Science.gov

Sample records for allocation account balances

  1. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 1998.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, J; Holden, S; Quick, C

    2000-02-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past three years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI members serving as plan record keepers and administrators. The report includes 1998 information on 7.9 million active participants in 30,102 plans holding nearly $372 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. The database also includes three years of longitudinal information on approximately 3.3 million participants. Key findings include: For all 401(k) participants in the 1998 EBRI/ICI database, almost three-quarters of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Specifically, 49.8 percent of total plan balances are invested in equity funds, 17.7 percent in company stock, 11.4 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 8.4 percent in balanced funds, 6.1 percent in bond funds, 4.7 percent in money funds, and 0.3 percent in other stable value funds. Participant asset allocation varies considerably with age. Younger participants tend to favor equity funds, while older participants are more disposed to invest in GICs and bond funds. On average, participants in their 20s have 62.1 percent of their account balances invested in equity funds, in contrast to 39.8 percent for those in their 60s. Participants in their 20s invest 4.7 percent of their assets in GICs, while those in their 60s invest 20.6 percent. Bond funds, which represent 4.7 percent of the assets of participants in their 20s, amount to 9.0 percent of the assets of participants in their 60s. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation

  2. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 1998.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, J; Holden, S; Quick, C

    2000-02-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past three years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI members serving as plan record keepers and administrators. The report includes 1998 information on 7.9 million active participants in 30,102 plans holding nearly $372 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. The database also includes three years of longitudinal information on approximately 3.3 million participants. Key findings include: For all 401(k) participants in the 1998 EBRI/ICI database, almost three-quarters of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Specifically, 49.8 percent of total plan balances are invested in equity funds, 17.7 percent in company stock, 11.4 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 8.4 percent in balanced funds, 6.1 percent in bond funds, 4.7 percent in money funds, and 0.3 percent in other stable value funds. Participant asset allocation varies considerably with age. Younger participants tend to favor equity funds, while older participants are more disposed to invest in GICs and bond funds. On average, participants in their 20s have 62.1 percent of their account balances invested in equity funds, in contrast to 39.8 percent for those in their 60s. Participants in their 20s invest 4.7 percent of their assets in GICs, while those in their 60s invest 20.6 percent. Bond funds, which represent 4.7 percent of the assets of participants in their 20s, amount to 9.0 percent of the assets of participants in their 60s. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation

  3. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2007.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis; Copeland, Craig

    2008-12-01

    The bulk of 401(k) assets continued to be invested in stocks. On average, at year-end 2007, about two-thirds of 401(k) participants' assets were invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. About one-third was in fixed-income securities such as stable value investments and bond and money market funds. Although these relative shares have changed little over the past 12 years, the underlying fund composition has changed over time. About two-thirds of 401(k) plans included lifecycle funds in their investment lineup at year-end 2007. New analysis shows that at year-end 2007, more than 7 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI database were invested in lifecycle funds and one-quarter of 401(k) participants held lifecycle funds. Also known as "target date" funds, they are designed to simplify investing and automate account rebalancing. New employees continued to utilize balanced funds, including lifecyclefunds. Across all age groups, more new or recent hires invested their 401(k) assets in balanced funds, including lifecycle funds. At year-end 2007, 28 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in balanced funds, compared with 24 percent in 2006, 19 percent in 2005, and about 7 percent in 1998. At year-end 2007, almost 19 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in lifecycle funds compared with 16 percent at year-end 2006. 401(k) participants continued to seek diversification of their investments. The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock continued to shrink, falling by 0.5 percentage point (to 10.6 percent) in 2007. That continued a steady decline that started in 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: they were less likely to hold employer stock. Participants' 401(k) loan activity was stable. In 2007, 18 percent of all 401(k) participants eligible for loans had a loan

  4. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2009.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis

    2010-11-01

    CONSISTENT SAMPLE: Because 401(k) balances can fluctuate with market returns from year to year, meaningful analysis of 401(k) plans must examine how participants' accounts have performed over the long term. Looking at consistent participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database over the six-year period from 2003 to 2009 (which included one of the worst bear markets for stocks since the Great Depression), the study found: After rising in 2003 and for the next four consecutive years, the average 401(k) retirement account fell 27.8 percent in 2008, before rising 31.9 percent in 2009. The average 401(k) account balance moved up and down with stock market performance, but over the entire six-year time period increased at an average annual growth rate of 10.5 percent, attaining $109,723 at year-end 2009. The median (or midpoint, half above and half below) 401(k) account balance increased at an average annual growth rate of 14.7 percent over the 2003-2009 period to $59,381 at year-end 2009. THE BULK OF 401(K) ASSETS CONTINUED TO BE INVESTED IN STOCKS: On average, at year-end 2009, 60 percent of 401(k) participants' assets were invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. Thirty-six percent was in fixed-income securities such as stable-value investments and bond and money funds. MORE THAN THREE-QUARTERS OF 401(K) PLANS INCLUDED TARGET-DATE FUNDS IN THEIR INVESTMENT LINEUP AT YEAR-END 2009: At year-end 2009, nearly 10 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database was invested in target-date funds and 33 percent of 401(k) participants held target-date funds. Also known as lifecycle funds, they are designed to simplify investing and to automate account rebalancing. NEW EMPLOYEES CONTINUED TO USE BALANCED FUNDS, INCLUDING TARGET-DATE FUNDS: Across all but the oldest age group, more new or recent hires invested their 401(k) assets in balanced funds, including target-date funds. At year-end 2009, about 42 percent

  5. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2008.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis

    2009-10-01

    Because 401(k) balances can fluctuate with market returns from year to year, meaningful analysis of 401(k) plans must examine how participants' accounts have performed over the long term. Looking at consistent participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database over the five-year period from 2003 to 2008 (which included one of the worst bear markets for stocks since the Great Depression), the study found: After rising in 2003 and for the next four consecutive years, the average 401(k) retirement account fell 24.3 percent in 2008. The average 401(k) account balance moved up and down with stock market performance, but over the entire five-year time period increased at an average annual growth rate of 7.2 percent, attaining $86,513 at year-end 2008. The median (mid-point) 401(k) account balance increased at an average annual growth rate of 11.4 percent over the 2003-2008 period to $43,700 at year-end 2008. THE BULK OF 401(K) ASSETS CONTINUED TO BE INVESTED IN STOCKS. On average, at year-end 2008, 56 percent of 401(k) participants' assets were invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. Forty-one percent was in fixed-income securities such as stable-value investments and bond and money market funds. THREE-QUARTERS OF 401(K) PLANS INCLUDED LIFECYCLE FUNDS IN THEIR INVESTMENT LINEUP AT YEAR-END 2008. At year-end 2008, nearly 7 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database were invested in lifecycle funds and 31 percent of 401(k) participants held lifecycle funds. Also known as "target-date" funds, they are designed to simplify investing and automate account rebalancing. NEW EMPLOYEES CONTINUED TO USE BALANCED FUNDS, INCLUDING LIFECYCLE FUNDS. Across all age groups, more new or recent hires invested their 401(k) assets in balanced funds, including lifecycle funds. At year-end 2008, 36 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in balanced funds, compared with

  6. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2011.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis; Bass, Steven

    2012-12-01

    THE BULK OF 401(K) ASSETS CONTINUED TO BE INVESTED IN STOCKS: On average, at year-end 2011, 61 percent of 401(k) participants' assets was invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. Thirty-four percent was in fixed-income securities such as stable-value investments and bond and money funds. SEVENTY-TWO PERCENT OF 401(K) PLANS INCLUDED TARGET-DATE FUNDS IN THEIR INVESTMENT LINEUP AT YEAR-END 2011: At year-end 2011, 13 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database was invested in target-date funds and 39 percent of 401(k) participants held target-date funds. Also known as lifecycle funds, these funds are designed to offer a diversified portfolio that automatically rebalances to be more focused on income over time. MORE NEW OR RECENT HIRES INVESTED THEIR 401(K) ASSETS IN BALANCED FUNDS, INCLUDING TARGET-DATE FUNDS: For example, at year-end 2011, 51 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s was invested in balanced funds, compared with 44 percent in 2010, and about 7 percent in 1998. A significant subset of that balanced fund category is target-date funds. At year-end 2011, 40 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s was invested in target-date funds, compared with 35 percent at year-end 2010. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED TO SEEK DIVERSIFICATION OF THEIR INVESTMENTS: The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock remained at 8 percent in 2011. This share has fallen by more than half since 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: They tended to be less likely to hold employer stock. PARTICIPANTS' 401(K) LOAN ACTIVITY REMAINED STEADY, ALTHOUGH LOAN BALANCES INCREASED SLIGHTLY IN 2011: At year-end 2011, 21 percent of all 401(k) participants who were eligible for loans had loans outstanding against their 401(k) accounts, unchanged from year-end 2009 and year-end 2010, and up from 18 percent at year

  7. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2010.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis; Bass, Steven

    2011-12-01

    THE BULK OF 401(K) ASSETS CONTINUED TO BE INVESTED IN STOCKS: On average, at year-end 2010, 62 percent of 401(k) participants' assets were invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. Thirty-three percent were in fixed-income securities such as stable value investments and bond and money funds. SEVENTY PERCENT OF 401(K) PLANS INCLUDED TARGET-DATE FUNDS IN THEIR INVESTMENT LINEUP AT YEAR-END 2010: At year-end 2010, 11 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database were invested in target-date funds and 36 percent of 401(k) participants held target-date funds. Also known as lifecycle funds, they are designed to offer a diversified portfolio that automatically rebalances to be more focused on income over time. MORE NEW OR RECENT HIRES INVESTED THEIR 401(K) ASSETS IN BALANCED FUNDS, INCLUDING TARGET-DATE FUNDS: For example, at year-end 2010, 44 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in balanced funds, compared with 42 percent in 2009, and about 7 percent in 1998. A significant subset of that balanced fund category is target-date funds. At year-end 2010, 35 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in target-date funds, compared with 31 percent at year-end 2009. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED TO SEEK DIVERSIFICATION OF THEIR INVESTMENTS: The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock continued to shrink, falling by more than a percentage point (to 8 percent) in 2010, continuing a steady decline that started in 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: They tended to be less likely to hold employer stock. PARTICIPANTS' 401(K) LOAN BALANCES DECLINED SLIGHTLY IN 2010: In 2010, 21 percent of all 401(k) participants who were eligible for loans had loans outstanding against their 401(k) accounts, unchanged from year-end 2009, and up from 18 percent at year-end 2008. Loans

  8. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws.

  10. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  11. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  12. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  13. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  14. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting method... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§...

  17. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions. PMID:20398381

  18. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  19. New accounting rules: asset allocation and portfolio management.

    PubMed

    Andrew, B K

    1997-01-01

    New accounting rules went into effect at the end of 1995 that are now starting to affect how medical practices must report income from equity and fixed income investments. This article explores the new accounting rules and considers the other factors that help practices determine investment strategies, including desired investment return, comfort with level of risk, appropriate time horizons, liquidity needs and legal restrictions. The author also presents an example that examines the different considerations that may affect an asset allocation decision, including endowments and operating reserve funds.

  20. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  1. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  2. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  3. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  4. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  5. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  6. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  7. 14 CFR 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  8. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  9. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  10. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  11. Accounting for Parcel-Allocation Variability in Practice: Combining Sources of Uncertainty and Choosing the Number of Allocations.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Item parceling remains widely used under conditions that can lead to parcel-allocation variability in results. Hence, researchers may be interested in quantifying and accounting for parcel-allocation variability within sample. To do so in practice, three key issues need to be addressed. First, how can we combine sources of uncertainty arising from sampling variability and parcel-allocation variability when drawing inferences about parameters in structural equation models? Second, on what basis can we choose the number of repeated item-to-parcel allocations within sample? Third, how can we diagnose and report proportions of total variability per estimate arising due to parcel-allocation variability versus sampling variability? This article addresses these three methodological issues. Developments are illustrated using simulated and empirical examples, and software for implementing them is provided.

  12. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2012-01-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2011, there was $12.4 billion in health savings accounts (HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), spread across 8.4 million accounts, according to data from the 2011 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey, sponsored by EBRI and Matthew Greenwald & Associates. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.3 million accounts with $873.4 million in assets, and 2010, when 5.4 million accounts held $7.3 billion in assets. AFTER LEVELING OFF, AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCES INCREASED: After average account balances leveled off in 2008 and 2009, and fell slightly in 2010, they increased in 2011. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1,320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1,356 in 2008 and $1,419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. In 2010, average account balances fell to $1,355, down 4.5 percent from the previous year. In 2011, average account balances increased to $1,470, a 9 percent increase from 2010. TOTAL AND AVERAGE ROLLOVERS INCREASE: After declining to $1,029 in 2010, average rollover amounts increased to $1,208 in 2011. Total assets being rolled over increased as well: $6.7 billion was rolled over in 2011, up from $3.7 billion in 2010. The percentage of individuals without a rollover remained at 13 percent in 2011. HEALTHY BEHAVIOR DOES NOT MEAN HIGHER ACCOUNT BALANCES AND HIGHER ROLLOVERS: Individuals who smoke have more money in their accounts than those who do not smoke. In contrast, obese individuals have less money in their account than the nonobese. There is very little difference in account balances by level of exercise. Very small differences were found in account balances and rollover amounts between individuals who used cost or quality information, compared with those who did not use such information. However, next to no relationship was found between either account balance or rollover amounts and various cost-conscious behaviors. When a difference

  13. 26 CFR 1.148-6A - General allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General allocation and accounting rules. 1.148-6A Section 1.148-6A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... July 8, 1997 § 1.148-6A General allocation and accounting rules. (a) through (d)(3)(iii)(B) ....

  14. Towards a Balanced Account of Autism Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Genae A.

    2004-01-01

    Drash and Tudor describe six sets of reinforcement contingencies which may be present in the environments of some children eventually diagnosed with autism and suggest that these contingencies account for the etiology of "autistic" behaviors. Nevertheless, merely observing such contingencies in the environments of these children is insufficient to…

  15. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2010, there was $7.7 billion in health savings accounts (HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), spread across 5.7 million accounts. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.2 million accounts with $835.4 million in assets, and 2009, when 5 million accounts held $7.1 billion in assets. AFTER LEVELING OFF, AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCE DROPS SLIGHTLY: Increases in average account balances leveled off in 2008 and 2009, and fell slightly in 2010. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1,320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1,356 in 2008 and $1,419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. In 2010, average account balances fell to $1,355, down 4.5 percent from the previous year. AVERAGE ROLLOVER DECLINES, WHILE TOTAL ROLLOVERS INCREASE: Despite a decline in the average rollover amount in 2010, total assets being rolled over have been increasing. $4.2 billion was rolled over in 2010, up from $4 billion in 2009. The average rollover increased from $592 in 2006 to $1,295 in 2009, and fell to $1,029 in 2010. The percentage of individuals without a rollover decreased from 23 percent in 2006 to 10 percent in 2009 and increased slightly to 13 percent in 2010. HEALTHY BEHAVIOR MEANS HIGHER ACCOUNT BALANCES AND HIGHER ROLLOVERS: Individuals who exercised, those who did not smoke, and those who were not obese had higher account balances and higher rollovers than those with less healthy behaviors. It was also found that individuals who used cost or quality information had higher account balances and higher rollovers compared with those who did not use such information. However, no relationship was found between either account balance or rollover amounts and various cost-conscious behaviors such as checking pricing before getting services or asking for generic drugs instead of brand names, among other things. DIFFERENCES IN ACCOUNT BALANCES: Men have higher account balances than women

  16. Minimal sufficient balance-a new strategy to balance baseline covariates and preserve randomness of treatment allocation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenle; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    In many clinical trials, baseline covariates could affect the primary outcome. Commonly used strategies to balance baseline covariates include stratified constrained randomization and minimization. Stratification is limited to few categorical covariates. Minimization lacks the randomness of treatment allocation. Both apply only to categorical covariates. As a result, serious imbalances could occur in important baseline covariates not included in the randomization algorithm. Furthermore, randomness of treatment allocation could be significantly compromised because of the high proportion of deterministic assignments associated with stratified block randomization and minimization, potentially resulting in selection bias. Serious baseline covariate imbalances and selection biases often contribute to controversial interpretation of the trial results. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial and the Captopril Prevention Project are two examples. In this article, we propose a new randomization strategy, termed the minimal sufficient balance randomization, which will dually prevent serious imbalances in all important baseline covariates, including both categorical and continuous types, and preserve the randomness of treatment allocation. Computer simulations are conducted using the data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial. Serious imbalances in four continuous and one categorical covariate are prevented with a small cost in treatment allocation randomness. A scenario of simultaneously balancing 11 baseline covariates is explored with similar promising results. The proposed minimal sufficient balance randomization algorithm can be easily implemented in computerized central randomization systems for large multicenter trials.

  17. 75 FR 69026 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Death...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Death Benefits; Thrift Savings Plan... with a death benefit payment from a civilian TSP participant account to which contributions were made... death benefit payment from a TSP participant account to which contributions were made by or on behalf...

  18. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2010-06-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2009, there was $7.1 billion in consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs), which include health savings accounts (or HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (or HRAs), spread across 5 million accounts. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.2 million accounts with $835.4 million in assets, and 2008, when 4.2 million accounts held $5.7 billion in assets. AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCE LEVELING OFF: Increases in average account balances appear to have leveled off. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1356 in 2008 and $1419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. TYPICAL ENROLLEE: The typical CDHP enrollee was more likely than traditional plan enrollees to be young, unmarried, higher-income, educated, and exhibit healthy behavior. No differences were found between CDHPs enrollees and traditional plan enrollees with respect to gender, race, and presence of children. MORE ROLLOVERS: Overall, the number of people with a rollover, as well as the total level of assets being rolled over, have been increasing. The average rollover increased from $592 in 2006 to $1295 in 2009. DIFFERENCES IN ACCOUNT BALANCES: Men tend to have higher account balances than women, account balances increase with household income, education has a significant impact on account balances independent of income and other variables, and no statistically significant differences in account balances were found by smoking, obesity, or the presence of chronic health conditions. Individuals who developed a budget to manage their health care expenses had a higher account balance ($1726) than those who did not ($1428), but otherwise, no statistically significant differences in average account balances were found between individuals who exhibited various aspects of cost-conscious decision-making behaviors and those who did not. DIFFERENCES IN ROLLOVER AMOUNTS: Men rolled over more money than

  19. 76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... FR 8260). C. Public Comments Three respondents submitted comments in response to the SDP. Two... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of... Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION: Notice of Discontinuation...

  20. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  1. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  2. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  3. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  4. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  5. The Art of Educational Leadership: Balancing Performance and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2007-01-01

    "The Art of Educational Leadership: Balancing Performance and Accountability" stresses the human side of leadership. No other text on this topic demonstrates so ably the importance of artistry in leadership in a field that has been lopsidedly dominated by concepts informed by science. Presenting the idea that leadership is an art, this book…

  6. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account (through transmittal of funds to a creditor in excess of the total balance...

  7. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account (through transmittal of funds to a creditor in excess of the total balance...

  8. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... Treatment of credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of... balance due on an account, through rebates of unearned finance charges or insurance premiums, or...

  9. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... Treatment of credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of... balance due on an account, through rebates of unearned finance charges or insurance premiums, or...

  10. Dynamic and balanced capacity allocation scheme with uniform bandwidth for OFDM-PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Cheng; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yu, Ying; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-03-01

    As the bitrate of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system is continuously increasing, how to effectively allocate the system bandwidth among the huge number of optical network units (ONUs) is one of the key problems before OFDM-PON can be practical deployed. Unlike traditional bandwidth allocation scheme, in this paper, the transmission performance of single ONU is for the first time taken into consideration and optimized. To reduce the manufacturing complexity and fully utilize the processing ability of the receivers, the system bandwidth is equally distributed to the ONUs. Bit loading is used to allocate the total transmission capacity, and power loading is used to guarantee the ONUs have balanced transmission performance even if they operate at different bitrate. In this way, a dynamic and balanced capacity allocation scheme with uniform bandwidth for OFDM-PON systems can be realized. At last, an experimental system is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the influence that the scheme brings to the whole system is also analyzed.

  11. The Accounting System and Resource Allocation Reform in a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spathis, Charalambos; Ananiadis, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the accounting system reform practised in Greek universities since January 2000, and more particularly at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). It specifically examines the allocation of resources to faculties by university management based on certain criteria. The AUTH is the largest public university in Greece and…

  12. 12 CFR 1026.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 1026.11 Treatment of credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account...

  13. 12 CFR 1026.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 1026.11 Treatment of credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account...

