Science.gov

Sample records for allocation concealment blinding

  1. Eliminating bias in randomized controlled trials: importance of allocation concealment and masking.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I

    2007-02-01

    Randomization in randomized controlled trials involves more than generation of a random sequence by which to assign subjects. For randomization to be successfully implemented, the randomization sequence must be adequately protected (concealed) so that investigators, involved health care providers, and subjects are not aware of the upcoming assignment. The absence of adequate allocation concealment can lead to selection bias, one of the very problems that randomization was supposed to eliminate. Authors of reports of randomized trials should provide enough details on how allocation concealment was achieved so the reader can determine the likelihood of success. Fortunately, a plan of allocation concealment can always be incorporated into the design of a randomized trial. Certain methods minimize the risk of concealment failing more than others. Keeping knowledge of subjects' assignment after allocation from subjects, investigators/health care providers, or those assessing outcomes is referred to as masking (also known as blinding). The goal of masking is to prevent ascertainment bias. In contrast to allocation concealment, masking cannot always be incorporated into a randomized controlled trial. Both allocation concealment and masking add to the elimination of bias in randomized controlled trials.

  2. Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... The problem may affect one eye or both eyes. When you think of being blind, you might imagine total darkness. But most people who are blind can still see a little light or shadows. They just can't see things clearly. People who have some sight, but still need a lot of help, are ...

  3. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  4. Authenticating concealed private data while maintaining concealment

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Draelos, Timothy J.

    2007-06-26

    A method of and system for authenticating concealed and statistically varying multi-dimensional data comprising: acquiring an initial measurement of an item, wherein the initial measurement is subject to measurement error; applying a transformation to the initial measurement to generate reference template data; acquiring a subsequent measurement of an item, wherein the subsequent measurement is subject to measurement error; applying the transformation to the subsequent measurement; and calculating a Euclidean distance metric between the transformed measurements; wherein the calculated Euclidean distance metric is identical to a Euclidean distance metric between the measurement prior to transformation.

  5. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  6. Concealing with Structured Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-02-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core.

  7. Concealing with Structured Light

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-01-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core. PMID:24522638

  8. Standardising and assessing digital images for use in clinical trials: a practical, reproducible method that blinds the assessor to treatment allocation.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Asha C; Burns, Kara; Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Liddle, Robyn; O'Meara, Irene M; Westphal, Darren W; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of high quality digital cameras that are easily operated by the non-professional photographer, the utility of using digital images to assess endpoints in clinical research of skin lesions has growing acceptance. However, rigorous protocols and description of experiences for digital image collection and assessment are not readily available, particularly for research conducted in remote settings. We describe the development and evaluation of a protocol for digital image collection by the non-professional photographer in a remote setting research trial, together with a novel methodology for assessment of clinical outcomes by an expert panel blinded to treatment allocation. PMID:25375169

  9. Standardising and assessing digital images for use in clinical trials: a practical, reproducible method that blinds the assessor to treatment allocation.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Asha C; Burns, Kara; Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Liddle, Robyn; O'Meara, Irene M; Westphal, Darren W; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of high quality digital cameras that are easily operated by the non-professional photographer, the utility of using digital images to assess endpoints in clinical research of skin lesions has growing acceptance. However, rigorous protocols and description of experiences for digital image collection and assessment are not readily available, particularly for research conducted in remote settings. We describe the development and evaluation of a protocol for digital image collection by the non-professional photographer in a remote setting research trial, together with a novel methodology for assessment of clinical outcomes by an expert panel blinded to treatment allocation.

  10. Blinding Techniques in Randomized Controlled Trials of Laser Therapy: An Overview and Possible Solution

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Roberta; Pirotta, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy has evidence accumulating about its effectiveness in a variety of medical conditions. We reviewed 51 double blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of laser treatment. Analysis revealed 58% of trials showed benefit of laser over placebo. However, less than 5% of the trials had addressed beam disguise or allocation concealment in the laser machines used. Many of the trials used blinding methods that rely on staff cooperation and are therefore open to interference or bias. This indicates significant deficiencies in laser trial methodology. We report the development and preliminary testing of a novel laser machine that can blind both patient and operator to treatment allocation without staff participation. The new laser machine combines sealed preset and non-bypassable randomization codes, decoy lights and sound, and a conical perspex tip to overcome laser diode glow detection. PMID:18955233

  11. New methods in order to determine the extent of temporary blinding from laser and LED light and proposal how to allocate into blinding groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter; Ott, Günter; Brose, Martin; Dollinger, Klaus

    2010-02-01

    Indirect effects arising from bright artificial optical sources like temporary blinding might result in serious incidents or even accidents due to accompanying alteration of visual functions like visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color discrimination. In order to determine the degree and duration of impairment resulting from glare, dazzle, flash-blindness and afterimages, caused by a beam from a laser or lamp product, particularly under low ambient light conditions, an investigation has been performed with the goal to improve the current knowledge as far as especially recovery duration of visual acuity is concerned. For this two different test set-ups were designed and engineered in order to be able to determine the time duration after which visual acuity returns to its previous value after temporary blinding with a laser or an LED and in addition to search for functional relations as far as wavelength, optical power and exposure duration are concerned. Instead of normal visual acuity measurement, which is the standard test done by eye care professionals, and which has been applied in order to determine the recovery time after irradiation with a high brightness LED (HB-LED) with the aid of a modified commercially available binoptometer with Landolt-C rings as optotypes, a special reading test on a computer monitor was developed for the case of laser irradiation. Two different laser were applied, one with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and the other with 532 nm. Red, green, royal blue and white HB-LEDs were used as stimulating light sources. The maximum applied optical power in a 7-mm aperture, which is equivalent to the pupil diameter of a dark adapted eye, was 0.783 mW (laser) and 3 mW (LED). The exposure durations were chosen as 0.25 s, 0.5 s, 1 s, 5 s, and 20 s in the case of laser irradiation and 0.25 s, 1 s, 5 s, and 10 s for LEDs, respecting maximum permissible exposure (MPE) and/or limit exposure levels (ELVs) in all exposure situations. The visual acuity

  12. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  13. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  14. Self-Concealment and Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Adam; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy; Nadorff, Michael R.; Smith, Merideth D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding self-concealment, the tendency to actively conceal distressing personal information from others, may be important in developing effective ways to help individuals with suicidal ideation. No published study has yet assessed the relation between self-concealment and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, most self-concealment research has…

  15. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

    2002-08-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

  16. Standoff detection of concealed handguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, Nacer; Andrews, David; Bowring, Nicholas; Harmer, Stuart; Southgate, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    An active technique for the standoff detection and identification of concealed conducting items such as handguns and knives is presented. This technique entails illuminating an object with wide range stepped millimetre wave radiation and inducing a local electromagnetic field comprised of a superposition of modes. The coupling to these modes from the illuminating and scattered fields is, in general, frequency dependent and this forms the basis for the detection and identification of conducting items. The object needs to be fully illuminated if a full spectrum of modes and therefore a full frequency response are to be excited and collected. The scattered EM power is measured at "stand off" distance of several metres as the illuminating field is frequency swept and patterns in frequency response characteristic to the target item being sought are looked for. This system relies on contributions from the aspect independent late time responses employed by Baum1 together with aspect independent information derived specifically from gun barrels and polarisation from scattering effects. This technique is suitable for a deployable gun and concealed weapons detection system and does not rely on imaging techniques for determining the presence of a gun. Experimental sets of responses from typical metal or partially conducting objects such as keys, mobile phones and concealed handguns are presented at a range of frequencies.

  17. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  18. Method for imaging a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Partin, Judy K [Idaho Falls, ID; Sawyers, Robert J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-07-03

    A method for imaging a concealed object is described and which includes a step of providing a heat radiating body, and wherein an object to be detected is concealed on the heat radiating body; imaging the heat radiating body to provide a visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body; and determining if the visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body is masked by the presence of the concealed object.

  19. [Advances in the studies of concealed penis].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sheng-hai; Li, Xue-de

    2015-09-01

    Concealed penis is usually found in children, which affects the patients both physiologically and psychologically. Some of the patients are wrongly treated by circumcision, which may bring about serious consequences to the sexual life of the patients in their adulthood. In the recent years, this disease has been receiving more and more attention from both doctors and parents. However, controversies remain as to its classification, pathogenesis, pathology, and treatment. This paper focuses on the understanding and advances in the studies of concealed penis.

  20. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  1. Detecting concealed objects at a checkpoint

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine if a concealed object is being carried. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual with a pair of opposed, semi-cylindrical array panels each configured to interrogate the individual with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range.

  2. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  3. Automated Human Screening for Detecting Concealed Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Nathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Screening individuals for concealed knowledge has traditionally been the purview of professional interrogators investigating a crime. But the ability to detect when a person is hiding important information would be of high value to many other fields and functions. This dissertation proposes design principles for and reports on an implementation…

  4. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  5. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  6. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  7. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  8. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  9. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  10. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine.

  11. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2012-06-01

    The smuggling of bulk cash across borders is a serious issue that has increased in recent years. In an effort to curb the illegal transport of large numbers of paper bills, a detection scheme has been developed, based on the magnetic characteristics of bank notes. The results show that volumes of paper currency can be detected through common concealing materials such as plastics, cardboard, and fabrics making it a possible potential addition to border security methods. The detection scheme holds the potential of also reducing or eliminating false positives caused by metallic materials found in the vicinity, by observing the stark difference in received signals caused by metal and currency. The detection scheme holds the potential to detect for both the presence and number of concealed bulk notes, while maintaining the ability to reduce false positives caused by metal objects.

  12. Concealed evaporite basin drilled in Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L.

    1996-10-21

    The White Mountains of Arizona are a high forested plateau underlain by volcanic rocks of Late Pliocene and Quaternary age on the south margin of the Colorado plateau province. Elevations range from 6,000--11,590 ft, with winter snow and summer rain but ideal conditions for much of the year. There was no evidence of a Permian evaporite basin concealed beneath the White Mountain volcanic field until 1993, when the Tonto 1 Alpine-Federal, a geothermal test well, was drilled. This test did not encounter thermal waters, but it did encounter a surprisingly thick and unexpected sequence of anhydrite, dolomite, and petroliferous limestone assigned to the Supai (Yeso) formation of Permian age. The Tonto test was continuously cored through the Permian section, providing invaluable information that is now stored at the Arizona Geological Survey in Tucson. The paper describes the area geology and the concealed basin.

  13. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  14. Internally concealed cocaine: analytical and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Althoff, H; Erkens, M; Maier, R D; Hofmann, R

    1995-09-01

    Thirty persons arrested at Frankfurt airport for smuggling internally concealed cocaine in 1993/1994 were investigated. An X-ray examination (in all 30 cases), immunochemical examination of urine (in 27 cases) and of saliva (in 20 cases) was performed in parallel. An X-ray examination gave positive results in all examined persons. EMIT cocaine metabolite assay (cut off 300 ng benzoylecgonine (BE)/mL) was positive in eight urine samples. After reducing the cut off to 150 ng BE/mL urine, eleven samples were classified as positive. The results were confirmed by means of chromatographic determinations. These findings showed limited role of immunological examination of urine as a screening test in suspected smuggling of internally concealed drugs. All saliva samples showed negative immunochemical results. The number of concealed containers ranged from 44 to 135 per person. The amount of cocaine hydrochloride found in particular cases ranged from 242 to 1050 g net weight, divided into containers weighing from 5.7 to 13.8 g. Drug packages were obviously machine-made. The packages smuggled by a particular person were uniform. However, a distinct interpersonal variability in drug packages was observed, in regard to the number of protective layers (4-7), size, weight, and cocaine purity. This may be helpful for the identification of production site. The leaching of cocaine from selected containers was investigated in a stirring bath and was independent of the conditions applied. PMID:7595327

  15. A modified surgical procedure for concealed penis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Bianjiang; Guan, Zhaolong; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Chao; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We described a modified surgical procedure for repairing a concealed penis and compared the efficacy and feasibility of modified repair with traditional repair. Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 96 patients with a concealed penis were recruited to undergo penile repair at our centre. Modified repair and traditional repair were performed respectively on 46 and 50 cases. We compared operative time, intraoperative blood loss, cosmetic result of operative scars, postoperative penile retraction, and complications. Results: All operations were completed successfully without serious complications. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and cosmetic result of the operative scar between the two surgical methods were similar. However, the postoperative penile retraction rate in patients undergoing modified repair decreased significantly than in the traditional repair. Conclusions: Our modified surgical procedure is effective and feasible for a concealed penis. Although extra procedures were needed for the modified repair, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and cosmetic result of operative scar between the two procedures were similar. Compared with traditional repair, modified repair has better clinical outcomes. PMID:26664507

  16. Concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hiejima, K; Satake, S

    1978-03-01

    Sixty-nine patients, 23 of whom had documented attacks of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), were studied electrophysiologically and the following results were obtained: (1) Antegrade concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom (AC WPW) was demonstrated in 7 out of 69 patients by atrial stimulation including extrastimulus. Six of these 7 patients presented an accessory pathway (AP) conduction of the Kent type, 5 of which showed Type A and another, Type B. The remaining one of these 7 patients showed an AP conduction of the Mahaim type. One of the 7 patients showed a combination with the James and Kent types AP conduction. (2) Retrograde concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (RC WPW) was demonstrated in 8 out of 49 patients in whom the presence of V-A conduction was revealed by ventricular stimulation, while PSVT was documented in 7 of these 8 patients. An AP of the Kent type was identified in the left side of the heart in 5 out of 7 patients with documented PSVT, the right side in one and in the septal region in one. (3) The presence of bilateral or two APs were demonstrated in 3 patients. In another one with documented PSVT, the presence of a branched AP from a left-sided Kent bundle was assumed. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concealed APs may be more frequent than realized. For example, the frequency of RC WPW in patients with PSVT was 30.4% (7/23) in our series. Accordingly, it is postulated that RC WPW may also be indicated for surgical therapy and that detailed electrophysiologic examination by the physician should be carried out for the sake of determining the indication.

  17. Detecting persons concealed in a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Jr., Raymond W.

    2005-03-29

    An improved method for detecting the presence of humans or animals concealed within in a vehicle uses a combination of the continuous wavelet transform and a ratio-based energy calculation to determine whether the motion detected using seismic sensors placed on the vehicle is due to the presence of a heartbeat within the vehicle or is the result of motion caused by external factors such as the wind. The method performs well in the presence of light to moderate ambient wind levels, producing far fewer false alarm indications. The new method significantly improves the range of ambient environmental conditions under which human presence detection systems can reliably operate.

  18. Resource Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stennett, R. G.

    A research allocation formula employed in London, Ontario elementary schools, as well as supporting data on the method, are provided in this report. Attempts to improve on the traditional methods of resource allocation in London's schools were based on two principles: (1) that need for a particular service could and should be determined…

  19. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    Color deficiency; Blindness - color ... Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the pigments in certain nerve cells of the eye that sense color. These cells are called cones. They are found ...

  20. Blind Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  1. Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Wen; Juhola, Markku; Grainger, William; Wang, Beining; Manahan, Brian

    1997-02-01

    Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential both for remote sensing and full-body fixed site scanner applications. Although only raw image data was obtained in Phase I, we propose to apply super-resolution image enhancements and target recognition software algorithms to provide more reliable detection. Endorsement from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, to provide operational input and testing and evaluation, and the hiring of a consultant to plan for future program financing (including venture capital investment) make the project very attractive for commercialization.

  2. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  3. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    PubMed

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  4. 48 CFR 408.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 408... Employing People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.705-3 Allocation process. (a) The chief of a contracting office may apply to a central nonprofit agency for a production allocation of specific supplies...

  5. Concealing their communication: exploring psychosocial predictors of young drivers' intentions and engagement in concealed texting.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Making a conscious effort to hide the fact that you are texting while driving (i.e., concealed texting) is a deliberate and risky behaviour involving attention diverted away from the road. As the most frequent users of text messaging services and mobile phones while driving, young people appear at heightened risk of crashing from engaging in this behaviour. This study investigated the phenomenon of concealed texting while driving, and utilised an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including the additional predictors of moral norm, mobile phone involvement, and anticipated regret to predict young drivers' intentions and subsequent behaviour. Participants (n=171) were aged 17-25 years, owned a mobile phone, and had a current driver's licence. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their intention to conceal texting while driving, and a follow-up questionnaire a week later to report their behavioural engagement. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB with the standard constructs accounting for 69% of variance in drivers' intentions, and the extended predictors contributing an additional 6% of variance in intentions over and above the standard constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, PBC, moral norm, and mobile phone involvement emerged as significant predictors of intentions; and intention was the only significant predictor of drivers' self-reported behaviour. These constructs can provide insight into key focal points for countermeasures including advertising and other public education strategies aimed at influencing young drivers to reconsider their engagement in this risky behaviour. PMID:24211560

  6. Concealing their communication: exploring psychosocial predictors of young drivers' intentions and engagement in concealed texting.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Making a conscious effort to hide the fact that you are texting while driving (i.e., concealed texting) is a deliberate and risky behaviour involving attention diverted away from the road. As the most frequent users of text messaging services and mobile phones while driving, young people appear at heightened risk of crashing from engaging in this behaviour. This study investigated the phenomenon of concealed texting while driving, and utilised an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including the additional predictors of moral norm, mobile phone involvement, and anticipated regret to predict young drivers' intentions and subsequent behaviour. Participants (n=171) were aged 17-25 years, owned a mobile phone, and had a current driver's licence. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their intention to conceal texting while driving, and a follow-up questionnaire a week later to report their behavioural engagement. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB with the standard constructs accounting for 69% of variance in drivers' intentions, and the extended predictors contributing an additional 6% of variance in intentions over and above the standard constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, PBC, moral norm, and mobile phone involvement emerged as significant predictors of intentions; and intention was the only significant predictor of drivers' self-reported behaviour. These constructs can provide insight into key focal points for countermeasures including advertising and other public education strategies aimed at influencing young drivers to reconsider their engagement in this risky behaviour.

