake does when tracking a small mammal. Then, guided by its miniaturized computer brain, the brilliant pebble steers itself into the target and destroys it by force of the impact. In this latest form, the brilliant pebble even has the ability to take sightings on the stars, setting its course by celestial navigation.

  10. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  11. Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... No. 22 Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack What is a heart attack? Aheart attack happens when the blood vessels that ... hurting your heart muscle. Another name for a heart attack is myocardial infarction, or MI. If you have ...

  12. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  13. Performance Evaluation of AODV with Blackhole Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, Karuna

    2010-11-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network set up by a wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. These nodes maintain connectivity in a decentralized manner. Since the nodes communicate with each other, they cooperate by forwarding data packets to other nodes in the network. Thus the nodes find a path to the destination node using routing protocols. However, due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, mobile ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of these attacks is the Black Hole Attack against network integrity absorbing all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper, we simulated the black hole attack in various mobile ad-hoc network scenarios using AODV routing protocol of MANET and have tried to find a effect if number of nodes are increased with increase in malicious nodes.

  14. Dynamically allocating sets of fine-grained processors to running computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David

    1988-01-01

    Researchers explore an approach to using general purpose parallel computers which involves mapping hardware resources onto computations instead of mapping computations onto hardware. Problems such as processor allocation, task scheduling and load balancing, which have traditionally proven to be challenging, change significantly under this approach and may become amenable to new attacks. Researchers describe the implementation of this approach used by the FFP Machine whose computation and communication resources are repeatedly partitioned into disjoint groups that match the needs of available tasks from moment to moment. Several consequences of this system are examined.

  15. Resource allocation framework for heterogeneous SPMD interactive television environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensgen, Debra A.

    2001-07-01

    A framework for autonomously controlling resource allocation at the application level in a distributed, heterogeneous multi-tasking SPMD environment called Operator-controlled, distributed resource allocation is motivated and described. The environment requiring such resource allocation is typified by the interactive television environment. In an interactive television environment, applications that are intended to execute within a virtual machine environment on a viewer's integrated receiver decoder (IRD), are encoded and broadcast with the audio-video television program. Different viewers make different choices to cause the application, which is identically downloaded to each IRD, to execute differently, hence comprising a multi-tasking SPMD environment. In current deployments, the IRDs are furnished by the operator who ensures that each IRD has sufficient resources to execute each and every program that is broadcast concurrently; hence, two viewers making exactly the same choices will execute the downloaded application identically. In the future, IRDs are expected to be available at retail stores, purchased by consumers that may choose more or less functionality so long as the IRD has the minimally acceptable functionality according to standards that are currently being developed by the middleware and consumer electronics vendors in conjunction with broadcasters and MSOs.

  16. Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anil

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

  17. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  18. Attack-tolerant networked control system: an approach for detection the controller stealthy hijacking attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta Yaseen, Amer; Bayart, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new approach will be introduced as a development for the attack-tolerant scheme in the Networked Control System (NCS). The objective is to be able to detect an attack such as the Stuxnet case where the controller is reprogrammed and hijacked. Besides the ability to detect the stealthy controller hijacking attack, the advantage of this approach is that there is no need for a priori mathematical model of the controller. In order to implement the proposed scheme, a specific detector for the controller hijacking attack is designed. The performance of this scheme is evaluated be connected the detector to NCS with basic security elements such as Data Encryption Standard (DES), Message Digest (MD5), and timestamp. The detector is tested along with networked PI controller under stealthy hijacking attack. The test results of the proposed method show that the hijacked controller can be significantly detected and recovered.

  19. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  20. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-06-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  1. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  2. Death due to attack from chow dog.

    PubMed

    Bux, R C; McDowell, J D

    1992-12-01

    It is estimated that between one and four million persons per year are bitten by dogs in the United States. While most injuries associated with the bites are minor, serious sequelae, and even death, may occur. Most victims of fatal dog attacks are children < 1 year of age or elderly women. The most frequent cause of death is hemorrhage and shock from major vessel damage. A case is reported in which an elderly woman was attacked by her pet Chow dog. The victim received multiple superficial abrasions, contusions, and lacerations from the dog attack. A large perforation of the right external pudendal vein and three perforations of the left superficial femoral vein resulted in exsanguination and death. Fractures of the left 2nd through 4th ribs with underlying pulmonary contusion were also found.

  3. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  4. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  5. Distance Bounding Protocols: Authentication Logic Analysis and Collusion Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    than preventing or deterring, collusion attacks. We show that colluding verifiers who are capable of implementing wormhole attacks can defeat even...away. We will illustrate this using (a) standard collusion and also (b) wormhole in Figure 2. A wormhole attack is one in which a fast link is set up...be- tween the victims and an attacker who is outside of the normal range. The wormhole attack may appear to be an overkill for this problem since

  6. Discovering Collaborative Cyber Attack Patterns Using Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haitao; Yang, Shanchieh Jay

    This paper investigates collaborative cyber attacks based on social network analysis. An Attack Social Graph (ASG) is defined to represent cyber attacks on the Internet. Features are extracted from ASGs to analyze collaborative patterns. We use principle component analysis to reduce the feature space, and hierarchical clustering to group attack sources that exhibit similar behavior. Experiments with real world data illustrate that our framework can effectively reduce from large dataset to clusters of attack sources exhibiting critical collaborative patterns.

  7. Strategies for job allocation in a hypercube concurrent computer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guan-Ing.

    1989-01-01

    The author studies the problem of how to effectively use hypercube resources (processor) for the hypercube systems which supports multiple users. When each job arrives at hypercube, the operating system will allocate a dedicate free subcube to it. One way to attack this problem is to try to minimize finishing time of a sequence of jobs. The other way is to try to reduce the fragmentation, like memory fragmentation, occurs after subcubes allocation and release. Several strategies have been studied. These are non-preemptive scheduling, preemptive scheduling, and virtual subcube formation. The problem of scheduling k independent jobs on an n-dimensional hypercube system is to minimize finishing time, where each job J, is associates with a dimension d{sub i} and a processing time t{sub i}, meaning that J{sub i} requires a d{sub i}-dimensional subcube (call J{sub i} a d{sub i}-dimensional job) for t{sub i} units of time. This problem is NP - complete if no preemption is allowed. The author proposes a simple heuristic called LDLPT (Largest Dimension Largest Processing Time) for this problem and analyze its worse -case performance: the ratio of the heuristic finishing time to the optimal does not exceed 2-1/2{sup n-1}. If preemption is allowed, and O(k{sup 2}) algorithm is presented that decides if all k jobs can be finished by a given deadline. Using this algorithm, one may obtain a minimum-finishing-time schedule in polynomial time. The characteristic of the hypercube fragmentation is that even if a sufficient number of processors are available in the hypercube, they do not form a subcube large enough to accommodate an incoming job.

  8. Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.

    PubMed

    Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter

    2005-04-21

    Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space.

  9. A treatment for the acute migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Adam, E I

    1987-01-01

    A compound analgesic/anti-emetic formulation was significantly effective in reducing the severity of acute attacks of migraine, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of 34 patients referred to a migraine clinic. The preparation contained paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg, buclizine hydrochloride 6.25 mg and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate 10 mg. The dosage was two tablets taken as early as possible in the acute attack. No specific factors could be identified which influenced response to treatment. Patients with a long history of migraine (more than 10 years) responded as well as those with a recent onset of the condition.

  10. Identifying inference attacks against healthcare data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jaideep; Shafiq, Basit; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    Health care data repositories play an important role in driving progress in medical research. Finding new pathways to discovery requires having adequate data and relevant analysis. However, it is critical to ensure the privacy and security of the stored data. In this paper, we identify a dangerous inference attack against naive suppression based approaches that are used to protect sensitive information. We base our attack on the querying system provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, though it applies in general to any medical database providing a query capability. We also discuss potential solutions to this problem. PMID:24303279

  11. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  12. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  13. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  14. Allocation of Scarce Resources: Some Problems

    PubMed Central

    Secundy, Marian G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current philosophical perspectives and societal trends in relation to allocation of scarce resources. An analysis and comparative assessment of various positions of current philosophers, theologians, and bioethicists is provided. Currently proposed cost containment measures at the federal level require that black health professionals particularly pay attention to these proposals specifically as related to allocation of resources. The ways in which cost containment and/ or modification of resource allocation will affect health care delivery, specifically for the black community, must be carefully examined. This article may suggest some approaches for individual and group response to the continuing dialogue and to the allocation process itself. The equitable distribution of health care, particularly scarce new technologies, will be one of the greatest problems facing society in the next 20 years. PMID:7265284

  15. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  16. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration... to any coastal state for the purpose of administering that state's management program, if the...

  17. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  18. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed.

  19. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  20. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-07

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison.

  1. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.

  2. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  3. The Spy in the Sandbox: Practical Cache Attacks in JavaScript and their Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-16

    tion environment represented a typical web browsing session, with common applications, such as an email client, calen- dar, and even a music player...channel attacks have to deal with three general categories of noise [18]: electronic , switching, and quantization (or measurement). Electronic noise... music and games to augmented reality. A possible stopgap measure would be to restrict access to this timer to applications that gain the user’s consent

  4. Preventing and Profiling Malicious Insider Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    personality predispositions. The aim of this report is to determine what personality factors , personality predispositions and motivators may...Butavicius, M. (2009). Human Factors and Information Security: Individual, Culture and Security Environment . Manuscript submitted for publication...previous research on malicious insiders with particular emphasis on the social and psychological factors that may have influenced the attacker and their

  5. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.