  14. 12 CFR 1026.11 - Treatment of credit balances; account termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances; account... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 1026.11 Treatment of credit balances; account termination. (a) Credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account...

  15. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  16. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level.

  17. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the “one hospital” approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the “one hospital” model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital’s cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  18. Just Culture: A Foundation for Balanced Accountability and Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The framework of a just culture ensures balanced accountability for both individuals and the organization responsible for designing and improving systems in the workplace. Engineering principles and human factors analysis influence the design of these systems so they are safe and reliable. Methods Approaches for improving patient safety introduced here are (1) analysis of error, (2) specific tools to enhance safety, and (3) outcome engineering. Conclusion The just culture is a learning culture that is constantly improving and oriented toward patient safety. PMID:24052772

  19. The impact of the recent financial crisis on 401(k) account balances.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2009-02-01

    percent for short-tenure younger participants. RECOVERY TIME AND FUTURE STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE: This analysis also calculates how long it might take for end-of-year 2008 401(k) balances to recover to their beginning-of-year 2008 levels, before the sharp stock market declines. Because future performance is unknown, this analysis provides a range of equity returns: At a 5 percent equity rate-of-return assumption, those with longest tenure with their current employer would need nearly two years at the median to recover, but approximately five years at the 90th percentile. If the equity rate of return is assumed to drop to zero for the next few years, this recovery time increases to approximately 2.5 years at the median and nine to 10 years at the 90th percentile. NEAR-ELDERLY WITH VERY HIGH EQUITY EXPOSURE: Estimates from the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database show that many participants near retirement had exceptionally high exposure to equities: Nearly 1 in 4 between ages 56-65 had more than 90 percent of their account balances in equities at year-end 2007, and more than 2 in 5 had more than 70 percent. As a result of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, many 401(k) plan sponsors appear to be offering lifecycle/ target-date funds, which automatically rebalance asset investments into more "age appropriate" allocations. Had all 401(k) participants been in the average target date fund at the end of 2007, 40 percent of the participants would have had at least a 20 percent decrease in their equity concentrations, and consequently, may have mitigated their losses, sometimes to an appreciable extent.

  20. The impact of the recent financial crisis on 401(k) account balances.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2009-02-01

    percent for short-tenure younger participants. RECOVERY TIME AND FUTURE STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE: This analysis also calculates how long it might take for end-of-year 2008 401(k) balances to recover to their beginning-of-year 2008 levels, before the sharp stock market declines. Because future performance is unknown, this analysis provides a range of equity returns: At a 5 percent equity rate-of-return assumption, those with longest tenure with their current employer would need nearly two years at the median to recover, but approximately five years at the 90th percentile. If the equity rate of return is assumed to drop to zero for the next few years, this recovery time increases to approximately 2.5 years at the median and nine to 10 years at the 90th percentile. NEAR-ELDERLY WITH VERY HIGH EQUITY EXPOSURE: Estimates from the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database show that many participants near retirement had exceptionally high exposure to equities: Nearly 1 in 4 between ages 56-65 had more than 90 percent of their account balances in equities at year-end 2007, and more than 2 in 5 had more than 70 percent. As a result of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, many 401(k) plan sponsors appear to be offering lifecycle/ target-date funds, which automatically rebalance asset investments into more "age appropriate" allocations. Had all 401(k) participants been in the average target date fund at the end of 2007, 40 percent of the participants would have had at least a 20 percent decrease in their equity concentrations, and consequently, may have mitigated their losses, sometimes to an appreciable extent. PMID:19361015

  1. Accelerating Dust Storm Simulation by Balancing Task Allocation in Parallel Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Z.; Yang, C.; XIA, J.; Huang, Q.; YU, M.

    2013-12-01

    quadratic programming based modeling method is proposed. This algorithm performs well with small amount of computing tasks. However, its efficiency decreases significantly as the subdomain number and computing node number increase. 2) To compensate performance decreasing for large scale tasks, a K-Means clustering based algorithm is introduced. Instead of dedicating to get optimized solutions, this method can get relatively good feasible solutions within acceptable time. However, it may introduce imbalance communication for nodes or node-isolated subdomains. This research shows both two algorithms have their own strength and weakness for task allocation. A combination of the two algorithms is under study to obtain a better performance. Keywords: Scheduling; Parallel Computing; Load Balance; Optimization; Cost Model

  2. 12 CFR 192.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 192.455 Section 192.455 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is your net worth...

  3. 12 CFR 563b.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 563b.455 Section 563b.455 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... the initial balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is...

  4. 12 CFR 192.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 192.455 Section 192.455 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is your net worth...

  5. 12 CFR 563b.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 563b.455 Section 563b.455 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... the initial balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is...

  6. 12 CFR 563b.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 563b.455 Section 563b.455 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... the initial balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is...

  7. 12 CFR 192.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 192.455 Section 192.455 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is your net worth...

  8. 12 CFR 563b.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 563b.455 Section 563b.455 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... the initial balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is...

  9. 12 CFR 563b.455 - What is the initial balance of the liquidation account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the initial balance of the liquidation account? 563b.455 Section 563b.455 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... the initial balance of the liquidation account? The initial balance of the liquidation account is...

  10. Disruptive innovation in academic medical centers: balancing accountable and academic care.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Chen, Christopher; Ackerly, D Clay

    2015-05-01

    Numerous academic medicine leaders have argued that academic referral centers must prepare for the growing importance of accountability-driven payment models by adopting population health initiatives. Although this shift has merit, execution of this strategy will prove significantly more problematic than most observers have appreciated. The authors describe how successful implementation of an accountable care health strategy within a referral academic medical center (AMC) requires navigating a critical tension: The academic referral business model, driven by tertiary-level care, is fundamentally in conflict with population health. Referral AMCs that create successful value-driven population health systems within their organizations will in effect disrupt their own existing tertiary care businesses. The theory of disruptive innovation suggests that balancing the push and pull of academic and accountable care within a single organization is achievable. However, it will require significant shifts in resource allocation and changes in management structure to enable AMCs to make the inherent difficult choices and trade-offs that will ensue. On the basis of the theories of disruptive innovation, the authors present recommendations for how academic health systems can successfully navigate these issues as they transition toward accountability-driven care. PMID:25517702

  11. Disruptive innovation in academic medical centers: balancing accountable and academic care.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Chen, Christopher; Ackerly, D Clay

    2015-05-01

    Numerous academic medicine leaders have argued that academic referral centers must prepare for the growing importance of accountability-driven payment models by adopting population health initiatives. Although this shift has merit, execution of this strategy will prove significantly more problematic than most observers have appreciated. The authors describe how successful implementation of an accountable care health strategy within a referral academic medical center (AMC) requires navigating a critical tension: The academic referral business model, driven by tertiary-level care, is fundamentally in conflict with population health. Referral AMCs that create successful value-driven population health systems within their organizations will in effect disrupt their own existing tertiary care businesses. The theory of disruptive innovation suggests that balancing the push and pull of academic and accountable care within a single organization is achievable. However, it will require significant shifts in resource allocation and changes in management structure to enable AMCs to make the inherent difficult choices and trade-offs that will ensue. On the basis of the theories of disruptive innovation, the authors present recommendations for how academic health systems can successfully navigate these issues as they transition toward accountability-driven care.

  12. Tree carbon allocation dynamics determined using a carbon mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Hoch, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Tree internal carbon (C) fluxes between compound and compartment pools are difficult to measure directly. Here we used a C mass balance approach to decipher these fluxes and provide a full description of tree C allocation dynamics. We collected independent measurements of tree C sinks, source and pools in Pinus halepensis in a semi-arid forest, and converted all fluxes to g C per tree d(-1) . Using this data set, a process flowchart was created to describe and quantify the tree C allocation on diurnal to annual time-scales. The annual C source of 24.5 kg C per tree yr(-1) was balanced by C sinks of 23.5 kg C per tree yr(-1) , which partitioned into 70%, 17% and 13% between respiration, growth, and litter (plus export to soil), respectively. Large imbalances (up to 57 g C per tree d(-1) ) were observed as C excess during the wet season, and as C deficit during the dry season. Concurrent changes in C reserves (starch) were sufficient to buffer these transient C imbalances. The C pool dynamics calculated using the flowchart were in general agreement with the observed pool sizes, providing confidence regarding our estimations of the timing, magnitude, and direction of the internal C fluxes. PMID:25157793

  13. Tree carbon allocation dynamics determined using a carbon mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Hoch, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Tree internal carbon (C) fluxes between compound and compartment pools are difficult to measure directly. Here we used a C mass balance approach to decipher these fluxes and provide a full description of tree C allocation dynamics. We collected independent measurements of tree C sinks, source and pools in Pinus halepensis in a semi-arid forest, and converted all fluxes to g C per tree d(-1) . Using this data set, a process flowchart was created to describe and quantify the tree C allocation on diurnal to annual time-scales. The annual C source of 24.5 kg C per tree yr(-1) was balanced by C sinks of 23.5 kg C per tree yr(-1) , which partitioned into 70%, 17% and 13% between respiration, growth, and litter (plus export to soil), respectively. Large imbalances (up to 57 g C per tree d(-1) ) were observed as C excess during the wet season, and as C deficit during the dry season. Concurrent changes in C reserves (starch) were sufficient to buffer these transient C imbalances. The C pool dynamics calculated using the flowchart were in general agreement with the observed pool sizes, providing confidence regarding our estimations of the timing, magnitude, and direction of the internal C fluxes.

  14. 26 CFR 1.593-8 - Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.593-8 Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve... the opening balance of the reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans is less than an...

  15. 26 CFR 1.593-8 - Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.593-8 Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve... the opening balance of the reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans is less than an...

  16. 26 CFR 1.593-8 - Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.593-8 Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve... the opening balance of the reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans is less than an...

  17. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  18. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  20. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  2. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  3. 12 CFR 1024.34 - Timely escrow payments and treatment of escrow account balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... account balances. 1024.34 Section 1024.34 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION REAL... treatment of escrow account balances. (a) Timely escrow disbursements required. If the terms of a mortgage... to avoid a penalty, as governed by the requirements in § 1024.17(k). (b) Refund of escrow balance....

  4. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  5. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  6. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  7. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  8. 18 CFR 367.4330 - Account 433, Balance transferred from income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 433, Balance transferred from income. 367.4330 Section 367.4330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4330 Account 433, Balance transferred from income....

  9. 18 CFR 367.4330 - Account 433, Balance transferred from income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 433, Balance transferred from income. 367.4330 Section 367.4330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4330 Account 433, Balance transferred from income....

  10. 18 CFR 367.4330 - Account 433, Balance transferred from income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 433, Balance transferred from income. 367.4330 Section 367.4330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4330 Account 433, Balance transferred from income....

  11. 18 CFR 367.4330 - Account 433, Balance transferred from income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 433, Balance transferred from income. 367.4330 Section 367.4330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4330 Account 433, Balance transferred from income....

  12. 18 CFR 367.4330 - Account 433, Balance transferred from income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 433, Balance transferred from income. 367.4330 Section 367.4330 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4330 Account 433, Balance transferred from income....

  13. Accounting for enforcement costs in the spatial allocation of marine zones.

    PubMed

    Davis, Katrina; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven; Pannell, David

    2015-02-01

    Marine fish stocks are in many cases extracted above sustainable levels, but they may be protected through restricted-use zoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems typically depends on support from coastal fishing communities. High management costs including those of enforcement may, however, deter fishers from supporting marine management. We incorporated enforcement costs into a spatial optimization model that identified how conservation targets can be met while maximizing fishers' revenue. Our model identified the optimal allocation of the study area among different zones: no-take, territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs), or open access. The analysis demonstrated that enforcing no-take and TURF zones incurs a cost, but results in higher species abundance by preventing poaching and overfishing. We analyzed how different enforcement scenarios affected fishers' revenue. Fisher revenue was approximately 50% higher when territorial user rights were enforced than when they were not. The model preferentially allocated area to the enforced-TURF zone over other zones, demonstrating that the financial benefits of enforcement (derived from higher species abundance) exceeded the costs. These findings were robust to increases in enforcement costs but sensitive to changes in species' market price. We also found that revenue under the existing zoning regime in the study area was 13-30% lower than under an optimal solution. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for both the benefits and costs of enforcement in marine conservation, particularly when incurred by fishers. PMID:25103090

  14. Accounting for enforcement costs in the spatial allocation of marine zones.

    PubMed

    Davis, Katrina; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven; Pannell, David

    2015-02-01

    Marine fish stocks are in many cases extracted above sustainable levels, but they may be protected through restricted-use zoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems typically depends on support from coastal fishing communities. High management costs including those of enforcement may, however, deter fishers from supporting marine management. We incorporated enforcement costs into a spatial optimization model that identified how conservation targets can be met while maximizing fishers' revenue. Our model identified the optimal allocation of the study area among different zones: no-take, territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs), or open access. The analysis demonstrated that enforcing no-take and TURF zones incurs a cost, but results in higher species abundance by preventing poaching and overfishing. We analyzed how different enforcement scenarios affected fishers' revenue. Fisher revenue was approximately 50% higher when territorial user rights were enforced than when they were not. The model preferentially allocated area to the enforced-TURF zone over other zones, demonstrating that the financial benefits of enforcement (derived from higher species abundance) exceeded the costs. These findings were robust to increases in enforcement costs but sensitive to changes in species' market price. We also found that revenue under the existing zoning regime in the study area was 13-30% lower than under an optimal solution. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for both the benefits and costs of enforcement in marine conservation, particularly when incurred by fishers.

  15. Balancing Technology with Established Methodology in the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the role of technology in secondary accounting courses. Indicates that students must master the principles and concepts in accounting and must experience the manual preparation of documents before automated procedures are integrated. (Author/JOW)

  16. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  17. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  18. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  19. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  20. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  1. 75 FR 62345 - Minimum Balance Requirement and Automatic Replenishment Option for Deposit Account Holders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Copyright Office published a notice in the Federal Register, 74 FR 33930, seeking public comment on a... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Minimum Balance Requirement and Automatic Replenishment Option for Deposit... a minimum balance in that account; mandate the closure of a deposit account the second time it...

  2. NCLB Waivers and Accountability: The Graduation Rate Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    When it comes to state education accountability systems, times are changing fast. This is clearer than ever with the advent of not only waivers from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) but also the multitude of state accountability index systems and "A through F" school-grading systems rolling out across the country. The multiple measures of…

  3. 34 CFR 200.72 - Procedures for adjusting allocations determined by the Secretary to account for eligible LEAs not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for adjusting allocations determined by the Secretary to account for eligible LEAs not on the Census list. 200.72 Section 200.72 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY...

  4. 34 CFR 200.72 - Procedures for adjusting allocations determined by the Secretary to account for eligible LEAs not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for adjusting allocations determined by the Secretary to account for eligible LEAs not on the Census list. 200.72 Section 200.72 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY...

  5. 11 CFR 106.7 - Allocation of expenses between Federal and non-Federal accounts by party committees, other than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... election activities pursuant to 11 CFR 100.24 may use only funds subject to the prohibitions and... that have established separate Federal and non-Federal accounts under 11 CFR 102.5(a)(1)(i) shall... or approved by the Commission) pursuant to 11 CFR 102.5 and 300.30. (c) Costs allocable by...

  6. 12 CFR 192.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How do I determine the initial balances of... How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  7. 12 CFR 563b.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I determine the initial balances of....460 How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  8. 12 CFR 563b.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true How do I determine the initial balances of....460 How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  9. 12 CFR 192.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How do I determine the initial balances of... How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  10. 12 CFR 563b.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How do I determine the initial balances of....460 How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  11. 12 CFR 563b.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How do I determine the initial balances of....460 How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  12. 12 CFR 563b.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true How do I determine the initial balances of....460 How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  13. 12 CFR 192.460 - How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How do I determine the initial balances of... How do I determine the initial balances of liquidation sub-accounts? (a)(1) You determine the initial sub-account balance for a savings account held by an eligible account holder by multiplying...

  14. 26 CFR 1.593-8 - Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans. 1.593-8 Section 1.593-8 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.593-8 Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve... the opening balance of the reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans is less than an...

  15. 26 CFR 1.593-8 - Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans. 1.593-8 Section 1.593-8 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.593-8 Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve... the opening balance of the reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans is less than an...

  16. Individual retirement account balances, contributions, and rollovers, 2010: the EBRI IRA database.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2012-05-01

    In 2010, IRA owners were more likely to be male, especially those whose accounts originated from a rollover or were a SEP/SIMPLE. Among all IRA owners in the database, nearly one-half (45.8 percent) were ages 45-64. The average and median IRA account balance in 2010 was $67,438 and $17,863, respectively, while the average and median IRA individual balance (all accounts from the same person combined) was $91,864 and $25,296. Individuals with a traditional-originating from rollovers had the highest average and median balance of $123,426 and $38,138, respectively. Roth owners had the lowest average and median balance at $22,437 and $11,471. The average and median individual IRA balance increased with age through age 70. The average amount contributed to an IRA in the database was $3,335 in 2010. The average contribution was highest for accounts owned by those ages 65-69, and more contributions were made to Roth accounts than to traditional accounts (both those originating from contributions and rollovers). However, the average contribution to a traditional account was higher, at $3,517, compared with $3,240 to a Roth account. Yet, a higher overall amount was contributed to Roths ($2.3 billion for Roths compared with $1.3 billion for traditional accounts). Focusing on those owning traditional or Roth IRAs, 9.3 percent of the accounts received contributions, and 12.1 percent of the individuals owning these IRA types contributed to them in 2010. Among traditional IRA owners, 5.2 percent contributed, while 24.0 percent of those owning a Roth contributed to it during 2010. Of those individuals contributing to an IRA, 43.5 percent contributed the maximum amount. Of those contributing to a traditional IRA, 48.7 percent maxed out their contribution, while 39.3 percent did so with a Roth. The average and median account balances increased from $54,863 and $15,756 respectively in 2008 to $67,438 and $17,863 in 2010. This represents an increase of 22.9 percent in the average

  17. Allocating physicians' overhead costs to services: an econometric/accounting-activity based-approach.

    PubMed

    Peden, Al; Baker, Judith J

    2002-01-01

    Using the optimizing properties of econometric analysis, this study analyzes how physician overhead costs (OC) can be allocated to multiple activities to maximize precision in reimbursing the costs of services. Drawing on work by Leibenstein and Friedman, the analysis also shows that allocating OC to multiple activities unbiased by revenue requires controlling for revenue when making the estimates. Further econometric analysis shows that it is possible to save about 10 percent of OC by paying only for those that are necessary.

  18. 12 CFR 360.8 - Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed insured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... liability account balances at a failed insured depository institution. 360.8 Section 360.8 Banks and Banking... RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.8 Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed... FDIC will use to determine deposit and other liability account balances for insurance coverage...

  19. 12 CFR 360.8 - Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed insured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... liability account balances at a failed insured depository institution. 360.8 Section 360.8 Banks and Banking... RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.8 Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed... FDIC will use to determine deposit and other liability account balances for insurance coverage...

  20. 12 CFR 360.8 - Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed insured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... liability account balances at a failed insured depository institution. 360.8 Section 360.8 Banks and Banking... RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.8 Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed... FDIC will use to determine deposit and other liability account balances for insurance coverage...

  1. 12 CFR 360.8 - Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed insured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... liability account balances at a failed insured depository institution. 360.8 Section 360.8 Banks and Banking... RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.8 Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed... FDIC will use to determine deposit and other liability account balances for insurance coverage...

  2. 12 CFR 360.8 - Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed insured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... liability account balances at a failed insured depository institution. 360.8 Section 360.8 Banks and Banking... RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.8 Method for determining deposit and other liability account balances at a failed... FDIC will use to determine deposit and other liability account balances for insurance coverage...

  3. Accountability and the Public Trust: Restoring the Balance. An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled for the 2006 Summer Institute at The Centre for Literacy-"Accountability and Public Trust: Restoring the Balance." The selections include lectures, research studies, policy papers, and government documents that describe and analyze recent concepts of accountability in the context of government funding in…

  4. Resource Allocation with the Use of the Balanced Scorecard and the Triple Bottom Line in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Chi Hong

    2007-01-01

    In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…

  5. Examining Carbon Acquisition and Allocation in Coccolithophores: Carbon Accounting to Understand Paleoproductivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, S. R.; Polissar, P. J.; Stoll, H. M.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that coccolithophores actively manage their growth and carbon allocation in response to changing environmental conditions. For example, recent work has identified carbon-concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores—in which the organisms actively enhance the abundance of CO2 in the chloroplast by pumping in bicarbonate—as the source of vital isotope effects in coccolith calcite. Understanding the record for and consequences of this management in the geologic record remains challenging. Here we examine the geometry and geochemistry of coccoliths in surface sediments from the deep ocean to relate these measurements to the modern growth environment in the surface ocean. In this core-top dataset that spans a wide range of environmental and oceanographic settings, we measure the size and thickness of coccolith plates, the trace metal and stable isotopic carbon in coccolith calcite, as well as determine alkenone biomarker fluxes and alkenone carbon isotopic composition (ɛp). This holistic approach aims to elucidate the carbon acquisition and allocation strategies employed by modern coccolithophores and ultimately provide a better framework for interpreting paleoproductivity. This method may provide insight into the growth rate and carbon allocation of coccoliths in the past, and may improve our understanding of the influence of atmospheric CO2 on coccolithophore communities.