  7. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed. PMID:26322654

  8. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  9. Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, David N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.

  10. Ebola nurse Pauline Cafferkey accused of concealing high temperature.

    PubMed

    2016-08-24

    Pauline Cafferkey, the nurse who was infected with the Ebola virus while caring for sick people in west Africa, has been accused of concealing her temperature during checks on her return to the UK. PMID:27641552

  11. TDCS Guided using fMRI Significantly Accelerates Learning to Identify Concealed Objects

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Vincent P.; Coffman, Brian A.; Mayer, Andy R.; Weisend, Michael P.; Lane, Terran D.R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Raybourn, Elaine M.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Wassermann, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    The accurate identification of obscured and concealed objects in complex environments was an important skill required for survival during human evolution, and is required today for many forms of expertise. Here we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) guided using neuroimaging to increase learning rate in a novel, minimally guided discovery-learning paradigm. Ninety-six subjects identified threat-related objects concealed in naturalistic virtual surroundings used in real-world training. A variety of brain networks were found using fMRI data collected at different stages of learning, with two of these networks focused in right inferior frontal and right parietal cortex. Anodal 2.0 mA tDCS performed for 30 minutes over these regions in a series of single-blind, randomized studies resulted in significant improvements in learning and performance compared with 0.1 mA tDCS. This difference in performance increased to a factor of two after a one-hour delay. A dose-response effect of current strength on learning was also found. Taken together, these brain imaging and stimulation studies suggest that right frontal and parietal cortex are involved in learning to identify concealed objects in naturalistic surroundings. Furthermore, they suggest that the application of anodal tDCS over these regions can greatly increase learning, resulting in one of the largest effects on learning yet reported. The methods developed here may be useful to decrease the time required to attain expertise in a variety of settings. PMID:21094258

  12. Temporal spying and concealing process in fibre-optic data transmission systems through polarization bypass

    PubMed Central

    Bony, P.Y.; Guasoni, M.; Morin, P.; Sugny, D.; Picozzi, A.; Jauslin, H.R.; Pitois, S.; Fatome, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has been focused on the ability to manipulate a light beam in such a way to hide, namely to cloak, an event over a finite time or localization in space. The main idea is to create a hole or a gap in the spatial or time domain so as to allow for an object or data to be kept hidden for a while and then to be restored. By enlarging the field of applications of this concept to telecommunications, researchers have recently reported the possibility to hide transmitted data in an optical fibre. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of perpetual temporal spying and blinding process of optical data in fibre-optic transmission line based on polarization bypass. We successfully characterize the performance of our system by alternatively copying and then concealing 100% of a 10-Gb s−1 transmitted signal. PMID:25135759

  13. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  14. Pigmented concealing powders for the hair loss patient.

    PubMed

    Cossman, Jack P; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu C

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from alopecia may experience low self-esteem, low self-image, and other psychological consequences. While medical and surgical options for treating hair loss exist, these may be prohibitively expensive or have an unpredictable outcome. In lieu of or in addition to therapeutic approaches, cosmetic options have long been an approach to hair loss. However, patients and clinicians alike often regard cosmetic options to be limited to hairstyling and hairpieces, unaware that newer options, namely pigmented concealing powders, may offer a more practical and seemingly natural camouflage. This article introduces the clinician to concealing powders as a viable option for the hair loss patient.

  15. Concealing a Passive Sensing System with Single-Negative Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Feng; Zou, Xin-Ye; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-layer structure for concealing an electromagnetic sensing system (a sensor is wrapped with a transparent protective layer), using single-negative (SNG) materials whose material parameters are completely independent of those of the host matrix as well as the concealed system. The numerical results show that only three different kinds of SNG materials are sufficient to yield the cloaking effect even in the presence of weak loss. This may significantly facilitate the experimental realization of a well-performing sensor-cloaking device.

  16. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  17. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  18. 48 CFR 408.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation process. 408.705-3 Section 408.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION... Employing People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.705-3 Allocation process. (a) The chief of...

  19. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  20. Adolescent disclosure and concealment: longitudinal and concurrent associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Chelom E; Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Hart, Craig H

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls.

  1. Detecting concealed information using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Zhou, Xiaomei; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Sang, Biao

    2014-09-01

    The present study focused on the potential application of fNIRS in the detection of concealed information. Participants either committed a mock crime or not and then were presented with a randomized series of probes (crime-related information) and irrelevants (crime-irrelevant information) in a standard concealed information test (CIT). Participants in the guilty group were instructed to conceal crime-related information they obtained from the mock crime, thus making deceptive response to the probes. Meanwhile, their brain activity to probes and irrelevants was recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). At the group level, we found that probe items were associated with longer reaction times and greater activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex than irrelevant items in the guilty group, but not in the innocent group. These findings provided evidence on neural correlates of recognition during a CIT. Finally, on the basis of the activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex, the correct classification of guilty versus innocent participants was approximately 75 % and the combination of fNIRS and reaction time measures yielded a better classification rate of 83.3 %. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using fNIRS to detect concealed information. PMID:24514911

  2. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1998-03-01

    A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

  3. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  4. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  5. Blindness Clues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older adults, yet researchers are still in the dark about many of the factors that cause this incurable disease. But new insight from University of Florida (UF) and German researchers about a genetic link between rhesus monkeys with macular degeneration and humans could unlock…

  6. Blind Ambition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  7. Campaign for Right to Carry Concealed Guns on Campuses Gains Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Five years after the Virginia Tech massacre prompted a student in Texas to start a Facebook page in favor of the right to carry concealed weapons on college campuses, the resulting group, Students for Concealed Carry, has advanced its cause. In more than a dozen states, legislation has been introduced to allow the carrying of concealed firearms on…

  8. Quantum Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based On LSQu-Blocks Image Information Concealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng

    2016-08-01

    Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.

  9. Could plate tectonics on Venus be concealed by volcanic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.; Muradian, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is supplementary to a study reported by Kaula and Phillips (1981). From an analysis of Pioneer Venus altimetry, Kaula and Phillips had inferred that any heat loss from the planet by plate tectonics must be small compared to that from the earth. However, it has been suggested by others that plate tectonic may exist on Venus, but that the expected 'square root of s' dependence of the topographic drop off is not observed because it is concealed by lava flows. The present investigation has the objective to conduct an examination whether this suggestion of concealment by lava flow is correct. On the basis of the performed analysis, it is concluded that the results obtained by Kaula and Phillips appear to be well justified.

  10. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. PMID:26390033

  11. An adaptive perspective on revealed and concealed cues to empathy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert; Shingler, Polly

    2016-02-01

    Wu, Sheppard, and Mitchell (Br. J. Psychol., 2016; 107, 1-22) found that observers could accurately identify people with extreme but not more average empathy scores. Here, we further consider this U-shaped discrimination function. We first examine a statistical issue regarding the construction of the average groups, which are less homogenous by definition than the extreme groups. We then consider the kinds of questions arising when these results are considered within the adaptive framework of signal theory. Some interesting questions arise relating to the signal sender, including the costs and benefits to the sender in revealing and concealing true empathy levels, and the effects of adopting behavioural norms to conceal true levels of empathy.

  12. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications.

  13. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors.

  14. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors. PMID:24308254

  15. Colour blindness.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N

    1998-03-01

    The physiology of colour vision is discussed; as is the way in which the human eye can detect various combinations of red, green and blue. Red-green colour blindness, with X-linked inheritance, is the most common, but other types are also considered. Methods of testing relating to the age of the child are reviewed. The use of colours in teaching is widespread, but there is controversy over the difficulties this may cause a colour blind child. A review of the literature does not reveal much information on this, and any problems that do arise are likely to be individual to the child, and to depend on such factors as overall intelligence, the attitude of the teacher, and the personality of the child. There is not doubt that it is essential to recognise colour vision defects when it comes to choosing a career, and that tests must be done during secondary schooling, but in order to avoid some affected children being disadvantaged there is enough evidence to support testing at school entry.

  16. Resource partitioning among flower visitors and evolution of nectar concealment in multi-species communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Santamaría, Luis

    2005-01-22

    The plant community within which flower evolution takes place has largely been ignored. We develop two models for the evolution of nectar concealment when flowers are visited by legitimate pollinators and flower parasites. When there is a single plant species, no level of nectar concealment is evolutionarily stable: any population can be invaded by mutants exhibiting a higher level of nectar concealment. However, the presence of a second flower species with exposed nectar and not subject to evolution breaks the runaway process. In the presence of open flowers, depending on the fitness function there may be an evolutionarily stable level of nectar concealment, or more complex evolutionary dynamics, with nectar concealment fluctuating within a bounded range. Concealment of nectar from flower parasites can evolve even if it implies decreasing the accessibility of nectar to legitimate pollinators.

  17. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

  18. Concealed Left Ventricle to Right Atrium Fistula Complicating Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Onzuka, Tatsushi; Morishige, Shoji; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yasutaka

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis presenting with subaortic stenosis without perivalvular leakage and vegetations in the left ventricular outflow and right atrium, the latter being attached to the atrioventricular septum. Intraoperatively, an abscess that had formed on the aortic annulus and perforated to the right atrium was unexpectedly found, the fistula being occluded by vegetations. Even when no left-to-right shunts are detected by imaging, vegetations adjacent to the atrioventricular septum may conceal a left ventricle-right atrium fistula, resulting in prosthetic valve endocarditis presenting clinically as subaortic stenosis without perivalvular leakage. PMID:27549556

  19. Attachment style, self-concealment, and interpersonal distance among Japanese undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Shintaro; Tokuda, Hideji; Sato, Jun

    2007-06-01

    The relationships among attachment style, self-concealment, and interpersonal distance were studied with 71 Japanese undergraduates (33 men and 38 women, ages 18 to 20 years, M = 18.7, SD= .6). Participants completed a questionnaire about Self-concealment and Attachment Styles (Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant). One week later, Interpersonal Distance, which individuals maintain between themselves and others, was measured by the stop-distance paradigm. Analysis showed that scores for more Anxious and Avoidant Attachment Styles were positively correlated with those for greater Self-concealment. Scores for greater Self-concealment and more Anxious Attachment Style were also correlated with longer Interpersonal Distance.

  20. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  1. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  2. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  3. Active millimeter wave detection of concealed layers of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, N. J.; Baker, J. G.; Rezgui, N. D.; Southgate, M.; Alder, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    Extensive work has been published on millimetre wave active and passive detection and imaging of metallic objects concealed under clothing. We propose and demonstrate a technique for revealing the depth as well as the outline of partially transparent objects, which is especially suited to imaging layer materials such as explosives and drugs. The technique uses a focussed and scanned FMCW source, swept through many GHz to reveal this structure. The principle involved is that a parallel sided dielectric slab produces reflections at both its upper and lower surfaces, acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This produces a pattern of alternating reflected peaks and troughs in frequency space. Fourier or Burg transforming this pattern into z-space generates a peak at the thickness of the irradiated sample. It could be argued that though such a technique may work for single uniform slabs of dielectric material, it will give results of little or no significance when the sample both scatters the incident radiation and gives erratic reflectivities due to its non-uniform thickness and permittivity . We show results for a variety of materials such as explosive simulants, powder and drugs, both alone and concealed under clothing or in a rucksack, which display strongly directional reflectivities at millimeter wavelengths, and whose location is well displayed by a varying thickness parameter as the millimetre beam is scanned across the target. With this system we find that samples can easily be detected at standoff distances of at least 4.6m.

  4. Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Murrill, Steven R; Jacobs, Eddie L; Moyer, Steven K; Halford, Carl E; Griffin, Steven T; De Lucia, Frank C; Petkie, Douglas T; Franck, Charmaine C

    2008-03-20

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz (THz) -band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance modeling technology that couples system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance by using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program and is currently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active-passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to calibrate and validate the model through human perception testing. PMID:18709076

  5. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  6. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for concealed article detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovberg, John A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.; Clark, Stuart E.

    1997-02-01

    Passive-millimeter-wave imaging (PMI) provides a powerful sensing tool for law enforcement, allowing an unobtrusive means for detecting concealed weapons, explosives, or contraband on persons or in baggage. Natural thermal emissions at millimeter wavelengths from bodies, guns, explosives, and other articles pass easily through clothing or other concealment materials, where they can be detected and converted into conventional 2-dimensional images. A new implementation of PMI has demonstrated a large-area, near- real-time staring capability for personnel inspection at standoff ranges of greater than 10 meters. In this form, PMI does not require operator cuing based on subjective 'profiles' of suspicious appearance or behaviors, which may otherwise be construed as violations of civil rights. To the contrary, PMI detects and images heat generated by any object with no predisposition as to its nature or function (e.g. race or gender of humans). As a totally passive imaging tool, it generates no radio-frequency or other radiation which might raise public health concerns. Specifics of the new PMI architecture are presented along with a host of imaging data representing the current state- of-the-art.

  7. Computer Processor Allocator

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  8. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  9. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  10. Women with onset of epilepsy prior to marriage: disclose or conceal?

    PubMed

    Santosh, Deetha; Kumar, T Santosh; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2007-05-01

    We inquired reasons for concealment/disclosure of the history of epilepsy during marriage negotiations and marriage outcomes of 82 consecutive women attending a tertiary referral center based epilepsy clinic in Kerala, southern India. At the time of marriage, 55% concealed and 45% disclosed the history of epilepsy. Majority of those who concealed admitted that they did so fearing breakup of marriage negotiations, and majority of those who disclosed did so to forestall the consequences after marriage of concealing. Compared to those who disclosed, the prevalence of divorce, separation and disturbed marriages were significantly higher among those who concealed. Honest prospective communication during marriage negotiations about epilepsy is important for preserving subsequent married life.

  11. Physician Beliefs about Physical and Mental Competency of Patients Applying for Concealed Weapon Permits.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Adam O; Viera, Anthony J; Pierson, John; Barnhouse, Kathy K; Tulsky, James A; Richman, Barak D

    2015-06-01

    Law enforcement officials have asked health care providers to evaluate patient applications for concealed weapon permits. The current study was designed to examine physician beliefs regarding competency to carry a concealed weapon for patients with specific physical and mental conditions. Among 222 North Carolina physicians who participated in this survey (40% response rate), large variation and uncertainty existed for determining competency. Physicians most frequently chose mild dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and recent depression as conditions that would render a patient not competent to carry a concealed weapon. Male physicians and those owning a gun were more likely to deem a patient competent. Almost a third of physicians were unsure about competence for most conditions. Physicians asked to assess competency of patients to carry a concealed weapon have quite disparate views on competency and little confidence in their decisions. If physicians are expected to assess patient competence to carry a concealed weapon, more objective criteria and training are needed.

  12. Regulatory focus moderates the social performance of individuals who conceal a stigmatized identity.

    PubMed

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Scheepers, Daan

    2015-12-01

    People often choose to hide a stigmatized identity to avoid bias. However, hiding stigma can disrupt social interactions. We considered whether regulatory focus qualifies the social effects of hiding stigma by examining interactions in which stigmatized participants concealed a devalued identity from non-stigmatized partners. In the Prevention Focus condition, stigmatized participants were instructed to prevent a negative impression by concealing the identity; in the Promotion Focus condition, they were instructed to promote a positive impression by concealing the identity; in the Control condition, they were simply asked to conceal the identity. Both non-stigmatized partners and independent raters rated the interactions more positively in the Promotion Focus condition. Thus, promotion focus is interpersonally beneficial for individuals who conceal a devalued identity.

  13. Pathways Between Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Littlefield, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with concealable stigmatized identities often possess no obviously devalued attributes, yet are at greater risk for problematic substance use compared to their privileged counterparts. We present a conceptual model, which proposes that identity-relevant content and characteristics have important implications for cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of stigma-related stress. In doing so, we synthesize stigma-related models from the extant literature and attempt to integrate these concepts with previous work detailing potential contributors to substance use behaviors specifically. Finally, we ask readers to consider the various ways in which the content and characteristics of an individual’s stigmatized identity might combine with situational and additional individual difference factors to influence the likelihood of substance misuse. PMID:26379766

  14. Geophysical investigations of concealed faults near Yucca Mountain, Southwest Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Midway Valley, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada reveal that these methods can be used to delineate concealed faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of the proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of Midway Valley is associated with the Paintbrush fault on the west flank of Alice Ridge. Geophysical data infer a vertical offset of about 200 m (650 ft). Another prominent gravity and magnetic anomaly is associated with the Bow Ridge fault in the western part of Midway Valley.

  15. Incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Mavinapalla, Seema; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Abd Rahim, Muhammad Furqon Bin; Khan, Aftab Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Susuk, or charm needles, are small, metallic needles inserted under the skin, considered to enhance beauty, health and luck. This hidden secret of inserting susuk is a traditional superstitious ritual, widely practiced among women of Southeast Asia. Here, we present an interesting case of incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk, which was exposed on a panoramic radiograph taken on a routine basis as a part of diagnostic work up at our centre. An orthopantomogram revealed bilateral metallic foreign bodies in the maxillo-facial region. Anamnestic data affirmed the practice of the body art of susuk. The charm needles were present in the orofacial region without the patient experiencing any pathological signs or symptoms.