  6. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  7. Triage of casualties after nuclear attack.

    PubMed

    Pledger, H G

    1986-09-20

    Casualties from a nuclear attack on the United Kingdom would overwhelm the health services, and health workers would be faced with many more people seeking help than could be offered treatment. Discussion is needed to determine which methods of medical and non-medical triage would be acceptable and feasible.

  8. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  11. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1919-07-01

    celluloid eye pieces and, at a somewhat later date, with an expira - tory valve c In a ga~i attack the sack was pulled over the head and tucked...the field. PROTECTION IN WAR IS RELATIVE ONLY. ‘%. Napoleon is credited with saying/In order to make an omelet, it is necessary, to break some eggs

  12. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  13. Categorizing Network Attacks Using Pattern Classification Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    attacks into predefined categories such as Flooding Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Nukers, and Portscans . Such categorization decreases...Detection of Stealthy Portscans . Tech- nical Report, Silicon Defense, 2000. [Stevens94] Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1 . Reading: Addison

  14. Responses to the September 11, 2001 Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special section devoted to chronicling the responses of art therapists after the September 11th attacks. The section contains 10 articles from therapists in New York City, New Jersey, Long Island, Washington, DC, and California. Articles include stories of the reactions of the therapists as well as their work with…

  15. Panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anil; Soni, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The association between neuroleptics and anxiety is unclear: neuroleptics have been used to treat anxiety though may also themselves be anxiogenic. We present the case of a man who developed new onset panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate, a commonly administered depot antipsychotic. We review the literature on the association between antipsychotics and anxiety and present possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

  16. Improvement of Hungarian Joint Terminal Attack Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    Forward Looking Infrared GLTD Ground Laser Target Designator HDF Hungarian Defense Force JFO Joint Fires Observer JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller......FLIR at least. Laser capability is another important material requirement for CAS aircraft. Laser systems contain two important components. A low

  17. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  18. Survival of child after lion attack

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Chavez, Mario; Molina, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injuries to humans caused by attacks from large predators are very rare, especially in the United States, Europe, or Latin America. A few cases were reported on accidents in zoos or animal farms, being very uncommon in children. The purposes of this report include describing the case of a child who sustained an attack by a lion named “Bang-Bang”, which resulted in injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen, as well as the subsequent neurosurgical treatment and providing a review of the literature. Case Description: We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was attacked by a lion during a circus show. The patient underwent an emergent neurosurgical procedure, including parietal craniectomy, cleaning, and extensive surgical debridement of the wounds. Despite open severe head trauma with brain damage as well as thorax and abdomen trauma, the child survived, with minimal neurological sequelae. Conclusions: Human injury resulting from encounters with nondomesticated animals is increasingly rising throughout the world. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild mammals held in captivity. Unusual wild animal attacks and the complex injuries that result may pose a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited settings. In this sense, the best treatment in the mentioned case is the prevention of human injuries by these animals. In addition, to attend to these infrequent cases, the authors emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23869277

  19. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  20. Error and attack vulnerability of temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovski, S.; Scellato, S.; Leontiadis, I.

    2012-06-01

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded our understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of time-varying networks under various failures and intelligent attacks. We adopt a methodology to evaluate the impact of such events on the network connectivity by employing temporal metrics in order to select and remove nodes based on how critical they are considered for the network. We also define the temporal robustness range, a new metric that quantifies the disruption caused by an attack strategy to a given temporal network. Our results show that in real-world networks, where some nodes are more dominant than others, temporal connectivity is significantly more affected by intelligent attacks than by random failures. Moreover, different intelligent attack strategies have a similar effect on the robustness: even small subsets of highly connected nodes act as a bottleneck in the temporal information flow, becoming critical weak points of the entire system. Additionally, the same nodes are the most important across a range of different importance metrics, expressing the correlation between highly connected nodes and those that trigger most of the changes in the optimal information spreading. Contrarily, we show that in randomly generated networks, where all the nodes have similar properties, random errors and intelligent attacks exhibit similar behavior. These conclusions may help us in design of more robust systems and fault-tolerant network architectures.

  1. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available...

  2. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available...

  3. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  4. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  5. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  6. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  7. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  8. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  9. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  10. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  11. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  12. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  13. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  14. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  15. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  16. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  17. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  18. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  19. FLoc: Dependable Link Access for Legitimate Traffic in Flooding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-23

    Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Shrew [14], and covert [15] attacks) and by comparing the FLoc results with those of other approaches (e.g., Pushback [5...Bit Rate (CBR) attack (Fig. 10 6(b)), and a Shrew attack (Fig. 6(c)) [6]. The aim of the high- population TCP attack is to reduce the bandwidth of...and are rate-limited accordingly. In the Shrew attack, each attack source sends 2.0 Mbps traffic only during 0.25RTT seconds within an interval of

  20. FLoc : Dependable Link Access for Legitimate Traffic in Flooding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-23

    Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Shrew [14], and covert [15] attacks) and by comparing the FLoc results with those of other approaches (e.g., Pushback [5...Bit Rate (CBR) attack (Fig. 10 6(b)), and a Shrew attack (Fig. 6(c)) [6]. The aim of the high- population TCP attack is to reduce the bandwidth of...MTDs and are rate-limited accordingly. In the Shrew attack, each attack source sends 2.0 Mbps traffic only during 0.25RTT seconds within an interval of

  1. Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Malathi

    2008-06-01

    In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; children's unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population.

  2. The mechanism of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The mean depth of penetration rates (MDPRs) of eight polycrystalline metallic materials, Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass, phosphor bronze, Ni, Fe, Mo, and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exposed to cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil with a 20 kHz ultrasonic oscillator vibrating at 50 micron amplitude are reported. The titanium alloy followed by molybdenum have large incubation periods and small MDPRs. The incubation periods correlate linearly with the inverse of hardness and the average MDPRs correlate linearly with the inverse of tensile strength of materials. The linear relationships yield better statistical parameters than geometric and exponential relationships. The surface roughness and the ratio of pit depth to pit width (h/a) increase with the duration of cavitation attack. The ratio h/a varies from 0.1 to 0.8 for different materials. Recent investigations (20) using scanning electron microscopy to study deformation and pit formation features are briefly reviewed. Investigations with single crystals indicate that the geometry of pits and erosion are dependent on their orientation.

  3. Vulnerability of impulse attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystems to chosen-plaintext attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2016-03-01

    An attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystem is breached in the paper. The decryption key of the system can be easily accessed by the opponent by using a new type of powerful three-dimensional phase retrieval method. Our result, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work to show this security flaw in the attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystem. Meanwhile, a set of numerical simulations is provided to demonstrate the robustness of the presented method.

  4. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  5. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. Allocation applicants that are not...

  6. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  7. Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    A novel method is presented for the solution of the non- linear control allocation problem. Historically, control allocation has been performed by... linear control allocation problem to be cast as a piecewise linear program. The piecewise linear program is ultimately cast as a mixed-integer linear...piecewise linear control allocation method is shown to be markedly improved when compared to the performance of a more traditional control allocation approach that assumes linearity.

  8. Optimal Attack Strategy in Random Scale-Free Networks Based on Incomplete Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wu, Jun; Li, Yong; Deng, Hong-Zhong; Tan, Yue-Jin

    2011-06-01

    We introduce an attack model based on incomplete information, which means that we can obtain the information from partial nodes. We investigate the optimal attack strategy in random scale-free networks both analytically and numerically. We show that the attack strategy can affect the attack effect remarkably and the OAS can achieve better attack effect than other typical attack strategies. It is found that when the attack intensity is small, the attacker should attack more nodes in the “white area" in which we can obtain attack information; when the attack intensity is greater, the attacker should attack more nodes in the “black area" in which we can not obtain attack information. Moreover, we show that there is an inflection point in the curve of optimal attack proportion. For a given magnitude of attack information, the optimal attack proportion decreases with the attack intensity before the inflection point and then increases after the inflection point.

  9. High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms include upper back or jaw ... be at increased risk of having a "silent" heart attack, a new study hints. Chest pain is one ...

  10. Nonlinear optical cryptosystem resistant to standard and hybrid attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nonlinear optical cryptosystem that is resistant to amplitude-phase retrieval attacks, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. A squaring operation is introduced in the encryption path, which thwarts the iterative attacks. This nonlinear operation tends to amplify the error in the estimation during an iterative attack. The decryption process requires the use of a square-root operation. Thus, in the reverse path also, the attacks encounter the nonlinear square-root operation. These two nonlinearities make the iterative attacks unstable, thereby leading to non-convergence of the mean square error (MSE). Our technique is also resistant to hybrid attacks. The technique is general and is shown to work on a variety of images of the type grayscale and binary. Numerical simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed cryptosystem.

  11. How Will I Recover from My Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defects Care & Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Defects Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart ...

  12. 5 Ways Women Can Cut Their Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163609.html 5 Ways Women Can Cut Their Heart Attack Risk Heart disease is leading cause of death ... than in men. Know the symptoms of a heart attack -- which differ from those in men -- and include ...