  6. The Relationship between Time Allocated for Science in Elementary Schools and State Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, student achievement results from mathematics and reading are always included in high-stakes accountability calculations. Because of this, it has been argued that other subjects have been minimized due to assessment and accountability policies. In this study, the accountability practices of states were differentiated into…

  7. When Teaching Interferes with Learning: Balancing Accountability with the Unique Needs of Every Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the practices of administrators and master teachers who are trying to balance the needs for accountability, prescribed curriculum, and learning standards with a broader view of education that gives equal importance to skills not so easily quantified by standardized tests. The author makes a case for the use of careful…

  8. Medical Savings Account balance and outpatient utilization: Evidence from Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yuen, Peter P

    2016-02-01

    Medical Savings Account (MSA) is a financing instrument designed to reduce consumer-side moral hazards. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) scheme in China has an MSA component in addition to a Social Risk-pooling Fund. This study examines the association between MSA balance and outpatient utilization in Guangzhou, China, and determines MSA's impact on utilization under different circumstances. It also seeks to ascertain whether MSA has achieved its intended functions of "Cost-containment", "Saving for the future" and "Enabling utilization". The first group of 114,657 MSA account-holders, including both employees and retirees, who consistently insured with UEBMI from 2002 to 2007, are selected for this study. A two-part model is employed to estimate the effect of the MSA balance on the probability of outpatient services utilization and on the level of outpatient expenditure. Results show that MSA balance is significantly associated with the likelihood of using outpatient services as well as the level of outpatient expenditure. The association is a non-linear U-shaped relationship for working individuals, and an inverted U-shaped relationship for the retirees. The observed U-shaped relationship for working individuals implies that at lower MSA balance levels, a negative balance-expenditure relation exits, while at higher MSA balance levels, the relationship is positive--suggesting possible improper utilization when MSA balance reaches high levels. Setting a maximum MSA balance limit and/or allowing enrollees to use MSA funds to purchase private insurance appears to be desirable. The observed inverted U-shaped relationship for retirees suggests that many retirees have to spend whatever funds they have in their MSA for outpatient care, but the less healthy individuals are able to shift the spending to inpatient care which is mainly financed by the Social Risk-pooling Fund. The results of this study also affirm the usefulness of MSA in performing its

  9. Medical Savings Account balance and outpatient utilization: Evidence from Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yuen, Peter P

    2016-02-01

    Medical Savings Account (MSA) is a financing instrument designed to reduce consumer-side moral hazards. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) scheme in China has an MSA component in addition to a Social Risk-pooling Fund. This study examines the association between MSA balance and outpatient utilization in Guangzhou, China, and determines MSA's impact on utilization under different circumstances. It also seeks to ascertain whether MSA has achieved its intended functions of "Cost-containment", "Saving for the future" and "Enabling utilization". The first group of 114,657 MSA account-holders, including both employees and retirees, who consistently insured with UEBMI from 2002 to 2007, are selected for this study. A two-part model is employed to estimate the effect of the MSA balance on the probability of outpatient services utilization and on the level of outpatient expenditure. Results show that MSA balance is significantly associated with the likelihood of using outpatient services as well as the level of outpatient expenditure. The association is a non-linear U-shaped relationship for working individuals, and an inverted U-shaped relationship for the retirees. The observed U-shaped relationship for working individuals implies that at lower MSA balance levels, a negative balance-expenditure relation exits, while at higher MSA balance levels, the relationship is positive--suggesting possible improper utilization when MSA balance reaches high levels. Setting a maximum MSA balance limit and/or allowing enrollees to use MSA funds to purchase private insurance appears to be desirable. The observed inverted U-shaped relationship for retirees suggests that many retirees have to spend whatever funds they have in their MSA for outpatient care, but the less healthy individuals are able to shift the spending to inpatient care which is mainly financed by the Social Risk-pooling Fund. The results of this study also affirm the usefulness of MSA in performing its

  10. 75 FR 78877 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... with a death benefit payment from a TSP participant account to which contributions were made by or on... 1651. If a service member account contains combat zone contributions, the death benefit payment will be... CFR Parts 1600, 1604, 1650, 1651, and 1690 Employee Contribution Elections and...

  11. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE,L.G.

    1999-07-25

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC&A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former.

  12. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  13. Health Savings Account Balances, Contributions, Distributions, and Other Vital Statistics, 2014: Estimates from the EBRI HSA Database.

    PubMed

    Fronsti, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) maintains a wealth of data collected from various health savings account (HSA) providers. The EBRI HSA Database contains 2.9 million accounts with total assets of $5 billion as of Dec. 31, 2014. This Issue Brief is the second annual report drawing on cross-sectional data from the EBRI HSA Database. It examines account balances, individual and employer contributions, annual distributions, investment accounts, and account-owner demographics for 2014. Enrollment in HSA-eligible health plans is estimated to be about 17 million policyholders and their dependents, and it has also been estimated that there are 13.8 million accounts holding $24.2 billion in assets as of Dec. 31, 2014. Almost 4 in 5 HSAs have been opened since the beginning of 2011. The average HSA balance at the end of 2014 was $1,933, up from $1,408 at the beginning of the year. Average account balances increased with the age of the owner of the account. Account balances averaged $655 for owners under age 25 and $5,016 for owners ages 65 and older. About 6 percent of HSAs had an associated investment account. End-of-year 2014 balance averages were higher in accounts with investment assets. Thirty-seven percent of HSAs with investment assets ended 2014 with a balance of $10,000 or more, whereas only 4 percent of HSAs without investment assets had such a balance. Among HSAs with investment assets, accounts opened in 2014 ended the year with an average balance of $6,544; whereas those opened in 2005 had an average balance of $19,269 at the end of 2014. HSAs with either individual or employer contributions accounted for 70 percent of all accounts and 86 percent of the assets in 2014. Four percent of these accounts ended the year with a zero balance. On a yearly average, individuals who made contributions deposited $2,096 to their account. HSAs receiving employer contributions received $1,021 a year, on average. Four-fifths of HSAs with a contribution also had a

  14. Health Savings Account Balances, Contributions, Distributions, and Other Vital Statistics, 2014: Estimates from the EBRI HSA Database.

    PubMed

    Fronsti, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) maintains a wealth of data collected from various health savings account (HSA) providers. The EBRI HSA Database contains 2.9 million accounts with total assets of $5 billion as of Dec. 31, 2014. This Issue Brief is the second annual report drawing on cross-sectional data from the EBRI HSA Database. It examines account balances, individual and employer contributions, annual distributions, investment accounts, and account-owner demographics for 2014. Enrollment in HSA-eligible health plans is estimated to be about 17 million policyholders and their dependents, and it has also been estimated that there are 13.8 million accounts holding $24.2 billion in assets as of Dec. 31, 2014. Almost 4 in 5 HSAs have been opened since the beginning of 2011. The average HSA balance at the end of 2014 was $1,933, up from $1,408 at the beginning of the year. Average account balances increased with the age of the owner of the account. Account balances averaged $655 for owners under age 25 and $5,016 for owners ages 65 and older. About 6 percent of HSAs had an associated investment account. End-of-year 2014 balance averages were higher in accounts with investment assets. Thirty-seven percent of HSAs with investment assets ended 2014 with a balance of $10,000 or more, whereas only 4 percent of HSAs without investment assets had such a balance. Among HSAs with investment assets, accounts opened in 2014 ended the year with an average balance of $6,544; whereas those opened in 2005 had an average balance of $19,269 at the end of 2014. HSAs with either individual or employer contributions accounted for 70 percent of all accounts and 86 percent of the assets in 2014. Four percent of these accounts ended the year with a zero balance. On a yearly average, individuals who made contributions deposited $2,096 to their account. HSAs receiving employer contributions received $1,021 a year, on average. Four-fifths of HSAs with a contribution also had a

  15. Balancing the Budget: Accounting for Glucocorticoid Bioactivity and Fate during Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ai; Wu, Shimin; Daniels, Kevin D; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-03-15

    Numerous studies have identified the presence and bioactivity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) active substances in water; however, the identification and activity-balance of GR compounds remained elusive. This study determined the occurrence and attenuation of GR bioactivity and closed the balance by determining those substances responsible. The observed in vitro GR activity ranged from 39 to 155 ng dexamethasone-equivalent/L (ng Dex-EQ/L) in the secondary effluents of four wastewater treatment plants. Monochromatic ultraviolet light of 80 mJ/cm(2) disinfection dose was efficient for GR activity photolysis, whereas chlorination could not appreciably attenuate the observed GR activity. Ozonation was effective only at relatively high dose (ozone/TOC 1:1). Microfiltration membranes were not efficient for GR activity attenuation; however, reverse osmosis removed GR activity to levels below the limits of detection. A high-sensitivity liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was then developed to screen 27 GR agonists. Twelve were identified and quantified in effluents at summed concentrations of 9.6-21.2 ng/L. The summed Dex-EQ of individual compounds based on their measured concentrations was in excellent agreement with the Dex-EQ obtained from bioassay, which demonstrated that the detected glucocorticoids can entirely explain the observed GR bioactivity. Four synthetic glucocorticoids (triamcinolone acetonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, and fluticasone propionate) predominantly accounted for GR activity. These data represent the first known publication where a complete activity balance has been determined for GR agonists in an aquatic environment. PMID:26840181

  16. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  17. Accounting of the Power Balance for Neutral-beam-heated H-Mode Plasmas in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    S.F. Paul; R. Maingi; V. Soukhanovskii; S.M. Kaye; H. Kugel; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-08-09

    A survey of the dependence of power balance on input power, shape, and plasma current was conducted for neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Measurements of heat to the divertor strike plates and divertor and core radiation were taken over a wide range of plasma conditions. The different conditions were obtained by inducing a L-mode to H-mode transition, changing the divertor configuration [lower single null (LSN) vs. double-null (DND)] and conducting a NBI power scan in H-mode. 60-70% of the net input power is accounted for in the LSN discharges with 20% of power lost as fast ions, 30-45% incident on the divertor plates, up to 10% radiated in the core, and about 12% radiated in the divertor. In contrast, the power accountability in DND is 85-90%. A comparison of DND and LSN data show that the remaining power in the LSN is likely to be directed to the upper divertor

  18. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  19. Future projections of Greenland's ice loss accounting for changes in surface mass balance and dynamic discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, J. J.; Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.

    2012-04-01

    Under future climate change, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is highly vulnerable as its margins are relatively warm compared to Antarctica making them relatively prone for summer melting. A rise of about three degrees in annual average temperature over Greenland is expected to lead to irreversible ice sheet melting, which makes the GrIS a sensitive element in the Earth's climate system. Moreover, extended coverage and improved observation techniques have revealed high variations in dynamical ice discharge from outlet glaciers around the entire ice sheet. During the last decade, this dynamic discharge has contributed to almost half of the total mass loss. Since variations of the dynamic discharge are limited to the GrIS margin, direct inland transmission of these perturbations is necessary to significantly alter the overall GIS evolution on short time scales. Gradients in membrane stresses hold the potential for direct horizontal coupling and thus concerns are raised whether direct signal transmission has a significant impact on the ice interior. Because of strong mutual feedbacks between surface mass balance and marginal ice dynamics, our aim is to account for changes in both to assess the future GrIS contribution to sea level rise. For this purpose, we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model with a Blatter/Pattyn dynamic core that allows for direct signal transmission in ice flow. The surface mass balance is calculated by a positive degree-day model, which accounts for internal accumulation and temporary water storage in the snow cover. The model is initialised by calibrating a glacial cycle spin-up to the present day geometry. For the last half of the 20th century we force the ice sheet model with reanalysis data of surface temperature and precipitation. Future climate scenarios are taken from general circulation models and used in anomaly mode in the positive degree-day model. These scenarios are based on the representative concentration pathways that were

  20. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  1. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    PubMed

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  2. Do differences in carbon allocation strategy account for large difference in productivity among four tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Kinana, A.; Mazoumbou, J.; Almeida, J. D.; Deleporte, P.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for wood products is not satisfied by natural forests, and forest plantations are expected to provide a larger part of the global wood supply in the future. Eucalyptus is the dominant species planted in the tropics. Intensification of wood production will rely mainly on gain of productivity and on extension of afforested area on marginal zones. Wood production does not only depend on gross primary production (GPP) but also on carbon partitioning between growth (NPP) and respiration, and on NPP partitioning among the different plant organs (allocation). Less than one third of GPP is allocated to wood production in planted forest ecosystems and we hypothesized that this fraction varies among genotypes, or because of soil fertility, in relation to productivity. The partitioning of aboveground NPP between leaf, branch and stem growth was compared in four Eucalyptus plantations located in Congo and Brazil over an entire rotation (6 years). In addition, total below ground carbon allocation was estimated from soil respiration and litter fall measurements. Two clones differing in productivity were studies in Congo where productivity is known to be much less important than in Brazil. Two plots (fertilized or not with K) were studied in Brazil. In Congo, the wood production was twice higher in the most productive clone (UG) compared to the less productive one (PF1). This was due to a higher aboveground NPP, the surplus being allocated to wood production. In addition, an increase in leaf lifespan reduced the amount of carbon allocated to leaf production. Similar conclusions can be drawn when comparing K+ fertilised and control stand in Brazil where most of the surplus of aboveground NPP in fertilised plots was allocated to wood production and where leaf lifespan was also increased. Soil respiration increased in both sites with increasing NPP reflecting that more carbon is allocated below ground in these stands. A better understanding of genetic and

  3. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  7. A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrinaga, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?" (Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard 2013), researchers test whether business education and (controller) experience influence decision-makers to consider a longer-term perspective and,…

  8. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  9. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  10. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  11. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  12. Integrating a distributed hydrological model and SEEA-Water for improving water account and water allocation management under a climate change context.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Almeida, Carina; Simionesei, Lucian; Ramos, Tiago; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    The crescent demand and situations of water scarcity and droughts are a difficult problem to solve by water managers, with big repercussions in the entire society. The complexity of this question is increased by trans-boundary river issues and the environmental impacts of the usual adopted solutions to store water, like reservoirs. To be able to answer to the society requirements regarding water allocation in a sustainable way, the managers must have a complete and clear picture of the present situation, as well as being able to understand the changes in the water dynamics both in the short and long time period. One of the available tools for the managers is the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-Water), a subsystem of SEEA with focus on water accounts, developed by the United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD) in collaboration with the London Group on Environmental Accounting, This system provides, between other things, with a set of tables and accounts for water and water related emissions, organizing statistical data making possible the derivation of indicators that can be used to assess the relations between economy and environment. One of the main issues with the SEEA-Water framework seems to be the requirement of large amounts of data, including field measurements of water availability in rivers/lakes/reservoirs, soil and groundwater, as also precipitation, irrigation and other water sources and uses. While this is an incentive to collecting and using data, it diminishes the usefulness of the system on countries where this data is not yet available or is incomplete, as it can lead to a poor understanding of the water availability and uses. Distributed hydrological models can be used to fill missing data required by the SEEA-Water framework. They also make it easier to assess different scenarios (usually soil use, water demand and climate changes) for a better planning of water allocation. In the context of the DURERO project (www

  13. 11 CFR 106.7 - Allocation of expenses between Federal and non-Federal accounts by party committees, other than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... election activities pursuant to 11 CFR 100.24 may use only funds subject to the prohibitions and... that have established separate Federal and non-Federal accounts under 11 CFR 102.5(a)(1)(i) shall... reasonable accounting method approved by the Commission (including any method embedded in software...

  14. Working toward More Engaged and Successful Accounting Students: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredin, Amy; Fuchsteiner, Peter; Portz, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates that student engagement is the key to student success, as measured by college grades, degree completion, and graduate school enrollment. We propose a set of goals and objectives for accounting students, in particular, to help them become engaged not only in the educational process, but also in the accounting profession.…

  15. Balancing the Vocational and Academic Dimensions of Accounting Education: The Case for a Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisey, Catriona; Paisey, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge is a defining characteristic of professions but, given the ever-increasing knowledge base, curricula in professional disciplines are becoming overcrowded. This paper discusses propositional/declarative knowledge in relation to the accounting knowledge base. Historically, professional areas such as medicine, law and accountancy have…

  16. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    This monograph, prepared to assist Georgia elementary principals to better understand accountability and its implications for educational improvement, sets forth many of the theoretical and philosophical bases from which accountability is being considered. Leon M. Lessinger begins this 5-paper presentation by describing the need for accountability…

  17. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  18. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the accountability movement is related to how the movement began in response to dissatisfaction with public schools. Opponents see it as one-sided, somewhat mean-spirited, and a threat to the professional status of teachers. Supporters argue that all other spheres of the workplace have accountability systems and that the…

  19. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  20. Testing for Accountability: A Balancing Act That Challenges Current Testing Practices and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Koretz, in his article published in this issue, provides compelling arguments that the high stakes currently associated with accountability testing lead to behavioral changes in students, teachers, and other stakeholders that often have negative consequences, such as inflated scores. Koretz goes on to argue that these negative consequences require…

  1. A Computational Account of Children's Analogical Reasoning: Balancing Inhibitory Control in Working Memory and Relational Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Robert G.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.; Richland, Lindsey E.

    2011-01-01

    Theories accounting for the development of analogical reasoning tend to emphasize either the centrality of relational knowledge accretion or changes in information processing capability. Simulations in LISA (Hummel & Holyoak, 1997, 2003), a neurally inspired computer model of analogical reasoning, allow us to explore how these factors may…

  2. Balancing Accountability and Ethics: A Case Study of an Elementary School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dorothy Ledbetter

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has increasingly had a major impact on daily decisions in schools, especially for principals' performance. Depending on the accountability rating, schools are in jeopardy of closing, and principals and teachers are at risk of being fired (McGhee & Nelson, 2005). As a result, it is…

  3. Re-Balancing Assessment: Placing Formative and Performance Assessment at the Heart of Learning and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Peter; Goodwin, Bryan; Kahl, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    These days, a growing chorus of parents, educators, and policymakers is voicing frustration and anger with top-down accountability and high-stakes testing. As members of two not-for-profit education organizations--one focused on assessment and the other on research and instructional practices--the authors find nothing wrong with testing itself;…

  4. Balancing the Yin and Yang: The Role of Universities in Developing Softer Skills in Accountancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carl; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Wells, Jamie; Scott, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of the importance of softer skills in the accountancy profession and a discussion of the contribution that universities can make in supporting the development of these skills. With employers increasingly demanding a greater range of softer skills such as effective communication, the paper is intended to challenge…

  5. Generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method.

    PubMed

    Lebowitsch, Jonathan; Ge, Yan; Young, Benjamin; Hu, Feifang

    2012-12-10

    Dynamic allocation has received considerable attention since it was first proposed in the 1970s as an alternative means of allocating treatments in clinical trials which helps to secure the balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method that simultaneously balances treatment assignments at three key levels: within the overall study, within each level of each prognostic factor, and within each stratum, that is, combination of levels of different factors Further it offers capabilities for unbalanced and adaptive designs for trials. The treatment balancing performance of the proposed method is investigated through simulations which compare multidimensional dynamic allocation with traditional stratified block randomization and the Pocock-Simon method. On the basis of these results, we conclude that this generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method is an improvement over conventional dynamic allocation methods and is flexible enough to be applied for most trial settings including Phases I, II and III trials.