  16. Worker's refusal to conceal HIV tattoo amounts to misconduct.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    [Name removed] was fired in 1994 from his job as a nurse's aide at the Seattle, WA Harborview Medical Center after refusing to cover a tattoo on his left inside forearm that reads HIV POSITIVE. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments that he was terminated because of his HIV status and not the tattoo. He contended that the hospital violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act, and his First Amendment right to free speech. The judge agreed with the hospital that [name removed]'s refusal to conceal the tattoo amounted to insubordination. The appeals panel affirmed the granting of summary judgment on [name removed]'s ADA and Rehabilitation Act claims. [Name removed] said he had himself tattooed to help dispel the stigma attached to his infection. The hospital said the tattoo alarmed some patients. PMID:11364513

  17. Temperature effects on polygraph detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T

    2016-02-01

    Thermoregulatory influences on electrodermal and cardiovascular activity may interfere with the detection of concealed information using a polygraph. This possibility was assessed by means of a mock terrorism scenario. Seventy-two participants were assigned to either a guilty or an innocent role. They were given a polygraph test at one of three ambient temperatures: 10°C, 22°C, or 34°C. Among guilty participants, electrodermal and cardiovascular measures were least effective at 10°C. Electrodermal results were optimal at 22°C, whereas cardiovascular results were optimal at 34°C. Among innocent participants, the effectiveness of these same measures was not affected by ambient temperature. Temperature had no significant impact on respiration results within the guilty or the innocent groups. Taken together, these findings have implications for those who use polygraphs in uncontrolled testing environments. PMID:26435532

  18. Temperature effects on polygraph detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T

    2016-02-01

    Thermoregulatory influences on electrodermal and cardiovascular activity may interfere with the detection of concealed information using a polygraph. This possibility was assessed by means of a mock terrorism scenario. Seventy-two participants were assigned to either a guilty or an innocent role. They were given a polygraph test at one of three ambient temperatures: 10°C, 22°C, or 34°C. Among guilty participants, electrodermal and cardiovascular measures were least effective at 10°C. Electrodermal results were optimal at 22°C, whereas cardiovascular results were optimal at 34°C. Among innocent participants, the effectiveness of these same measures was not affected by ambient temperature. Temperature had no significant impact on respiration results within the guilty or the innocent groups. Taken together, these findings have implications for those who use polygraphs in uncontrolled testing environments.

  19. Incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Mavinapalla, Seema; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Abd Rahim, Muhammad Furqon Bin; Khan, Aftab Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Susuk, or charm needles, are small, metallic needles inserted under the skin, considered to enhance beauty, health and luck. This hidden secret of inserting susuk is a traditional superstitious ritual, widely practiced among women of Southeast Asia. Here, we present an interesting case of incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk, which was exposed on a panoramic radiograph taken on a routine basis as a part of diagnostic work up at our centre. An orthopantomogram revealed bilateral metallic foreign bodies in the maxillo-facial region. Anamnestic data affirmed the practice of the body art of susuk. The charm needles were present in the orofacial region without the patient experiencing any pathological signs or symptoms. PMID:26271077

  20. Selection of food patches by sympatric herbivores in response to concealment and distance from a refuge.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Miranda M; Shipley, Lisa A; Camp, Meghan J; Rachlow, Janet L; Forbey, Jennifer S; Johnson, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Small herbivores face risks of predation while foraging and are often forced to trade off food quality for safety. Life history, behaviour, and habitat of predator and prey can influence these trade-offs. We compared how two sympatric rabbits (pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis; mountain cottontail, Sylvilagus nuttallii) that differ in size, use of burrows, and habitat specialization in the sagebrush-steppe of western North America respond to amount and orientation of concealment cover and proximity to burrow refuges when selecting food patches. We predicted that both rabbit species would prefer food patches that offered greater concealment and food patches that were closer to burrow refuges. However, because pygmy rabbits are small, obligate burrowers that are restricted to sagebrush habitats, we predicted that they would show stronger preferences for greater cover, orientation of concealment, and patches closer to burrow refuges. We offered two food patches to individuals of each species during three experiments that either varied in the amount of concealment cover, orientation of concealment cover, or distance from a burrow refuge. Both species preferred food patches that offered greater concealment, but pygmy rabbits generally preferred terrestrial and mountain cottontails preferred aerial concealment. Only pygmy rabbits preferred food patches closer to their burrow refuge. Different responses to concealment and proximity to burrow refuges by the two species likely reflect differences in perceived predation risks. Because terrestrial predators are able to dig for prey in burrows, animals like pygmy rabbits that rely on burrow refuges might select food patches based more on terrestrial concealment. In contrast, larger habitat generalists that do not rely on burrow refuges, like mountain cottontails, might trade off terrestrial concealment for visibility to detect approaching terrestrial predators. This study suggests that body size and evolutionary adaptations

  1. Microwave-Spectral Signatures Would Reveal Concealed Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G.; Ngo, P.; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, K.; Stolarcyzk, L.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed technique for locating concealed objects (especially small antipersonnel land mines) involves the acquisition and processing of spectral signatures over broad microwave frequency bands. This technique was conceived to overcome the weaknesses of older narrow- band electromagnetic techniques like ground-probing radar and low-frequency electromagnetic induction. Ground-probing radar is susceptible to false detections and/or interference caused by rocks, roots, air pockets, soil inhomogeneities, ice, liquid water, and miscellaneous buried objects other than those sought. Moreover, if the radar frequency happens to be one for which the permittivity of a sought object matches the permittivity of the surrounding soil or there is an unfavorable complex-amplitude addition of the radar reflection at the receiver, then the object is not detected. Low-frequency electromagnetic induction works well for detecting metallic objects, but the amounts of metal in plastic mines are often too small to be detectable. The potential advantage of the proposed technique arises from the fact that wideband spectral signatures generally contain more relevant information than do narrow-band signals. Consequently, spectral signatures could be used to make better decisions regarding whether concealed objects are present and whether they are the ones sought. In some cases, spectral signatures could provide information on the depths, sizes, shapes, and compositions of objects. An apparatus to implement the proposed technique (see Figure 1) could be assembled from equipment already in common use. Typically, such an apparatus would include a radio-frequency (RF) transmitter/receiver, a broad-band microwave antenna, and a fast personal computer loaded with appropriate software. In operation, the counter would be turned on, the antenna would be aimed at the ground or other mass suspected to contain a mine or other sought object, and the operating frequency would be swept over the band of

  2. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded? An evaluation of double-blind acupuncture treatment of postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015) for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027), suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients' acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the

  3. Can Acupuncture Treatment Be Double-Blinded? An Evaluation of Double-Blind Acupuncture Treatment of Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015) for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027), suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients’ acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in

  4. A Concealed Barcode Identification System Using Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu; Yamamoto, Manabu; Kitazawa, Toshiyuki; Tripathi, Saroj R.; Takeya, Kei; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    We present a concealed terahertz barcode/chipless tag to achieve remote identification through an obstructing material using terahertz radiation. We show scanned terahertz reflection spectral images of barcodes concealed by a thick obstacle. A concealed and double- side printed terahertz barcode structure is proposed, and we demonstrate that our design has better performance in definition than a single-side printed barcode using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This technique combines the benefits of a chipless tag to read encoded information covered by an optically opaque material with low cost and a simple fabrication process. Simulations are also described, along with an explanation of the principle of the terahertz barcode identification system.

  5. CW THz scanning transmission imaging for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Yao, Rui; Yin, Qiguo; Ding, Shenghui; Wang, Qi

    2009-07-01

    In the paper, the two-dimensional THz imaging methods are described. The SIFIR-50 FPL Far-Infrared Laser is used as the THz source. The output frequency is 2.5THz in the experiment, because the THz laser operates steadily at this frequency. The P4-42 detector works at room temperature and offers relatively high sensitivity. The software of THz imaging system is self-designed, and it plays a crucial role in this imaging system because it controls nearly all the operations of this system, including the two-dimensional scanning, image data collection, image data storage, image display and image processing. Utilizing this setup, THz transmission images of concealed objects are obtained. In the experiment, a bottle cap and a plastic board covered by reflective materials are chosen as the imaging objects; paper and Teflon are placed before the object to test the transmission imaging effect. The experimental results show that this imaging system can generate clear images.

  6. Concealed Utility Route Planning: Guidelines for Indian Residential Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumana

    2015-09-01

    Utility lines, particularly in Indian residential buildings, are networked in a haphazard manner to economize and expedite the process of laying conduits. They remain concealed behind the wall finish exposing problems later. The conventional method adopted while laying the routes does not economize the process rather it damages the newly constructed building. After an investigation of the practiced methods through reconnaissance, a construction vocabulary in form of guidelines is recommended for brick residential construction. Taking advantage of the versatility of a brick and considering it as an indigenous construction material of the Indian plains, a judicious way of brick laying can create horizontal and vertical chase at specified heights to receive the utility conduits. The method will simplify, expedite, and organize the utility routes and provide a seamless connection of major utility lines in a residential building. It will aid in future augmentation, easy maintenance, cost reduction and time involved in construction. Practical training of masons and awareness of relevant contractors at site is required through trained site supervisors. The proposed method merits further investigation for inclusion in academic curriculums of the trade.

  7. GILBERT'S SYNDROME - A CONCEALED ADVERSITY FOR PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Ahsan; Sabir, Sabir; Ashlaq, Muhammad; Farooq, Umer; Khan, Muhammad Zatmar; Khan, Faisal Yousaf

    2015-01-01

    Gilbert's syndrome (often abbreviated as GS) is most common hereditary cause of mild unconjugated (indirect) hyperbilirubinemia. Various studies have been published depicting clinical and pharmacological effects of Gilbert's syndrome (GS). However GS as a sign of precaution for physician and surgeons has not been clearly established. A systematic study of the available literature was done. Key words of Gilbert's syndrome, hyperbilirubinemia and clinical and pharmacological aspects of GS were searched using PubMed as search engine. Considering the study done in last 40 years, 375 articles were obtained and their abstracts were studied. The criterion for selecting the articles for through study was based on their close relevance with the topic. Thus 40 articles and 2 case reports were thoroughly studied. It was concluded that Gilbert's syndrome has immense clinical importance because the mild hyperbilirubinemia can be mistaken for a sign of occult, chronic, or progressive liver disease. GS is associated with lack of detoxification of few drugs. It is related with spherocytosis, cholithiasis, haemolytic anaemia, intra-operative toxicity, irinotecan toxicity, schizophrenia and problems in morphine metabolism. It also has profound phenotypic effect as well. The bilirubin level of a GS individual can rise abnormally high in various conditions in a person having Gilbert's syndrome. This can mislead the physicians and surgeons towards false diagnosis. Therefore proper diagnosis of GS should be ascertained in order to avoid the concealed adversities of this syndrome. PMID:26721045

  8. Severe forms of concealed penis without hypospadias: Surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Concealed penis (CP) may vary in severity and includes megaprepuce (MP) as a variant. Many different surgical strategies have been described in order to maximize penile exposure and to deal with skin deficiency. We describe the strategies that we use to overcome technical problems in severe cases of CP. Materials and Methods: Six consecutive cases of severe CP (including 3 with MP) were treated in a 2-year period between January 2011 and April 2013. These patients were treated using extensive degloving, removal of dysplastic dartos, Alexander's preputial flap, scrotal flaps and skin grafts. Three patients had been previously circumcised. Cases associated with hypospadias, obesity, disorders of sexual differentiation and micropenises were excluded. Results: All six patients attained good results, with good exposure of the penis, ability to void standing with a well-directed flow and reasonable esthetic results. A technical algorithm for the treatment of primary or recurring cases of CP is proposed. Conclusion: Alexander’ s distally based ventral preputial flap is a useful technical resource to treat MP cases. Free skin grafts and/or laterally based scrotal flaps may be used to cover the penis after release in severe cases of CP. PMID:26604447

  9. Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Son, Jung-Young; Jung, Min-Kyoo; Jang, YuShin; Jung, Sang-Won; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2011-01-31

    Millimeter wave imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as the detection of objects concealed under clothing. A passive imaging system can be realized as a stand-off type sensor that can operate in open spaces, both indoors and outdoors. In this paper, we address real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and segmentation with a radiometric imaging system operating in the W-band. The imaging system is equipped with a dielectric lens and a receiver array operating at around 94 GHz. Images are analyzed by multilevel segmentation to identify a concealed object. Each level of segmentation comprises vector quantization, expectation-maximization, and Bayesian decision making to cluster pixels on the basis of a Gaussian mixture model. In addition, we describe a faster process that adopts only vector quantization for the first level segmentation. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable detection and segmentation for a moving human subject carrying a concealed gun.

  10. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-06-01

    This two-part series explores the phenomenon of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. In Part 1 we focus on defining concealed pregnancy as a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, that can lead to tragic consequences such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be presented (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016).

  11. Concealing Emotions at Work Is Associated with Allergic Rhinitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Concealing emotions at work can cause considerable psychological stress. While there is extensive research on the adverse health effects of concealing emotions and the association between allergic diseases and stress, research has not yet investigated whether concealing emotions at work is associated with allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease in many industrialized countries, and its prevalence is increasing. Thus, our aim was to determine the strength of this association using data from three years (2007-2009) of the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants (aged 20-64) were 8,345 individuals who were economically active and who had completed the questionnaire items on concealing emotions at work. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for allergic rhinitis using logistic regression models. Among all participants, 3,140 subjects (37.6%) reported concealing their emotions at work: 1,661 men and 1,479 women. The OR (95% CIs) for allergic rhinitis among those who concealed emotions at work versus those who did not was 1.318 (1.148-1.512). Stratified by sex, the OR (95% CIs) was 1.307 (1.078-1.585) among men and 1.346 (1.105-1.639) among women. Thus, individuals who concealed their emotions at work were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of AR in comparison to those who did not. Because concealing emotions at work has adverse health effects, labor policies that aim to reduce this practice are needed.

  12. Giving Eyesight to the Blind: Towards Attention-Aware AIED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2016-01-01

    There is an inextricable link between attention and learning, yet AIED systems in 2015 are largely blind to learners' attentional states. We argue that next-generation AIED systems should have the ability to monitor and dynamically (re)direct attention in order to optimize allocation of sparse attentional resources. We present some initial ideas…

  13. Refractive error blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Dandona, R.; Dandona, L.

    2001-01-01

    Recent data suggest that a large number of people are blind in different parts of the world due to high refractive error because they are not using appropriate refractive correction. Refractive error as a cause of blindness has been recognized only recently with the increasing use of presenting visual acuity for defining blindness. In addition to blindness due to naturally occurring high refractive error, inadequate refractive correction of aphakia after cataract surgery is also a significant cause of blindness in developing countries. Blindness due to refractive error in any population suggests that eye care services in general in that population are inadequate since treatment of refractive error is perhaps the simplest and most effective form of eye care. Strategies such as vision screening programmes need to be implemented on a large scale to detect individuals suffering from refractive error blindness. Sufficient numbers of personnel to perform reasonable quality refraction need to be trained in developing countries. Also adequate infrastructure has to be developed in underserved areas of the world to facilitate the logistics of providing affordable reasonable-quality spectacles to individuals suffering from refractive error blindness. Long-term success in reducing refractive error blindness worldwide will require attention to these issues within the context of comprehensive approaches to reduce all causes of avoidable blindness. PMID:11285669

  14. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  15. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  16. Robust identification of concealed dangerous substances using THz imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nystad, Helle E.; Haakestad, Magnus W.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2015-05-01

    False alarm rates must be kept sufficiently low if a method to detect and identify objects or substances is to be implemented in real life applications. This is also true when trying to detect and identify dangerous substances such as explosives and drugs that are concealed in packaging materials. THz technology may be suited to detect these substances, especially when imaging and spectroscopy are combined. To achieve reasonable throughput, the detection and identification process must be automated and this implies reliance on algorithms to perform this task, rather than human beings. The identification part of the algorithm must compare spectral features of the unknown substance with those in a library of features and determining the distance, in some sense, between these features. If the distance is less than some defined threshold a match is declared. In this paper we consider two types of spectral characteristic that are derived from measured time-domain signals measured in the THz regime: the absorbance and its derivative. Also, we consider two schemes to measure the distance between the unknown and library characteristics: Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the effect of windowing of the measured time-domain signal on the performance of the algorithms is studied, by varying the Blackman-Harris (B-H) window width. Algorithm performance is quantified by studying the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). For the data considered in this study we conclude that the best performance is obtained when the derivative of the absorbance is used in combination with a narrow B-H window and SAM. SAM is a more straight-forward method and requires no large training data sets and tweaking.

  17. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  18. Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

  19. Blindness and Yoga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  20. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vision Seminar Series Find an Event Near You Pictures from FFB Events Fundraise for Research VisionWalk My Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action Honor a Loved One + + Honor a Loved One ...

  1. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  2. How many more guns?: Estimating the effect of allowing licensed concealed handguns on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Nobles, Matt R; Wells, William; Cavanaugh, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Among other arguments, advocates for lifting bans on carrying concealed handguns on campus propose that this would increase the prevalence of legitimately carried handguns, which might then deter crimes or be used to intervene in campus shooting incidents like the one that took place at Virginia Tech in 2007. Opponents suggest that increased prevalence of concealed handguns would lead to increases in other negative consequences, such as accidental shootings. Little empirical research has examined the potential outcomes of such a policy change, nor has existing research examined the prerequisite issue of whether lifting these bans would result in substantial increases in the prevalence of concealed handguns among students. Using a sample of undergraduate classrooms selected from five academic buildings at a public university in Texas, this study examines the potential impact of lifting the concealed handgun ban on the likelihood that a given classroom would contain at least one legally carried handgun. Results reveal that the impact of potential policy changes in this area vary based on the building under consideration and the measure of potential handgun prevalence. Limitations of the study and implications for future research on the issue of concealed handgun carrying on college campuses are discussed.