  13. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke Also known as aspirin primary prevention. ... if I’m taking aspirin to prevent another heart attack or stroke? The information discussed in Who may ...

  14. Calcium Buildup in Young Arteries May Signal Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Calcium Buildup in Young Arteries May Signal Heart Attack Risk Even small amount in 30s, 40s appears ... their arteries are already at risk of a heart attack, a new study finds. Among those 32 to ...

  15. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. Is this true? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M. ... calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart attack. Other doctors believe that calcium supplements have little ...

  16. Trans Fat Bans May Have Cut Heart Attack, Stroke Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164605.html Trans Fat Bans May Have Cut Heart Attack, Stroke Rate Pending FDA regulations should remove nearly ... Could the contents of your cupcake affect your heart attack risk? It seems so, according to a new ...

  17. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  18. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward.

  19. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  20. Making MANET secured against malicious attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kush, Ashwani; Taneja, Sunil; Kush, Shagun

    2011-12-01

    A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is characterized by mobile nodes, multihop wireless connectivity, infrastructureless environment and dynamic topology. A recent trend in Ad Hoc network routing is the reactive ondemand philosophy where routes are established only when required. Stable Routing is of major concern in Ad hoc routing. Security and Power efficiency are the major concerns in this field. This paper is an effort to use security to achieve more reliable routing. The ad hoc environment is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. The proposed scheme is intended to incorporate security aspect on existing protocols. The study will help in making protocol more robust against attacks to achieve stable routing in routing protocols.

  1. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  2. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  3. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  4. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jack C.; Appel, Heidi M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Arnold, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals) to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness. PMID:23986767

  5. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    PubMed

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  6. Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that

  7. Fighting Through a Logistics Cyber Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    cumulative cost of cyber-attacks was more than the combined global black market cost of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. These alarming figures raised...of operations required to support the war fighter and its heavy reliance on unclassified networks. This research focuses on The Global Air...documents to investigate the policies in place that provide guidance for the strategies and tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) that counter

  8. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  9. Computer Network Attack: An Operational Tool?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Spectrum of Conflict, Cyber Warfare , Preemptive Strike, Effects Based Targeting. 15. Abstract: Computer Network Attack (CNA) is defined as...great deal of attention as the world’s capabilities in cyber - warfare grow. 11 Although addressing the wide ranging legal aspects of CNA is beyond the...the notion of cyber - warfare has not yet developed to the point that international norms have been established.15 These norms will be developed in

  10. America under attack: ACHE affiliates respond.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Ellen G

    2002-01-01

    In the midst of the horror and uncertainty that swept over America on September 11, the healthcare sector helped to keep our nation firmly anchored. Within moments of the terrorist attacks, healthcare organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and the surrounding areas responded swiftly, calmly, and effectively. Many of these hospitals are led by ACHE affiliates. Following are their accounts of that day, lessons they learned, and plans for the future.

  11. Strategic Attack of National Electrical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    subsystem the step-up transformers are the most lu­ crative targets. According to a study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), the step-up...the Army Air Forces, to analyze the dete­ rioration of the German economy through bombing and determine the “date when deterioration will have...German economy , and steel production essential to war production, these industries would only be slightly affected by an attack on power facilities

  12. Impact of hormonal crosstalk on plant resistance and fitness under multi-attacker conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Irene A.; Moritz, Liselotte; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The hormone salicylic acid (SA) generally induces plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its oxylipin derivatives together with ethylene (ET) are generally important hormonal regulators of induced plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens, whereas JAs together with abscisic acid (ABA) are implicated in induced plant defenses against herbivorous insects. Hormonal crosstalk between the different plant defense pathways has often been hypothesized to be a cost-saving strategy that has evolved as a means of the plant to reduce allocation costs by repression of unnecessary defenses, thereby minimizing trade-offs between plant defense and growth. However, proof for this hypothesis has not been demonstrated yet. In this study the impact of hormonal crosstalk on disease resistance and fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana when under multi-species attack was investigated. Induction of SA- or JA/ABA-dependent defense responses by the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae, respectively, was shown to reduce the level of induced JA/ET-dependent defense against subsequent infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. However, despite the enhanced susceptibility to this second attacker, no additional long-term negative effects were observed on plant fitness when plants had been challenged by multiple attackers. Similarly, when plants were grown in dense competition stands to enlarge fitness effects of induced defenses, treatment with a combination of SA and MeJA did not cause additional negative effects on plant fitness in comparison to the single MeJA treatment. Together, these data support the notion that hormonal crosstalk in plants during multi-attacker interactions allows plants to prioritize their defenses, while limiting the fitness costs associated with induction of defenses. PMID:26347758

  13. Allocation Rules for Sequential Clinical Trials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AD-AIN 354 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS F/V 12/1 ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS .(U) JUL 82 D SIEGMUND N00V11577-C-V306...UNCLASSIFIED TR 18 NL ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS BY D. SIEGMUND TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 18 JULY 1982 PREPARED UNDER CONTRACT N00014-77-C...at all. Rere me. discuss (I) and (11) or mes"s 9f a Monte Carlo experiment. The advantages of randomization in clinical trials has been discussed at

  14. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  15. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (R(n)), we propose a link-robustness index (R(l)). We show that solely enhancing R(n) cannot guarantee the improvement of R(l). Moreover, the structure of an R(l)-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the R(n) and R(l) into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  16. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1009440108 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (Rn), we propose a link-robustness index (Rl). We show that solely enhancing Rn cannot guarantee the improvement of Rl. Moreover, the structure of an Rl-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the Rn and Rl into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  17. Security of quantum cryptography against individual attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Boris A.; Rao, Ramesh; Sun, Pang-Chen; Fainman, Y.

    1998-04-01

    An attempt to eavesdrop on a quantum cryptographic channel reveals itself through errors it inevitably introduces into the transmission. We investigate the relationship between the induced error rate and the maximum amount of information the eavesdropper can extract, in both the two-state B92 [B92 refers to the work of C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992)] and the four-state BB84 [BB84 refers to the work of C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 175-179] quantum cryptographic protocols. In each case, the optimal eavesdropping method that on average yields the most information for a given error rate is explicitly constructed. Analysis is limited to eavesdropping strategies where each bit of the quantum transmission is attacked individually and independently from other bits. Subject to this restriction, however, we believe that all attacks not forbidden by physical laws are covered. Unlike previous work, the eavesdropper's advantage is measured in terms of Renyi (rather than Shannon) information, and with respect only to bits received error-free by Bob (rather than all bits). This alters both the maximum extractable information and the optimal eavesdropping attack. The result can be used directly at the privacy amplification stage of the protocol to accomplish secure communication over a noisy channel.

  18. Major dog attack injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, N E; Chochinov, H; Fraser, V

    1983-10-01

    Children are frequently admitted to a hospital with injuries sustained as a result of being attacked by a dog. Over a 5-year period (1977 to 1981), 57 such patients have been treated at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Half of the dog attack victims were 5 years or younger with injuries occurring more often in boys (55%). The majority of patients (95%) sustained puncture wounds and lacerations to the face (77%) and extremities (23%). In three of the cases, the dog attack victims presented with peritonitis secondary to bowel perforation and were treated successfully. A fourth child died as a result of his injuries prior to reaching the hospital. In the past, much attention has been focused on soft tissue injuries and their cosmetic repair. It is also important to recognize that the small child is particularly vulnerable to dog maulings from which the injuries sustained may be life threatening or lethal. Prevention seems to be the only rational approach to solving this problem.

  19. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  20. Early Warning and Prediction of Interest Attacks and Exploits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Brian P. Zeitz... EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iv AFIT/GIA/ENG/05-06 EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS

  1. Effects of generalist herbivory on resistance and resource allocation by the invasive plant, Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Successful invasions by exotic plants are often attributed to a loss of co-evolved specialists and a re-allocation of resources from defense to growth and reproduction. However, invasive plants are rarely completely released from insect herbivory because they are frequently attacked by generalists in their introduced ranges. The novel generalist community may also affect the invasive plant's defensive strategies and resource allocation. Here, we tested this hypothesis using American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.), a species that has become invasive in China, which is native to North America. We examined resistance, tolerance, growth and reproduction of plant populations from both China and the USA when plants were exposed to natural generalist herbivores in China. We found that leaf damage was greater for invasive populations than for native populations, indicating that plants from invasive ranges had lower resistance to herbivory than those from native ranges. A regression of the percentage of leaf damage against mass showed that there was no significant difference in tolerance between invasive and native populations, even though the shoot, root, fruit and total mass were larger for invasive populations than for native populations. These results suggest that generalist herbivores are important drivers mediating the defensive strategies and resource allocation of the invasive American pokeweed.

  2. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  3. Propagating Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs: Exploration of Two-Phase Monte Carlo Sampling and Probability Bounds Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-09-16

    Securing cyber-systems on a continual basis against a multitude of adverse events is a challenging undertaking. Game-theoretic approaches, that model actions of strategic decision-makers, are increasingly being applied to address cybersecurity resource allocation challenges. Such game-based models account for multiple player actions and represent cyber attacker payoffs mostly as point utility estimates. Since a cyber-attacker’s payoff generation mechanism is largely unknown, appropriate representation and propagation of uncertainty is a critical task. In this paper we expand on prior work and focus on operationalizing the probabilistic uncertainty quantification framework, for a notional cyber system, through: 1) representation of uncertain attacker and system-related modeling variables as probability distributions and mathematical intervals, and 2) exploration of uncertainty propagation techniques including two-phase Monte Carlo sampling and probability bounds analysis.