  6. Impacts of afforestation and silviculture on the soil C balance of tropical tree plantations: belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Koutika, L.; Mareschal, L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest plantations will provide a large part of the global wood supply which is anticipated to increase sharply in the next decades, becoming a valuable source of income in many countries, where they also contribute to land use changes that impact the global carbon (C) cycle. Tropical forest plantations established on previous grasslands are potential C sinks offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When they are managed on short rotations, the aboveground biomass is frequently removed and transformed into wood products with short lifetimes. The soil is thus the only compartment for durable C sequestration. The soil C budget results from the inputs of C from litterfall, root turnover and residues left at logging stage, balanced by C losses through heterotrophic respiration and leaching of organic C with water flow. Intensive researches have been conducted these last ten years in eucalypt plantations in the Congo on the effects of management options on soil fertility improvement and C sequestration. Our aim is to review important results regarding belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion in relation to management options. We will specifically address (i) the soil C dynamics after afforestation of a tropical savannah, (ii) the impact of post-harvest residue management, and (iii) the beneficial effect of introducing nitrogen fixing species for C sequestration. Our results on afforestation of previous savannah showed that mechanical soil disturbance for site preparation had no effect on soil CO2 efflux and soil C balance. Soil C increased after afforestation despite a rapid disappearance of the labile savannah-derived C because a large fraction of savannah-derived C is stable and the aboveground litter layer is as the major source of CO2 contributing to soil CO2 efflux. We further demonstrated that the C stock in and on the soil slightly increased after each rotation when large amounts of residues are left at logging stage and that most of

  7. Preserving the allocation ratio at every allocation with biased coin randomization and minimization in studies with unequal allocation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2012-04-13

    The demand for unequal allocation in clinical trials is growing. Most commonly, the unequal allocation is achieved through permuted block randomization. However, other allocation procedures might be required to better approximate the allocation ratio in small samples, reduce the selection bias in open-label studies, or balance on baseline covariates. When these allocation procedures are generalized to unequal allocation, special care is to be taken to preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation step. This paper offers a way to expand the biased coin randomization to unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every allocation. The suggested expansion works with biased coin randomization that balances only on treatment group totals and with covariate-adaptive procedures that use a random biased coin element at every allocation. Balancing properties of the allocation ratio preserving biased coin randomization and minimization are described through simulations. It is demonstrated that these procedures are asymptotically protected against the shift in the rerandomization distribution identified for some examples of minimization with 1:2 allocation. The asymptotic shift in the rerandomization distribution of the difference in treatment means for an arbitrary unequal allocation procedure is explicitly derived in the paper.

  8. Balancing Fairness and Efficiency: The Impact of Identity-Blind and Identity-Conscious Accountability on Applicant Screening.

    PubMed

    Self, William T; Mitchell, Gregory; Mellers, Barbara A; Tetlock, Philip E; Hildreth, J Angus D

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two forms of accountability that can be used to promote diversity and fairness in personnel selections: identity-conscious accountability (holding decision makers accountable for which groups are selected) versus identity-blind accountability (holding decision makers accountable for making fair selections). In a simulated application screening process, undergraduate participants (majority female) sorted applicants under conditions of identity-conscious accountability, identity-blind accountability, or no accountability for an applicant pool in which white males either did or did not have a human capital advantage. Under identity-conscious accountability, participants exhibited pro-female and pro-minority bias, particularly in the white-male-advantage applicant pool. Under identity-blind accountability, participants exhibited no biases and candidate qualifications dominated interview recommendations. Participants exhibited greater resentment toward management under identity-conscious accountability.

  9. Balancing Fairness and Efficiency: The Impact of Identity-Blind and Identity-Conscious Accountability on Applicant Screening.

    PubMed

    Self, William T; Mitchell, Gregory; Mellers, Barbara A; Tetlock, Philip E; Hildreth, J Angus D

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two forms of accountability that can be used to promote diversity and fairness in personnel selections: identity-conscious accountability (holding decision makers accountable for which groups are selected) versus identity-blind accountability (holding decision makers accountable for making fair selections). In a simulated application screening process, undergraduate participants (majority female) sorted applicants under conditions of identity-conscious accountability, identity-blind accountability, or no accountability for an applicant pool in which white males either did or did not have a human capital advantage. Under identity-conscious accountability, participants exhibited pro-female and pro-minority bias, particularly in the white-male-advantage applicant pool. Under identity-blind accountability, participants exhibited no biases and candidate qualifications dominated interview recommendations. Participants exhibited greater resentment toward management under identity-conscious accountability. PMID:26660723

  10. Balancing Fairness and Efficiency: The Impact of Identity-Blind and Identity-Conscious Accountability on Applicant Screening

    PubMed Central

    Self, William T.; Mitchell, Gregory; Mellers, Barbara A.; Tetlock, Philip E.; Hildreth, J. Angus D.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two forms of accountability that can be used to promote diversity and fairness in personnel selections: identity-conscious accountability (holding decision makers accountable for which groups are selected) versus identity-blind accountability (holding decision makers accountable for making fair selections). In a simulated application screening process, undergraduate participants (majority female) sorted applicants under conditions of identity-conscious accountability, identity-blind accountability, or no accountability for an applicant pool in which white males either did or did not have a human capital advantage. Under identity-conscious accountability, participants exhibited pro-female and pro-minority bias, particularly in the white-male-advantage applicant pool. Under identity-blind accountability, participants exhibited no biases and candidate qualifications dominated interview recommendations. Participants exhibited greater resentment toward management under identity-conscious accountability. PMID:26660723

  11. Resource Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stennett, R. G.

    A research allocation formula employed in London, Ontario elementary schools, as well as supporting data on the method, are provided in this report. Attempts to improve on the traditional methods of resource allocation in London's schools were based on two principles: (1) that need for a particular service could and should be determined…

  12. Hierarchical dynamic allocation procedures based on modified Zelen's approach in multiregional studies with unequal allocation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-01-01

    Morrissey, McEntegart, and Lang (2010) showed that in multicenter studies with equal allocation to several treatment arms, the modified Zelen's approach provides excellent within-center and across-study balance in treatment assignments. In this article, hierarchical balancing procedures for equal allocation to more than two arms (with some elements different from earlier versions) and their unequal allocation expansions that incorporate modified Zelen's approach at the center level are described. The balancing properties of the described procedures for a case study of a multiregional clinical trial with 1:2 allocation where balance within regions as well as in other covariates is required are examined through simulations.

  13. Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynder, Monte; Wellner, Kai-Uwe; Reinhard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    We are nearing the end of the United Nations' Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). There has been substantial rhetoric in education and business forums, and many universities have integrated sustainability into their accounting curricula, but what effect is accounting education having? This study considers whether the…

  14. A new accounting system for financial balance based on personnel cost after the introduction of a DPC/DRG system.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Tadamasa; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-04-01

    A hospital director must estimate the revenues and expenses not only in a hospital but also in each clinical division to determine the proper management strategy. A new prospective payment system based on the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC/PPS) introduced in 2003 has made the attribution of revenues and expenses for each clinical department very complicated because of the intricate involvement between the overall or blanket component and a fee-for service (FFS). Few reports have so far presented a programmatic method for the calculation of medical costs and financial balance. A simple method has been devised, based on personnel cost, for calculating medical costs and financial balance. Using this method, one individual was able to complete the calculations for a hospital which contains 535 beds and 16 clinics, without using the central hospital computer system.

  15. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  16. [Management and accounting solution required in clinical laboratory department in the hospital and the balanced scorecard (BSC)].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiro

    2006-11-01

    This is to describe required accounting knowledge and the techniques for the clinical laboratory department management level people to operate their division from the viewpoint of management. Especially, the necessity and the efficacy of the BSC implementation in the clinical laboratory department are being explained.

  17. [Management and accounting solution required in clinical laboratory department in the hospital and the balanced scorecard (BSC)].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiro

    2006-11-01

    This is to describe required accounting knowledge and the techniques for the clinical laboratory department management level people to operate their division from the viewpoint of management. Especially, the necessity and the efficacy of the BSC implementation in the clinical laboratory department are being explained. PMID:17240833

  18. Cenosphere formation from heavy fuel oil: a numerical analysis accounting for the balance between porous shells and internal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vanteru M.; Rahman, Mustafa M.; Gandi, Appala N.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Schrecengost, Robert A.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) as a fuel in industrial and power generation plants ensures the availability of energy at economy. Coke and cenosphere emissions from HFO combustion need to be controlled by particulate control equipment such as electrostatic precipitators, and collection effectiveness is impacted by the properties of these particulates. The cenosphere formation is a function of HFO composition, which varies depending on the source of the HFO. Numerical modelling of the cenosphere formation mechanism presented in this paper is an economical method of characterising cenosphere formation potential for HFO in comparison to experimental analysis of individual HFO samples, leading to better control and collection. In the present work, a novel numerical model is developed for understanding the global cenosphere formation mechanism. The critical diameter of the cenosphere is modelled based on the balance between two pressures developed in an HFO droplet. First is the pressure (Prpf) developed at the interface of the liquid surface and the inner surface of the accumulated coke due to the flow restriction of volatile components from the interior of the droplet. Second is the pressure due to the outer shell strength (PrC) gained from van der Walls energy of the coke layers and surface energy. In this present study it is considered that when PrC ≥ Prpf the outer shell starts to harden. The internal motion in the shell layer ceases and the outer diameter (DSOut) of the shell is then fixed. The entire process of cenosphere formation in this study is analysed in three phases: regression, shell formation and hardening, and post shell hardening. Variations in pressures during shell formation are analysed. Shell (cenosphere) dimensions are evaluated at the completion of droplet evaporation. The rate of fuel evaporation, rate of coke formation and coke accumulation are analysed. The model predicts shell outer diameters of 650, 860 and 1040 µm, and inner diameters are 360, 410

  19. A method for accounting for maintenance costs in flux balance analysis improves the prediction of plant cell metabolic phenotypes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Williams, Thomas C R; Poolman, Mark G; Fell, David A; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2013-09-01

    Flux balance models of metabolism generally utilize synthesis of biomass as the main determinant of intracellular fluxes. However, the biomass constraint alone is not sufficient to predict realistic fluxes in central heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells because of the major demand on the energy budget due to transport costs and cell maintenance. This major limitation can be addressed by incorporating transport steps into the metabolic model and by implementing a procedure that uses Pareto optimality analysis to explore the trade-off between ATP and NADPH production for maintenance. This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative steps of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. We show that accounting for transport and maintenance costs substantially improves the accuracy of fluxes predicted from a flux balance model of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells in culture, irrespective of the objective function used in the analysis. Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. It is concluded that the hyper-osmotic conditions tested did not impose a metabolic stress, in as much as the metabolic network is not forced to devote more resources to cell maintenance.

  20. Modelling C allocation in response to nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation in ecosystems is a key variable of the global terrestrial C cycle. While photosynthesis governs the amount of C that enters ecosystems, its subsequent allocation to compartments with different life times determines its over-all residence time and variations in allocation patterns drive changes in ecosystem C balance and its response to environmental change. A better understanding of the controls on allocation is thus key to improving global vegetation models that commonly rely on using fixed partitioning factors. Observational data suggests variations of ecosystem structure and functioning along large-scale gradients of resource availability. Below-ground C allocation, inferred as gross primary production minus above-ground biomass production increases along gradients of decreasing nutrient availability. This is not only due to more root growth, but also due to enhanced production of exudates and stimulation of root symbionts and has been interpreted to reflect optimal plant allocation decisions under a varying soil fertility status. Here, we propose a model that accounts for trade-offs between (i) growth in above-ground and (ii) below-ground plant compartments, (iii) exudation to the rhizosphere and root symbionts and (iv) temporary storage in non-structural pools. By postulating the maximization of long-term growth under a given (seasonal regime) of soil nitrogen (N) availability, we attempt to reproduce observed large-scale gradients. The model is formulated based on a C cost for different N uptake decisions, where the cost is a function of N availability, root mass, and soil temperature (for biological N fixation). On a daily time scale, ecosystem N uptake may be realized by C exudation to the rhizosphere and/or symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N2. On an annual time scale, allocation to roots versus leaves is adjusted to soil inorganic N availability and modeled to yield maximum total growth. Exudation versus temporary storage of C is

  1. Accounting for hydro-climatic and water use variability in the assessment of past and future water balance at the basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses water stress by 2050 in river basins facing increasing human and climatic pressures, by comparing the impacts of various combinations of possible future socio-economic and climate trends. A modelling framework integrating human and hydro-climatic dynamics and accounting for interactions between resource and demand at a 10-day time step was developed and applied in two basins of different sizes and with contrasted water uses: the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) basins. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model (GR4j). A demand-driven reservoir management model was designed to account for streamflow regulations from the main dams. Urban water demand was estimated from time series of population and monthly unit water consumption data. Agricultural water demand was computed from time series of irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climate forcing. Indicators comparing water supply to demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed. This framework was successfully calibrated and validated under non-stationary human and hydro-climatic conditions over the last 40 years before being applied under four combinations of climatic and water use scenarios to differentiate the impacts of climate- and human-induced changes on streamflow and water balance. Climate simulations from the CMIP5 exercise were used to generate 18 climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. A baseline water use scenario for 2050 was designed based on demographic and local socio-economic trends. Results showed that projected water uses are not sustainable under climate change scenarios.

  2. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  3. Balancing between two goods: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and ethical compliancy considerations for privacy-sensitive materials in health sciences archival and historical special collections

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Anne T

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The investigation provides recommendations for establishing institutional collection guidelines and policies that protect the integrity of the historical record, while upholding the privacy and confidentiality of those who are protected by Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) or professional ethical standards. Methods: The authors completed a systematic historical investigation of the concepts of collection integrity, privacy, and confidentiality in the formal and informal legal and professional ethics literature and applied these standards to create best practices for institutional policies in these areas. Results: Through an in-depth examination of the historical concepts of privacy and confidentiality in the legal and professional ethics literature, the authors were able to create recommendations that would allow institutions to provide access to important, yet sensitive, materials, while complying with the standards set by HIPAA regulations and professional ethical expectations. Conclusion: With thoughtful planning, it is possible to balance the integrity of and access to the historical record of sensitive documents, while supporting the privacy protections of HIPAA and professional ethical standards. Although it is theorized that collection development polices of institutions have changed due to HIPAA legislation, additional research is suggested to see how various legal interpretations have affected the integrity of the historical record in actuality. PMID:21243051

  4. Computer Processor Allocator

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  5. Sustainability Education and Accounting Experience. What Motivates Higher Valuation of Environmental Performance?: A Commentary on "Rhetoric or Reality? Do Accounting Education and Experience Increase Weighting on Environmental Performance in a Balanced Scorecard?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaltegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Accounting has been accused of being a cause of unsustainable management, but is also seen as being a means to support corporate sustainability and improvement. In both views the introduction of environmental and sustainability topics in accounting education is widely supported. The main finding from the study by Wynder, Wellner, and Reinhard…

  6. 12 CFR 1024.17 - Escrow accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... servicer conducts in the form of a trial running balance for an escrow account to: (1) Determine the... running balance means the accounting process that derives the target balances over the course of an escrow... trial running balance. (c) Limits on payments to escrow accounts. (1) A lender or servicer...

  7. 12 CFR 1024.17 - Escrow accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... servicer conducts in the form of a trial running balance for an escrow account to: (1) Determine the... running balance means the accounting process that derives the target balances over the course of an escrow... trial running balance. (c) Limits on payments to escrow accounts. (1) A lender or servicer...

  8. Carbon allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi correlates with belowground allocation in culture studies.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Erik A

    2006-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbioses with most temperate and boreal tree species, but difficulties in measuring carbon allocation to these symbionts have prevented the assessment of their importance in forest ecosystems. Here, I surveyed allocation patterns in 14 culture studies and five field studies of ectomycorrhizal plants. In culture studies, allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi (NPPf) was linearly related to total belowground net primary production (NPPb) by the equation NPPf = 41.5% x NPPb - 11.3% (r2 = 0.55, P < 0.001) and ranged from 1% to 21% of total net primary production. As a percentage of NPP, allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi was highest at lowest plant growth rates and lowest nutrient availabilities. Because total belowground allocation can be estimated using carbon balance techniques, these relationships should allow ecologists to incorporate mycorrhizal fungi into existing ecosystem models. In field studies, allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi ranged from 0% to 22% of total allocation, but wide differences in measurement techniques made intercomparisons difficult. Techniques such as fungal in-growth cores, root branching-order studies, and isotopic analyses could refine our estimates of turnover rates of fine roots, mycorrhizae, and extraradical hyphae. Together with ecosystem modeling, such techniques could soon provide good estimates of the relative importance of root vs. fungal allocation in belowground carbon budgets.

  9. A Method of Accounting for Enzyme Costs in Flux Balance Analysis Reveals Alternative Pathways and Metabolite Stores in an Illuminated Arabidopsis Leaf.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-11-01

    Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism is an established method for predicting metabolic flux phenotypes and for exploring the way in which the plant metabolic network delivers specific outcomes in different cell types, tissues, and temporal phases. A recurring theme is the need to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting its objectives and, in particular, to establish the extent to which alternative pathways can contribute to achieving specific outcomes. Unfortunately, predictions from conventional flux balance analysis minimize the simultaneous operation of alternative pathways, but by introducing flux-weighting factors to allow for the variable intrinsic cost of supporting each flux, it is possible to activate different pathways in individual simulations and, thus, to explore alternative pathways by averaging thousands of simulations. This new method has been applied to a diel genome-scale model of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf metabolism to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting the metabolic requirements of the leaf in the light. This identified alternative flux modes in the Calvin-Benson cycle revealed the potential for alternative transitory carbon stores in leaves and led to predictions about the light-dependent contribution of alternative electron flow pathways and futile cycles in energy rebalancing. Notable features of the analysis include the light-dependent tradeoff between the use of carbohydrates and four-carbon organic acids as transitory storage forms and the way in which multiple pathways for the consumption of ATP and NADPH can contribute to the balancing of the requirements of photosynthetic metabolism with the energy available from photon capture.

  10. A Method of Accounting for Enzyme Costs in Flux Balance Analysis Reveals Alternative Pathways and Metabolite Stores in an Illuminated Arabidopsis Leaf1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, C.Y. Maurice; Ratcliffe, R. George; Sweetlove, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism is an established method for predicting metabolic flux phenotypes and for exploring the way in which the plant metabolic network delivers specific outcomes in different cell types, tissues, and temporal phases. A recurring theme is the need to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting its objectives and, in particular, to establish the extent to which alternative pathways can contribute to achieving specific outcomes. Unfortunately, predictions from conventional flux balance analysis minimize the simultaneous operation of alternative pathways, but by introducing flux-weighting factors to allow for the variable intrinsic cost of supporting each flux, it is possible to activate different pathways in individual simulations and, thus, to explore alternative pathways by averaging thousands of simulations. This new method has been applied to a diel genome-scale model of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf metabolism to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting the metabolic requirements of the leaf in the light. This identified alternative flux modes in the Calvin-Benson cycle revealed the potential for alternative transitory carbon stores in leaves and led to predictions about the light-dependent contribution of alternative electron flow pathways and futile cycles in energy rebalancing. Notable features of the analysis include the light-dependent tradeoff between the use of carbohydrates and four-carbon organic acids as transitory storage forms and the way in which multiple pathways for the consumption of ATP and NADPH can contribute to the balancing of the requirements of photosynthetic metabolism with the energy available from photon capture. PMID:26265776

  11. 75 FR 10463 - Office of Insular Affairs; Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2010 for Watch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Changes in Watch, Watch Movement and Jewelry Program for the U.S. Insular Possessions, 65 FR 8048... producer allocation Belair Quartz, Inc 500,000 The balance of the units allocated to the USVI is...

  12. Balancing rationalities: gatekeeping in health care

    PubMed Central

    Willems, D.

    2001-01-01

    Physicians are increasingly confronted with the consequences of allocation policies. In several countries, physicians have been assigned a gatekeeper role for secondary health care. Many ethicists oppose this assignment for several reasons, concentrating on the harm the intrusion of societal arguments would inflict on doctor-patient relations. It is argued that these arguments rest on a distinction of spheres of values and of rationality, without taking into account the mixing of values and rationalities that takes place in everyday medical practice. If medical practice, then, does not follow a single, pure rationality, can it also incorporate the societal rationality of the gatekeeper role? Using a case from general practice, I try to show how physicians may integrate societal arguments into their practice in a morally acceptable way. A version of the model of reflective equilibrium and especially Beauchamp and Childress's safeguards, may be helpful both to analyse and teach such balancing of values and rationalities. Key Words: Allocation • gatekeeper • physician-patient relations • justice • balancing • ethics PMID:11233373

  13. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2320 - Account 232, Accounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2320 Account 232,...

  19. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  20. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounted for using the percentage-of-completion method described in § 1.460-4(b) (PCM), the completed... using a method other than the PCM or CCM are not subject to the cost allocation rules of this section... subject to the PCM. Paragraph (c) of this section describes an elective simplified cost allocation...

  1. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accounted for using the percentage-of-completion method described in § 1.460-4(b) (PCM), the completed... using a method other than the PCM or CCM are not subject to the cost allocation rules of this section... subject to the PCM. Paragraph (c) of this section describes an elective simplified cost allocation...