  3. Real-time concealed-object detection and recognition with passive millimeter wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Jang, Yushin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-04-23

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as concealed object detection under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people in both indoors and outdoors. However, the imaging system often suffers from the diffraction limit and the low signal level. Therefore, suitable intelligent image processing algorithms would be required for automatic detection and recognition of the concealed objects. This paper proposes real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and recognition with a radiometric imaging system. The concealed object region is extracted by the multi-level segmentation. A novel approach is proposed to measure similarity between two binary images. Principal component analysis (PCA) regularizes the shape in terms of translation and rotation. A geometric-based feature vector is composed of shape descriptors, which can achieve scale and orientation-invariant and distortion-tolerant property. Class is decided by minimum Euclidean distance between normalized feature vectors. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable recognition of the concealed object carried by a moving human subject.

  4. Antisociality, underarousal and the validity of the Concealed Information Polygraph Test.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; De Clercq, Armand

    2007-03-01

    The Concealed Information Polygraph Test has been advocated as the preferred method for the physiological detection of deception. In this study, we further examined the validity of the Concealed Information Test in antisocial individuals. Physiological responding to concealed information was assessed in 48 male prisoners, and compared with responding in 31 male community volunteers. Based upon the association between antisociality and autonomic hyporesponsivity, lower detection rates were expected in the prisoners. Participants were questioned on five personally significant items (e.g., day of birth), instructed to deny recognition of this information, and promised a financial reward when able to hide recognition. Prisoners showed reduced autonomic reactivity in comparison to the community volunteers. This hyporesponsivity had little impact on the sensitivity of the Concealed Information Test. Detection efficiency in the prisoners was significantly above chance (d=2.67; a=0.82; 79%), and did not differ significantly from that obtained in the community volunteers (d=3.04; a=0.85; 87%). The present data support the validity of the Concealed Information Test in criminal populations.

  5. Exploring the characteristics of the attentional blink paradigm when used to discover concealed knowledge.

    PubMed

    Niziurski, Julie; Andre, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Ganis and Patnaik (Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:189-196, 2009) reported that the attentional blink paradigm using faces could be used to detect the presence of concealed knowledge. The attentional blink is defined as the inability to successfully detect the second of two target items presented within a short inter-stimulus interval. The present study tested the use of the attentional blink paradigm in a concealed knowledge test by investigating the effect that familiar faces may have on the attentional blink. Participants completed 200 trials where they were told to look for the same familiar target (Target 2; actor Brad Pitt) that was intermixed with neutral face stimuli and one other familiar face (Target 1; actor George Clooney). Target 1 was to act as the concealed knowledge as participants familiar with Target 1 would be distracted by his unannounced presence and report not seeing Target 2 thereby showing an attentional blink. Despite all participants being familiar with Target 2, an attentional blink still occurred, but with higher than normal Target 2 accuracy rates. Overall, we found support for using the AB paradigm with the concealed knowledge test; however, a possible countermeasure to the attentional blink is familiarity with Target 2 as eight of 21 participants who recognized Target 1 (the concealed knowledge) were also able to detect Target 2 on 100 % of the trials where Target 1's presence should have created an attentional blink. PMID:26162299

  6. A multifaceted active swept millimetre-wave approach to the detection of concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Southgate, Matthew; Guest, Elizabeth; Harmer, Stuart; Atiah, Ali

    2008-10-01

    The effective detection of concealed handguns and knives in open spaces is a major challenge for police and security services round the world. Here an automated technique for the detection of concealed handguns that relies on active swept illumination of the target to induce both scattered fields and aspect independent responses from the concealed object is presented. The broad frequency sweep permits information about the object's size to be deduced from transformations into the time/distance domain. In our experiments we collect multiple sweeps across the frequency range at very high speed, which produces a time evolved response from the target, from both normal and cross polarized detectors. From this we extract characteristic signatures from the responses that allow those from innocent objects (e.g. mobile phones, keys etc) to be distinguished from handguns. Information about the optical depth separation of the scattering corners and the degree and shape of cross polarization allows a neural network to successfully concealed handguns. Finally this system utilizes a range of signal processing techniques ranging from correlation between cross and normally polarized scattering through to a neural network classifier to deduce whether a concealed weapon is present.

  7. Drug-related deaths with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment at autopsy: five case reports.

    PubMed

    Wilcher, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    Intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs is a rare observation at coronial autopsy examinations. The article reports 5 cases of accidental drug overdoses at the Westmead Coronial Morgue, Sydney New South Wales, over a 6-year period with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment known as body packing or body stuffing. Three different forms of anatomic concealment of drugs are illustrated, Case 2 involving therapeutic medication in the form of glass ampoules for parenteral injection not previously reported. Three deaths were the result of acute toxicity due to polydrug abuse rather than as a consequence of the body packing behavior and rupture of the drug packaging, with the intracorporeal drug concealments an adjunct finding at the autopsy examinations. The cause of death in Case 3 was the direct result of acute cocaine intoxication due to rupture of drug packages in the rectum and mucosal absorption. The article details forensic sociological aspects of drug concealment and subcultural group human behavior that can assist in providing information for the initiation of investigations.

  8. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  9. Reporting of allocation method and statistical analyses that deal with bilaterally affected wrists in clinical trials for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Page, Matthew J; O'Connor, Denise A; Pitt, Veronica; Massy-Westropp, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    The authors aimed to describe how often the allocation method and the statistical analyses that deal with bilateral involvement are reported in clinical trials for carpal tunnel syndrome and to determine whether reporting has improved over time. Forty-two trials identified from recently published systematic reviews were assessed. Information about allocation method and statistical analyses was obtained from published reports and trialists. Only 15 trialists (36%) reported the method of random sequence generation used, and 6 trialists (14%) reported the method of allocation concealment used. Of 25 trials including participants with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, 17 (68%) reported the method used to allocate the wrists, whereas only 1 (4%) reported using a statistical analysis that appropriately dealt with bilateral involvement. There was no clear trend of improved reporting over time. Interventions are needed to improve reporting quality and statistical analyses of these trials so that these can provide more reliable evidence to inform clinical practice.

  10. The role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between self-concealment and disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S; Timko, C Alix

    2011-04-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated whether psychological flexibility mediates the association between self-concealment and disordered eating (DE) symptoms among non-clinical college students. Data of 209 male and female participants (nfemale =165), aged 18-22 years old, were used for analyses. Self-concealment was found to be positively associated with DE symptoms (i.e., general eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related cognitions) and negatively associated with psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility was inversely associated with DE symptoms. Finally, psychological flexibility was found to mediate the association between self-concealment and DE symptoms after accounting for gender, ethnic background, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:21385643

  11. NIR spectroscopy with multivariate calibration and lock-in amplification to detect chemicals concealed behind fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Aamer; Canal, Céline; Hutchins, David A.; Green, Roger J.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of specific chemicals when concealed behind a layer of clothing is reported using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Concealment modifies the spectrum of a particular chemical when recorded at stand-off ranges of three meters in a diffuse reflection experiment. The subsequent analysis to identify a particular chemical has involved employing calibration models such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Additionally, detection has been attempted with good results using neural networks. The latter technique serves to overcome nonlinearities in the calibration/training dataset, affording more robust modelling. Finally, lock-in amplification of spectral data collected in through-transmission arrangement has been shown to allow detection at SNR as low as -60dB. The work has been shown to both allow detection of specific chemicals concealed behind a single intervening layer of fabric material, and to estimate the concentration of certain liquids.

  12. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  13. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue Part 2.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This second of a two-part article explores the consequences of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. Concealed pregnancy is a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, and can lead to tragic consequences, such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be explored and points for midwifery practice are presented and considered (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016). PMID:27652438

  14. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue Part 2.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This second of a two-part article explores the consequences of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. Concealed pregnancy is a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, and can lead to tragic consequences, such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be explored and points for midwifery practice are presented and considered (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016).

  15. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed.

  16. The Role of Stigma Concealment in the Retrospective High School Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David M.; Bastone, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    High school is a time when most gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths experience a great deal of distress related to the stigma attached to being gay. Many try to avoid stigmatization by concealing the fact that they are GLB. This brief report presents a descriptive, multidimensional approach to understanding GLB stigma concealment as a…

  17. Blinded by irrelevance: pure irrelevance induced "blindness".

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-06-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring-the task relevance of which was previously manipulated-and were subsequently asked to identify these colors. Whereas knowledge of the task-relevant color was near perfect, up to a quarter of the participants could not name the color of the irrelevant stimulus, even though a control experiment indicated there were sufficient resources to process both stimuli. The results are a first demonstration of blindness when mental resources are clearly available and challenge attentional theories predicting strong selection only when resources are taxed.

  18. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV may be hard to do. The leading causes of low vision and blindness in the United ... disorders, eye injuries and birth defects can also cause vision loss. Whatever the cause, lost vision cannot ...

  19. Prevent Blindness America

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eNews Close Donate A Lifetime of Healthy Vision See well to learn, work, play, and live ... the sight-saving work of
 Prevent Blindness. Donate Vision Problems in the U.S. Prevalence of Adult Vision ...

  20. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  1. Blinding laser weapons.

    PubMed

    Peters, A

    1996-01-01

    At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed.

  2. Blind loop syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  3. Haptic choice blindness

    PubMed Central

    Steenfeldt-Kristensen, Catherine; Thornton, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Choice blindness is the failure to notice a mismatch between intention and outcome when making decisions. It is unknown whether choice blindness occurs when participants have extended interaction with real objects. Here, we examined the case when objects could be touched but not seen. Participants examined pairs of common, everyday objects inside a specially constructed box where a silent turntable was used to switch objects between initial choice and later justification. For similar pairs of objects, we found detection rates of around 22%, consistent with previous studies of choice blindness. For pairs consisting of more distinctive exemplars, the detection rate rose to 70%. Our results indicate that choice blindness does occur after haptic interaction with real objects, but is strongly modulated by similarity. PMID:23799197

  4. How Many More Guns?: Estimating the Effect of Allowing Licensed Concealed Handguns on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Nobles, Matt R.; Wells, William; Cavanaugh, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Among other arguments, advocates for lifting bans on carrying concealed handguns on campus propose that this would increase the prevalence of legitimately carried handguns, which might then deter crimes or be used to intervene in campus shooting incidents like the one that took place at Virginia Tech in 2007. Opponents suggest that increased…

  5. The intention to conceal activates the right prefrontal cortex: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies on deception have shown that a late positive potential (LPP), a component of event-related brain potentials, is elicited when a participant wishes to conceal recognition of the eliciting stimulus. The LPP occurs about 500 ms after stimulus onset and has an occipital scalp distribution with concurrent negativity at frontal sites. The present study investigated the cortical sources of the LPP associated with the intention to conceal. Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis was applied on previously published concealment-related LPP data (Matsuda, Nittono, and Ogawa, 2013, N=30). The cortical sources of the LPP were estimated in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus, which fits well with the findings of fMRI studies. Previous research suggests that activities in the middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus are associated with cognitive control and that greater relative right than left frontal activities are associated with withdrawal motivation. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that the LPP may reflect cognitive control with withdrawal motivation that is recruited by the participants' goal of concealing their recognition and avoiding disclosure. A positive potential at occipital sites can be a sign of the activation in the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Productive and Inclusive? How Documentation Concealed Racialising Practices in a Diversity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how documentation concealed racialising practices in a diversity project that was seen to be productive and inclusive. Documentation examples are taken from a doctoral study about embedding Indigenous perspectives in early childhood education curricula in two Australian urban childcare centres. In place of reporting examples…

  7. Novel, ERP-based, concealed information detection: Combining recognition-based and feedback-evoked ERPs.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Lin, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Sang, Biao; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2016-02-01

    The present study introduced a novel variant of the concealed information test (CIT), called the feedback-CIT. By providing participants with feedbacks regarding their memory concealment performance during the CIT, we investigated the feedback-related neural activity underlying memory concealment. Participants acquired crime-relevant memories via enacting a lab crime, and were tested with the feedback-CIT while EEGs were recorded. We found that probes (e.g., crime-relevant memories) elicited larger recognition-P300s than irrelevants among guilty participants. Moreover, feedback-related negativity (FRN) and feedback-P300 could also discriminate probes from irrelevants among guilty participants. Both recognition- and feedback-ERPs were highly effective in distinguishing between guilty and innocent participants (recognition-P300: AUC=.73; FRN: AUC=.95; feedback-P300: AUC=.97). This study sheds new light on brain-based memory detection, such that feedback-related neural signals can be employed to detect concealed memories.

  8. Orienting versus inhibition in the Concealed Information Test: Different cognitive processes drive different physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Selle, Nathalie Klein; Verschuere, Bruno; Kindt, Merel; Meijer, Ewout; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2016-04-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) provides a valid tool for psychophysiological detection of concealed knowledge. However, its precise theoretical underpinnings remain a matter of debate. The differential physiological responses elicited by concealed, relevant items, relative to control items, were traditionally explained as reflecting an orienting response (OR). According to an alternative account, these responses reflect attempts to inhibit arousal. The present study examined whether and to what extent CIT detection efficiency is affected by instructions aimed at manipulating arousal inhibition (AI). One hundred and forty-eight undergraduate students completed a CIT, while electrodermal, cardiac, and respiratory measures were recorded. Half of the participants were requested to imagine that they are suspected of committing a crime and were motivated to avoid detection (presumably eliciting both OR and AI), while the other half were requested to imagine that they are witnesses of a crime and were motivated to be detected (presumably eliciting OR only). All participants were further requested to remain silent throughout the test. In both conditions, concealed items led to a similar increase in skin conductance as compared to the control items. However, the typically observed heart rate deceleration and respiratory suppression were found in suspects, but not in witnesses. These data imply that different mechanisms drive the responding of different psychophysiological measures used in the CIT, with skin conductance reflecting OR, and heart rate and respiration primarily reflecting AI. PMID:26615984

  9. 36-Month-Olds Conceal Visual and Auditory Information from Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By three years of age, children are skilled at assessing under which circumstances others can see things. However, nothing is known about whether they can use this knowledge to guide their own deceptive behaviour. Here we investigated 3-year-olds' ability to strategically inhibit or conceal forbidden actions that a nearby adult experimenter could…

  10. A neighbourhood analysis based technique for real-time error concealment in H.264 intra pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesley, Steven T. C.; Grecos, Christos; Edirisinghe, Eran

    2007-02-01

    H.264s extensive use of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic or variable length coding makes streams highly susceptible to channel errors, a common occurrence over networks such as those used by mobile devices. Even a single bit error will cause a decoder to discard all stream data up to the next fixed length resynchronisation point, the worst scenario is that an entire slice is lost. In cases where retransmission and forward error concealment are not possible, a decoder should conceal any erroneous data in order to minimise the impact on the viewer. Stream errors can often be spotted early in the decode cycle of a macroblock which if aborted can provide unused processor cycles, these can instead be used to conceal errors at minimal cost, even as part of a real time system. This paper demonstrates a technique that utilises Sobel convolution kernels to quickly analyse the neighbourhood surrounding erroneous macroblocks before performing a weighted multi-directional interpolation. This generates significantly improved statistical (PSNR) and visual (IEEE structural similarity) results when compared to the commonly used weighted pixel value averaging. Furthermore it is also computationally scalable, both during analysis and concealment, achieving maximum performance from the spare processing power available.

  11. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population.

  12. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  13. The Psychological Implications of Concealing a Stigma: A Cognitive-Affective-Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachankis, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Many assume that individuals with a hidden stigma escape the difficulties faced by individuals with a visible stigma. However, recent research has shown that individuals with a concealable stigma also face considerable stressors and psychological challenges. The ambiguity of social situations combined with the threat of potential discovery makes…

  14. University Presidents' Perceptions and Practice Regarding the Carrying of Concealed Handguns on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dake, Joseph; Payton, Erica; Teeple, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions and practices of a national sample of college and university presidents regarding their support for concealed handguns being carried on college campuses. Participants: The sample for this study consisted of a national random sample of 900 college or university presidents. Methods: In the spring of 2013, a…

  15. Detecting concealed information using feedback related event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Lin, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-10-01

    Employing an event-related potential (ERP)-based concealed information test (CIT), the present study investigated (1) the neurocognitive processes when people received feedbacks regarding their deceptive/truthful responses and (2) whether such feedback-related ERP activities can be used to detect concealed information above and beyond the recognition-related P300. During the CIT, participants were presented with rare, meaningful probes (their own names) embedded within a series of frequent yet meaningless irrelevants (others' names). Participants were instructed to deny their recognition of the probes. Critically, following participants' responses, they were provided with feedbacks regarding whether they succeeded or failed in the CIT. Replicating previous ERP-based CITs, we found a larger P300 elicited by probe compared to irrelevant. Regarding feedback-related ERPs, a temporospatial Principle Component Analyses found two ERP components that were not only sensitive to feedback manipulations but also can discriminate probe from irrelevant: an earlier, central-distributed positivity that was elicited by "success" feedbacks peaked around 219ms; and a later, right central-distributed positivity that was also elicited by "success" feedbacks, peaked around 400ms. Importantly, the feedback ERPs were not correlated with P300 that was elicited by probe/irrelevant, suggesting that these two ERPs reflect independent processes underlying memory concealment. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using feedback-related ERPs to detect concealed memory and thus deception. PMID:25058495

  16. The Cost of Question Concealment: Eye-Tracking and MEG Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jesse; Pylkkanen, Liina; McElree, Brian; Frisson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Although natural language appears to be largely compositional, the meanings of certain expressions cannot be straightforwardly recovered from the meanings of their parts. This study examined the online processing of one such class of expressions: "concealed questions", in which the meaning of a complex noun phrase ("the proof of the theorem")…

  17. The cost of question concealment: eye-tracking and MEG evidence.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jesse; Pylkkänen, Liina; McElree, Brian; Frisson, Steven

    2008-10-01

    Although natural language appears to be largely compositional, the meanings of certain expressions cannot be straightforwardly recovered from the meanings of their parts. This study examined the online processing of one such class of expressions: concealed questions, in which the meaning of a complex noun phrase (the proof of the theorem) shifts to a covert question (what the proof of the theorem is) when mandated by a sub-class of question-selecting verbs (e.g., guess). Previous behavioral and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies have reported a cost associated with converting an entity denotation to an event. Our study tested whether both types of meaning-shift affect the same computational resources by examining the effects elicited by concealed questions in eye-tracking and MEG. Experiment 1 found evidence from eye-movements that verbs requiring the concealed question interpretation require more processing time than verbs that do not support a shift in meaning. Experiment 2 localized the cost of the concealed question interpretation in the left posterior temporal region, an area distinct from that affected by complement coercion. Experiment 3 presented the critical verbs in isolation and found no posterior temporal effect, confirming that the effect of Experiment 2 reflected sentential, and not lexical-level, processing.