  4. Attack or retreat: contrasted defensive tactics used by Cyprian honeybee colonies under attack from hornets.

    PubMed

    Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Rortais, Agnès; Sueur, Jérôme; Arnold, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the tactics used by Cyprian honeybees (Apis mellifera cypria) to defend their colonies against hornet (Vespa orientalis orientalis) attacks. We use simulated hornet attacks and a combination of video recordings and image analysis to reveal, for the first time, contrasted intra-subspecies defensive tactics that operate at the colony level during predation. In some colonies, when attacked, the numbers of guards at the hive entrance increases rapidly to attack, engulf, and kill invading hornets. In other colonies, guards avoid conflicts with hornets by retreating gradually and by forming a defensive line of honeybees at the hive entrance. Retreater colonies have propolis walls at the hive entrances with small apertures that are too narrow to allow the hornet to access the hive and that therefore reinforces entrance protection. On the contrary, attacker colonies have propolis walls with large openings through which the hornet can pass; these bees block the hornet's access by intensively guarding the hive entrance. We experimentally destroy propolis walls to test whether colonies consistently rebuild walls with the same intrinsic characteristics and we also monitor the survival rate of each anti-predator tactic after massive natural predation by hornets.

  5. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As...; (iii) Representative advocacy groups for each of these family types: disabled families, elderly families, and families with children, where such advocacy groups exist; (iv) Representatives of...

  6. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... time elderly families and non-elderly persons with disabilities currently have to wait for a dwelling... persons with disabilities; (iii) If a project is being designated for elderly families, describe the steps... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1)...

  7. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  8. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  9. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency syndrome reported to and confirmed by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its...

  10. Resource Allocation in High Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This study investigated the resource allocation process--how school administrators obtain the proper resources to operate their schools, distribute the available resources among the various school programs appropriately, and manage resources for effective educational results--in four high schools during the 1984-85 school year. Information was…

  11. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  12. The Allocation of Resources in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a linear programming model which generates explicit quantitative information about (1) the optimal allocation of resources inside the public university (2) the "shadow price" attached to each input used in the academic process; and (3) the optimal mixture of academic outputs produced by the university. (KM)

  13. Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

  14. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....

  15. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....

  16. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  17. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency syndrome reported to and confirmed by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its...

  18. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired... the formula is distributed to qualifying cities and eligible States, as described in § 574.100, based...-five percent is allocated among qualifying cities, but not States, where the per capita incidence...

  19. 50 CFR 660.322 - Sablefish allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OY for the area north of 36° N. lat. This allocation represents the total amount available to the... described in § 660.372(c). (e) Ratios between tiers for sablefish-endorsed limited entry permits. The... of the three tiers associated with the sablefish endorsement such that the ratio of limits...

  20. How to Allocate Personnel Costs of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Carol

    In July 1974, at the American Library Association Convention, a symposium on reference measurement was held. The basic premise was that work sampling and random time sampling with self-observation were the best methods of allocating personnel costs of reference services at the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. First, reasons…

  1. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  2. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  3. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  4. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  5. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries §...

  6. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  7. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gear, open access, and recreational fisheries) will be established biennially or annually using the..., separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries may be established using the... trawl and nontrawl (limited entry fixed gear, open access, and recreational) fisheries. IFQ species...

  8. Efficient certificate-based signcryption secure against public key replacement attacks and insider attacks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature.

  9. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  10. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  11. Understanding How They Attack Your Weaknesses: CAPEC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    exploits ■ Capture the attacker’s perspective to aid software developers, acquirers and operators in improving the assurance profile of their software...development and secure operations The HS SEDI FFRDC is managed and operated by The MITRE Corporation for DHS. 5 Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and...patterns into an integrated enumeration that can be i l d ff i l l d b h icons stent y an e ect ve y everage y t e commun ty – Gives you an attacker’s

  12. Decision Support for Attack Submarine Commanders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    AD-AO95 892 DECISION SCIENCE CONSORTIUM INC FALLS CHURCH VA F./e 12/2 DECISION SUPPORT FOR ATTACK SUBMARINE COMMANDERS. (U) OCT 80 M S COHEN, R V...BROWN N00014-80-C-0046 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8S-11 ML DECISIN IEN$CE CUIVSURTiUM, MrC. DECISION SUPPORT FOR A TTA CK SUBMARINE COMMANDERS Marvin S . Cohen and...on reverse) DDI ,o..ŕ 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OISOLCTZ Unclassified S /N 0102-014-6601 1 SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF TNIS PAGE (10bon DW& tateo* 01

  13. Profiler-2000: Attacking the Insider Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    s/ JOSEPH CAMERA, Chief Information & Intelligence Exploitation Division Information Directorate REPORT...Approaches to undermining anomaly detectors………………………………9 3.3 Detection coverage of an anomaly detector………………………………….10 3.4 Deploying Exploits and Sensors...13 3.5 Where and how an attack manifests in the data……………………………...13 3.6 Manipulating the manifestation; modifying exploits

  14. Cyber Attack! Crime or Act of War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-13

    all of the other domains. A plans officer pointed out that if we used this scheme of defense in land warfare, an ― invasion of New Jersey would have...Tonkin (1965) or the 9/11 attacks (2001). Most do not require it as the facts on the ground make the action obvious such as Iraq‘s invasion of Kuwait...1990), Japan‘s bombing of Pearl Harbor (1941), and the North Korean invasion of South Korea (1950). Regardless if there is a formal investigation or

  15. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  16. 76 FR 29083 - Agriculture Priorities and Allocations System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... restoration (civilian): Programs to protect or restore the agriculture and food system from terrorist attacks...: Programs to protect or restore the agriculture and food system from terrorist attacks, major disasters,...

  17. 29 CFR 4044.10 - Manner of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.10... categories. In no event shall a benefit assigned to a priority category be valued at less than zero....

  18. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology... Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  19. Gemcitabine-induced gouty arthritis attacks.

    PubMed

    Bottiglieri, Sal; Tierson, Neil; Patel, Raina; Mo, Jae-Hyun; Mehdi, Syed

    2013-09-01

    In this case report, we review the experience of a patient who presented with early stage pancreatic cancer (Stage IIb) who underwent a Whipple procedure and adjuvant chemoradiation. The patient's past medical history included early stage colon cancer in remission, post-traumatic-stress-disorder, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, gout, and pre-diabetes. Chemotherapy initially consisted of weekly gemcitabine. The patient developed acute gouty attacks after his second dose of gemcitabine, which brought him to the emergency room for emergent treatment on several occasions. Gemcitabine was held and treatment began with fluorouracil and concurrent radiation. After completion of his chemoradiation with fluorouracil, he was again treated with weekly gemcitabine alone. As soon as the patient started gemcitabine chemotherapy the patient developed gouty arthritis again, requiring discontinuation of chemotherapy. The patient received no additional treatment until his recent recurrence 8 months later where gemcitabine chemotherapy was again introduced with prophylactic medications consisting of allopurinol 100 mg by mouth daily and colchicine 0.6 mg by mouth daily throughout gemcitabine chemotherapy, and no signs of gouty arthritis occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing gout attacks associated with gemcitabine therapy. There is limited data available describing the mechanism that gouty arthritis may be precipitated from gemcitabine chemotherapy. Further monitoring and management may be required in patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy with underlying gout.

  20. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K; Moldrup, Morten; Daugbjerg, Niels; Juel Hansen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a density-dependent manner and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15 min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through the transfer and action of a highly potent but uncharacterised neurotoxin. The copepods grazed and reproduced on a diet of K. armiger at densities below 1000, cells ml−1, but above 3500 cells ml−1 the mixotrophic dinoflagellates immobilised, fed on and killed the copepods. Switching the trophic role of the microalgae from prey to predator of copepods couples population growth to reduced grazing pressure, promoting the persistence of blooms at high densities. K. armiger also fed on three other metazoan organisms offered, suggesting that active predation by mixotrophic dinoflagellates may be directly involved in causing mortalities at several trophic levels in the marine food web. PMID:22513533

  1. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans.

    PubMed

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K; Moldrup, Morten; Daugbjerg, Niels; Juel Hansen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a density-dependent manner and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15 min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through the transfer and action of a highly potent but uncharacterised neurotoxin. The copepods grazed and reproduced on a diet of K. armiger at densities below 1000, cells ml(-1), but above 3500 cells ml(-1) the mixotrophic dinoflagellates immobilised, fed on and killed the copepods. Switching the trophic role of the microalgae from prey to predator of copepods couples population growth to reduced grazing pressure, promoting the persistence of blooms at high densities. K. armiger also fed on three other metazoan organisms offered, suggesting that active predation by mixotrophic dinoflagellates may be directly involved in causing mortalities at several trophic levels in the marine food web.