  2. 20 CFR 633.105 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 633.105 Section 633.105 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Introductory Provisions § 633.105 Allocation of funds. (a) National Account. (1) Up to...

  3. 77 FR 2225 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    .... Affiliated Groups The interest expense of each member of an affiliated group is allocated and apportioned as... income that is taken into account for purposes of applying the affiliated group interest apportionment... be treated as a member of an affiliated group for interest allocation and apportionment purposes...

  4. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  5. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  6. Accounting for minor storage terms in an attempt to close the measured surface energy balance over a winter wheat field in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshonkulov, Ravshan; Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Studies of energy and water exchange between the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer are important to understand weather dynamics and climate change. Energy and water fluxes were measured on a winter wheat field in Kraichgau, Southern Germany, using the eddy covariance (EC) method. It is well known that EC measurements suffer from incomplete closure of the energy budget. In addition to the common ground heat flux measurements we measured heat storage in soil and the wheat canopy using high-precision temperature loggers within the EC footprint. Ground heat flux was re-calculated by calorimetric and harmonic analysis. First results obtained by the two methods will be compared. Based on measured data we calculated the contribution of photosynthesis, the air heat storage inside the canopy as well as the atmospheric moisture change to the energy budget. Our results show that accounting for minor storage terms improves the closure of the energy budget, but only to a limited extent. Further investigations will be necessary to identify additional sources of the energy gap typical for EC measurements.

  7. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  8. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  9. Optimal Plant Carbon Allocation Implies a Biological Control on Nitrogen Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, I. C.; Stocker, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which nitrogen availability limits the terrestrial C sink under rising CO2 is a key uncertainty in carbon cycle and climate change projections. Results from ecosystem manipulation studies and meta-analyses suggest that plant C allocation to roots adjusts dynamically under varying degrees of nitrogen availability and other soil fertility parameters. In addition, the ratio of biomass production to GPP appears to decline under nutrient scarcity. This reflects increasing plant C exudation into the soil (Cex) with decreasing nutrient availability. Cex is consumed by an array of soil organisms and may imply an improvement of nutrient availability to the plant. Thus, N availability is under biological control, but incurs a C cost. In spite of clear observational support, this concept is left unaccounted for in Earth system models. We develop a model for the coupled cycles of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems to explore optimal plant C allocation under rising CO2 and its implications for the ecosystem C balance. The model follows a balanced growth approach, accounting for the trade-offs between leaf versus root growth and Cex in balancing C fixation and N uptake. We assume that Cex is proportional to root mass, and that the ratio of N uptake (Nup) to Cex is proportional to inorganic N concentration in the soil solution. We further assume that Cex is consumed by N2-fixing processes if the ratio of Nup:Cex falls below the inverse of the C cost of N2-fixation. Our analysis thereby accounts for the feedbacks between ecosystem C and N cycling and stoichiometry. We address the question of how the plant C economy will adjust under rising atmospheric CO2 and what this implies for the ecosystem C balance and the degree of N limitation.

  10. 48 CFR 9904.403 - Allocation of home office expenses to segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation of home office expenses to segments. 9904.403 Section 9904.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403 Allocation of home office expenses...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.403 - Allocation of home office expenses to segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation of home office expenses to segments. 9904.403 Section 9904.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403 Allocation of home office expenses...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.403 - Allocation of home office expenses to segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Allocation of home office expenses to segments. 9904.403 Section 9904.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403 Allocation of home office expenses...

  13. 17 CFR 190.08 - Allocation of property and allowance of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... estate must be allocated among account classes and between customer classes as provided in this section... constitute a separate estate of the customer class and the account class to which it is allocated, and will be designated by reference to such customer class and account class. (a) Scope of customer...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.413 - Adjustment and allocation of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment and allocation of pension cost. 9904.413 Section 9904.413 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413 Adjustment and allocation of...

  15. 18 CFR 367.1420 - Account 142, Customer accounts receivable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1420 Account 142, Customer... merchandising, jobbing and contract work. This account must not include amounts due from associate companies....

  16. Data Partitioning and Load Balancing in Parallel Disk Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter; Weikum, Gerhard; Zabback, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Parallel disk systems provide opportunities for exploiting I/O parallelism in two possible waves, namely via inter-request and intra-request parallelism. In this paper we discuss the main issues in performance tuning of such systems, namely striping and load balancing, and show their relationship to response time and throughput. We outline the main components of an intelligent, self-reliant file system that aims to optimize striping by taking into account the requirements of the applications and performs load balancing by judicious file allocation and dynamic redistributions of the data when access patterns change. Our system uses simple but effective heuristics that incur only little overhead. We present performance experiments based on synthetic workloads and real-life traces.

  17. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  18. Cost Accounting and Accountability for Early Education Programs for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingold, William

    The paper offers some basic information for making decisions about allocating and accounting for resources provided to young handicapped children. Sections address the following topics: reasons for costing, audiences for cost accounting and accountability information, and a process for cost accounting and accountability (defining cost categories,…

  19. 7 CFR 1773.42 - Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clearing accounts. 1773.42 Section 1773.42... § 1773.42 Clearing accounts. The CPA's workpapers must contain an analysis of all clearing accounts... allocation between expense and capital accounts....

  20. 7 CFR 1773.42 - Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearing accounts. 1773.42 Section 1773.42... § 1773.42 Clearing accounts. The CPA's workpapers must contain an analysis of all clearing accounts... allocation between expense and capital accounts....

  1. 7 CFR 1773.42 - Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clearing accounts. 1773.42 Section 1773.42... § 1773.42 Clearing accounts. The CPA's workpapers must contain an analysis of all clearing accounts... allocation between expense and capital accounts....

  2. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  3. Statistical comparison of random allocation methods in cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Atsushi; Hamada, Chikuma; Yoshimura, Isao; Ohashi, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Junichi; Nakazato, Hiroaki

    2004-12-01

    The selection of a trial design is an important issue in the planning of clinical trials. One of the most important considerations in trial design is the method of treatment allocation and appropriate analysis plan corresponding to the design. In this article, we conducted computer simulations using the actual data from 2158 rectal cancer patients enrolled in the surgery-alone group from seven randomized controlled trials in Japan to compare the performance of allocation methods, simple randomization, stratified randomization and minimization in relatively small-scale trials (total number of two groups are 50, 100, 150 or 200 patients). The degree of imbalance in prognostic factors between groups was evaluated by changing the allocation probability of minimization from 1.00 to 0.70 by 0.05. The simulation demonstrated that minimization provides the best performance to ensure balance in the number of patients between groups and prognostic factors. Moreover, to achieve the 1 percentile for the p-value of chi-square test around 0.50 with respect to balance in prognostic factors, the allocation probability of minimization was required to be set to 0.95 for 50, 0.80 for 100, 0.75 for 150 and 0.70 for 200 patients. When the sample size was larger, sufficient balance could be achieved even if reducing allocation probability. The simulation using actual data demonstrated that unadjusted tests for the allocation factors resulted in conservative type I errors when dynamic allocation, such as minimization, was used. In contrast, adjusted tests for allocation factors as covariates improved type I errors closer to the nominal significance level and they provided slightly higher power. In conclusion, both the statistical and clinical validity of minimization was demonstrated in our study.

  4. Wide brick tunnel randomization - an unequal allocation procedure that limits the imbalance in treatment totals.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-04-30

    In open-label studies, partial predictability of permuted block randomization provides potential for selection bias. To lessen the selection bias in two-arm studies with equal allocation, a number of allocation procedures that limit the imbalance in treatment totals at a pre-specified level but do not require the exact balance at the ends of the blocks were developed. In studies with unequal allocation, however, the task of designing a randomization procedure that sets a pre-specified limit on imbalance in group totals is not resolved. Existing allocation procedures either do not preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation or do not include all allocation sequences that comply with the pre-specified imbalance threshold. Kuznetsova and Tymofyeyev described the brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every step and, in the two-arm case, includes all sequences that satisfy the smallest possible imbalance threshold. This article introduces wide brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that allows all allocation sequences with imbalance not exceeding any pre-specified threshold while preserving the allocation ratio at every step. In open-label studies, allowing a larger imbalance in treatment totals lowers selection bias because of the predictability of treatment assignments. The applications of the technique in two-arm and multi-arm open-label studies with unequal allocation are described.

  5. 27 CFR 19.516 - Bond account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maximum penal sum, he shall maintain an account of his bond and he shall charge the bond with the amount... return. Where a bond in less than the maximum penal sum has been allocated among two or more plants, as... the penal sum allocated to that plant. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1356, as amended (26...

  6. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  7. It takes six to boogie: allocating cadaver kidneys in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Doxiadis, Ilias I N; Smits, Jacqueline M A; Persijn, Guido G; Frei, Ulrich; Claas, Frans H J

    2004-02-27

    In March 1996, a new allocation point system for cadaver kidneys, the Eurotransplant (ET) Kidney Allocation System (KAS), was introduced in ET, the first multinational organ exchange organization. The aims of ETKAS were to reduce average and maximum waiting time, to allow patients with rare human leukocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes or combinations to receive an "optimal" offer, to keep the exchange rates between the participating countries balanced, and finally to keep optimal graft survival, by means of HLA matching. Elderly patients and highly sensitized patients profit in addition from special programs, the ET Senior Program and the Acceptable Mismatch Program, respectively. All kidneys are offered to the pool and are allocated according to the degree of HLA matching, mismatch probability, waiting time, distance from the donor center, and balance between the countries participating in ET. A summary of 6 years' experience with the ETKAS is presented in this article.

  8. 12 CFR 1024.17 - Escrow accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of a trial running balance for an escrow account to: (1) Determine the appropriate target balances... the remaining scheduled periodic payments, and a cushion, if any. Trial running balance means the.... Section 1024.17(d) provides a description of the steps involved in performing a trial running balance....

  9. 11 CFR 104.17 - Reporting of allocable expenses by party committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., or local party committee that pays allocable expenses in accordance with 11 CFR 106.7(f) shall report... expenses in accordance with 11 CFR 106.7(f) shall also report each disbursement from its Federal account or... accounts, must be reported pursuant to 11 CFR 300.36. (1) Reporting of allocations of expenses...

  10. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  11. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment. 660.323 Section 660.323 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting...

  12. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  13. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  14. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  15. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  16. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  17. 40 CFR 73.34 - Recordation in accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... account any allowance allocated to any affected unit at the source for 30 years starting with the later of 1995 or the year in which the compliance account is established and any allowance allocated for 30... 30th year (i.e., the year that is 30 years after the calendar year for which such deductions are...

  18. 46 CFR 391.4 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.4 Establishment of accounts. (a) In general... and maintained within the fund: The capital account, the capital gain account, and the ordinary income... allocated among the accounts under section 607(e) of the Act and this section. (b) Capital account....

  19. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  20. Can observed ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and N fertilisation be explained by optimal plant C allocation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, I. Colin

    2016-04-01

    The degree to which nitrogen availability limits the terrestrial C sink under rising CO2 is a key uncertainty in carbon cycle and climate change projections. Results from ecosystem manipulation studies and meta-analyses suggest that plant C allocation to roots adjusts dynamically under varying degrees of nitrogen availability and other soil fertility parameters. In addition, the ratio of biomass production to GPP appears to decline under nutrient scarcity. This reflects increasing plant C export into the soil and to symbionts (Cex) with decreasing nutrient availability. Cex is consumed by an array of soil organisms and may imply an improvement of nutrient availability to the plant. These concepts are left unaccounted for in Earth system models. We present a model for the coupled cycles of C and N in grassland ecosystems to explore optimal plant C allocation under rising CO2 and its implications for the ecosystem C balance. The model follows a balanced growth approach, accounting for the trade-offs between leaf versus root growth and Cex in balancing C fixation and N uptake. We further model a plant-controlled rate of biological N fixation (BNF) by assuming that Cex is consumed by N2-fixing processes if the ratio of Nup:Cex falls below the inverse of the C cost of N2-fixation. The model is applied at two temperate grassland sites (SwissFACE and BioCON), subjected to factorial treatments of elevated CO2 (FACE) and N fertilization. Preliminary simulation results indicate initially increased N limitation, evident by increased relative allocation to roots and Cex. Depending on the initial state of N availability, this implies a varying degree of aboveground growth enhancement, generally consistent with observed responses. On a longer time scale, ecosystems are progressively released from N limitation due tighter N cycling. Allowing for plant-controlled BNF implies a quicker release from N limitation and an adjustment to more open N cycling. In both cases, optimal plant

  1. A balanced view of balanced solutions.

    PubMed

    Guidet, Bertrand; Soni, Neil; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Kozek, Sibylle; Vallet, Benoît; Annane, Djillali; James, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The present review of fluid therapy studies using balanced solutions versus isotonic saline fluids (both crystalloids and colloids) aims to address recent controversy in this topic. The change to the acid-base equilibrium based on fluid selection is described. Key terms such as dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis (correctly used instead of dilutional acidosis or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis to account for both the Henderson-Hasselbalch and Stewart equations), isotonic saline and balanced solutions are defined. The review concludes that dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis is a side effect, mainly observed after the administration of large volumes of isotonic saline as a crystalloid. Its effect is moderate and relatively transient, and is minimised by limiting crystalloid administration through the use of colloids (in any carrier). Convincing evidence for clinically relevant adverse effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis on renal function, coagulation, blood loss, the need for transfusion, gastrointestinal function or mortality cannot be found. In view of the long-term use of isotonic saline either as a crystalloid or as a colloid carrier, the paucity of data documenting detrimental effects of dilutional-hyperchloraemic acidosis and the limited published information on the effects of balanced solutions on outcome, we cannot currently recommend changing fluid therapy to the use of a balanced colloid preparation.

  2. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  3. The Principal as Resource Allocator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kent D.

    The effect of political influences on the allocation of personnel, money, facilities, and equipment by elementary school principals is discussed in this paper. The use of Zald's political economy framework as a tool for understanding the principal's role in allocating resources is described by the author. He suggests that the principal occupies a…

  4. Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincoffs, Edmund L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses educational accountability as the paradigm of performance contracting, presents some arguments for and against accountability, and discusses the goals of education and the responsibility of the teacher. (Author/PG)

  5. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...

  6. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL... GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.15 Allocations. (a) Funds allocated under this part shall be available...

  7. Ethical considerations surrounding survival benefit-based liver allocation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Eric J; Kwo, Paul Y; Helft, Paul R

    2014-02-01

    The disparity between the demand for and supply of donor livers has continued to grow over the last 2 decades, and this has placed greater weight on the need for efficient and effective liver allocation. Although the use of extended criteria donors has shown great potential, it remains unregulated. A survival benefit-based model was recently proposed to answer calls to increase efficiency and reduce futile transplants. However, it was previously determined that the current allocation system was not in need of modification and that instead geographic disparities should be addressed. In contrast, we believe that there is a significant need to replace the current allocation system and complement efforts to improve donor liver distribution. We illustrate this need first by identifying major ethical concerns shaping liver allocation and then by using these concerns to identify strengths and shortcomings of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease system and a survival benefit-based model. The latter model is a promising means of improving liver allocation: it incorporates a greater number of ethical principles, uses a sophisticated statistical model to increase efficiency and reduce waste, minimizes bias, and parallels developments in the allocation of other organs. However, it remains limited in its posttransplant predictive accuracy and may raise potential issues regarding informed consent. In addition, the proposed model fails to include quality-of-life concerns and prioritize younger patients. We feel that it is time to take the next steps toward better liver allocation not only through reductions in geographic disparities but also through the adoption of a model better equipped to balance the many ethical concerns shaping organ allocation. Thus, we support the development of a similar model with suggested amendments. PMID:24166860

  8. 18 CFR 367.1460 - Account 146, Accounts receivable from associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1460... balances subject to current settlement in open accounts with associate companies. Items that do not bear...

  9. Elucidating temporal resource allocation and diurnal dynamics in phototrophic metabolism using conditional FBA.

    PubMed

    Rügen, Marco; Bockmayr, Alexander; Steuer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The computational analysis of phototrophic growth using constraint-based optimization requires to go beyond current time-invariant implementations of flux-balance analysis (FBA). Phototrophic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, rely on harvesting the sun's energy for the conversion of atmospheric CO2 into organic carbon, hence their metabolism follows a strongly diurnal lifestyle. We describe the growth of cyanobacteria in a periodic environment using a new method called conditional FBA. Our approach enables us to incorporate the temporal organization and conditional dependencies into a constraint-based description of phototrophic metabolism. Specifically, we take into account that cellular processes require resources that are themselves products of metabolism. Phototrophic growth can therefore be formulated as a time-dependent linear optimization problem, such that optimal growth requires a differential allocation of resources during different times of the day. Conditional FBA then allows us to simulate phototrophic growth of an average cell in an environment with varying light intensity, resulting in dynamic time-courses for all involved reaction fluxes, as well as changes in biomass composition over a diurnal cycle. Our results are in good agreement with several known facts about the temporal organization of phototrophic growth and have implications for further analysis of resource allocation problems in phototrophic metabolism. PMID:26496972

  10. Implementing a trustworthy cost-accounting model.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hospitals and health systems can develop an effective cost-accounting model and maximize the effectiveness of their cost-accounting teams by focusing on six key areas: Implementing an enhanced data model. Reconciling data efficiently. Accommodating multiple cost-modeling techniques. Improving transparency of cost allocations. Securing department manager participation. Providing essential education and training to staff members and stakeholders.

  11. Choosing the Best Method to Introduce Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrieri, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    Of the traditional approaches to teaching accounting--single entry, journal, "T" account, balance sheet, and accounting equation--the author recommends the accounting equation approach. It is the foundation of the double entry system, new material is easy to introduce, and it provides students with a rationale for understanding basic concepts.…

  12. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  13. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  14. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  15. Funding the Plan: Integration of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagel, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    California Community Colleges are facing increased accountability while at the same time experiencing reduced and uncertain state funding. When resources are not properly allocated there is waste, public criticism, and ultimately increased oversight. A review of the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) sanction letters…

  16. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  17. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  18. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  19. Accountability study for TMI-2 fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goris, P; Scott, D D

    1981-05-01

    The TMI-2 accountability study considers problems of identifying, measuring, and accounting for TMI-2 fuel in the resident condition, as it is removed from the reactor, during subsequent cleanup, and during post-removal examinations. The goal is to identify methods and procedures which will provide a verifiable material balance equating to the pre-accident balance.

  20. new lease accounting and health care.

    PubMed

    Berman, Mindy

    2016-05-01

    Recently released lease accounting standards from the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) present three significant challenges for healthcare organizations: All leases must be reported on a company's balance sheet, increasing liabilities on the balance sheets of healthcare organizations considerably. Contractual agreements not previously considered leases will now be treated as leases. Classification of some equipment leases could change.

  1. new lease accounting and health care.

    PubMed

    Berman, Mindy

    2016-05-01

    Recently released lease accounting standards from the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) present three significant challenges for healthcare organizations: All leases must be reported on a company's balance sheet, increasing liabilities on the balance sheets of healthcare organizations considerably. Contractual agreements not previously considered leases will now be treated as leases. Classification of some equipment leases could change. PMID:27382712

  2. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  3. 18 CFR 367.17 - Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-period income tax allocation. 367.17 Section 367.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.17 Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation. (a) Where... periods in which they enter into the determination of pretax accounting income, the income tax effects...

  4. 18 CFR 367.17 - Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-period income tax allocation. 367.17 Section 367.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.17 Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation. (a) Where... periods in which they enter into the determination of pretax accounting income, the income tax effects...

  5. Funding Higher Education in England: How HEFCE Allocates Its Funds. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide describes the principles that underlie allocations of grants to universities and colleges by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). Formulas are used to determine how most of the money is allocated between institutions. These take into account certain factors for each institution, including the number and type of…

  6. 18 CFR 367.17 - Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-period income tax allocation. 367.17 Section 367.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.17 Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation. (a) Where... periods in which they enter into the determination of pretax accounting income, the income tax effects...

  7. 18 CFR 367.17 - Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-period income tax allocation. 367.17 Section 367.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.17 Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation. (a) Where... periods in which they enter into the determination of pretax accounting income, the income tax effects...

  8. 18 CFR 367.17 - Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-period income tax allocation. 367.17 Section 367.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.17 Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation. (a) Where... periods in which they enter into the determination of pretax accounting income, the income tax effects...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 2-2 - Basis of allocation between entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of allocation between entities. Sec. 2-2 Section 2-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-2 Basis of allocation between entities. (a)...