  18. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  19. Fear Perceptions in Public Parks: Interactions of Environmental Concealment, the Presence of People Recreating, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear…

  20. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  1. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  2. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment. 660.323 Section 660.323 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting...

  3. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  4. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  5. Blinding the blinded - assessing the effectiveness of a sham treatment in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber trial.

    PubMed

    Rainolds, Dan; Long, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used for a variety of problem wounds as an adjunctive treatment. The therapeutic impact of adding HBOT to a wound-healing regimen in many cases remains unclear and an ongoing need exists for additional randomised controlled trials. Many of these clinical studies require a sham group of study participants. To date, there has not been any published research on the concealment of sham treatments in multiplace hyperbaric chambers. The aim of this pilot project was to validate the existing blinding procedures used at one hyperbaric facility. Sixty-six volunteer recreational scuba divers, who had not previously been exposed to compression in a hyperbaric chamber, were recruited through local dive shops. One group was pressurised to 203 kPa and the other was minimally pressurised to 121 kPa, the minimum pressure required to cause middle ear pressure changes. Both protocols implemented continuous, though subtle, pressure variations toward the attainment of the final target pressure. A nearly identical number of subjects in both the 203 kPa (n = 32) and 121 kPa (n = 34) groups believed they had undergone a treatment pressure to 203 kPa (72% versus 71%) indicating a similarity of perception between the two groups.

  6. Generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method.

    PubMed

    Lebowitsch, Jonathan; Ge, Yan; Young, Benjamin; Hu, Feifang

    2012-12-10

    Dynamic allocation has received considerable attention since it was first proposed in the 1970s as an alternative means of allocating treatments in clinical trials which helps to secure the balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method that simultaneously balances treatment assignments at three key levels: within the overall study, within each level of each prognostic factor, and within each stratum, that is, combination of levels of different factors Further it offers capabilities for unbalanced and adaptive designs for trials. The treatment balancing performance of the proposed method is investigated through simulations which compare multidimensional dynamic allocation with traditional stratified block randomization and the Pocock-Simon method. On the basis of these results, we conclude that this generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method is an improvement over conventional dynamic allocation methods and is flexible enough to be applied for most trial settings including Phases I, II and III trials.

  7. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  8. Who's Leading the Blind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    States that, although the nation's jobless rate hovers around 4-5%, 70% of the working-age blind who want jobs cannot find one, and 30% of those who are working are underemployed. Suggests that training, rehabilitation, and technology can help to solve the problem. (JOW)

  9. Autism and Congenital Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony; Brown, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    This study compared a group of nine children (ages 3 to 8) with congenital blindness and an autism-like syndrome with nine sighted children. Children with autism had more severe abnormalities in terms of their relationships with people and emotional expressions, and were more impaired in the area of pretend play. (CR)

  10. On Simulating Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappan, David

    Many educators in facilitative roles have approached the subject of visual disabilities by constructing activities designed to simulate blindness, using a blindfold or similar device. Participants are subsequently encouraged to perform rudimentary tasks such as eating a meal or moving about with a sighted companion as a guide. Frequently,…

  11. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed. PMID:25904879

  12. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed. PMID:25904879

  13. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  14. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future. PMID:25268248

  15. Detection of concealed information by P3 and frontal EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Allen, John J B

    2013-03-14

    Psychophysiological detection of deception has seen increased attention in both research and applied settings. In this field, the most scientifically validated paradigm is the Concealed Information Test (CIT). The CIT does not directly deal with whether a participant is lying, but examines whether a participant recognizes a critical relevant detail, inferred by differences in physiological responses between critical and non-critical items. Although event-related potential (ERP) approaches to the CIT have shown high accuracy, a combination of measures might improve the test's performance. We thus assessed whether a new CIT index, frontal EEG asymmetry that is supposed to reflect differences in approach/withdrawal motivation, would prove useful. Nineteen participants were asked to steal one item in a mock crime, and were then administered two CITs while concealing the stolen item. One CIT included the stolen item (i.e., guilty condition), whereas the other CIT did not (i.e., innocent condition). In the guilty condition, the concealed stolen item elicited greater relative left frontal alpha activity (indicative of relative right frontal cortical activity) as compared to the other items, suggesting that the recognition of the concealed item might have induced withdrawal motivation. Although the discrimination between guilty and innocent conditions by the asymmetry score alone was not as good as that by the ERP P3 index, combining the asymmetry score and P3 improved the detection performance significantly. The results suggest that the frontal EEG asymmetry can be used as a new measure in the CIT that provides additional information beyond that captured by the traditional ERP index.

  16. Detection of Concealed Liquid Explosives and Illicit Drugs in Unopened Bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; Prado, Pablo J.

    This article discusses the use of Magnetic Resonance relaxometry as a non-invasive method to detect concealed liquid explosives and drugs in unopened containers. The safe, non-ionizing detection is based on sensing liquid alteration without opening its container. The technique has proven to be effective with non-metallic bottles, independently of their shape and size. Other spectroscopic and bulk methods to identify illicit liquid substances as well as the potential of combining screening technologies are presented.

  17. Programs for the Deaf Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The directory lists 30 programs for deaf-blind children and youth, the 10 regional offices of the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, and five programs for training teachers of the deaf-blind. Provided for each program is address, director's name, and phone number. (DB)

  18. Concealed neuroanatomy in Michelangelo's Separation of Light From Darkness in the Sistine Chapel.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ian; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-05-01

    Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) was a master anatomist as well as an artistic genius. He dissected cadavers numerous times and developed a profound understanding of human anatomy. From 1508 to 1512, Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. His Sistine Chapel frescoes are considered one of the monumental achievements of Renaissance art. In the winter of 1511, Michelangelo entered the final stages of the Sistine Chapel project and painted 4 frescoes along the longitudinal apex of the vault, which completed a series of 9 central panels depicting scenes from the Book of Genesis. It is reported that Michelangelo concealed an image of the brain in the first of these last 4 panels, namely, the Creation of Adam. Here we present evidence that he concealed another neuronanatomic structure in the final panel of this series, the Separation of Light From Darkness, specifically a ventral view of the brainstem. The Separation of Light From Darkness is an important panel in the Sistine Chapel iconography because it depicts the beginning of Creation and is located directly above the altar. We propose that Michelangelo, a deeply religious man and an accomplished anatomist, intended to enhance the meaning of this iconographically critical panel and possibly document his anatomic accomplishments by concealing this sophisticated neuroanatomic rendering within the image of God.

  19. Preventing shoulder-surfing attack with the concept of concealing the password objects' information.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin; Chong, Yu Nam; Por, Lip Yee

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to "shoulder-surfing" attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  20. Video inpainting with short-term windows: application to object removal and error concealment.

    PubMed

    Ebdelli, Mounira; Le Meur, Olivier; Guillemot, Christine

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). More specifically, to inpaint a frame, the method starts by aligning all the frames of the GoP. This is achieved by a region-based homography computation method which allows us to strengthen the spatial consistency of aligned frames. Then, from the stack of aligned frames, an energy function based on both spatial and temporal coherency terms is globally minimized. This energy function is efficient enough to provide high quality results even when the number of pictures in the GoP is rather small, e.g. 20 neighboring frames. This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context.

  1. Concealment of psychopathology in forensic evaluations: a pilot study of intentional and uninsightful dissimulators.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Keith A; Benedek, David M; Auble, Pamela M; Bernet, William

    2003-01-01

    Dissimulation is the concealment of genuine psychiatric symptoms in an attempt to present a picture of psychiatric health. In this pilot study, the authors set out to demonstrate that defendants may conceal psychiatric illness even in forensic settings, contrary to their apparent self-interest. They reviewed their records for forensic assessments of dissimulators and malingerers and classified dissimulators as "intentional" or "uninsightful" depending on whether their concealment of symptoms appeared to be a volitional act or driven by a lack of insight. Although there were obvious diagnostic differences, the only other significant difference between malingerers and dissimulators was that malingerers were more likely to be facing charges related to financial crimes. Uninsightful dissimulators were significantly older than were intentional dissimulators. Uninsightful dissimulators were also more likely to be psychotic, particularly delusional and schizophrenic, than were intentional dissimulators. While forensic psychiatrists are vigilant in attempts to detect malingering, these data suggest that they should be equally vigilant regarding the possibility of dissimulation. Although further study is indicated, it appears that dissimulators are a heterogeneous group.

  2. Stepped-frequency CW radar for concealed weapon detection and through-the-wall surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas

    2002-08-01

    Both concealed weapons detection and through the wall surveillance are significant problems for both law enforcement and military personnel. While on the surface it would appear that these two problems are unrelated technologically, they do, in fact, share some common ground. A concealed weapon acts as resonant object, exhibiting electromagnetic resonance peaks at frequencies characteristic of the weapon's major dimensions. For handguns the frequency range of interest lies approximately between 450 MHz and 2 GHz. As it turns out, this is also a region over which many common building materials are largely transparent. As part of grant 97-IJ-CX-K013 from the National Institute of Justice, AKELA, Inc. has developed a stepped-frequency, CW radar that covers this frequency range. The radar is digitally synthesized and controlled and has a range resolution of approximately 4'. Digital waveform control gives the radar the ability to avoid interference with other electronic devices, to tailor data collection for signal processing requirements, and to change its sweep time in response to operational requirements. AKELA has developed a brassboard concealed weapons detector that uses this radar. A through the wall imaging system that uses the radar is currently in development under AFRL Contract F30602-00-C-0205.

  3. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects' Information

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack. PMID:24991649

  4. Concealment of drugs by police detainees: lessons learned from adverse incidents and from 'routine' clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Havis, Siobhan; Best, David; Carter, Jane

    2005-10-01

    This is a collaborative piece of work undertaken between the PCA and a Principal FME. The study is based on 16 cases of internal drug concealment drawn from 43 drug-related deaths in custody in England and Wales between 1997 and 2002. These data are supplemented by three case studies from a county force involving non-fatal drug concealment to illustrate practical custody issues. The majority of the 16 deaths were white (n = 12) and male (n = 13) with a mean age of 34 years. In half of the cases, the deceased was known or believed to have concealed drugs orally at the point of initial contact with police. In 4/16 cases, the individual first showed signs of medical distress in a public place, a further 4 collapsed on arrival at the police station and two more detainees were subsequently found collapsed in their cell. Drug toxicity was the most common cause of death (10/16). In 5 cases death was caused by airway obstruction by swallowed packages. Both cocaine (14/16) and cannabis (8/16) traces were found in post-mortem samples. The report emphasises the need for a safety first approach.

  5. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  6. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally-Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men’s mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may adversely impact their mental health. This report examined the factors associated with disclosure and with concealment of sexual orientation, the association of disclosure and concealment with mental health, and the potential mediators (i.e., internalized homophobia, social support) of this association with mental health. Method An ethnically-diverse sample of 203 non-gay-identified, behaviorally-bisexual men who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to their female partners were recruited in New York City to complete a single set of self-report measures. Results Concealment was associated with higher income, a heterosexual identification, living with a wife or girlfriend, more frequent sex with women, and less frequent sex with men. Greater concealment, but not disclosure to friends and family, was significantly associated with lower levels of mental health. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that both internalized homophobia and general emotional support significantly mediated the association between concealment and mental health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that concealment and disclosure are independent constructs among bisexual men. Further, they suggest that interventions addressing concerns about concealment, emotional support, and internalized homophobia may be more beneficial for increasing the mental health of bisexual men than those focused on promoting disclosure. PMID:23276123

  7. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    PubMed

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  8. Clothing adjustments for concealed soft body armor during moderate physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has studied the impact of Level II concealed soft body armor (SBA) on the augmentation of heat storage in a hot environment simulating a typical summer day in the southeastern United States (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 30°C) and noted a significant difference between macro- and micro-WBGTs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microclimate (micro-WBGT) under a concealed Level II SBA during 60 min of moderately intense work at two separate macro-WBGTs (26°C and 30°C), and to establish WBGT corrections to allow prediction of heat strain in an individual wearing a concealed Level II SBA. A single trial was performed with nine volunteers (27 ± 4 years) outfitted with a simulated standard law enforcement uniform and a traditional concealed Level II SBA, in a moderately warm environment (WBGT = 26°C). Each participant performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 L · min(-1)) and 3 min of arm curls (14.3 kg, 0.6 L · min(-1)) with a 5 min rest after every other cycle, for a total of 60 minutes. This trial was compared to an identical previously completed 60-min work bout at 30°C. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Post hoc Bonferroni and paired samples t-test analysis was conducted. A greater difference between macro- micro-WBGTs existed at 26°C compared to the 30°C macro-WBGT. Under these conditions, a moderate work in Level II SBA requires a WBGT correction of 8.9°C and 6.2°C at macro-WBGTs of 26°C and 30°C, respectively. A modified simple linear regression prediction model was established for mean Micro-WBGT for each macro-WBGTs after the plateau point at the 30 min mark. The derivation regressions at 26°C (R(2) = 0.99), and 30°C (R(2) = 0.99) indicate that micro-WBGT could be predicted for each 15 minutes time at both macro-WBGTs tested for individuals doing moderate intensity (300 Kcals · hr(-1)) work wearing concealed Level II SBA. PMID:25437276

  9. The Principal as Resource Allocator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kent D.

    The effect of political influences on the allocation of personnel, money, facilities, and equipment by elementary school principals is discussed in this paper. The use of Zald's political economy framework as a tool for understanding the principal's role in allocating resources is described by the author. He suggests that the principal occupies a…

  10. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...

  11. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL... GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.15 Allocations. (a) Funds allocated under this part shall be available...

  12. Stochastic blind motion deblurring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can, therefore, only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often nonconvex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms. PMID:25974941

  13. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  14. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  15. Electromagnetic induction imaging of concealed metallic objects by means of resonating circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, R.; Watson, J. C.; Bartlett, P. A.; Renzoni, F.

    2016-05-01

    An electromagnetic induction system, suitable for 2D imaging of metallic samples of different electrical conductivities, has been developed. The system is based on a parallel LCR circuit comprising a ferrite-cored coil (7.8 mm x 9.5 mm, L=680 μH at 1 KHz), a variable resistor and capacitor. The working principle of the system is based on eddy current induction inside a metallic sample when this is introduced into the AC magnetic field created by the coil. The inductance of the LCR circuit is modified due to the presence of the sample, to an extent that depends on its conductivity. Such modification is known to increase when the system is operated at its resonant frequency. Characterizing different metals based on their values of conductivity is therefore possible by utilizing a suitable system operated at resonance. Both imaging and material characterization were demonstrated by means of the proposed electromagnetic induction technique. Furthermore, the choice of using a system with an adjustable resonant frequency made it possible to select resonances that allow magnetic-field penetration through conductive screens. Investigations on the possibility of imaging concealed metals by penetrating such shields have been carried out. A penetration depth of δ~3 mm through aluminium (Al) was achieved. This allowed concealed metallic samples- having conductivities ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm-1 and hidden behind 1.5-mm-thick Al shields- to be imaged. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the concealed metallic objects can be revealed. The technique was thus shown to be a promising detection tool for security applications.

  16. Ultra-wide-band 3D microwave imaging scanner for the detection of concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas J.

    2015-10-01

    The threat of concealed weapons, explosives and contraband in footwear, bags and suitcases has led to the development of new devices, which can be deployed for security screening. To address known deficiencies of metal detectors and x-rays, an UWB 3D microwave imaging scanning apparatus using FMCW stepped frequency working in the K and Q bands and with a planar scanning geometry based on an x y stage, has been developed to screen suspicious luggage and footwear. To obtain microwave images of the concealed weapons, the targets are placed above the platform and the single transceiver horn antenna attached to the x y stage is moved mechanically to perform a raster scan to create a 2D synthetic aperture array. The S11 reflection signal of the transmitted sweep frequency from the target is acquired by a VNA in synchronism with each position step. To enhance and filter from clutter and noise the raw data and to obtain the 2D and 3D microwave images of the concealed weapons or explosives, data processing techniques are applied to the acquired signals. These techniques include background subtraction, Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT), thresholding, filtering by gating and windowing and deconvolving with the transfer function of the system using a reference target. To focus the 3D reconstructed microwave image of the target in range and across the x y aperture without using focusing elements, 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques are applied to the post-processed data. The K and Q bands, between 15 to 40 GHz, show good transmission through clothing and dielectric materials found in luggage and footwear. A description of the system, algorithms and some results with replica guns and a comparison of microwave images obtained by IFFT, 2D and 3D SAR techniques are presented.