  2. Error and attack tolerance of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Réka; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László

    2000-07-01

    Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network. Complex communication networks display a surprising degree of robustness: although key components regularly malfunction, local failures rarely lead to the loss of the global information-carrying ability of the network. The stability of these and other complex systems is often attributed to the redundant wiring of the functional web defined by the systems' components. Here we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems: it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web, the Internet, social networks and cells. We find that such networks display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected even by unrealistically high failure rates. However, error tolerance comes at a high price in that these networks are extremely vulnerable to attacks (that is, to the selection and removal of a few nodes that play a vital role in maintaining the network's connectivity). Such error tolerance and attack vulnerability are generic properties of communication networks.

  3. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node’s software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work. PMID:27869710

  4. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-11-18

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node's software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work.

  5. Minimizing Expected Maximum Risk from Cyber-Attacks with Probabilistic Attack Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer H.; Nandi, Apurba; Medal, Hugh; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-07-16

    The goal of our work is to enhance network security by generating partial cut-sets, which are a subset of edges that remove paths from initially vulnerable nodes (initial security conditions) to goal nodes (critical assets), on an attack graph given costs for cutting an edge and a limited overall budget.

  6. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  7. 77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-126770-06] RIN 1545-BG07 Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods AGENCY... contains proposed regulations on allocating costs to certain property produced by the taxpayer or acquired... of property that are required to capitalize certain costs to the property and that allocate...

  8. Reward Allocation and Academic versus Social Orientation toward School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1978-01-01

    Correlates 138 elementary school children's views about the purposes of school to their styles of reward allocation: academically motivated students allocated rewards equally to two hypothetical performers who had unequally helped a teacher perform a manual chore, while socially motivated children allocated rewards in an equity (performance-based)…

  9. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  10. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  11. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  12. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  13. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  14. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities,...

  15. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  16. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities,...

  17. 14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and termination of allocations. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the... allocations no earlier than two years from the effective date of this rule. (2) Allocations that are held...

  18. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  19. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same manner. Each work order should identify the methods of allocation to associate companies... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs...

  20. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  1. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  2. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  3. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  4. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation....

  5. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation....

  6. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  7. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  8. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  9. Recurrent Grants for 2000-01: Final Allocations. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This document shows the final allocations of recurrent funding to institutions of higher education in England for the academic year 2000-2001. This report updates allocations because of additional student numbers, increased allocations for specific programs, student transfers, and an overall increase in funding. The total grants awarded for…

  10. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  11. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  12. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  13. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  14. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  15. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  16. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  19. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  6. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall...

  9. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...

  10. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  11. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  12. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning Daniel Golovin Caltech Pasadena, CA, USA Andreas Krause ETH Zürich Zurich, Switzerland Beth...to adaptive policies ( Golovin and Krause 2010). We omit details due to space limita- tions. 1335 using the independent cascade model of Goldenberg... Golovin and Krause [2010]. However, their approach is not known to provide competitiveness guarantees such as those of Theo- rem 2, where the set of

  13. Cost Allocation and Overpricing of Spare Parts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    5 defense contractors are presently treating spare parts as cost objectives and using a type of spare parts accounting system as described in the...survey instrument. The other 7 contractor respondents who do not treat spare parts as cost objectives were not favor- able to this accounting treatment...company accounting systems or lised to resolve specific contract or formula pricing cost allocation issues, contribute signi- ficantly to overpricing

  14. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  15. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  16. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  17. Resource allocation equity in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Georgina Mayela Núñez; Martínez, Ana María Salinas; Ríos, Enrique Villarreal; Elizondo, Ma Eugenia Garza

    2004-12-01

    Currently, the population health needs are unlimited, but allocation of financial resources is not in accordance with these needs, probably due to the lack of specific information. In this work, we propose a new approach to allocate resources with equity as a tool for decision-making in planning. The grade of equity in resource allocation in decentralized management medical areas (DMMAs (AMGD, for its initials in Spanish)) was determined; these are limited geographical areas of a social security institution in three states of the northeastern region of Mexico. The areas with more health needs in the global index were DMMA no. 12 in Tamaulipas with a Z-score (ZS) of -5; area no. 3 in Coahuila with -4; and area no. 9 in Nuevo Leon, no. 16 and no. 17 in Tamaulipas with -2. Equity was measured according to the degree of concordance between the health needs index and the per capita health expenditure of each area: (r = 0.19, P > 0.05). Low concordance was found between these variables in the studied medical areas.

  18. Irrational time allocation in decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. PMID:26763695

  19. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Summary Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user’s computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users. PMID:27437066

  20. A Socio-Technical Approach to Preventing, Mitigating, and Recovering from Ransomware Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been several high-profile ransomware attacks involving hospitals around the world. Ransomware is intended to damage or disable a user's computer unless the user makes a payment. Once the attack has been launched, users have three options: 1) try to restore their data from backup; 2) pay the ransom; or 3) lose their data. In this manuscript, we discuss a socio-technical approach to address ransomware and outline four overarching steps that organizations can undertake to secure an electronic health record (EHR) system and the underlying computing infrastructure. First, health IT professionals need to ensure adequate system protection by correctly installing and configuring computers and networks that connect them. Next, the health care organizations need to ensure more reliable system defense by implementing user-focused strategies, including simulation and training on correct and complete use of computers and network applications. Concomitantly, the organization needs to monitor computer and application use continuously in an effort to detect suspicious activities and identify and address security problems before they cause harm. Finally, organizations need to respond adequately to and recover quickly from ransomware attacks and take actions to prevent them in future. We also elaborate on recommendations from other authoritative sources, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Similar to approaches to address other complex socio-technical health IT challenges, the responsibility of preventing, mitigating, and recovering from these attacks is shared between health IT professionals and end-users.

  1. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813

  2. Extended Password Recovery Attacks against APOP, SIP, and Digest Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we propose password recovery attacks against challenge-response authentication protocols. Our attacks use a message difference for a MD5 collision attack proposed in IEICE 2008. First, we show how to efficiently find a message pair that collides with the above message difference. Second, we show that a password used in authenticated post office protocol (APOP) can be recovered practically. We also show that the password recovery attack can be applied to a session initiation protocol (SIP) and digest authentication. Our attack can recover up to the first 31 password characters in a short time and up to the first 60 characters faster than the naive search method. We have implemented our attack and confirmed that 31 characters can be successfully recovered.

  3. Identification of cooling tower wood attack and methods of control

    SciTech Connect

    Song, P.; Trulear, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Biological and chemical attack can greatly accelerate the deterioration of cooling tower wood. The damage, once inflicted, is irreversible and often results in premature and costly wood replacement. Biological attack is more serious than chemical, and is difficult to detect. Control of both types is essential for good tower maintenance A review of wood structures, types of attack and methods of control are presented. Effects of alkaline cooling water operation on wood deterioration are also discussed.

  4. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  5. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  6. On Cybersecurity, Crowdsourcing, and Social Cyber-Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    reaching hordes of interested mischief makers who are comfortably anonymous and hard to track. Social cyber -attack as a means to bully and trick...ON CYBERSECURITY, CROWDSOURCING, AND SOCIAL CYBER -ATTACK By Rebecca Goolsby, Ph.D., Office of Naval Research Civil unrest and social media have...must take into account the growing potential for cyber -attack using social media, where hoax messages are incorporated into a stream of otherwise

  7. ATTACK WARNING: Better Management Required to Resolve NORAD Integration Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    WAHNGO D.C.9’𔄃- 2030-710 Accession Number: 1923 Publication Date: Jul 07, 1989 Title: Attack Warning : Better Management Required to Resolve NORAD...Office, GAO, Washington, DC 20548 Report Number: GAO/IMTEC-89- 26 Descriptors, Keywords: Surveillance Warning Communication Attack Methodology Evaluation...Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment System’s data processing and communications capabilities. Our review focused on the Air Force’s

  8. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    DOEpatents

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  9. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Christensen, Anne Francke; Liu, Marie Louise; Janjooa, Benjamin Naveed; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide provokes migraine attacks in 65% of patients with migraine without aura. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives (family load) or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms contributes to migraine susceptibility to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine patients is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and, therefore, migraine without aura patients with high family load would report more migraine attacks after calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion than patients with low family load. Methods We allocated 40 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 1.5 µg/min calcitonin gene-related peptide and recorded migraine attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial aggregation was obtained by telephone interview of first-degree relatives using a validated semi-structured questionnaire. Results Calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion induced a migraine-like attack in 75% (12 out of 16) of patients with high family load compared to 52% (12 out of 23) with low family load ( P = 0.150). In addition, we found that the migraine response after calcitonin gene-related peptide was not associated with specific or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms of migraine without aura. Conclusion We found no statistical association between familial aggregation of migraine and hypersensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine without aura patients. We also demonstrated that the currently known single nucleotide polymorphisms conferring risk of migraine without aura have no additive effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine-like attacks.

  10. Capturing the uncertainty in adversary attack simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Brooks, Traci N.; Berry, Robert Bruce

    2008-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive uncertainty technique to evaluate uncertainty, resulting in a more realistic evaluation of PI, thereby requiring fewer resources to address scenarios and allowing resources to be used across more scenarios. For a given set of dversary resources, two types of uncertainty are associated with PI for a scenario: (1) aleatory (random) uncertainty for detection probabilities and time delays and (2) epistemic (state of knowledge) uncertainty for the adversary resources applied during an attack. Adversary esources consist of attributes (such as equipment and training) and knowledge about the security system; to date, most evaluations have assumed an adversary with very high resources, adding to the conservatism in the evaluation of PI. The aleatory uncertainty in PI is ddressed by assigning probability distributions to detection probabilities and time delays. A numerical sampling technique is used to evaluate PI, addressing the repeated variable dependence in the equation for PI.