  10. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. 40 CFR 73.10 - Initial allocations for phase I and phase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Brown 1 6923 187 2 10623 287 3 25413 687 Elmer Smith 1 6348 172 2 14031 379 Ghent 1 27662 748 Green... years 2000 through 2009. (2) The Administrator will allocate allowances to the compliance account...

  12. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.403 - Allocation of home office expenses to segments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expenses to segments. 9904.403 Section 9904.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403 Allocation of home office expenses...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.413 - Adjustment and allocation of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of pension cost. 9904.413 Section 9904.413 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413 Adjustment and allocation of...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.418 - Allocation of direct and indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... indirect costs. 9904.418 Section 9904.418 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418 Allocation of direct and indirect costs....

  16. 48 CFR 9904.418 - Allocation of direct and indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... indirect costs. 9904.418 Section 9904.418 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418 Allocation of direct and indirect costs....

  17. 48 CFR 9904.418 - Allocation of direct and indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... indirect costs. 9904.418 Section 9904.418 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418 Allocation of direct and indirect costs....

  18. 48 CFR 9904.418 - Allocation of direct and indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indirect costs. 9904.418 Section 9904.418 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418 Allocation of direct and indirect costs....

  19. 48 CFR 9904.413 - Adjustment and allocation of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of pension cost. 9904.413 Section 9904.413 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413 Adjustment and allocation of...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.413 - Adjustment and allocation of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of pension cost. 9904.413 Section 9904.413 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413 Adjustment and allocation of...

  1. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  2. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    A long standing challenge has been understanding how plants and ecosystems respond to shifts in the balance of resource availabilities. The continuing rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will induce changes in the availability and use of several terrestrial ecosystem resources. We report on the acquisition and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Pinus ponderosa Laws. seedlings grown at three levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (370, 525, and 700 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) and three levels of soil nitrogen supply in a controlled environment experiment. Nitrogen was applied (0, 100, and 200 {micro}g N g soil{sup -1}) at planting and again at week 26 of a 58-week, 4-harvest experiment. At the final harvest, plants grown with variety low available soil nitrogen showed no significant response to atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Plants at higher N levels responded positively to CO{sub 2} with the highest biomass at the middle CO{sub 2} level. Plants growing at the lowest N levels immediately allocated a relatively large portion of their nitrogen and biomass to roots. Plants growing at near present ambient CO{sub 2} levels allocated relatively little material to roots when N was abundant but moved both carbon and nitrogen below-ground when N was withheld. Plants growing at higher CO{sub 2} levels, allocated more C and N to roots even when N was abundant, and made only small shifts in allocation patterns when N was no longer supplied. In general, allocation of C and N to roots tended to increase when N supply was restricted and also with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. These allocation responses were consistent with patterns suggesting a functional balance in the acquisition of above-ground versus below-ground resources. In particular, variation in whole tree average nitrogen concentration can explain 68% of the variation ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass across the harvests. The capability to respond to temporal variation in nutrient conditions, the dynamics of nutrient

  3. 15 CFR 335.4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 335.4 Section 335.4... § 335.4 Allocation. (a) For HTS 9902.51.11 and HTS 9902.51.15 each Tariff Rate Quota will be allocated separately. Allocation will be based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Suit production, on a weighted...

  4. 5 CFR 1690.15 - Freezing an account-administrative holds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the death of a participant; (4) Upon suspicion or knowledge of fraudulent account activity or identity... other transactions including making contributions, changing contribution allocations, and...

  5. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  6. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  7. An easily customized, random allocation system using the minimization method for multi-institutional clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kenjo, Y; Antoku, Y; Akazawa, K; Hanada, E; Kinukawa, N; Nose, Y

    2000-05-01

    In a randomized clinical trial, random allocation of patients to treatment groups should be done to balance in the distribution of prognostic factors. Random allocation in a multi-institutional randomized clinical trial is conducted by a coordinating center, independent of the medical institution the attending doctor uses for his/her practice. This study provides a sophisticated system for doing an exact random allocation of patients to treatment groups. The minimization method proposed by Pocock was applied to this system to balance the distribution of prognostic factors between two treatment groups, even when the number of registered patients is relatively small (S.J. Pocock, Allocation of patients to treatment in clinical trial, Biometrics 35 (1979) 183-197). Furthermore, Zelen's method is used to balance the number of patients allocated to the two groups within each institution (M. Zelen, The randomization and stratification of patients to clinical trials, J. Chron. Dis. 27 (1974) 365-375.). This system was created by the 'PERL&RSQUO; language for writing common gateway interface (CGI) script, and can therefore, be easily extended to include data entry function by attending doctors as well as the random allocation function. This system is being used effectively in thirteen multi-institutional randomized clinical trials for stomach, colon-rectum and breast cancers in Japan.

  8. Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE. PMID:16705980

  9. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil.

  10. 18 CFR 367.1460 - Account 146, Accounts receivable from associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 146, Accounts... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets §...

  11. 18 CFR 367.1460 - Account 146, Accounts receivable from associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 146, Accounts... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets §...

  12. 18 CFR 367.1460 - Account 146, Accounts receivable from associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 146, Accounts... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets §...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 234, Accounts... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 234, Accounts... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 234, Accounts... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  16. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of funds to a creditor in excess of the total balance due on an account, through rebates...

  17. 12 CFR 1026.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 1026.21 Section...) Closed-End Credit § 1026.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is... total balance due on an account, through rebates of unearned finance charges or insurance premiums,...

  18. 12 CFR 1026.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 1026.21 Section...) Closed-End Credit § 1026.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is... total balance due on an account, through rebates of unearned finance charges or insurance premiums,...

  19. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of funds to a creditor in excess of the total balance due on an account, through rebates...

  20. 12 CFR 1026.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 1026.21 Section...) Closed-End Credit § 1026.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is... total balance due on an account, through rebates of unearned finance charges or insurance premiums,...

  1. Software For Allocation Of Tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Ken; Raman, Shivakumar; Pulat, Simin

    1992-01-01

    Collection of computer programs being developed to assist engineers in allocating tolerances to dimensions of components and assemblies. System reflects tolerancing expertise of design and manufacturing engineers; helps engineers maintain comprehensive tolerancing policy and overview that might otherwise get lost when attending to details of design and manufacturing processes. Necessary to allocate tolerances for three main reasons: tolerances allow for variations in dimensions of components as manufactured; assembly of two or more components, dimensions lie between specified limits; and part replaced must fit in place.

  2. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  3. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  4. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  5. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  6. 10 CFR 75.33 - Accounting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting reports. 75.33 Section 75.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.33 Accounting reports. (a)(1) The accounting reports for each IAEA material balance area...

  7. School District Program Cost Accounting: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the value for school districts of a program cost accounting system and examines different approaches to generating program cost data, with particular emphasis on the "cost allocation to program system" (CAPS) and the traditional "transaction-based system." (JG)

  8. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  9. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (<12 months), 20% of all children aged 1-10 years, and 15% of all children aged 11-15 years died without having received a heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list.

  10. Efficient treatment allocation in two-way nested designs.

    PubMed

    Lemme, Francesca; van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Berger, Martijn P F

    2015-10-01

    Cluster randomized and multicenter trials sometimes combine two treatments A and B in a factorial design, with conditions such as A, B, A and B, or none. This results in a two-way nested design. The usual issue of sample size and power now arises for various clinically relevant contrast hypotheses. Assuming a fixed total sample size at each level (number of clusters or centers, number of patients), we derive the optimal proportion of the total sample to be allocated to each treatment arm. We consider treatment assignment first at the highest level (cluster randomized trial) and then at the lowest level (multicenter trial). We derive the optimal allocation ratio for various sets of clinically relevant hypotheses. We then evaluate the efficiency of each allocation and show that the popular balanced design is optimal or highly efficient for a range of research questions except for contrasting one treatment arm with all other treatment arms. We finally present simple equations for the total sample size needed to test each effect of interest in a balanced design, as a function of effect size, power and type I error α. All results are illustrated on a cluster-randomized trial on smoking prevention in primary schools and on a multicenter trial on lifestyle improvement in general practices.

  11. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  12. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  13. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  14. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  15. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  16. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  17. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  18. Rectifying social inequalities in a resource allocation task.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether children rectify social inequalities in a resource allocation task, participants (N=185 African-American and European-American 5-6year-olds and 10-11year-olds) witnessed an inequality of school supplies between peers of different racial backgrounds. Assessments were conducted on how children judged the wrongfulness of the inequality, allocated new resources to racial ingroup and outgroup recipients, evaluated alternative allocation strategies, and reasoned about their decisions. Younger children showed ingroup favorability; their responses differed depending on whether they had witnessed their ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. With age, children increasingly reasoned about the importance of equal access to school supplies and correcting past disparities. Older children judged the resource inequality negatively, allocated more resources to the disadvantaged group, and positively evaluated the actions of others who did the same, regardless of whether they had seen their racial ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. Thus, balancing moral and social group concerns enabled individuals to rectify inequalities and ensure fair access to important resources regardless of racial group membership. PMID:27423813

  19. Rectifying social inequalities in a resource allocation task.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether children rectify social inequalities in a resource allocation task, participants (N=185 African-American and European-American 5-6year-olds and 10-11year-olds) witnessed an inequality of school supplies between peers of different racial backgrounds. Assessments were conducted on how children judged the wrongfulness of the inequality, allocated new resources to racial ingroup and outgroup recipients, evaluated alternative allocation strategies, and reasoned about their decisions. Younger children showed ingroup favorability; their responses differed depending on whether they had witnessed their ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. With age, children increasingly reasoned about the importance of equal access to school supplies and correcting past disparities. Older children judged the resource inequality negatively, allocated more resources to the disadvantaged group, and positively evaluated the actions of others who did the same, regardless of whether they had seen their racial ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. Thus, balancing moral and social group concerns enabled individuals to rectify inequalities and ensure fair access to important resources regardless of racial group membership.

  20. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Price, Charles A; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C; Franks, Peter J; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2016-06-01

    A long-standing research focus in phytology has been to understand how plants allocate leaf epidermal space to stomata in order to achieve an economic balance between the plant's carbon needs and water use. Here, we present a quantitative theoretical framework to predict allometric relationships between morphological stomatal traits in relation to leaf gas exchange and the required allocation of epidermal area to stomata. Our theoretical framework was derived from first principles of diffusion and geometry based on the hypothesis that selection for higher anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax ) involves a trade-off to minimize the fraction of the epidermis that is allocated to stomata. Predicted allometric relationships between stomatal traits were tested with a comprehensive compilation of published and unpublished data on 1057 species from all major clades. In support of our theoretical framework, stomatal traits of this phylogenetically diverse sample reflect spatially optimal allometry that minimizes investment in the allocation of epidermal area when plants evolve towards higher gsmax . Our results specifically highlight that the stomatal morphology of angiosperms evolved along spatially optimal allometric relationships. We propose that the resulting wide range of viable stomatal trait combinations equips angiosperms with developmental and evolutionary flexibility in leaf gas exchange unrivalled by gymnosperms and pteridophytes. PMID:26991124

  1. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  2. Balance and randomness in sequential clinical trials: the dominant biased coin design.

    PubMed

    Antognini, Alessandro Baldi; Zagoraiou, Maroussa

    2014-01-01

    Efron's biased coin design (BCD) is a well-known randomization technique that helps neutralize selection bias, while keeping the experiment fairly balanced for every sample size. Several extensions of this rule have been proposed, and their properties were analyzed from an asymptotic viewpoint and compared via simulations in a finite setup. The aim of this paper is to push forward these comparisons by taking also into account the adjustable BCD, which is never considered up to now. Firstly, we show that the adjustable BCD performs better than Efron's coin with respect to both loss of precision and randomness. Moreover, the adjustable BCD is always more balanced than the other coins and, only for some sample sizes, slightly more predictable. Therefore, we suggest the dominant BCD, namely a new and flexible class of procedures that can change the allocation rule step by step in order to ensure very good performance in terms of both balance and selection bias for any sample size. Our simulations demonstrate that the dominant BCD is more balanced and, at the same time, less or equally predictable than Atkinson's optimum BCD.

  3. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts. PMID:12285741

  4. 76 FR 9939 - Garnishment of Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Service Retirement System benefits and Federal Employee Retirement System benefits. See 75 FR 20299. The... current balance of the account, whichever is lower. DATES: This interim final rule is effective May 1... lesser of the sum of such exempt payments or the balance of the account on the date of the account...

  5. Skylab water balance error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

  6. Quantitative prediction of genome-wide resource allocation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goelzer, Anne; Muntel, Jan; Chubukov, Victor; Jules, Matthieu; Prestel, Eric; Nölker, Rolf; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Aymerich, Stéphane; Hecker, Michael; Noirot, Philippe; Becher, Dörte; Fromion, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Predicting resource allocation between cell processes is the primary step towards decoding the evolutionary constraints governing bacterial growth under various conditions. Quantitative prediction at genome-scale remains a computational challenge as current methods are limited by the tractability of the problem or by simplifying hypotheses. Here, we show that the constraint-based modeling method Resource Balance Analysis (RBA), calibrated using genome-wide absolute protein quantification data, accurately predicts resource allocation in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis for a wide range of growth conditions. The regulation of most cellular processes is consistent with the objective of growth rate maximization except for a few suboptimal processes which likely integrate more complex objectives such as coping with stressful conditions and survival. As a proof of principle by using simulations, we illustrated how calibrated RBA could aid rational design of strains for maximizing protein production, offering new opportunities to investigate design principles in prokaryotes and to exploit them for biotechnological applications.

  7. A Systems Approach for Allocating Educational Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Center for Community Needs Assessment.

    A computer simulation model for allocating facilities and physical space is presented as a means of optimally allocating available educational resources. The model allows the decisionmaker to change specific program allocations, system parameters, and other controllable variables in order to determine the effects, both cost and utility, of these…

  8. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation requirements. 262.5 Section 262.5... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under... than $20,000,000 each. Designated, high-priority projects will be excluded from this allocation...

  10. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each... competitive products enterprise using a method of allocation based on appropriate revenue or cost...

  11. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make...

  12. 25 CFR 39.902 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 39.902 Section 39.902 Indians BUREAU OF... Maintenance and Minor Repair Fund § 39.902 Allocation. (a) Interim Maintenance and Minor Repair funds shall be... determining school allocations shall be taken from the facilities inventory maintained by the Division...

  13. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  14. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES JOHN HEINZ NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Funding Allocation and Criteria § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form...

  15. Belowground carbon allocation in a temperate beech forest: new insight into carbon residence time using whole tree 13C labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Ngao, J.; Plain, C.; Longdoz, B.; Granier, A.

    2011-12-01

    Belowground carbon allocation is an important component of forest carbon budget, affecting tree growth (competition between aboveground and belowground carbon sinks), acquisition of belowground resources (nutrients and water) that are often limiting forest ecosystems and soil carbon sequestration. Total belowground carbon flow can be estimated using a mass-balance approach as cumulative soil CO2 efflux minus the carbon input from aboveground litter plus the changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor, and in the soil, and further compared to gross annual production. While this approach is useful for understanding the whole ecosystem carbon budget, uncertainties remain about the contribution of the different belowground pools of carbon to ecosystem respiration and carbon sequestration. New insights into transfer rate and residence time of carbon in belowground compartments can be gained from in situ whole-crown 13C labelling experiments. We combined both approaches in a young temperate beech forest in north-eastern France where ecosystem carbon fluxes are recorded since a decade. Carbon allocated belowground represented less than 40% of gross primary production in this young beech forest. Autotrophic respiration assessed by comparing soil CO2 efflux measured on normal and on root exclusion plots, accounted for 60% of the total belowground carbon flow. This indicated a rather short mean residence time of carbon allocated belowground in the soil compartments. The recovery of 13C in soil CO2 efflux after pulse-labelling entire crowns of tree with 13CO2 at several occasions during the growing season was observed a few couple of hours after the labelling. That indicates a rapid transfer of 13C belowground with a maximum occurring within 2 to 4 days after labelling. Label was recovered at the same time in the respiration and in the biomass of both fine roots and soil microbes. Allocation of recently assimilated carbon to soil microbial respiration was greater in

  16. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  17. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  18. Adaptive sex allocation in birds: the complexities of linking theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Komdeur, Jan; Pen, Ido

    2002-01-01

    We review some recent theoretical and empirical developments in the study of sex allocation in birds. The advent of reliable molecular sexing techniques has led to a sharp increase in the number of studies that report biased offspring sex ratios in birds. However, compelling evidence for adaptive sex allocation in birds is still very scant. We argue that there are two reasons for this: (i) standard sex allocation models, very helpful in understanding sex allocation of invertebrates, do not sufficiently take the complexities of bird life histories and physiology into account. Recent theoretical work might bring us a step closer to more realistic models; (ii) experimental field and laboratory studies on sex allocation in birds are scarce. Recent experimental work both in the laboratory and in the field shows that this is a promising approach. PMID:11958705

  19. Resource allocation in neural networks for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, J.; Cummins, J.; Gunnoe, J.; Tollefson, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Ohira, T.

    2006-03-01

    Multiplicative noise plays an important part of a non-predictive control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. However, intentionally-directed movements are also used in stick balancing, particularly by beginners. The interplay between intentional and non-predictive control mechanisms for stick balancing was assessed using two dual task paradigms: the subject was asked to either move one of their legs rhythmically or to imagine moving their leg while balancing a stick (55.4 cm, 35 g) at their fingertip. Performance was measured by determining the stick survival function, i.e. the fraction of trials (total >=25) for which the stick remained balanced at time t as a function of t. Performance was increased by concurrent rhythmic leg movements (50% survival time shifted from 8-9s to 15s in a typical subject). Imagined movements resulted in a similar improvement (50% survival time of 20s for the above subject) suggesting that this enhancement is not simply related to mechanical vibrations of the fingertip induced by leg movement. These observations emphasize the importance of the development of mathematical models for neural control of skilled motor movements that take into resource allocation of limited resources, such as intention.

  20. A simulation study of the validity and efficiency of design-adaptive allocation to two groups in the regression situation.

    PubMed

    Aickin, Mikel

    2009-05-29

    Dynamic allocation of participants to treatments in a clinical trial has been an alternative to randomization for nearly 35 years. Design-adaptive allocation is a particularly flexible kind of dynamic allocation. Every investigation of dynamic allocation methods has shown that they improve balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups, but there have been lingering doubts about their influence on the validity of statistical inferences. Here we report the results of a simulation study focused on this and similar issues. Overall, it is found that there are no statistical reasons, in the situations studied, to prefer randomization to design-adaptive allocation. Specifically, there is no evidence of bias, the number of participants wasted by randomization in small studies is not trivial, and when the aim is to place bounds on the prediction of population benefits, randomization is quite substantially less efficient than design-adaptive allocation. A new, adjusted permutation estimate of the standard deviation of the regression estimator under design-adaptive allocation is shown to be an unbiased estimate of the true sampling standard deviation, resolving a long-standing problem with dynamic allocations. These results are shown in situations with varying numbers of balancing factors, different treatment and covariate effects, different covariate distributions, and in the presence of a small number of outliers.

  1. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  2. Distributed Accounting on the Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; Hacker, Thomas J.; McGinnis, Laura F.; Athey, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    By the late 1990s, the Internet was adequately equipped to move vast amounts of data between HPC (High Performance Computing) systems, and efforts were initiated to link together the national infrastructure of high performance computational and data storage resources together into a general computational utility 'grid', analogous to the national electrical power grid infrastructure. The purpose of the Computational grid is to provide dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to computational resources for the computing community in the form of a computing utility. This paper presents a fully distributed view of Grid usage accounting and a methodology for allocating Grid computational resources for use on a Grid computing system.

  3. Kidney allocation for transplantation: some aspects of ethics and comparative law.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2012-09-01

    The allocation of organs is a crucial ethical issue. The importance attached to different allocation criteria differs considerably among the various national and international organizations. The balance between justice-centered and utility-centered systems is shifting and there are signs of a possible swing away from systems centered mainly on waiting times to others centered mainly on criteria of utility. This evolution is very significant and seems to run counter to the main stream of modern bioethics. Examples from different national policies are given herein. Particular attention is given to Europe, where national bioethics committees have tended to ignore the aspect of organ allocation. By overemphasizing the issues related to informed consent, the ethical challenges arising from the problems of resource allocation are often relegated to second place. PMID:22974843

  4. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE... allocated to an allocation set-aside. (c) Serial numbers for allocated NO X allowances. When allocating...

  5. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE... allocated to an allocation set-aside. (c) Serial numbers for allocated NO X allowances. When allocating...

  6. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  7. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  8. Report from a forum on US heart allocation policy.