  17. Shaeer’s Technique: A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Monsplasty and Revealing the Concealed Penis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: A concealed penis is a condition where part of the penis is invisible below the surface of the prepubic skin. Dermolipectomy can correct this condition, although it involves a long abdominal crease incision, or infrapubic incision around the base of the penis, and a possibility for genital lymphedema. This study describes Shaeer’s technique, a minimally invasive method for revealing the concealed penis. Methods: A 1- to 2-cm-long incision was cut over the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) on either side. A long curved blunt forceps was inserted from one incision, down to the base of the penis and then up to the contralateral ASIS. A 5-mm wide nonabsorbable tape was picked up by the forceps from 1 incision and pulled through to emerge from the other. Pulling on the tape cephalad pulled the mons pubis and revealed the penis. The tape was sutured to the periosteum overlying the ASIS on either side. Patients were followed up for 18 months for penile length, complications, and overall satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients were operated upon. Preoperatively, flaccid visible length was 3 ± 0.9 cm, and erect visible length was 8 ± 4.6 cm. Postoperatively, the flaccid visible length was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm, with a 57.9% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Erect visible length was 11.8 ± 2.1 cm, with a 32% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Length gain was maintained for 18 months. Conclusion: Shaeer’s technique is a minimally invasive, short, and simple procedure for monsplasty and revealing the concealed penis.

  18. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  19. Face and Voice as Social Stimuli Enhance Differential Physiological Responding in a Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Assmann, Birthe; Krieg, Bennet; Vaitl, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT). Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT. Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter’s uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration line length (RLL), phasic heart rate (pHR), and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL) were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory – Revised (PPI-R) was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found. The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants’ motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT. PMID:23293613

  20. Exploiting synthetic aperture radar imagery for retrieving vibration signatures of concealed machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco; Campbell, Justin B.; Jaramillo, Monica; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the instantaneous acceleration associated with vibrating objects that are directly imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be estimated through the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) using the information contained in the complex SAR image. In general, vibration signatures may include, for example, the number of chirped sinusoids as well as their respective base frequencies and chirp rates. By further processing the DFrFT-processed data for clutter-noise rejection by means of pseudo- subspace methods, has been shown that the SAR-vibrometry method can be reliable as long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the slow-time SAR signal at the range-line of interest exceeds 15dB. Meanwhile, the Nyquist theorem dictates that the maximum measurable vibration frequency is limited by half of the pulse-repetition frequency. This paper focuses on the detection and estimation of vibrations generated by machinery concealed within buildings and other structures. This is a challenging task in general because the vibration signatures of the source are typically altered by their housing structure; moreover, the SNR at the surface of the housing structure tends to be reduced. Here, experimental results for three different vibrating targets, including one concealed target, are reported using complex SAR images acquired by the General Atomics Lynx radar at resolutions of 1-ft and 4-in. The concealed vibrating target is actuated by a gear motor with an off-balance weight attached to it, which is enclosed by a wooden housing. The vibrations of the motor are transmitted to a chimney that extends above the housing structure. Using the SAR vibrometry approach, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish among the three vibrating objects based upon their vibration signatures.

  1. Shaeer’s Technique: A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Monsplasty and Revealing the Concealed Penis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: A concealed penis is a condition where part of the penis is invisible below the surface of the prepubic skin. Dermolipectomy can correct this condition, although it involves a long abdominal crease incision, or infrapubic incision around the base of the penis, and a possibility for genital lymphedema. This study describes Shaeer’s technique, a minimally invasive method for revealing the concealed penis. Methods: A 1- to 2-cm-long incision was cut over the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) on either side. A long curved blunt forceps was inserted from one incision, down to the base of the penis and then up to the contralateral ASIS. A 5-mm wide nonabsorbable tape was picked up by the forceps from 1 incision and pulled through to emerge from the other. Pulling on the tape cephalad pulled the mons pubis and revealed the penis. The tape was sutured to the periosteum overlying the ASIS on either side. Patients were followed up for 18 months for penile length, complications, and overall satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients were operated upon. Preoperatively, flaccid visible length was 3 ± 0.9 cm, and erect visible length was 8 ± 4.6 cm. Postoperatively, the flaccid visible length was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm, with a 57.9% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Erect visible length was 11.8 ± 2.1 cm, with a 32% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Length gain was maintained for 18 months. Conclusion: Shaeer’s technique is a minimally invasive, short, and simple procedure for monsplasty and revealing the concealed penis. PMID:27622092

  2. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-01

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  3. Millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed threats: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Michael C.

    2006-09-01

    There has been intense interest in the use of millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed weapons, explosives and other threats. Electromagnetic waves at these frequencies are safe, penetrate barriers and have short enough wavelengths to allow discrimination between objects. In addition, many solids including explosives have characteristic spectroscopic signatures at terahertz wavelengths which can be used to identify them. This paper reviews the progress which has been made in recent years and identifies the achievements, challenges and prospects for these technologies in checkpoint people screening, stand off detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and suicide bombers as well as more specialized screening tasks.

  4. Standoff concealed weapon detection using a 350 GHz radar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2010-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a 350 GHz, active, wideband, three-dimensional, radar imaging system to evaluate the feasibility of active sub-mm imaging for standoff concealed weapon detection. The prototype radar imaging system is based on a wideband, heterodyne, frequency-multiplier-based transceiver system coupled to a quasi-optical focusing system and high-speed rotating conical scanner. The wideband operation of this system provides accurate ranging information, and the images obtained are fully three-dimensional. Recent improvements to the system include increased imaging speed using improved balancing techniques, wider bandwidth, and image display techniques.

  5. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain.

  6. Concealed long QT syndrome and intractable partial epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jason H; Bos, Johan Martijn; Meyer, Fredric B; Cascino, Gregory D; Ackerman, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Herein, we describe a patient with concealed type 2 long QT syndrome with concomitant electroencephalogram-documented epilepsy. Although syncope in patients with long QT syndrome is common and often secondary to cerebral hypoxia after a protracted ventricular arrhythmia, this article demonstrates the importance of avoiding "tunnel vision" as patients with long QT syndrome could also have a primary seizure disorder. Identification of the etiology underlying seizurelike activity is paramount in instituting effective therapy. Furthermore, we theorize that abnormal KCHN2-encoded potassium channel repolarization in the brain could result in epilepsy and arrhythmias in long QT syndrome. PMID:23058853

  7. Parasitism rate, parasitoid community composition and host specificity on exposed and semi-concealed caterpillars from a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Whitfield, James B; Shima, Hiroshi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in a highly diverse caterpillar-parasitoid food web encompassing 266 species of lepidopteran hosts and 172 species of hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids from a lowland tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. We found that semi-concealed hosts (leaf rollers and leaf tiers) represented 84% of all caterpillars, suffered a higher parasitism rate than exposed caterpillars (12 vs. 5%) and their parasitoids were also more host specific. Semi-concealed hosts may therefore be generally more amenable to biological control by parasitoids than exposed ones. Parasitoid host specificity was highest in Braconidae, lower in Diptera: Tachinidae, and, unexpectedly, the lowest in Ichneumonidae. This result challenges the long-standing view of low host specificity in caterpillar-attacking Tachinidae and suggests higher suitability of Braconidae and lower suitability of Ichneumonidae for biological control of caterpillars. Semi-concealed hosts and their parasitoids are the largest, yet understudied component of caterpillar-parasitoid food webs. However, they still remain much closer in parasitism patterns to exposed hosts than to what literature reports on fully concealed leaf miners. Specifically, semi-concealed hosts keep an equally low share of idiobionts (2%) as exposed caterpillars.

  8. Parasitism rate, parasitoid community composition and host specificity on exposed and semi-concealed caterpillars from a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Whitfield, James B; Shima, Hiroshi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in a highly diverse caterpillar-parasitoid food web encompassing 266 species of lepidopteran hosts and 172 species of hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids from a lowland tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. We found that semi-concealed hosts (leaf rollers and leaf tiers) represented 84% of all caterpillars, suffered a higher parasitism rate than exposed caterpillars (12 vs. 5%) and their parasitoids were also more host specific. Semi-concealed hosts may therefore be generally more amenable to biological control by parasitoids than exposed ones. Parasitoid host specificity was highest in Braconidae, lower in Diptera: Tachinidae, and, unexpectedly, the lowest in Ichneumonidae. This result challenges the long-standing view of low host specificity in caterpillar-attacking Tachinidae and suggests higher suitability of Braconidae and lower suitability of Ichneumonidae for biological control of caterpillars. Semi-concealed hosts and their parasitoids are the largest, yet understudied component of caterpillar-parasitoid food webs. However, they still remain much closer in parasitism patterns to exposed hosts than to what literature reports on fully concealed leaf miners. Specifically, semi-concealed hosts keep an equally low share of idiobionts (2%) as exposed caterpillars. PMID:23463243

  9. Blind fastening apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Norman F.; Linker, James F.

    1993-03-01

    An anchor nut insert is provided having external threads for engaging an internally threaded receptacle of a fixture to be installed. The fixture also has two side wings flanking the receptacle and having fastener holes. An insert driver is provided having a projecting blade which engages a slot in the anchor nut insert for driving the insert. A guide member, such as a wire, passes through symmetry axes of the anchor nut insert and insert driver such that the anchor nut insert is located between the insert driver and a first terminal end of the guide wire. A swag is provided on this terminal end to prevent the anchor nut insert and insert driver from sliding off the end. The fixture with the installed anchor nut insert is fed through the central hole in a structure wall having a blind side. The fixture is rotated until the wing holes are aligned with side holes in the wall and then the fixture is pulled flush against the blind side via the guide wire. Fasteners are then inserted through the hole and the anchor nut insert removed via the driver, exposing the fixed threaded receptacle for engagement as desired.

  10. Corneal blindness: a global perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Whitcher, J. P.; Srinivasan, M.; Upadhyay, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases affecting the cornea are a major cause of blindness worldwide, second only to cataract in overall importance. The epidemiology of corneal blindness is complicated and encompasses a wide variety of infectious and inflammatory eye diseses that cause corneal scarring, which ultimately leads to functional blindness. In addition, the prevalence of corneal disease varies from country to country and even from one population to another. While cataract is responsible for nearly 20 million of the 45 million blind people in the world, the next major cause is trachoma which blinds 4.9 million individuals, mainly as a result of corneal scarring and vascularization. Ocular trauma and corneal ulceration are significant causes of corneal blindness that are often underreported but may be responsible for 1.5-2.0 million new cases of monocular blindness every year. Causes of childhood blindness (about 1.5 million worldwide with 5 million visually disabled) include xerophthalmia (350,000 cases annually), ophthalmia neonatorum, and less frequently seen ocular diseases such as herpes simplex virus infections and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even though the control of onchocerciasis and leprosy are public health success stories, these diseases are still significant causes of blindness--affecting a quarter of a million individuals each. Traditional eye medicines have also been implicated as a major risk factor in the current epidemic of corneal ulceration in developing countries. Because of the difficulty of treating corneal blindness once it has occurred, public health prevention programmes are the most cost-effective means of decreasing the global burden of corneal blindness. PMID:11285665

  11. When Interference Helps: Increasing Executive Load to Facilitate Deception Detection in the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Visu-Petra, George; Varga, Mihai; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem), and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift). The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift) was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants). The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior. PMID:23543918

  12. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention.

  13. Concealed weapons detection with an improved passive millimeter-wave imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

    2004-08-01

    Trex Enterprises has developed a second-generation passive millimeter-wave imaging system for detection of concealed weapons and explosives at standoff ranges. Passive millimeter-wave sensors form an image from naturally emitted blackbody radiation in the millimeter-wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radiation at this wavelength passes through most types of clothing, allowing the user to acquire an image of any articles on a suspect"s person that differ significantly from the human body in their reflectivity or radiometric temperature at millimeter-wave wavelengths. Trex Enterprises previously demonstrated a first-generation concealed weapon detection system with the ability to detect handguns and knives under heavy clothing at a range of 27". The second-generation imager, while similar in concept, has an improved field-of-view and a much reduced size and weight. The imager is to be put through a battery of tests by both Trex Enterprises and the National Institute Of Justice to determine its ability to detect both metallic and non-metallic knives and handguns as well as various types of explosive devices. The tests will be conducted indoors and outdoors at various ranges.

  14. Combined Illumination Cylindrical Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technique for Concealed Weapon Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-04-01

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30-300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3-D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution three-dimensional image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3-D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operator will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  15. Combined illumination cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-07-01

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30 - 300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution 3D image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operate will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration.

  16. Development of a longer range standoff millimetre wave radar concealed threat detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; Southgate, Matthew J.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Harmer, Stuart W.; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-05-01

    A millimeter wave (75 - 110 GHz) polarimetric radar system (MiRTLE) has been developed for the detection of threat objects, such as guns, knives, or explosive devices, which have been concealed under clothing upon the human body. The system uses a Gaussian lens antenna to enable operation at stand-off ranges up to 25 meters. By utilizing ultra-wideband Swept Frequency Continuous Wave Radar very high range resolution (~ 10mm) is realized. The system is capable of detecting objects positioned in front of the body and of measuring the range of a target. By interpretation of the scattered waveform, the presence of a wide spectrum of threat items concealed on the human body may be detected. Threat detection is autonomously rendered by application of a neural network to the scattered time domain, polarimetric radar returns and the system may be taught to alarm or reject certain classes of objects; this allows for highly specific or broad spectrum threat detection. The radar system is portable and operator steerable allowing standoff monitoring of moving human targets in real time. Rapid (1ms) sweep times and fast signal acquisition and processing allow decisions to be made at video frame rates (30 fps) and integrated directly to a video feed providing the operator with a field of view and facilitating aiming. Performance parameters for detection of guns and simulated explosive devices are presented for ranges up to 25 meters.

  17. Partner choice through concealed floral sugar rewards evolved with the specialization of ant-plant mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Staedler, Yannick M; Schönenberger, Jürg; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-09-01

    Obligate mutualisms require filtering mechanisms to prevent their exploitation by opportunists, but ecological contexts and traits facilitating the evolution of such mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated the evolution of filtering mechanisms in an epiphytic ant-plant symbiotic system in Fiji involving Rubiaceae and dolichoderine ants, using field experiments, metabolomics, X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and phylogenetics. We discovered a novel plant reward consisting of sugary sap concealed in post-anthetic flowers only accessible to Philidris nagasau workers that bite through the thick epidermis. In five of the six species of Rubiaceae obligately inhabited by this ant, the nectar glands functioned for 10 d after a flower's sexual function was over. Sugar metabolomics and field experiments showed that ant foraging tracks sucrose levels, which only drop at the onset of fruit development. Ontogenetic analyses of our focal species and their relatives revealed a 25-fold increase in nectary size and delayed fruit development in the ant-rewarding species, and Bayesian analyses of several traits showed the correlated evolution of sugar rewards and symbiosis specialization. Concealed floral nectar forestalls exploitation by opportunists (generalist ants) and stabilizes these obligate mutualisms. Our study pinpoints the importance of partner choice mechanisms in transitions from facultative to obligate mutualisms.

  18. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  19. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  20. Decision makers use norms, not cost-benefit analysis, when choosing to conceal or reveal unfair rewards.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Marco; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Conceal or Reveal Dilemma, in which individuals receive unfair benefits, and must decide whether to conceal or to reveal this unfair advantage. This dilemma has two important characteristics: it does not lend itself easily to cost-benefit analysis, neither to the application of any strong universal norm. As a consequence, it is ideally suited to the study of interindividual and intercultural variations in moral-economic norms. In this paper we focus on interindividual variations, and we report four studies showing that individuals cannot be swayed by financial incentives to conceal or to reveal, and follow instead fixed, idiosyncratic strategies. We discuss how this result can be extended to individual and cultural variations in the tendency to display or to hide unfair rewards. PMID:24066040

  1. Decision Makers Use Norms, Not Cost-Benefit Analysis, When Choosing to Conceal or Reveal Unfair Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Marco; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Conceal or Reveal Dilemma, in which individuals receive unfair benefits, and must decide whether to conceal or to reveal this unfair advantage. This dilemma has two important characteristics: it does not lend itself easily to cost-benefit analysis, neither to the application of any strong universal norm. As a consequence, it is ideally suited to the study of interindividual and intercultural variations in moral-economic norms. In this paper we focus on interindividual variations, and we report four studies showing that individuals cannot be swayed by financial incentives to conceal or to reveal, and follow instead fixed, idiosyncratic strategies. We discuss how this result can be extended to individual and cultural variations in the tendency to display or to hide unfair rewards. PMID:24066040

  2. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  3. 15 CFR 335.4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 335.4 Section 335.4... § 335.4 Allocation. (a) For HTS 9902.51.11 and HTS 9902.51.15 each Tariff Rate Quota will be allocated separately. Allocation will be based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Suit production, on a weighted...

  4. Preserving the allocation ratio at every allocation with biased coin randomization and minimization in studies with unequal allocation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2012-04-13

    The demand for unequal allocation in clinical trials is growing. Most commonly, the unequal allocation is achieved through permuted block randomization. However, other allocation procedures might be required to better approximate the allocation ratio in small samples, reduce the selection bias in open-label studies, or balance on baseline covariates. When these allocation procedures are generalized to unequal allocation, special care is to be taken to preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation step. This paper offers a way to expand the biased coin randomization to unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every allocation. The suggested expansion works with biased coin randomization that balances only on treatment group totals and with covariate-adaptive procedures that use a random biased coin element at every allocation. Balancing properties of the allocation ratio preserving biased coin randomization and minimization are described through simulations. It is demonstrated that these procedures are asymptotically protected against the shift in the rerandomization distribution identified for some examples of minimization with 1:2 allocation. The asymptotic shift in the rerandomization distribution of the difference in treatment means for an arbitrary unequal allocation procedure is explicitly derived in the paper.