  11. Orthostatic panic attacks among Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Minh; Nguyen, Men; Nguyen, Lim; Hsia, Curtis; Pollack, Mark H

    2007-12-01

    Viewed historically and cross-culturally, orthostatic-induced dizziness, i.e., dizziness caused by standing up from a sitting or a lying position, forms a key aspect of many syndromes: irritable heart (American Civil War), effort syndrome (World War I and World War II), chronic fatigue syndrome (contemporary USA), Gulf War syndrome (contemporary USA), and orthostatic dysregulation (contemporary Japan). Among Vietnamese refugees attending a psychiatric clinic, this study documents a high rate of orthostatic panic (OP), as well as certain processes seemingly generating these panic attacks, viz., flashbacks and culturally specific catastrophic cognitions. Case examples are used to demonstrate OP's phenomenology and relevance to clinical care. To illustrate the mechanisms producing OP, we adduce the multiplex model of panic generation. Culturally appropriate care of Vietnamese refugees should include assessment and treatment of OP.

  12. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  13. Inorganic nanoparticles engineered to attack bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristen P; Wang, Lei; Benicewicz, Brian C; Decho, Alan W

    2015-11-07

    Antibiotics were once the golden bullet to constrain infectious bacteria. However, the rapid and continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) among infectious microbial pathogens has questioned the future utility of antibiotics. This dilemma has recently fueled the marriage of the disparate fields of nanochemistry and antibiotics. Nanoparticles and other types of nanomaterials have been extensively developed for drug delivery to eukaryotic cells. However, bacteria have very different cellular architectures than eukaryotic cells. This review addresses the chemistry of nanoparticle-based antibiotic carriers, and how their technical capabilities are now being re-engineered to attack, kill, but also non-lethally manipulate the physiologies of bacteria. This review also discusses the surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles with small ligand molecules, polymers, and charged moieties to achieve drug loading and controllable release.

  14. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola

    2008-06-01

    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  15. Emergency response to an anthrax attack

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Lawrence M.; Craft, David L.; Kaplan, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to compare various emergency responses in the event of an airborne anthrax attack. The system consists of an atmospheric dispersion model, an age-dependent dose–response model, a disease progression model, and a set of spatially distributed two-stage queueing systems consisting of antibiotic distribution and hospital care. Our results underscore the need for the extremely aggressive and timely use of oral antibiotics by all asymptomatics in the exposure region, distributed either preattack or by nonprofessionals postattack, and the creation of surge capacity for supportive hospital care via expanded training of nonemergency care workers at the local level and the use of federal and military resources and nationwide medical volunteers. The use of prioritization (based on disease stage and/or age) at both queues, and the development and deployment of modestly rapid and sensitive biosensors, while helpful, produce only second-order improvements. PMID:12651951

  16. On the offensive against brain attack

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Healthcare Technologies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has undertaken a stroke initiative whose purpose is to provide the medical community with the tools that will allow doctors to diagnose and treat stroke as aggressively as they do heart attack. A multidisciplinary team of stroke-initiative researchers is collaborating with academic medical centers and private companies to move these tools from the research and development stage through clinical trials, regulatory approval, and manufacture so that they can benefit many thousands of people who have strokes each year. Tools the team has developed fall into four categories: microsensors for brain and clot characterization, a catheter-based system using laser energy to break up clots in the blood vessels of the brain, laser-tissue interaction models in support of laser {open_quotes}clot busting,{close_quotes} and microtools for treating the aneurysms that cause hemorrhagic stroke.

  17. Windows NT Attacks for the Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Neptune and Smurf. These attacks are fully documented in [10]. In addition, two denial-of-service attacks, CrashIIS and DoSNuke, were developed to...in the Netscape browser. NetBus and NetCat use trojan programs to establish back doors on the victim system. PPMacro inserts malicious macro code...detecting the attack. 51 7.2 Netbus R-s-U Description The attacker uses a trojan program to install and run the Netbus server, version 1.7, on

  18. Feasible attack on detector-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kejin; Liu, Hongwei; Ma, Haiqiang; Yang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Yongmei; Xiao, Jinghua; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-03-27

    Recently, to bridge the gap between security of Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) and a high key rate, a novel protocol, the so-called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD), has been independently proposed by several groups and has attracted great interest. A higher key rate is obtained, since a single photon bell state measurement (BSM) setup is applied to DDI-QKD. Subsequently, Qi has proposed two attacks for this protocol. However, the first attack, in which Bob's BSM setup is assumed to be completely a "black box", is easily prevented by using some additional monitoring devices or by specifically characterizing the BSM. The second attack, which combines the blinding attack and the detector wavelength-dependent efficiency, is not explicitly discussed, and its feasibility is not experimentally confirmed. Here, we show that the second attack is not technically viable because of an intrinsically wavelength-dependent property of a realistic beam splitter, which is an essential component in DDI-QKD. Moreover, we propose a feasible attack that combines a well-known attack-detector blinding attack with intrinsic imperfections of single-photon detectors. The experimental measurement and proof-of-principle test results confirm that our attack can allow Eve to get a copy of quantum keys without being detected and that it is feasible with current technology.

  19. Panic attacks during sleep: a hyperventilation-probability model.

    PubMed

    Ley, R

    1988-09-01

    Panic attacks during sleep are analysed in terms of a hyperventilation theory of panic disorder. The theory assumes that panic attacks during sleep are a manifestation of severe chronic hyperventilation, a dysfunctional state in which renal compensation has led to a relatively steady state of diminished bicarbonate. Reductions in respiration during deep non-REM sleep lead to respiratory acidosis which triggers hyperventilatory hypocapnea and subsequent panic. A probability model designed to predict when during sleep panic attacks are likely to occur is supported by relevant data from studies of sleep and panic attacks. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  20. Finite Energy and Bounded Attacks on Control System Sensor Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) has been in securing the networks using information security techniques and protection and reliability concerns at the control system level against random hardware and software failures. However, besides these failures the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis and detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signal attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop system under optimal signal attacks are provided. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to a power network with distributed LQ controllers.

  1. Techniques for Judging Intent Behind Network Based Cyber Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J M

    2004-01-28

    This project developed a prototype system that can rapidly differentiate between undirected cyber attacks, and those that have a more specific and concerning intent behind them. The system responds to important cyber attacks in a tactically significant way as the attack is proceeding. It is also creates a prioritized list for the human analysts allowing them to focus on the threats mostly likely to be of interest. In the recent years the volume of attacks over the internet has increased exponentially, as they have become more and more automated. The result of this is that real threats are harder and harder to distinguish from the general threat. It is possible with our current systems to identify network packets that originated from thousands of IP addresses as probing a site like LLNL in a single day. Human analysis of these threats does not result in information that can be used for tactical response because most of the attacks are short and over before the human starts the analysis. Only a very small percentage of attacks can even be evaluated manually due to the volume. This project developed methods, and prototyped tools, that can identify attacks, slow the attack down and aid in the process of prioritizing detections. The project demonstrated that such methods exist, and that practical implementations exist for modern computers and networks. We call the tools created D.I.A.G. or Determining Internet Attackers Goals.

  2. Crack-cocaine users as victims of physical attack.

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, H. A.; Falck, R. S.; Wang, J.; Carlson, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlates of physical attack among people who use crack cocaine in Dayton, Ohio. Using a retrospective and prospective natural history design, data from baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews were used to calculate the prevalence of physical attack and the annual rate of physical attack suffered by 440 not-in-treatment crack-cocaine users. Logistic regression was used to determine the correlates of physical attack. The lifetime prevalence of physical attack was 63.0%; the annual rate was 36.8%. At baseline, daily crack users were more likely to report a previous attack since they began using crack (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.77). Longer duration of crack use was also associated with experiencing an attack (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14). Between baseline and 12-month follow-up, the odds of men being attacked were significantly less than those for women (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99). Physical attack is widespread among crack-cocaine users, and does not vary by ethnicity. Injuries often result in the need for medical care. Over the short term, women are at increased risk. Accessible and effective drug abuse treatment is needed to diminish the harm this population suffers. PMID:10800295

  3. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  4. A global trait-based approach to estimate leaf nitrogen functional allocation from observations.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Riley, William J; Koven, Charles D; Kattge, Jens; Rogers, Alistair; Reich, Peter B; Wright, Ian J

    2017-03-28

    Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for plant growth and a major constituent of proteins that regulate photosynthetic and respiratory processes. However, a comprehensive global analysis of nitrogen allocation in leaves for major processes with respect to different plant functional types is currently lacking. This study integrated observations from global databases with photosynthesis and respiration models to determine plant-functional-type-specific allocation patterns of leaf nitrogen for photosynthesis (Rubisco, electron transport, light absorption) and respiration (growth and maintenance), and by difference from observed total leaf nitrogen, an unexplained "residual" nitrogen pool. Based on our analysis, crops partition the largest fraction of nitrogen to photosynthesis (57%) and respiration (5%) followed by herbaceous plants (44% and 4%). Tropical broadleaf evergreen trees partition the least to photosynthesis (25%) and respiration (2%) followed by needle-leaved evergreen trees (28% and 3%). In trees (especially needle-leaved evergreen and tropical broadleaf evergreen trees) a large fraction (70% and 73% respectively) of nitrogen was not explained by photosynthetic or respiratory functions. Compared to crops and herbaceous plants, this large residual pool is hypothesized to emerge from larger investments in cell wall proteins, lipids, amino acids, nucleic acid, CO2 fixation proteins (other than Rubisco), secondary compounds, and other proteins. Our estimates are different from previous studies due to differences in methodology and assumptions used in deriving nitrogen allocation estimates. Unlike previous studies, we integrate and infer nitrogen allocation estimates across multiple plant functional types, and report substantial differences in nitrogen allocation across different plant functional types. The resulting pattern of nitrogen allocation provides insights on mechanisms that operate at a cellular scale within leaves, and can be integrated

  5. A global trait-based approach to estimate leaf nitrogen functional allocation from observations

    DOE PAGES

    Ghimire, Bardan; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; ...