    PubMed

    Kobashigawa, J A; Johnson, M; Rogers, J; Vega, J D; Colvin-Adams, M; Edwards, L; Meyer, D; Luu, M; Reinsmoen, N; Dipchand, A I; Feldman, D; Kormos, R; Mancini, D; Webber, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the latest revision in US heart allocation policy (2006), the landscape and volume of transplant waitlists have changed considerably. Advances in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) prolong survival, but Status 1A mortality remains high. Several patient subgroups may be disadvantaged by current listing criteria and geographical disparity remains in waitlist time. This forum on US heart allocation policy was organized to discuss these issues and highlight concepts for consideration in the policy development process. A 25-question survey on heart allocation policy was conducted. Among attendees/respondents were 84 participants with clinical/published experience in heart transplant representing 51 US transplant centers, and OPTN/UNOS and SRTR representatives. The survey results and forum discussions demonstrated very strong interest in change to a further-tiered system, accounting for disadvantaged subgroups and lowering use of exceptions. However, a heart allocation score is not yet viable due to the long-term viability of variables (used in the score) in an ever-developing field. There is strong interest in more refined prioritization of patients with MCS complications, highly sensitized patients and those with severe arrhythmias or restrictive physiology. There is also strong interest in distribution by geographic boundaries modified according to population. Differences of opinion exist between small and large centers.

  9. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  10. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    PubMed Central

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. PMID:26339128

  11. Social status and availability of females determine patterns of sperm allocation in the fowl.

    PubMed

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Birkhead, Tim R

    2006-07-01

    Where sperm competition occurs, the number and quality of sperm males inseminate relative to rival males influences fertilization success. The number of sperm males produce, however, is limited, and theoretically males should allocate sperm according to the probability of gaining future reproductive opportunities and the reproductive benefits associated with copulations. However, the reproductive opportunities and value of copulations males obtain can change over their lifetime, but whether individuals respond to such changes by adjusting the way they allocate sperm is unclear. Here we show that, in the fowl, Gallus gallus, dominant males, which have preferential access to females, modulate the number of sperm they ejaculate according to the availability of females. When presented with two females, dominant males allocated more sperm to higher quality females, whereas when females were on their own, only copulation order had an affect on their sperm numbers. In contrast, subordinate males, whose mating activity is restricted by dominant males, allocated high numbers of sperm to initial copulations, irrespective of female availability. We further show, by manipulating male social status, that sperm allocation is both phenotypically plastic, with males adjusting their patterns of sperm allocation according to their dominance rank, and intrinsic, with males being consistently different in the way they allocate sperm, once the effects of social status are taken into account. This study suggests that males have evolved sophisticated patterns of sperm allocation to respond to frequent fluctuations in the value and frequency of reproductive opportunities.

  12. Children's recognition of fairness and others' welfare in a resource allocation task: Age related changes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Michael T; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455189

  13. Grid accounting service: state and future development

    SciTech Connect

    Levshina, T.; Sehgal, C.; Bockelman, B.; Weitzel, D.; Guru, A.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, large-scale federated distributed infrastructures have been continually developed and expanded. One of the crucial components of a cyber-infrastructure is an accounting service that collects data related to resource utilization and identity of users using resources. The accounting service is important for verifying pledged resource allocation per particular groups and users, providing reports for funding agencies and resource providers, and understanding hardware provisioning requirements. It can also be used for end-to-end troubleshooting as well as billing purposes. In this work we describe Gratia, a federated accounting service jointly developed at Fermilab and Holland Computing Center at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The Open Science Grid, Fermilab, HCC, and several other institutions have used Gratia in production for several years. The current development activities include expanding Virtual Machines provisioning information, XSEDE allocation usage accounting, and Campus Grids resource utilization. We also identify the direction of future work: improvement and expansion of Cloud accounting, persistent and elastic storage space allocation, and the incorporation of WAN and LAN network metrics.

  14. Grid accounting service: state and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshina, T.; Sehgal, C.; Bockelman, B.; Weitzel, D.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, large-scale federated distributed infrastructures have been continually developed and expanded. One of the crucial components of a cyber-infrastructure is an accounting service that collects data related to resource utilization and identity of users using resources. The accounting service is important for verifying pledged resource allocation per particular groups and users, providing reports for funding agencies and resource providers, and understanding hardware provisioning requirements. It can also be used for end-to-end troubleshooting as well as billing purposes. In this work we describe Gratia, a federated accounting service jointly developed at Fermilab and Holland Computing Center at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The Open Science Grid, Fermilab, HCC, and several other institutions have used Gratia in production for several years. The current development activities include expanding Virtual Machines provisioning information, XSEDE allocation usage accounting, and Campus Grids resource utilization. We also identify the direction of future work: improvement and expansion of Cloud accounting, persistent and elastic storage space allocation, and the incorporation of WAN and LAN network metrics.

  15. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  16. Resource allocation using constraint propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of constraint propagation was discussed. Performance increases are possible with careful application of these constraint mechanisms. The degree of performance increase is related to the interdependence of the different activities resource usage. Although this method of applying constraints to activities and resources is often beneficial, it is obvious that this is no panacea cure for the computational woes that are experienced by dynamic resource allocation and scheduling problems. A combined effort for execution optimization in all areas of the system during development and the selection of the appropriate development environment is still the best method of producing an efficient system.

  17. The business of radiology: cost accounting.

    PubMed

    Camponovo, Ernest J

    2004-08-01

    Radiology practices confront questions of resource allocation every day. Unfortunately, practices frequently fail to adequately analyze revenues and expenses, which are at the heart of success or failure in any business endeavor. Cost allocation problems permeate nearly all aspects of cost analysis and accumulation and exist throughout all types of private-sector and public-sector organizations. "Managerial" or "cost" accounting is the discipline concerned with measuring and assigning the costs of delivering services or producing products. In contrast to financial accounting, management accounting produces relevant information for internal decision making and in general is designed to answer a firm's specific operational questions. Because costs play such a critical role in deriving and planning for revenues and profits, managerial accounting is in large part devoted to measuring and accumulating costs with the aims of control and continuous cost reduction. Because radiologists' salaries are at record highs, when accounting for a practice's clinical activities, such as the provision of mammography services, some allocation of radiologist costs themselves must be made, or the practice will not be able to achieve its goal of efficient allocation of resources. Whatever cost-accounting method is used should be specific enough to allow the differentiation of costs to as detailed a level as necessary for the strategic decision at hand. It is imperative that a practice use some rational method to gather and analyze costs and that management then use these data in decision making. Successful practices will be those most aware of their costs and the minimum acceptable reimbursements necessary for their success.

  18. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  19. Mass balance in rapamycin autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Oyler, Alan R; Armstrong, Barbara L; Dunphy, Richard; Alquier, Lori; Maryanoff, Cynthia A; Cohen, Judith H; Merciadez, Mel; Khublall, Ada; Mehta, Rajshekhar; Patel, Ashesh; Il'ichev, Yuri V

    2008-12-15

    The immunosuppressant drug rapamycin is a complex polyene-containing natural product which undergoes autoxidation. The resulting product mixtures contained numerous monomeric and oligomeric compounds, which represented challenges for addressing mass balance in forced degradation studies and in analysis of aged developmental drug-eluting stents. A combination of SEC with ultraviolet and refractive index detection and RP-HPLC was used to account for drug loss and product formation. The mass balance methodology was subsequently validated for the determination of rapamycin and composite rapamycin autoxidation product material in developmental stent samples. This mass balance approach may find general applicability in other situations where drugs degrade to a plethora of products, which cannot be determined individually and summed. PMID:19019612

  20. Promoting Accountability and Enhancing Efficiency: Using National Education Accounts to Track Expenditure Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Deepika; Forbes, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    Increasing accountability and efficiency in the use of public and out-of-pocket financing in education are critical to realizing the maximum impact of the meager allocations to education in most developing countries. While broad estimates and numbers are routinely collected by most national ministries and state departments of education, the lack…

  1. 31 CFR 202.7 - Maintenance of balances within authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of balances within... FINANCIAL AGENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.7 Maintenance of balances within authorizations. (a... public money on deposit in accounts with depositaries are responsible for the maintenance of balances...

  2. 31 CFR 203.19 - Sources of balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sources of balances. 203.19 Section... § 203.19 Sources of balances. A financial institution must be a collector depositary that accepts term... TIP main account balance pursuant to subpart C of this part; (b) EFTPS ACH credit and...

  3. 31 CFR 203.19 - Sources of balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sources of balances. 203.19 Section... § 203.19 Sources of balances. A financial institution must be a collector depositary that accepts term... TIP main account balance pursuant to subpart C of this part; (b) EFTPS ACH credit and...

  4. 31 CFR 203.19 - Sources of balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sources of balances. 203.19 Section... § 203.19 Sources of balances. A financial institution must be a collector depositary that accepts term... TIP main account balance pursuant to subpart C of this part; (b) EFTPS ACH credit and...

  5. 31 CFR 203.19 - Sources of balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sources of balances. 203.19 Section... § 203.19 Sources of balances. A financial institution must be a collector depositary that accepts term... TIP main account balance pursuant to subpart C of this part; (b) EFTPS ACH credit and...

  6. 31 CFR 202.7 - Maintenance of balances within authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of balances within... FINANCIAL AGENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.7 Maintenance of balances within authorizations. (a... public money on deposit in accounts with depositaries are responsible for the maintenance of balances...

  7. 31 CFR 203.19 - Sources of balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sources of balances. 203.19 Section... § 203.19 Sources of balances. A financial institution must be a collector depositary that accepts term... TIP main account balance pursuant to subpart C of this part; (b) EFTPS ACH credit and...

  8. 31 CFR 202.7 - Maintenance of balances within authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of balances within... FINANCIAL AGENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.7 Maintenance of balances within authorizations. (a... public money on deposit in accounts with depositaries are responsible for the maintenance of balances...

  9. 31 CFR 202.7 - Maintenance of balances within authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of balances within... FINANCIAL AGENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.7 Maintenance of balances within authorizations. (a... public money on deposit in accounts with depositaries are responsible for the maintenance of balances...

  10. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.11 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.11 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account (through transmittal of funds to a...

  11. 31 CFR 202.7 - Maintenance of balances within authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of balances within... FINANCIAL AGENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.7 Maintenance of balances within authorizations. (a... public money on deposit in accounts with depositaries are responsible for the maintenance of balances...

  12. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  13. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  14. Incorporating Sustainability Issues into the Financial Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, Daniel L.; Burke, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the views that society holds of capital allocation suggest that sustainability reporting needs to be incorporated into the financial accounting curriculum. This paper reviews the background and history of corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting and discusses formation of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board…

  15. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., because of the anticipated effects of future innovations, the telecommunications plant accounts are... variety and continual changing of various cost allocation mechanisms, the financial accounts of a company... with its increasing mechanization and other changes will result in entirely new or...

  16. Where has all the carbon gone - in search of a missing sink in the whole-tree carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Henrik; McDowell, Nate; Trumbore, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Plants carbon reserves are thought to be an energy buffer during periods of environmental extremes and may be stored either via active or passive mechanisms when the environment induces conditions either favorable or necessary for storage. Here we present results of an intensively monitored experimental manipulation of whole-tree carbon balance using reduced atmospheric [CO2] and drought. Net above-ground assimilation, belowground respiration, carbon storage pool size and allocation to plant compartments and to specific carbon pools (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, biomass) were assessed at a high temporal resolution. We tested whether observed carbon pools could be estimated by a simple model driven by the measured carbon balance and observed allocation patterns. Under high [CO2] the model predicted patterns of carbon storage across tree compartments and storage pools. Surprisingly, predicted pool sizes were higher than observed pools, indicating the existence of a carbon pool not assessed in our study. Under low [CO2] the relative proportion of carbon not accounted for by our model increased dramatically. Because the absolute deviation from observations was relatively constant within irrigation treatments, the missing sink for assimilated C may be actively controlled and dependent on hydration status. This sink represented a non-negligible expenditure when carbon availability declined and thus may be critical to drought survival.

  17. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  18. Computational models and resource allocation for supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauney, Jon; Agrawal, Dharma P.; Harcourt, Edwin A.; Choe, Young K.; Kim, Sukil

    1989-01-01

    There are several different architectures used in supercomputers, with differing computational models. These different models present a variety of resource allocation problems that must be solved. The computational needs of a program must be cast in terms of the computational model supported by the supercomputer, and this must be done in a way that makes effective use of the machine's resources. This is the resource allocation problem. The computational models of available supercomputers and the associated resource allocation techniques are surveyed. It is shown that many problems and solutions appear repeatedly in very different computing environments. Some case studies are presented, showing concrete computational models and the allocation strategies used.

  19. 18 CFR 367.2360 - Account 236, Taxes accrued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the basis for the accrual, the accounts to which charged, and the amount of tax paid. ... accrued. (a) This account must be credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period... date of the balance sheet, must be shown under account 165, Prepayments (§ 367.1650). (b) If...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2540 - Account 254, Other regulatory liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 254, Other..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2540 Account 254, Other...

  1. 12 CFR 561.52 - Tax and loan account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax and loan account. 561.52 Section 561.52... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.52 Tax and loan account. The term tax and loan account means an account, the balance of which is subject to the right of immediate withdrawal, established for receipt...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2300 - Account 230, Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 230, Asset... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Noncurrent Liabilities § 367.2300 Account 230, Asset retirement obligations. (a) This account must include the amount of liabilities for the recognition of...

  3. 18 CFR 367.2300 - Account 230, Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 230, Asset... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Noncurrent Liabilities § 367.2300 Account 230, Asset retirement obligations. (a) This account must include the amount of liabilities for the recognition of...

  4. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  5. Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motaghedi, Shi

    2007-01-01

    A report presents an algorithm that solves the following problem: Allocate the force and/or torque to be exerted by each thruster and reaction-wheel assembly on a spacecraft for best performance, defined as minimizing the error between (1) the total force and torque commanded by the spacecraft control system and (2) the total of forces and torques actually exerted by all the thrusters and reaction wheels. The algorithm incorporates the matrix vector relationship between (1) the total applied force and torque and (2) the individual actuator force and torque values. It takes account of such constraints as lower and upper limits on the force or torque that can be applied by a given actuator. The algorithm divides the aforementioned problem into two optimization problems that it solves sequentially. These problems are of a type, known in the art as semi-definite programming problems, that involve linear matrix inequalities. The algorithm incorporates, as sub-algorithms, prior algorithms that solve such optimization problems very efficiently. The algorithm affords the additional advantage that the solution requires the minimum rate of consumption of fuel for the given best performance.

  6. Accounting: Teaching the Worksheet: The "What,""Why," and "How."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Kawanna J.; Musselman, Donald

    1979-01-01

    Techniques to enable accounting teachers to present the accounting worksheet are given, with examples of worksheet columns for income statement, balance sheet, revenue and expense, owner's equity, trial balance, and adjustments. The techniques also show the student the reasons (why) for and the mechanics (how) of the worksheet. (MF)

  7. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  8. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  9. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  10. Divergence in plant and microbial allocation strategies explains continental patterns in microbial allocation and biogeochemical fluxes.

    PubMed

    Averill, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Allocation trade-offs shape ecological and biogeochemical phenomena at local to global scale. Plant allocation strategies drive major changes in ecosystem carbon cycling. Microbial allocation to enzymes that decompose carbon vs. organic nutrients may similarly affect ecosystem carbon cycling. Current solutions to this allocation problem prioritise stoichiometric tradeoffs implemented in plant ecology. These solutions may not maximise microbial growth and fitness under all conditions, because organic nutrients are also a significant carbon resource for microbes. I created multiple allocation frameworks and simulated microbial growth using a microbial explicit biogeochemical model. I demonstrate that prioritising stoichiometric trade-offs does not optimise microbial allocation, while exploiting organic nutrients as carbon resources does. Analysis of continental-scale enzyme data supports the allocation patterns predicted by this framework, and modelling suggests large deviations in soil C loss based on which strategy is implemented. Therefore, understanding microbial allocation strategies will likely improve our understanding of carbon cycling and climate.

  11. Allocation to carbon storage pools in Norway spruce saplings under drought and low CO2.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Henrik; McDowell, Nate G; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are critical to maintain plant metabolism under stressful environmental conditions, but we do not fully understand how NSC allocation and utilization from storage varies with stress. While it has become established that storage allocation is unlikely to be a mere overflow process, very little empirical evidence has been produced to support this view, at least not for trees. Here we present the results of an intensively monitored experimental manipulation of whole-tree carbon (C) balance (young Picea abies (L.) H Karst.) using reduced atmospheric [CO2] and drought to reduce C sources. We measured specific C storage pools (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) over 21 weeks and converted concentration measurement into fluxes into and out of the storage pool. Continuous labeling ((13)C) allowed us to track C allocation to biomass and non-structural C pools. Net C fluxes into the storage pool occurred mainly when the C balance was positive. Storage pools increased during periods of positive C gain and were reduced under negative C gain. (13)C data showed that C was allocated to storage pools independent of the net flux and even under severe C limitation. Allocation to below-ground tissues was strongest in control trees followed by trees experiencing drought followed by those grown under low [CO2]. Our data suggest that NSC storage has, under the conditions of our experimental manipulation (e.g., strong progressive drought, no above-ground growth), a high allocation priority and cannot be considered an overflow process. While these results also suggest active storage allocation, definitive proof of active plant control of storage in woody plants requires studies involving molecular tools.

  12. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  13. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  14. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  15. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  16. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  17. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  18. Being 'rational' and being 'human': How National Health Service rationing decisions are constructed as rational by resource allocation panels.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2014-09-01

    The English National Health Service Constitution states that patients have the right to expect all decisions about access to medicines and treatments to be made 'rationally'. Rationality in health care can be framed as instrumental, institutional or practical. In this article, we present a case example from an ethnographic study of the work of 'Individual Funding Request' panels to explore how rationality is enacted and accounted for in deliberations about the rationing of health care in the National Health Service. Our rhetorical analysis highlights how an embodied, practical rationality emerges as a significant aspect of rationality in practice, but at the same time has a problematic status in formal accounts of decision-making. We suggest that being both 'human' and 'rational' is a 'delicate balance' and creates a dilemma for Individual Funding Request panels. Aristotle's notion of phronesis provides a useful lens for theorising our observation of panel deliberations, and we argue for greater attention to the value of narrative ethics in helping us understand the challenges faced by resource allocators.

  19. Balancing Vanguard Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkovich, A.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    The Vanguard satellites and component parts were balanced within the specified limits by using a Gisholt Type-S balancer in combination with a portable International Research and Development vibration analyzer and filter, with low-frequency pickups. Equipment and procedures used for balancing are described; and the determination of residual imbalance is accomplished by two methods: calculation, and graphical interpretation. Between-the-bearings balancing is recommended for future balancing of payloads.

  20. Attentional Mechanisms Contributing to Balance Constraints during Gait: The Effects of Balance Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Chou, Li-Shan; Mayr, Ulrich; van Donkelaar, Paul; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent research has begun to explore the ability of older adults to perform balance tasks while simultaneously performing a secondary cognitive task; however, it has suffered from limitations regarding the mechanisms underlying the problems that cause dual-task deficits in older adults with balance impairments. Two possible attentional mechanisms (reduced general attentional capacity vs. a true dual-task performance deficit and inability to allocate attention between two tasks) contributing to balance constraints were examined. Methods Twelve healthy elderly adults and 12 elderly adults with balance impairments (BIOA) were asked to perform obstacle avoidance while walking, either alone or simultaneously with an auditory Stroop. Two experiments were designed to examine attentional mechanisms that may contribute to reduce performance in the dual-task situations for the BIOA. Results Experiment 1 determined whether for BIOA, single vs. dual-task performance conditions led to similar effects as a single-task difficulty (congruent vs. incongruent) manipulation. Results indicated that dual-task performance reduction did not exceed that of the difficult single task, suggesting that neither older adult group showed a true dual-task performance deficit, but rather BIOA showed a reduced attentional capacity. Experiment 2 showed that BIOA also showed deficits in flexibly focusing their attention between two tasks according to instructions. Conclusion Our study confirmed that the ability to allocate attention between a postural task and a secondary cognitive task was impaired in BIOA; it is suggested that inability to flexibly allocate attention could be one important factor among many factors that contribute to balance constraints during gait in fallers. PMID:19028462

  1. Optimization Model for cooperative water allocation and valuation in large river basins regarding environmental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournazeri, S.