  5. How to Succeed at Being Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvin, Hanan C.

    1976-01-01

    The author, a professional sociologist who lost his sight, provides practical advice and information to people who are becoming blind or who have recently become blind, and others who know or work with blind persons. (Author/IM)

  6. Blindness from quinine toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, P; Spalton, D J; Smith, S E

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of quinine overdose in a 47-year-old man who presented with blindness. Fundus photography demonstrates the acute and subsequent retinal changes, and his visual recovery to normal acuity with visual field constriction is documented. Pupillary and electrodiagnostic findings are recorded. Stellate ganglion block has been widely advocated as a helpful therapeutic measure, but out patient was treated with a unilateral stellate ganglion block without apparent benefit to that eye. From a review of the literature we believe that quinine produces its effects by toxicity on the retina rather than by vasoconstriction and that stellate ganglion block probably does not alter the natural history of the retinal toxicity. Images PMID:3281709

  7. Blind Pilot Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Ralf R.; Cottatellucci, Laura; Vehkapera, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    A subspace projection to improve channel estimation in massive multi-antenna systems is proposed and analyzed. Together with power-controlled hand-off, it can mitigate the pilot contamination problem without the need for coordination among cells. The proposed method is blind in the sense that it does not require pilot data to find the appropriate subspace. It is based on the theory of large random matrices that predicts that the eigenvalue spectra of large sample covariance matrices can asymptotically decompose into disjoint bulks as the matrix size grows large. Random matrix and free probability theory are utilized to predict under which system parameters such a bulk decomposition takes place. Simulation results are provided to confirm that the proposed method outperforms conventional linear channel estimation if bulk separation occurs.

  8. Self-concealment, social self-efficacy, acculturative stress, and depression in African, Asian, and Latin American international college students.

    PubMed

    Constantine, Madonna G; Okazaki, Sumie; Utsey, Shawn O

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in a sample of 320 African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. The authors found several differences by demography with regard to the study's variables. After controlling for regional group membership, sex, and English language fluency, they found that self-concealment and social self-efficacy did not serve as mediators in the relationship between African, Asian, and Latin American international students' acculturative stress experiences and depressive symptomatology. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  10. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  11. Participants’ Experiences of Being Debriefed to Placebo Allocation in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Felicity L.; Jacobsen, Eric E.; Shaw, Jessica; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2013-01-01

    Participants in placebo-controlled clinical trials give informed consent to be randomized to verum or placebo. However, researchers rarely tell participants which treatment they actually received. We interviewed four participants in a trial of acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome, before, during, and after they received a course of placebo treatments over six weeks. During the final interview, we informed participants that they had received a course of placebo treatments. We used an idiographic phenomenological approach based on the Sheffield School to describe each participant’s experiences of being blinded to and then debriefed to placebo allocation. Our participants’ experiences of blinding and debriefing were embodied, related to their goals in undertaking the study, and social (e.g., embedded in trusting and valued relationships with acupuncturists). We suggest ways in which debriefing to placebo allocation can be managed sensitively to facilitate positive outcomes for participants. PMID:22673094

  12. Software For Allocation Of Tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Ken; Raman, Shivakumar; Pulat, Simin

    1992-01-01

    Collection of computer programs being developed to assist engineers in allocating tolerances to dimensions of components and assemblies. System reflects tolerancing expertise of design and manufacturing engineers; helps engineers maintain comprehensive tolerancing policy and overview that might otherwise get lost when attending to details of design and manufacturing processes. Necessary to allocate tolerances for three main reasons: tolerances allow for variations in dimensions of components as manufactured; assembly of two or more components, dimensions lie between specified limits; and part replaced must fit in place.

  13. Repetition blindness and homophone blindness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Caitlin J; James, Lori E; Noble, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list. Older adults exhibited a greater degree of RB and HB than young adults using a conditional scoring method that provides certainty that blindness has occurred. The existence of RB and HB for both age groups, and increased blindness for older compared to young adults, supports predictions of a binding theory that has successfully accounted for a wide range of phenomena in cognitive aging.

  14. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  15. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

  16. Intentional retrieval suppression can conceal guilty knowledge in ERP memory detection tests☆

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Zara M.; Anderson, Michael C.; Buda, Marie; Simons, Jon S.; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Brain-activity markers of guilty knowledge have been promoted as accurate and reliable measures for establishing criminal culpability. Tests based on these markers interpret the presence or absence of memory-related neural activity as diagnostic of whether or not incriminating information is stored in a suspect's brain. This conclusion critically relies on the untested assumption that reminders of a crime uncontrollably elicit memory-related brain activity. However, recent research indicates that, in some circumstances, humans can control whether they remember a previous experience by intentionally suppressing retrieval. We examined whether people could use retrieval suppression to conceal neural evidence of incriminating memories as indexed by Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). When people were motivated to suppress crime retrieval, their memory-related ERP effects were significantly decreased, allowing guilty individuals to evade detection. Our findings indicate that brain measures of guilty knowledge may be under criminals’ intentional control and place limits on their use in legal settings. PMID:23664804

  17. Joint source coding, transport processing, and error concealment for H.323-based packet video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-Fan; Kerofsky, Louis

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to adapt different parameters in H.263 source coding, transport processing and error concealment to optimize end-to-end video quality at different bitrates and packet loss rates for H.323-based packet video. First different intra coding patterns are compared and we show that the contiguous rectangle or square block pattern offers the best performance in terms of video quality in the presence of packet loss. Second, the optimal intra coding frequency is found for different bitrates and packet loss rates. The optimal number of GOB headers to be inserted in the source coding is then determined. The effect of transport processing strategies such as packetization and retransmission is also examined. For packetization, the impact of packet size and the effect of macroblock segmentation to picture quality are investigated. Finally, we show that the dejitter buffering delay can be used to the advantage for packet loss recovery with video retransmission without incurring any extra delay.

  18. Memory instructions, vocalization, mock crimes, and concealed information tests with a polygraph.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Malik, F J; Cullen, M C

    2011-12-01

    Accuracy rates with polygraphs using concealed information tests (CITs) depend on memory for crime details. Some participants read instructions on murdering a dummy victim that specified exact crime details asked on the subsequent CIT. Others read instructions not stating details, but still requiring interaction with the exact same details for the crime. For example, the murder weapon was under four heavy boxes. Instructions stated either "... remove the 4 boxes ..." or "... remove the boxes ..." Thus, each group removed four boxes, but only one group was primed with the number "4" beforehand. In addition, the victim unexpectedly shouted at some participants during the crime. An innocent group was not exposed to either manipulation. Memory, detection scores, and detection rates were lower for guilty participants not primed with details. Sound affected detection scores but not memory, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Information tests are limited by how crime information is received. PMID:22403929

  19. Effects of coping and cooperative instructions on guilty and informed innocents' physiological responses to concealed information.

    PubMed

    Zvi, Liza; Nachson, Israel; Elaad, Eitan

    2012-05-01

    Previous research on the Concealed Information Test indicates that knowledge of the critical information of a given event is sufficient for the elicitation of strong physiological reactions, thus facilitating detection by the test. Other factors that affect the test's efficacy are deceptive verbal responses to the test's questions and motivation of guilty examinees to avoid detection. In the present study effects of coping and cooperative instructions - delivered to guilty and innocent participants - on detection were examined. In a mock-theft experiment guilty participants who actually committed a mock-crime, and informed innocent participants who handled the critical items of the crime in an innocent context, were instructed to adopt either a coping or a cooperative attitude toward the polygraph test. Results indicated that both, guilt and coping behavior, were associated with enhanced physiological responses to the critical information, whereas innocence and cooperative behavior attenuated physiological responses. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22330977

  20. Memory instructions, vocalization, mock crimes, and concealed information tests with a polygraph.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Malik, F J; Cullen, M C

    2011-12-01

    Accuracy rates with polygraphs using concealed information tests (CITs) depend on memory for crime details. Some participants read instructions on murdering a dummy victim that specified exact crime details asked on the subsequent CIT. Others read instructions not stating details, but still requiring interaction with the exact same details for the crime. For example, the murder weapon was under four heavy boxes. Instructions stated either "... remove the 4 boxes ..." or "... remove the boxes ..." Thus, each group removed four boxes, but only one group was primed with the number "4" beforehand. In addition, the victim unexpectedly shouted at some participants during the crime. An innocent group was not exposed to either manipulation. Memory, detection scores, and detection rates were lower for guilty participants not primed with details. Sound affected detection scores but not memory, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Information tests are limited by how crime information is received.

  1. A concealed small bowel perforation in an adult secondary to bicycle handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, GJ; Simpson, RR

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) secondary to bicycle handlebar is a rare injury. The majority of the literature describes abdominal wall herniation in children. We present a rare case of TAWH in an adult with a concealed small bowel perforation. Although clinical examination in conjunction with computed tomography can exclude the majority of solid organ injuries, small bowel injuries can often be missed. Our case initially revealed a serosal tear in the small bowel but, on close inspection, a separate 3mm perforation was identified, hidden in the small bowel mesentery. We strongly support a low threshold for operative intervention if there is any suspicion. Moreover, we stress the importance of meticulous examination during laparotomy as this injury could have been easily missed, resulting in potential morbidity or mortality in a patient sustaining such an injury. PMID:23676803

  2. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems.

  3. Remote concealed weapon detection in millimeter-wave region: active and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Stephan; Klöppel, Frank; Huck, Johann; Nötel, Denis; Hägelen, Manfred; Briese, Gunnar; Gregor, Alexander; Erukulla, Sreenivas; Fuchs, Hans-Hellmuth; Essen, Helmut; Pagels, Anke

    2006-09-01

    Sensors used for Security purposes have to cover the non-invasive inspection of persons, baggage and letters with the aim to detect weapons, explosives and chemical or biological threat material. Currently, emphasis is placed on system concepts and technologies for this type of applications, employing millimeterwave-, submillimeterwave- and terahertz sensors. This is based on the capability of these frequency bands to look through textiles and the possibility to achieve a geometric resolution which is sufficient to resolve critical items within the necessary range. Using multiple frequencies promises to give more detailed information about the structure of the observed objects. Furthermore, to overcome the limitations of passive millimeter- and submillimeterwave sensors which depend on indirect illumination, systems using miniaturized mmw-radar modules are applied as well. This paper describes two approaches for the detection of concealed weapons, the first using a millimeterwave radiometer on a scanner and the second employing a miniaturized radar module based on a synthetic aperture method.

  4. Design of an active millimeter-wave concealed-object imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulter, Nicholas G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Stenbakken, G. N.; Waltrip, B. C.; Nolen, Shalva; Reintsema, Carl D.

    2001-08-01

    The research and design of an active millimeter-wave concealed object imaging system is described. Several illumination and detection methods were analyzed via computer simulation to assess the effects of system parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal. The results of many of these simulations were experimentally verified using either a 10 MHz or a 100 GHz measurement system. Based on this assessment, two design using pulsed illuminate with gated detection were selected for development. Pulsed illumination is provided using a pulsed broadband noise source. For detecting the reflected noise pulse, two methods were examined, one using micro bolometers and the other using electrooptics. Based on imaging system considerations, such as cost of manufacture, ruggedness, etc., and technical parameters, micro bolometer arrays were selected for further development. The electronics interface, including image display capability, was developed. We examined the absorption of some common clothing materials at 100 Ghz and compared this to results previously reported.

  5. A novel Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol for detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Labkovsky, Elena; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-11-01

    In simply guilty (SG), countermeasure-using guilty (CM), and innocent (IN) subjects, a new concealed information test, the P300-based Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol was tested in a mock crime scenario. It combines an oddball protocol with two stimuli (probe, irrelevant) and another with three stimuli (probe, irrelevant, target) into one trial, doubling detected mock crime information per unit time, compared to previous protocols. Probe-irrelevant amplitude differences were significant in SG and CM, but not IN subjects. On a measure from both two and three stimulus protocol parts of the Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol trial, accuracy was 94.7% (based on a .9 bootstrap criterion). The criterion-independent area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic (from signal detection theory) measuring SG and CM versus IN discriminability averaged .92 (in a range of 0.5-1.0). Countermeasures enhanced irrelevant (not probe) P300s in CM groups. PMID:24981064

  6. 220GHz wideband 3D imaging radar for concealed object detection technology development and phenomenology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Macfarlane, David G.; Bryllert, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    We present a 220 GHz 3D imaging `Pathfinder' radar developed within the EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) which has been built to address two objectives: (i) to de-risk the radar hardware development and (ii) to enable the collection of phenomenology data with ~1 cm3 volumetric resolution. The radar combines a DDS-based chirp generator and self-mixing multiplier technology to achieve a 30 GHz bandwidth chirp with such high linearity that the raw point response is close to ideal and only requires minor nonlinearity compensation. The single transceiver is focused with a 30 cm lens mounted on a gimbal to acquire 3D volumetric images of static test targets and materials.

  7. The human operational sex ratio: effects of marriage, concealed ovulation, and menopause on mate competition.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2012-12-01

    Among mammals, male-male competition for sexual access to females frequently involves fighting. Larger body size gives males an advantage in fighting, which explains why males tend to be larger than females in many species, including anthropoid primates. Mitani et al. derived a formula to measure the operational sex ratio (OSR) to reflect the degree of male-male competition using the number of reproductively available males to females who are cycling and capable of conceiving. The OSR should predict the degree of sexual dimorphism in body mass-at least if male-male competition involves much fighting or threatening. Here, we use hunter-gatherer demographic data and the Mitani et al. formula to calculate the human OSR. We show that humans have a much lower degree of body mass sexual dimorphism than is predicted by our OSR. We suggest this is because human competition rarely involves fighting. In human hunter-gatherer societies, differences in the ages of marriage have an impact on competition in that the age of males at first marriage is younger when there is a lower percentage of married men with two or more wives, and older when there is a higher percentage of married men with two or more wives. We discuss the implications of this for females, along with the effects of two key life history traits that influence the OSR, concealed ovulation and menopause. While menopause decreases the number of reproductively available females to males and thus increases male-male competition, concealed ovulation decreases male-male competition. Finally, we discuss the importance of mostly monogamous mate bonds in human evolution.

  8. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Drew C.; Richardson, Graham M.; Furedy, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the “brain fingerprinting” method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  9. New way for both quality enhancement of THz images and detection of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-08-01

    As it is well-known, the passive THz camera allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Obviously, efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection for concealed object: minimal size of the object; maximal distance of the detection; image quality. Computer processing of the THz image may lead to many times improving of the image quality without any additional engineering efforts. Therefore, developing of modern novel computer code for its application to THz images is urgent problem. Using appropriate new methods one may expect such temperature resolution which will allow to see banknote in pocket of a person without any real contact. Modern algorithms for computer processing of THz images allow also to see object inside the human body using a temperature trace on the human skin. This circumstance enhances essentially opportunity of passive THz camera applications for counterterrorism problems. We developed new real-time algorithm, based on the correlation function, for the detection of cancelled objects by using computer processing of the passive THz images without their viewing. This algorithm allows us to make a conclusion about presence of forbidden objects on the human body. To see this object with high quality we propose one more algorithm which allows to increase the image quality. Current approach for computer processing of the THz images differs from approaches developed by us early. We apply new algorithms with success to the images captured by passive THz camera TS4 manufactured by ThruVision Inc. The distance between the camera and person is changed from 4 to 10 metres.

  10. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  11. Enhanced terahertz imaging system performance analysis and design tool for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Espinola, Richard L.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model/tool for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of the MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security & Defence Symposium (Brugge). An advanced version of the base model that accounts for both the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system, and for the impact of target and background thermal emission, was reported on at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium (Orlando). This paper will provide a comprehensive review of an enhanced, user-friendly, Windows-executable, terahertz-band imaging system performance analysis and design tool that now includes additional features such as a MODTRAN-based atmospheric attenuation calculator and advanced system architecture configuration inputs that allow for straightforward performance analysis of active or passive systems based on scanning (single- or line-array detector element(s)) or staring (focal-plane-array detector elements) imaging architectures. This newly enhanced THz imaging system design tool is an extension of the advanced THz imaging system performance model that was developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will also provide example system component (active-illumination source and detector) trade-study analyses using the new features of this user-friendly THz imaging system performance analysis and design tool.

  12. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Lawrence A; Richardson, Drew C; Richardson, Graham M; Furedy, John J

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the "brain fingerprinting" method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  13. P300 amplitudes in the concealed information test are less affected by depth of processing than electrodermal responses

    PubMed Central

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) has been used in the laboratory as well as in field applications to detect concealed crime related memories. The presentation of crime relevant details to guilty suspects has been shown to elicit enhanced N200 and P300 amplitudes of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as well as greater skin conductance responses (SCRs) as compared to neutral test items. These electrophysiological and electrodermal responses were found to incrementally contribute to the validity of the test, thereby suggesting that these response systems are sensitive to different psychological processes. In the current study, we tested whether depth of processing differentially affects N200, P300, and SCR amplitudes in the CIT. Twenty participants carried out a mock crime and became familiar with central and peripheral crime details. A CIT that was conducted 1 week later revealed that SCR amplitudes were larger for central details although central and peripheral items were remembered equally well in a subsequent explicit memory test. By contrast, P300 amplitudes elicited by crime related details were larger but did not differ significantly between question types. N200 amplitudes did not allow for detecting concealed knowledge in this study. These results indicate that depth of processing might be one factor that differentially affects central and autonomic nervous system responses to concealed information. Such differentiation might be highly relevant for field applications of the CIT. PMID:23162454

  14. [Cardioversion for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia during lung surgery in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Hirofumi; Inoda, Ayako; Miura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Yoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) that occurred during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. A 59-year-old man with lung cancer was scheduled for VATS lobectomy under general anesthesia. After inserting a thoracic epidural catheter, general anesthesia was induced with intravenous administration of propofol. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of desfurane in an air/oxygen mixture and intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Recurrent PSVT occurred three times, and the last episode of PSVT continued for 50 minutes regardless of administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Synchronized electric shock via adhesive electrode pads on the patient's chest successfully converted PSVT back to normal sinus rhythm. The remaining course and postoperative period were uneventful. An electrophysiological study performed after hospital discharge detected concealed WPW syndrome, which had contributed to the development of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Concealed WPW syndrome is a rare, but critical complication that could possibly cause lethal atrial tachyarrhythmias during the perioperative period. In the present case, cardioversion using adhesive electrode pads briefly terminated PSVT in a patient with concealed WPW syndrome.