    2017-03-28

    Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for plant growth and a major constituent of proteins that regulate photosynthetic and respiratory processes. However, a comprehensive global analysis of nitrogen allocation in leaves for major processes with respect to different plant functional types is currently lacking. This study integrated observations from global databases with photosynthesis and respiration models to determine plant-functional-type-specific allocation patterns of leaf nitrogen for photosynthesis (Rubisco, electron transport, light absorption) and respiration (growth and maintenance), and by difference from observed total leaf nitrogen, an unexplained “residual” nitrogen pool. Based on our analysis, crops partition the largest fractionmore » of nitrogen to photosynthesis (57%) and respiration (5%) followed by herbaceous plants (44% and 4%). Tropical broadleaf evergreen trees partition the least to photosynthesis (25%) and respiration (2%) followed by needle-leaved evergreen trees (28% and 3%). In trees (especially needle-leaved evergreen and tropical broadleaf evergreen trees) a large fraction (70% and 73% respectively) of nitrogen was not explained by photosynthetic or respiratory functions. Compared to crops and herbaceous plants, this large residual pool is hypothesized to emerge from larger investments in cell wall proteins, lipids, amino acids, nucleic acid, CO2 fixation proteins (other than Rubisco), secondary compounds, and other proteins. Our estimates are different from previous studies due to differences in methodology and assumptions used in deriving nitrogen allocation estimates. Unlike previous studies, we integrate and infer nitrogen allocation estimates across multiple plant functional types, and report substantial differences in nitrogen allocation across different plant functional types. Furthermore, the resulting pattern of nitrogen allocation provides insights on mechanisms that operate at a cellular scale within leaves

  6. 75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... processes and cost allocation and would require cost allocation methods for intraregional and interregional... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission... and cost allocation requirements established in Order No. 890 to ensure that...

  7. Words Mean Things: The Case for Information System Attack and Control System Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    databases , reservation system, documents, web pages…”ix On the other hand, infrastructure control systems interact with the physical world, and...Week and Space Technology, 4 September 2002, 3, EBSCOhost (accessed 8 September 2008). xxvii Barnes, Julian E., “Hacking Could Become Weapon in...September 2002, EBSCOhost (accessed 8 September 2008). Gibson, Tim, “What You Should Know About Attacking Computer Networks

  8. Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE.

  9. Fault and the allocation of spare organs.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper argues that rectificatory justice should supplement distributive justice in allocating priority of access to scarce medical resources. Where a patient is at fault for the scarcity of healthy organs a principle of restitution requires that she should give priority to the faultless. Such restitution is non-punitive, and is akin to reparation in civil law, not criminal law. However, it is doubtful whether such a principle can be fairly applied within the present culture of governmental complicity in cigarette advertising. PMID:8035435

  10. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordés...data to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  11. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  12. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L.; Morgan, B. Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a ‘multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a ‘split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration. PMID:26841837

  13. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L; Morgan, B Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-02-04

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a 'multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a 'split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration.

  14. Public Figure Attacks in the United States, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Amman, Molly

    2016-09-01

    An archival descriptive study of public figure attackers in the United States between 1995 and 2015 was undertaken. Fifty-six incidents were identified, primarily through exhaustive internet searches, composed of 58 attackers and 58 victims. A code book was developed which focused upon victims, offenders, pre-attack behaviors including direct threats, attack characteristics, post-offense and other outcomes, motivations and psychological abstracts. The average interrater agreement for coding of bivariate variables was 0.835 (intraclass correlation coefficient). The three most likely victim categories were politicians, judges, and athletes. Attackers were males, many with a psychiatric disorder, most were grandiose, and most had both a violent and nonviolent criminal history. The known motivations for the attacks were often angry and personal, the most common being dissatisfaction with a judicial or other governmental process (23%). In only one case was the primary motivation to achieve notoriety. Lethality risk during an attack was 55%. Collateral injury or death occurred in 29% of the incidents. Only 5% communicated a direct threat to the target beforehand. The term "publicly intimate figure" is introduced to describe the sociocultural blurring of public and private lives among the targets, and its possible role in some attackers' perceptions and motivations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-09

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  16. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  17. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  18. Cube-Type Algebraic Attacks on Wireless Encryption Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99 14 . SUBJECT TERMS Wireless Security, Cryptanalysis, Boolean Functions, Algebraic Attacks, Correlation Attacks, Cube...Correspondence of the Finite Field....... 12 3. Boolean Function .................................................................. 14 4. Hamming...a a a a     ; continue in that fashion up to the element where there is repetition ( 7a ). 14 3. Boolean Function Definition 2.6: A Boolean

  19. Are Risk Assessments of a Terrorist Attack Coherent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined 3 types of violations of coherence criteria in risk assessments of a terrorist attack. First, the requirement that extensionally equivalent descriptions be assigned the same probability (i.e., additivity) was violated. Unpacking descriptions of an attack into subtypes led to an increase in assessed risk. Second,…

  20. Detecting Distributed SQL Injection Attacks in a Eucalyptus Cloud Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebert, Alan; Barnejee, Bikramjit; Solano, Juan; Solano, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    The cloud computing environment offers malicious users the ability to spawn multiple instances of cloud nodes that are similar to virtual machines, except that they can have separate external IP addresses. In this paper we demonstrate how this ability can be exploited by an attacker to distribute his/her attack, in particular SQL injection attacks, in such a way that an intrusion detection system (IDS) could fail to identify this attack. To demonstrate this, we set up a small private cloud, established a vulnerable website in one instance, and placed an IDS within the cloud to monitor the network traffic. We found that an attacker could quite easily defeat the IDS by periodically altering its IP address. To detect such an attacker, we propose to use multi-agent plan recognition, where the multiple source IPs are considered as different agents who are mounting a collaborative attack. We show that such a formulation of this problem yields a more sophisticated approach to detecting SQL injection attacks within a cloud computing environment.

  1. Is There Anybody There? A Psychodynamic View of Panic Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizq, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Presents a process analysis of a psychodynamic intervention for a client with panic attacks. Discusses how a psychodynamic understanding of the complex etiology of the client's panic attacks that ultimately produced improved coping skills and a subjective sense of improvement for her. Process analysis is used to illustrate the theoretical base,…

  2. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed.

  3. Sequential defense against random and intentional attacks in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network.

  4. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  5. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  6. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  7. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  8. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  9. Examining Willingness to Attack Critical Infrastructure Online and Offline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Thomas J.; Kilger, Max

    2012-01-01

    The continuing adoption of technologies by the general public coupled with the expanding reliance of critical infrastructures connected through the Internet has created unique opportunities for attacks by civilians and nation-states alike. Although governments are increasingly focusing on policies to deter nation-state level attacks, it is unclear…

  10. For Heart Attack Survivors, a Risk of Suicide?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162414.html For Heart Attack Survivors, a Risk of Suicide? Study findings underscore ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People who've suffered a heart attack or unstable angina may face a higher-than- ...

  11. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  12. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  13. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  14. Deformation and erosion of f.c.c. metals and alloys under cavitation attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the early stages of cavitation attack on 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, electrolytic tough pitch copper, brass, and bronze, all having polycrystalline fcc matrices. The surface profiles and scanning electron micrographs show that the pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries, while the grain surfaces are progressively roughened by multiple slip and twinning. The initial erosion is noted to have occurred from the material in the grain boundaries, as well as by fragmentation of part of the grains. Further erosion occurred by shearing and necking of the surface undulations caused by plastic deformation. The mean penetration depth, computed on the basis of mass loss, was lowest on the bronze and greatest on the copper. Attention is given to the relation of cavitation attack to grain size, glide stress and stacking fault energy.

  15. Algorithm development for SDI weapons system allocation. Final report, December 1987-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, G.L.; Bennett, W.

    1989-06-01

    While several SDI weapons systems can provide adequate defense in a one-on-one basis, a coordinated attack by several enemy missiles launched over a substantial volume will be difficult to resist without an efficient command and control system for warfare coordination. This study of weapons allocation - coordination algorithms, is based on dynamical models for the missile/decoy systems including noise effects and uncertainties in the model parameters. Performance of the weapons targeting system may be measured in terms of the expected number of targets eliminated in a given interval (phase of operations) or the expected time to eliminate all the targets in a given region. Scheduling weapons deployment is a problem of constrained optimal (weapons) and state variables. The selection of weapons deployment tactics is based on solution of a complex optimization problem. We have conducted an investigation of advanced modeling, stochastic control, and scheduling methodologies for aspects of the SDI weapons allocation problem - several platforms with assets of different character defending against a diverse collection of targets. The models for such scenarios lead to stochastic scheduling problems that can not be handled by conventional analytical methods. The authors describe several different analytical approaches that have the potential for synthesis of effective engagement algorithms.