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive optimization model named Cooperative Water Allocation Model (CWAM) is developed for equitable and efficient water allocation and valuation of Zab river basin in order to solve the draught problems of Orumieh Lake in North West of Iran. The model's methodology consists of three phases. The first represents an initial water rights allocation among competing users. The second comprises the water reallocation process for complete usage by consumers. The third phase performs an allocation of the net benefit of the stakeholders participating in a coalition by applying cooperative game theory. The environmental constraints are accounted for in the water allocation model by entering probable environmental damage in a target function, and inputting the minimum water requirement of users. The potential of underground water usage is evaluated in order to compensate for the variation in the amount of surface water. This is conducted by applying an integrated economic- hydrologic river basin model. A node-link river basin network is utilized in CWAM which consists of two major blocks. The first indicates the internal water rights allocation and the second is associated to water and net benefit reallocation. System control, loss in links by evaporation or seepage, modification of inflow into the node, loss in nodes and loss in outflow are considered in this model. Water valuation is calculated for environmental, industrial, municipal and agricultural usage by net benefit function. It can be seen that the water rights are allocated efficiently and incomes are distributed appropriately based on quality and quantity limitations.

  2. Kin effects on energy allocation in group-living ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Saraux, Claire; Murie, Jan O; Dobson, F Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The social environment has potent effects on individual phenotype and fitness in group-living species. We asked whether the presence of kin might act on energy allocation, a central aspect of life-history variation. Using a 22-year data set on reproductive and somatic allocations in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), we tested the effects of co-breeding and non-breeding kin on the fitness and energy allocation balance between reproduction and personal body condition of individual females. Greater numbers of co-breeding kin had a positive effect on the number of offspring weaned, through the mechanism of altering energy allocation patterns. On average, females with higher numbers of co-breeding kin did not increase energy income but biased energy allocation towards reproduction. Co-breeding female kin ground squirrels maintain close nest burrows, likely providing a social buffer against territorial invasions from non-kin ground squirrels. Lower aggressiveness, lower risks of infanticide from female kin and greater protection of territorial boundaries may allow individual females to derive net fitness benefits via their energy allocation strategies. We demonstrated the importance of kin effects on a fundamental life-history trade-off. PMID:27263469

  3. Kin effects on energy allocation in group-living ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Saraux, Claire; Murie, Jan O; Dobson, F Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The social environment has potent effects on individual phenotype and fitness in group-living species. We asked whether the presence of kin might act on energy allocation, a central aspect of life-history variation. Using a 22-year data set on reproductive and somatic allocations in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), we tested the effects of co-breeding and non-breeding kin on the fitness and energy allocation balance between reproduction and personal body condition of individual females. Greater numbers of co-breeding kin had a positive effect on the number of offspring weaned, through the mechanism of altering energy allocation patterns. On average, females with higher numbers of co-breeding kin did not increase energy income but biased energy allocation towards reproduction. Co-breeding female kin ground squirrels maintain close nest burrows, likely providing a social buffer against territorial invasions from non-kin ground squirrels. Lower aggressiveness, lower risks of infanticide from female kin and greater protection of territorial boundaries may allow individual females to derive net fitness benefits via their energy allocation strategies. We demonstrated the importance of kin effects on a fundamental life-history trade-off.

  4. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  5. How to Do Random Allocation (Randomization)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explain the concept and procedure of random allocation as used in a randomized controlled study. Methods We explain the general concept of random allocation and demonstrate how to perform the procedure easily and how to report it in a paper. PMID:24605197

  6. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  7. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  8. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  9. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  10. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  11. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  12. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  13. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  14. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  15. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  16. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  17. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also...

  18. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also...

  19. Resource Allocation in Classrooms. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. Alan

    This report deals with the allocation of resources within classrooms and homes. It is based on the assumption that learning occurs through a set of processes that require the utilization of human and material resources. It is assumed that the study of resource allocation at the micro level will help provide an understanding of the effect on…

  20. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  1. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  2. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  3. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  4. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  5. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  6. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form of... for less than the maximum amount established by statute, and to limit the number of times a...

  7. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  8. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  9. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... RF North of 40°10′ N. lat. 81 18 Minor Slope RF South of 40°10′ N. lat. 63 37 Dover Sole 95 5 English... through the biennial harvest specifications and management measures process. (k) (l) Black...

  10. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... RF North of 40°10′ N. lat. 81 18 Minor Slope RF South of 40°10′ N. lat. 63 37 Dover Sole 95 5 English... through the biennial harvest specifications and management measures process. (k) (l) Black...

  11. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... Dover Sole 95 5 English Sole 95 5 Petrale Sole 95 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 95 5 Starry Flounder 50 50 Other... measures process. (l) Black rockfish harvest guideline. The commercial tribal harvest guideline for...

  12. 44 CFR 304.4 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 304.4 Section 304.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS CONSOLIDATED GRANTS TO INSULAR AREAS § 304.4 Allocations. For each Federal...

  13. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA...

  14. 15 CFR 336.4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 336.4 Section 336.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL... § 336.4 Allocation. (a) The Tariff Rate Quota licenses will be issued to eligible manufacturers on...

  15. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  16. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  17. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  18. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  19. Resource Allocation in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an econometric analysis of internal resource allocation. Two theories are used for this study of resource allocation in public research universities, and these are: (1) Theory of the Firm; and (2) Resource Dependence Theory. This study used the American Association of Universities Data Exchange (AAUDE)…

  20. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the...

  1. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  2. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  3. Allocation of environmental loads in recycling: a model based in the qualitative value of recycled material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose V. R.; Domingos, Idalina; Antunes, Paula

    2001-02-01

    When the life cycle of a product, material or service, studied in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) affect other life cycles not included in the system in analysis, it is necessary to apply allocation rules. Allocation can be defined, in LCA context, as the act of assigning the environmental loads of a system to the functions of that system in proportionate shares. Most of the available allocation methods are of generic application, they do not take into account the quality of the materials to be recycled and the few that do take it into account attribute to it a quantitative value. Methods that are both generic and scientifically correct are generally difficult to apply. Rules that are too simple for a case by case application could lead to studies of life cycle assessment that cannot be compared. This way, the best will be to dispose of simple methods but just and mathematically correct with a fundamentally driven application to a sector of economic activity. In this study a method of allocation is proposed which takes into account primarily the "qualitative" value of the material to be recycled, irrespective of being a pos-consumption product/material or a secondary material of a production process. Through a case study, the potential of application of the proposed method is demonstrated, in the recycling of products coming from wood industries and its derivatives, when compared with other allocation methods.

  4. Making sense of peak load cost allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Power, T.M.

    1995-03-15

    When it comes to cost allocation, common wisdom assigns costs in proportion to class contributions to peak loads, The justification is simple: Since the equipment had to be sized to meet peak day loads, those costs should be allocated on the same basis. Many different peak allocators have been developed on this assumption: single coincident peak contribution, sum of coincident peaks, noncoincident peak, average and excess demand, peak and average demand, base and extra capacity, and so on. Such pure peak-load allocators may not be politically acceptable, but conceptually, at least, they appear to offer the only defensible approach. Nevertheless, where capacity can be added with significant economies of scale, making cost allocations in proportion to peak loads violates well-known relationships between economics and engineering. What is missing is any tracing of the way in which the peak-load design criteria actually influence the cost incurred.

  5. 49 CFR 33.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allocation Actions § 33.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation actions. These are: (a) Set-aside: An official action that requires a... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of allocation orders. 33.53 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING: BALANCING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern industrial economies depend on the environment to support economic production and a high standard of living. Economic production, in turn, impacts the productivity of ecosystems through waste production and resource use or diversion. Human activities control many energy an...

  8. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  9. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  10. 18 CFR 367.1460 - Account 146, Accounts receivable from associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... receivable from associate companies. 367.1460 Section 367.1460 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets §...

  11. 18 CFR 367.2340 - Account 234, Accounts payable to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... payable to associate companies. 367.2340 Section 367.2340 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities §...

  12. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  13. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-07-10

    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  14. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allocator has been specified by the Commission are to be allocated among the service cost categories and the... analysis is not possible, common costs for which no allocator has been specified by the Commission...

  15. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... allocator has been specified by the Commission are to be allocated among the service cost categories and the... analysis is not possible, common costs for which no allocator has been specified by the Commission...

  16. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... allocator has been specified by the Commission are to be allocated among the service cost categories and the... analysis is not possible, common costs for which no allocator has been specified by the Commission...

  17. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  18. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  19. Get the Balance Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, Rebecca Jaurigue

    Today work goes on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and is about acceleration and access. Workers need balance more than ever. In fact, recent college graduates value work/life balance as their key factor in selecting employers. This paper, written for career counselors, defines balance as encompassing emotional, spiritual, physical, and…

  20. 17 CFR 256.01-3 - General structure of accounting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting system. 256.01-3 Section 256.01-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... accounting system. (a) The accounts provided herein are in two general categories: Balance sheet accounts and... account numbers in the Uniform System of Accounts for Public Utilities and Licensees (18 CFR Part 101)...

  1. Linear modelling of attentional resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, B.

    1978-01-01

    Eight subjects time-shared performance of two compensatory tracking tasks under conditions when both were of constant difficulty, and when the control order of one task (designated primary) was varied over time within a trial. On line performance feedback was presented on half of the trials. The data are interpreted in terms of a linear model of the operator's attention allocation system, and suggest that this allocation is strongly suboptimal. Furthermore, the limitations in reallocating attentional resources between tasks, in response to difficulty fluctuations were not reduced by augmented performance feedback. Some characteristics of the allocation system are described, and reasons for its limitations suggested.

  2. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  3. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  4. 40 CFR 97.521 - Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.521 Recordation of TR NOX Ozone Season... Ozone Season source's compliance account the TR NOX Ozone Season allowances allocated to the TR...

  5. 30 CFR 1220.014 - Allocation of joint costs and credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of joint costs and credits. 1220.014 Section 1220.014 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR...

  6. Children's Recognition of Fairness and Others' Welfare in a Resource Allocation Task: Age Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…

  7. 30 CFR 220.014 - Allocation of joint costs and credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of joint costs and credits. 220.014 Section 220.014 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL...

  8. 39 CFR 3060.14 - Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive products enterprise statement of... PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.14 Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities. The Postal Service will...

  9. 39 CFR 3060.14 - Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive products enterprise statement of... PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.14 Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities. The Postal Service will...

  10. 39 CFR 3060.14 - Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competitive products enterprise statement of... PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.14 Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities. The Postal Service will...

  11. 39 CFR 3060.14 - Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive products enterprise statement of... PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.14 Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities. The Postal Service will...

  12. 39 CFR 3060.14 - Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive products enterprise statement of... PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.14 Competitive products enterprise statement of allocated assets and liabilities. The Postal Service will...

  13. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. PMID:27262031

  14. The Financial Resource Allocation Process at Compton Community College: A Redirection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton Community Coll. Federation of Teachers, CA.

    This paper presents a historical portrait of the process of financial resource allocation at Compton Community College (CCC). Introductory material provides information on the college, its organization, and its budgeting and accounting procedures. Next, changes in finances occurring between 1974-75 and 1977-78 are outlined, including the growth of…

  15. 11 CFR 300.33 - Allocation of costs of Federal election activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activity, or generic campaign activities within certain time periods. Subject to the conditions of 11 CFR... identification, get-out-the-vote activity, or generic campaign activities, as defined in 11 CFR 100.24(a)(3) and.... See 11 CFR 106.7(c)(1) and (d)(1). (e) Transfers between accounts to cover allocable expenses....

  16. Linking Resource Allocation to Student Achievement: A Study of Title 1 and Title 1 Stimulus Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Kati P.

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis on high standards and fiscal accountability, there is a heightened need to inform the research linking student achievement to the allocation of resources. This mixed methods inquiry sought to study how schools utilized Title 1 and Title 1 stimulus funding from 2009-2011 to determine if correlations existed between areas of…

  17. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of business... Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST...

  18. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  19. Resource Allocation and Budgeting for the 1972-73 Mini-Schools of the Alum Rock Voucher Demonstration. Analysis of the Education Voucher Demonstration. A Working Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggart, S. A.; Furry, W. S.

    This Working Note documents the first year's events and outcomes in developing the budgeting system and resource allocation rules to support the Education Voucher Demonstration. The district now has systems for per pupil resource allocation and school/minischool cost center accounting. The basic voucher of $1,041 for grades 7-8, and $788 for…

  20. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  1. VAPOR: variance-aware per-pixel optimal resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Yiftach; Zhai, Fan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N; Berry, Randall; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2006-02-01

    Characterizing the video quality seen by an end-user is a critical component of any video transmission system. In packet-based communication systems, such as wireless channels or the Internet, packet delivery is not guaranteed. Therefore, from the point-of-view of the transmitter, the distortion at the receiver is a random variable. Traditional approaches have primarily focused on minimizing the expected value of the end-to-end distortion. This paper explores the benefits of accounting for not only the mean, but also the variance of the end-to-end distortion when allocating limited source and channel resources. By accounting for the variance of the distortion, the proposed approach increases the reliability of the system by making it more likely that what the end-user sees, closely resembles the mean end-to-end distortion calculated at the transmitter. Experimental results demonstrate that variance-aware resource allocation can help limit error propagation and is more robust to channel-mismatch than approaches whose goal is to strictly minimize the expected distortion. PMID:16479799

  2. Distributive justice in the allocation of donor oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pennings, G

    2001-02-01

    Due to the shortage of oocyte donors, the waiting lists are lengthening. This raises the ethical question of how the available oocytes should be distributed among candidate recipients. The paper clarifies the ethical structure of the allocation process to find a set of rules that generates decisions that are acceptable for all people involved. The selection includes two steps: admission to the waiting list and ranking of those on the list. The following criteria can be used to decide about the admission of candidates: success rate, health risks, age, parental competence, nationality, primary versus secondary infertility, and capacity to pay. Four criteria may function to rank recipients who should have first priority for receiving oocytes: waiting time, medical urgency, phenotypic matching, and synchronization. The introduction of a point system is defended because it allows balancing of the different ethical principles involved and because it installs an objective system of operating rules which avoid favoritism and personal biases. PMID:11285981

  3. Two-way minimization: a novel treatment allocation method for small trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Randomization is a hallmark of clinical trials. If a trial entails very few subjects and has many prognostic factors (or many factor levels) to be balanced, minimization is a more efficient method to achieve balance than a simple randomization. We propose a novel minimization method, the 'two-way minimization'. The method separately calculates the 'imbalance in the total numbers of subjects' and the 'imbalance in the distributions of prognostic factors'. And then to allocate a subject, it chooses--by probability--to minimize either one of these two aspects of imbalances. As such, it is a method that is both treatment-adaptive and covariate-adaptive. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to examine its statistical properties. The two-way minimization (with proper regression adjustment of the force-balanced prognostic factors) has the correct type I error rates. It also produces point estimates that are unbiased and variance estimates that are accurate. When there are important prognostic factors to be balanced in the study, the method achieves the highest power and the smallest variance among randomization methods that are resistant to selection bias. The allocation can be done in real time and the subsequent data analysis is straightforward. The two-way minimization is recommended to balance prognostic factors in small trials.

  4. Resource allocation in metabolic networks: kinetic optimization and approximations by FBA.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Steuer, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Based on recent theoretical results on optimal flux distributions in kinetic metabolic networks, we explore the congruences and differences between solutions of kinetic optimization problems and results obtained by constraint-based methods. We demonstrate that, for a certain resource allocation problem, kinetic optimization and standard flux balance analysis (FBA) give rise to qualitatively different results. Furthermore, we introduce a variant of FBA, called satFBA, whose predictions are in qualitative agreement with kinetic optimization.

  5. IRINI: random group allocation of multiple prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Jyotsna; Geisler, John G; Liu, Jianying; Kirchner, Thomas; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Lubomirski, Mariusz

    2011-05-01

    Statistically sound experimental design in pharmacology studies ensures that the known prognostic factors, if any, are equally represented across investigational groups to avoid bias and imbalance which could render the experiment invalid or lead to false conclusions. Complete randomization can be effective to reduce bias in the created groups especially in large sample size situations. However, in small studies which involve only few treatment subjects, as in preclinical trials, there is a high chance of imbalance. The effects of this imbalance may be removed through covariate analysis or prevented with stratified randomization, however small studies limit the number of covariates to be analyzed this way. The problem is accentuated when there are multiple baseline covariates with varying scales and magnitudes to be considered in the randomization, and creating a balanced solution becomes a combinatorial challenge. Our method, IRINI, uses an optimization technique to achieve treatment to subject group allocation across multiple prognostic factors concurrently. It ensures that the created groups are equal in size and statistically comparable in terms of mean and variance. This method is a novel application of genetic algorithms to solve the allocation problem and simultaneously ensure quality, speed of the results and randomness of the process. Results from preclinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  7. METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR WASTE LOAD ALLOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research has addressed several unresolved questions concerning the allocation of allowable waste loads among multiple wastewater dischargers within a water quality limited stream segment. First, the traditional assumptions about critical design conditions for waste load allo...

  8. Carbon allocation changes: an adaptive response to variations in atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Sandy; Li, Guangqi; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2016-04-01

    Given the ubiquity of nutrient constraints on primary production, an optimal carbon allocation strategy is expected to increase total below-ground allocation (fine root production and turnover, allocation to mycorrhizae and carbon exudation to the rhizophere) as atmospheric CO2 concentration increases. Conversely, below-ground allocation should be reduced when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were low, as occurred during glacial times. Using a coupled generic primary production and tree-growth model, we quantify the changes in carbon allocation that are required to explain the apparent homoeostasis of tree radial growth during recent decades and between glacial and interglacial conditions. These results suggest a resolution of the apparent paradox of continuing terrestrial CO2 uptake (a consequence of CO2 fertilization) and the widespread lack of observed enhancement of stem growth in trees. Adaptive shifts in carbon allocation are thus a key feature that should to be accounted for in models to predict tree growth and future timber harvests, as well as in large-scale ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

  9. Carbon allocation changes: an adaptive response to variations in atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Given the ubiquity of nutrient constraints on primary production, an optimal carbon allocation strategy is expected to increase total below-ground allocation (fine root production and turnover, allocation to mycorrhizae and carbon exudation to the rhizophere) as CO2 concentration increases. Conversely, below-ground allocation should be reduced under low CO2 concentrations, as occurred during glacial times. Using a coupled generic primary production and tree-growth model, we quantify the changes in carbon allocation that are required to explain the apparent homoeostasis of tree radial growth during recent decades and between glacial and interglacial conditions. These results suggest a resolution of the apparent paradox of continuing terrestrial CO2 uptake (a consequence of CO2 fertilization) and the widespread lack of observed radial growth enhancement in trees. Adaptive shifts in carbon allocation are thus a key feature that needs to be accounted for in models to predict, for example, future timber yields as well as in large-scale ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

  10. Life history trade-offs and evidence for hierarchical resource allocation in two monocarpic perennials.

    PubMed

    Cao, G-X; Worley, A C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of floral display is thought to be constrained by trade-offs between the size and number of flowers; however, empirical evidence for the trade-off is inconsistent. We examined evidence for trade-offs and hierarchical allocation of resources within and between two populations each of the monocarpic perennials, Cardiocrinum cordatum and C. giganteum. Within all populations, flower size-number trade-offs were evident after accounting for variation in plant size. In addition, variation in flower size explained much variation in flower-level allocation to attraction, and female and male function, a pattern consistent with hierarchical allocation. However, between population differences in flower size (C. cordatum) and number (C. giganteum) were not consistent with size-number trade-offs or hierarchical allocation. The population-level difference in C. cordatum likely reflects the combined influence of a time lag between initiation and maturation of flowers, and higher light levels in one population. Thus, our study highlights one mechanism that may account for the apparent independence of flower size and number in many studies. A prediction of sex allocation theory was also supported. In C. giganteum: plants from one population invested more mass in pistils and less in stamens than did plants from the other population. Detection of floral trade-offs in Cardiocrinum may be facilitated by monocarpic reproduction, production of a single inflorescence and ease of measuring plant size.

  11. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  12. Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.

    1990-01-01

    Global optimization problems solved quickly. Neural-network processor optimizes allocation of M resources among N expenditures according to cost of pairing each resource with each expenditure and subject to limit on number of resources feeding into each expenditure and/or limit on number of expenditures to which each resource allocated. One cell performs several analog and digital functions. Potential applications include assignment of jobs, scheduling, dispatching, and planning of military maneuvers.

  13. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  14. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 204, Preferred stock issued. 367.2040 Section 367.2040 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2040 Account 204, Preferred...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 204, Preferred stock issued. 367.2040 Section 367.2040 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2040 Account 204, Preferred...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 204, Preferred stock issued. 367.2040 Section 367.2040 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2040 Account 204, Preferred...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...