  16. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  17. Weak laws against acid attacks on women: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Acid attacks, especially on women, have seen an alarming growth in India over the last decade. While these attacks can be attributed to various factors such as the social weakness of women in a male-dominated society, the situation is exacerbated by the general neglect of the lawmakers. As acid is inexpensive and easily available, it serves as an ideal weapon for the perpetrators. Further, as this offence is bailable in certain situations, the punishment does not act as a sufficient deterrent in most cases. This paper describes the horrendous effects that acid attacks have on the victims physically, psychologically and socially. It also examines the contemporary laws governing acid attacks on victims and offenders. Ideas for a better legal approach will also be examined with special reference to acid attacks as a crime, and the validity of specific legal provisions for female victims.

  18. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  19. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nozick, Linda Karen; Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  20. Attacks on Bluetooth Security Architecture and Its Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Mian Muhammad Waseem; Kausar, Firdous; Wahla, Muhammad Arif

    WPANs compliment the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless networks by facilitating the clients with flexibility in network topologies, higher mobility and relaxed configuration/hardware requirements. Bluetooth, a WPAN technology, is an open standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication. However, it is also susceptible to typical security threats found in wireless LANs. This paper discuses some of the attack scenarios against the bluetooth network such as hostile intrusion, active Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack using unit key and various forms of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These threats and attacks compromise the confidentiality and availability of bluetooth data and services. This paper proposes an improved security architecture for bluetooth device which provides protection against the above mentioned attacks.

  1. The Application of Baum-Welch Algorithm in Multistep Attack

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxue; Zhao, Dongmei; Liu, Jinxing

    2014-01-01

    The biggest difficulty of hidden Markov model applied to multistep attack is the determination of observations. Now the research of the determination of observations is still lacking, and it shows a certain degree of subjectivity. In this regard, we integrate the attack intentions and hidden Markov model (HMM) and support a method to forecasting multistep attack based on hidden Markov model. Firstly, we train the existing hidden Markov model(s) by the Baum-Welch algorithm of HMM. Then we recognize the alert belonging to attack scenarios with the Forward algorithm of HMM. Finally, we forecast the next possible attack sequence with the Viterbi algorithm of HMM. The results of simulation experiments show that the hidden Markov models which have been trained are better than the untrained in recognition and prediction. PMID:24991642

  2. IVs to Skip for Immunizing WEP against FMS Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    The WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is a part of IEEE 802.11 standard designed for protecting over-the-air communication. While almost all of the WLAN (Wireless LAN) cards and the APs (Access Points) support WEP, a serious key recovery attack (aka FMS attack) was identified by Fluhrer et al. The FMS attack can basically be prevented by skipping IVs (Initial Values) used in the attack, but naive skip methods reveal information on the WEP key since most of them depend on the WEP key and the patterns of the skipped IV reveal it. In order to skip IVs safely, the skip patterns must be chosen carefully. In this paper, we review the attack conditions (6) and (7), whose success probability is the highest, 0.05, amongst all known conditions to guess one key-byte from one packet. Then we identify their safe skip patterns.

  3. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  4. Synthesis of waste interception and allocation networks

    SciTech Connect

    El-Halwagi, M.M.; Hamad, A.A.; Garrison, G.W.

    1996-11-01

    This article introduces the novel concept of synthesizing waste-interception networks (WINs) and incorporates it within a mass-integration framework for the global allocation of pollutants. The essence of this notion is to provide selective interception and rerouting of undesirable species at the heart of the process instead of dealing with the pollutants in the terminal waste streams. It also provides a unified framework for simultaneously tackling gaseous and liquid pollution. Several tools are developed to track the pollutant throughout the process and determine the optimal interception policies. The problem is formulated as an optimization program that seeks to determine the optimum locations for interception the pollutants, extent of separation, and separating agents to carry out the interception tasks. Furthermore, the WINs can be used within a mass-integration scheme for the global allocation of species throughout the plant. These new concepts and associated mathematical formulation are demonstrated using a case study on the removal of a chlorinated hydrocarbon. This approach has benefits over conventional recycle/reuse (such as MEN synthesis).

  5. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  6. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  7. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  9. Allocation of time in three academic specialties.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Spaite, D W; Smith, R; Criss, E

    1988-01-01

    A survey was done to: 1) characterize the allocation and distribution of time by tenure track emergency physicians, and 2) compare the time distribution of emergency physicians to two other academic disciplines. All emergency medicine residency programs were surveyed by telephone to determine if faculty were eligible for tenure and if tenure was available, how many hours per week were spent on clinical duties, research, and administrative tasks. Similar information was compiled from cardiology and orthopedic surgery faculty at the same universities. Data from the survey revealed that a tenure track assistant professor spends 23 hours (46%) working clinical shifts in the emergency department; 11 hours (20%) doing research and 18 hours (34%) in administrative tasks. In contrast, cardiologists spend significantly more time in clinical duties (32 hours) and research (18 hours). However, cardiologists spend significantly less time in administrative duties (10 hours). Data for orthopedic surgeons show a similar pattern. Distributions within each academic discipline were also analyzed and a significant difference in research time was found between four tenure track emergency medicine programs and the other eighteen. Data from this survey may help academic emergency physicians evaluate how they are allocating their time in comparison to other busy clinical specialties.

  10. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  11. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding.

  12. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  13. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  14. Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2005-06-01

    Nocturnal panic (NP), waking from sleep in a state of panic, is a common occurrence among patients with panic disorder, with 44-71% reporting at least one such attack. NP is a non-REM event that is distinct from sleep terrors, sleep apnea, nightmares or dream-induced arousals. This review outlines recent advances in the characterization of NP, as well as current approaches to the assessment and treatment of NP. In contrast to earlier work, more recent studies suggest that patients with NP do not differ from patients without NP on sleep architecture, sleep physiology, self-reported sleep quality and severity of panic disorder. However, more precise measurement of physiological precipitants and features is warranted. Assessment of NP focuses on ruling out other explanations for NP, with differential diagnosis based on interviews, sleep polysomnography and ambulatory recording of sleep. Psychological treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy) targets misappraisals of anxiety sensations, hyperventilatory response, and conditioned reactions to internal, physical cues. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of this approach, however, controlled studies on pharmacological agents in the treatment of NP are lacking. Research is needed to examine the effects of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications, compared to medication alone in the treatment of NP.

  15. Pre-Attack Symptomatology and Temperament as Predictors of Children's Responses to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Smith, Kimberlee I.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the psychological response of children following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC and to examine prospective predictors of children's post-attack responses. Method: Children's responses were assessed in a community sample of children in Seattle, Washington,…

  16. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  17. Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation.

    PubMed

    Son, L K; Metcalfe, J

    2000-01-01

    This article investigates how people's metacognitive judgments influence subsequent study-time-allocation strategies. The authors present a comprehensive literature review indicating that people allocate more study time to judged-difficult than to judged-easy items--consistent with extant models of study-time allocation. However, typically, the materials were short, and participants had ample time for study. In contrast, in Experiment 1, when participants had insufficient time to study, they allocated more time to the judged-easy items than to the judged-difficult items, especially when expecting a test. In Experiment 2, when the materials were shorter, people allocated more study time to the judged-difficult materials. In Experiment 3, under high time pressure, people preferred studying judged-easy sonnets; under moderate time pressure, they showed no preference. These results provide new evidence against extant theories of study-time allocation.

  18. Modeling Sugar Allocations in Plants using Radioisotope Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mingru

    2013-10-01

    The allocations of carbon and nitrogen are major factors in determining growth priorities in plants. The mechanisms that regulate resource allocation in plants are poorly understood. We use radiotracer techniques to identify and quantify dynamical feedback responses of plants to changes in environmental conditions. A major goal of this research is to investigate shifts in sugar allocations as part of the plant's response to changes in environmental conditions. These observations are used to develop mechanistic models that simulate the feedback for adjustments to resource allocations based on the environment-plant interface. By writing a software module in C + + based on the models, we are able to conduct a computer simulation of plant's intake of carbon dioxide and sugar allocation inside plant body. By comparing and matching the simulation results and experimental data through adjusting model parameters, we are able to gain knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate resource allocation in plants.

  19. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  20. Development of target allocation methods for LAMOST focal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Yanxia; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao

    2014-01-01

    We first introduce the primary target allocation requirements and restrictions for the parallel control multiple fiber system, which is used in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey. The fiber positioner anti-collision model is imported. Then several target allocation methods and features are discussed in detail, including a network flow algorithm, high priority for fiber unit holding less target number, target allocation algorithm for groups, target allocation method for add-ons and target reallocation. Their virtues and weaknesses are analyzed for various kinds of scientific research situations. Furthermore an optimization concept using the Simulate Anneal Arithmetic (SAA) is developed to improve the fiber utilizing efficiency.