  15. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J., Jr.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men's mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may…

  16. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  17. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2008 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit. This report presents the analytical data collected in 2008. The Pebble deposit is world class in size, and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), is a large mineral system, and is fairly well-constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of this study are to 1) determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, 2) better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and 3) test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. The analytical data are presented as an integrated Microsoft Access 2003 database and as separate Excel files.

  18. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  19. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  20. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  1. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  2. Empathy's blind spot.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to mount a philosophical challenge to the currently highly visible research and discourse on empathy. The notion of empathetic perspective-shifting-a conceptually demanding, high-level construal of empathy in humans that arguably captures the core meaning of the term-is criticized from the standpoint of a philosophy of normatively accountable agency. Empathy in this demanding sense fails to achieve a true understanding of the other and instead risks to impose the empathizer's self-constitutive agency upon the person empathized with. Attempts to 'simulate' human agency, or attempts to emulate its cognitive or emotional basis, will likely distort their target phenomena in profound ways. Thus, agency turns out to be empathy's blind spot. Elements of an alternative understanding of interpersonal relatedness are also discussed, focusing on aspects of 'interaction theory'. These might do some of the work that high-level constructs of empathy had been supposed to do without running into similar conceptual difficulties. PMID:24420745

  3. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  4. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  5. Student Art for Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanda, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)

  6. A Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Before concluding Repetition Blindness is a perceptual phenomenon, alternative explanations based on memory retrieval problems and report bias must be rejected. Memory problems were minimized by requiring a judgment about only a single briefly displayed field. Bias and sensitivity effects were empirically measured with an ROC-curve analysis method based on confidence ratings. Results from five experiments support the hypothesis that Repetition Blindness can be a perceptual phenomenon.

  7. Programs for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This directory lists contact information for programs for the deaf-blind in the United States in 3 categories: (1) programs for deaf-blind children and youth (29 programs listed); (2) Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youth and Adults (1 national and 10 regional offices); and (3) programs for training teachers of the deaf-blind (4…

  8. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  9. ESTIMATED STATISTICS ON BLINDNESS AND VISION PROBLEMS. NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS FACT BOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HATFIELD, ELIZABETH M.

    CURRENT ESTIMATES AND SOME TREND DATA ARE PRESENTED ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS -- POPULATION GROWTH (1940-1960), PREVALENCE OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, NEW CASES OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, AGE DISTRIBUTION OF LEGALLY BLIND PERSONS, CAUSES OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, CHANGING PATTERNS IN CAUSES OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, CASES OF GLAUCOMA, SCHOOL CHILDREN NEEDING EYE CARE,…

  10. A new framework for interpreting the outcomes of imperfectly blinded controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the outcome of an intervention is affected both by the inherent effects of the intervention and the patient's expectations. For this reason in comparative clinical trials an effort is made to conceal the nature of the administered intervention from the participants in the trial i.e. to blind the trial. Yet, in practice perfect blinding is impossible to ensure or even verify post hoc. The current clinical standard is to follow up the trial with an auxiliary questionnaire, which allows trial participants to express in closed form their belief concerning the intervention, i.e. trial group assignment (treatment or control). Auxiliary questionnaire responses are then used to compute the extent of blinding in the trial in the form of a blinding index. If the estimated extent of blinding exceeds a particular threshold the trial is deemed sufficiently blinded; otherwise, the strength of evidence of the trial is brought into question. This may necessitate that the trial is repeated. In this paper we make several contributions. Firstly, we identify a series of problems of the aforesaid clinical practice and discuss them in context of the most commonly used blinding indexes. Secondly, we formulate a novel approach for handling imperfectly blinded trials. We adopt a feedback questionnaire of the same form as that which is currently in use, but interpret the collected data using a novel statistical method, significantly different from that proposed in the previous work. Unlike the previously proposed approaches, our method is void of any ad hoc free parameters and robust to small changes in the participants' feedback responses. Our method also does not discard any data and is not predicated on any strong assumptions used to interpret participants' feedback. The key idea behind the present method is that it is meaningful to compare only the corresponding treatment and control participant sub-groups, that is, sub-groups matched by their auxiliary responses

  11. A Systems Approach for Allocating Educational Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Center for Community Needs Assessment.

    A computer simulation model for allocating facilities and physical space is presented as a means of optimally allocating available educational resources. The model allows the decisionmaker to change specific program allocations, system parameters, and other controllable variables in order to determine the effects, both cost and utility, of these…

  12. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation requirements. 262.5 Section 262.5... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under... than $20,000,000 each. Designated, high-priority projects will be excluded from this allocation...

  14. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each... competitive products enterprise using a method of allocation based on appropriate revenue or cost...

  15. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make...

  16. 25 CFR 39.902 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 39.902 Section 39.902 Indians BUREAU OF... Maintenance and Minor Repair Fund § 39.902 Allocation. (a) Interim Maintenance and Minor Repair funds shall be... determining school allocations shall be taken from the facilities inventory maintained by the Division...

  17. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  18. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES JOHN HEINZ NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Funding Allocation and Criteria § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form...

  19. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  20. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  1. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  2. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  3. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  4. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  5. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  6. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  7. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  8. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  9. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  10. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  11. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  12. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  13. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  14. Do the blinds smell better?

    PubMed

    Luers, Jan Christoffer; Mikolajczak, Stefanie; Hahn, Moritz; Wittekindt, Claus; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Damm, Michael

    2014-07-01

    If people lose a sense organ, there is thought to be an increase in the remaining sensory functions. Previous studies showed ambiguous results on this topic. In a prospective matched pair case-control study on 46 blind and 46 normal-sighted subjects, the olfactory performance was examined using the Sniffin' Sticks Test [threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) test], determining the olfactory threshold, the identification and the discrimination performance. There was no significant difference between the groups. Neither the overall olfactory performance (TDI score) nor any of its subtests did correlate with the vision or with the duration of blindness. The study could not detect any superior smell abilities of blind subjects as compared to sighted subjects.

  15. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE... allocated to an allocation set-aside. (c) Serial numbers for allocated NO X allowances. When allocating...

  16. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE... allocated to an allocation set-aside. (c) Serial numbers for allocated NO X allowances. When allocating...

  17. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  18. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  19. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  20. Computer Reader for the Blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Optacon II uses the same basic technique of converting printed information into a tactile image as did Optacon. Optacon II can also be connected directly to a personal computer, which opens up a new range of job opportunities for the blind. Optacon II is not limited to reading printed words, it can convert any graphic image viewed by the camera. Optacon II demands extensive training for blind operators. TSI provides 60-hour training courses at its Mountain View headquarters and at training centers around the world. TeleSensory discontinued production of the Optacon as of December 1996.

  1. Evaluating the laws defining blindness.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, E

    1992-06-01

    The law defining legal blindness was written in 1935, and has not been updated since. A historical view of the background in the development of this law and a comparison to laws used in other countries helps to point out some problems with the current definition. As the population gets older, the prevalence of visual impairment will be increasing. To administer programs, distribute funding, and ensure adequate care, the problems inherent in the definition of legal blindness must be addressed, and the law must be revised. PMID:1634739

  2. Mobile TNA system to detect explosives and drugs concealed in cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendahan, Joseph; Gozani, Tsahi

    1998-12-01

    The drug problem in the U.S. is serious and efforts to fight it are constrained by the lack of adequate means to curb the inflow of smuggled narcotics into the country through cargo containers. Also, events such as the disastrous explosion in Oklahoma City, the IRA bombing in London, and the bombing of the U.S. military residence in Dharan make the development of new tools for the detection of explosives and drugs in vehicles imperative. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology, developed for the detection of explosives in suitcases, and detection of landmines and unexploded ordnance is presently being applied to the nonintrusive detection of significant amounts of explosives and drugs concealed in cars, trucks and large cargo containers. TNA technology is based on the analysis of characteristic gamma rays emitted following thermal neutron capture. A TNA system can be used in a variety of operational scenarios, such as inspection before an unloaded cargo container from a spit is moved to temporary storage, inspection of trucks unloaded from a ferry, or inspection of vehicles parked close to Federal building or military bases. This paper will discuss the detection process and operational scenarios, and will present results from recent simulations and measurements.

  3. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  4. Detection and classification of concealed weapons using a magnetometer-based portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Polk, Robert E.

    2002-08-01

    A concealed weapons detection technology was developed through the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide a non intrusive means for rapid detection, location, and archiving of data (including visual) of potential suspects and weapon threats. This technology, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), has been applied in a portal style weapons detection system using passive magnetic sensors as its basis. This paper will report on enhancements to the weapon detection system to enable weapon classification and to discriminate threats from non-threats. Advanced signal processing algorithms were used to analyze the magnetic spectrum generated when a person passes through a portal. These algorithms analyzed multiple variables including variance in the magnetic signature from random weapon placement and/or orientation. They perform pattern recognition and calculate the probability that the collected magnetic signature correlates to a known database of weapon versus non-weapon responses. Neural networks were used to further discriminate weapon type and identify controlled electronic items such as cell phones and pagers. False alarms were further reduced by analyzing the magnetic detector response by using a Joint Time Frequency Analysis digital signal processing technique. The frequency components and power spectrum for a given sensor response were derived. This unique fingerprint provided additional information to aid in signal analysis. This technology has the potential to produce major improvements in weapon detection and classification.

  5. Grossly calcified choroid plexus concealing foramen of Monro meningiomas as an unusual cause of obstructive hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Various intraventricular tumors can present with calcifications; however, the choroid plexus can also have physiological calcifications. This is the first case report of meningiomas located at the bilateral foramen of Monro (FOM), concealed by a grossly calcified choroid plexus, presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. A 60-year-old woman with disturbed consciousness was admitted by ambulance. Head computed tomography revealed significantly high-density lesions that smoothly extended from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. They occupied both sides of the FOM, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnostic endoscopic biopsy was performed using a flexible neuroendoscopic system, and an egg shell-like grossly calcified choroid plexus was found to smoothly extend toward the FOM. Resection was not selected because the calcified lesions had tightly adhered to the veins and fornix; therefore, the patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The lesions were histologically identified as psammomatous meningiomas with low proliferation potential (the Ki-67 labeling index was lower than 1%). She was discharged 10 days after surgery without neurological deficits. As calcifications can have tumoral and nontumoral origins, we considered neuroendoscopic exploration to be essential in order to achieve an accurate diagnosis and select optimal management. PMID:26889294

  6. Using self-authentication and recovery images for error concealment in wireless environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Yung; Sow, Daby; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2001-11-01

    Handling packet loss or delay in the mobile and/or Internet environment is usually a challenging problem for multimedia transmission. Using connection-oriented protocol such as TCP may introduce intolerable time delay in re-transmission. Using datagram-oriented protocols such as UDP may cause partial representation in case of packet loss. In this paper, we propose a new method of using our self-authentication-and-recovery images (SARI) to do the error detection and concealment in the UDP environment. The lost information in a SARI image can be approximately recovered based on the embedded watermark, which includes the content-based authentication information and recovery information. Images or video frames are watermarked in a priori such that no additional mechanism is needed in the networking or the encoding process. Because the recovery is not based on adjacent blocks, the proposed method can recover the corrupted area even though the information loss happen in large areas or high variant areas. Our experiments show the advantages of such technique in both transmission time saving and broad application potentials.

  7. 'The vagina does not talk': conception concealed or deliberately disclosed in eastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    van der Sijpt, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of current alternative 'horizons of honour' such as schooling, employment or relationships with rich urban men, women's intentions with regard to marriage and motherhood acquire different meanings. On their pathways to urban forms of honour, formal engagements and childbearing are often postponed, while premarital sexual encounters proliferate. This paper explores the meanings of pregnancy within the context of these fragile relationships and women's urban aspirations; fertility will be shown to be a 'bet' that may either disrupt or stabilize urban affairs and ambitions. As such, pregnancies can be strategically anticipated and deliberately disclosed or unexpectedly encountered and secretly disrupted. This paper sheds light on women's strategies of concealment and disclosure of pregnancies and shows that these practices are often inspired by a notion of the 'right timing' of particular reproductive conjunctures - a notion that is of increasing relevance in current frames of female honour in Cameroon. PMID:22118422

  8. Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: an empirical study of the searching CIT.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Zaidenberg, Daphna; Gronau, Nurit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to situations in which the crime-related information is shared by a group of suspects but is not available to the investigators (a method known as the "searching CIT," or SCIT). Twenty-two groups, each comprising 4 to 7 participants (115 in total), planned 1 of 2 mock crimes (kidnapping or bank robbery). While planning the crime, each group decided on 5 crime-related critical items (e.g., the city in which the bank was located). Each critical item was chosen from a predefined set of 4 alternatives. At a second stage, the SCIT was administered individually and each participant was tested on the 2 crimes-the actual planned crime, in which the participant was "guilty," and the unplanned crime, in which the participant was "innocent." Two algorithms, adopted from Breska, Ben-Shakhar, and Gronau (2012), were applied to detect the critical items and to differentiate between "guilty" and "innocent" participants. Findings revealed that differentiation efficiency based on electrodermal and respiration measures was identical to that obtained with the standard CIT when applied to large groups, but lower, although significantly greater than chance, when applied to differentiate between small groups.

  9. Stand-off spatial offset Raman spectroscopy for the detection of concealed content in distant objects.

    PubMed

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Gasser, Christoph; Chrysostom, Engelene tH; Lendl, Bernhard

    2011-12-15

    A pulsed (4.4 ns pulse length) frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operated at 10 Hz was used to generate Raman scattering of samples at a distance of 12 m. The scattered light was collected by a 6 in. telescope, and the Raman spectrum was recorded using an Acton SP-2750 spectrograph coupled to a gated intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector. Applying a spatial offset between the point where the laser hit the sample and the focus of the telescope on the sample enabled collection of Raman photons that were predominantly generated inside the sample and not from its surface. This is especially effective when the content of concealed objects should be analyzed. High-quality Raman spectra could be recorded, within 10 s of data acquisition, from a solid (NaClO(3)) as well as a liquid (isopropyl alcohol) placed inside a 1.5 mm thick opaque low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic bottle. The applied spatial offset was also advantageous in cases where the surface of the container was highly fluorescent. In such a situation, Raman spectra of the sample could not be recorded when the sampling volume (telescope observation field) coincided with the focus of the excitation laser. However, with the use of a spatial offset of some millimeters, a clear Raman spectrum of the content (isopropyl alcohol) in a strongly fluorescent plastic container was obtained.

  10. Investigation of late time response analysis for detection of multiple concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Simon; Fernando, Michael; Andrews, David; Harmer, Stuart; Bowring, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the use of Late Time Response (LTR) analysis for detecting multiple objects in concealed object detection. When a conductive object is illuminated by an ultra-wide band (UWB) frequency radar signal, the surface currents induced upon the object give rise to LTR signals. The LTR results from a number of different targets are presented. The distance between the targets within the same radar beam has been adjusted in increments of 5cm to determine the point at which the individual objects can be distinguished from each other. The experiment was performed using double ridged horn antennas in a pseudo-monostatic arrangement. Vector network analysers (VNA) are used to provide the UWB stepped frequency continuous wave radar signal. The distance between the transmitting antenna and the target object is kept at 50cm for all the experiments performed and the power level at the VNA was set to 2dBm. The targets in the experimental setup are suspended in isolation in a non-anechoic environment. To allow for the de-convolution of the signal and the removal of background clutter Matlab was used in post processing. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are used to process the return signals and extract the LTR features from the noise clutter. A Generalized Pencil-of-Function (GPOF) method was then used to extract the complex poles of the signal. In the case of a single needle these poles can be found around 1.9GHz.

  11. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  12. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature. PMID:26320359

  13. Systematic changes in tonic physiological activities during the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25152172

  14. Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: an empirical study of the searching CIT.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Zaidenberg, Daphna; Gronau, Nurit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to situations in which the crime-related information is shared by a group of suspects but is not available to the investigators (a method known as the "searching CIT," or SCIT). Twenty-two groups, each comprising 4 to 7 participants (115 in total), planned 1 of 2 mock crimes (kidnapping or bank robbery). While planning the crime, each group decided on 5 crime-related critical items (e.g., the city in which the bank was located). Each critical item was chosen from a predefined set of 4 alternatives. At a second stage, the SCIT was administered individually and each participant was tested on the 2 crimes-the actual planned crime, in which the participant was "guilty," and the unplanned crime, in which the participant was "innocent." Two algorithms, adopted from Breska, Ben-Shakhar, and Gronau (2012), were applied to detect the critical items and to differentiate between "guilty" and "innocent" participants. Findings revealed that differentiation efficiency based on electrodermal and respiration measures was identical to that obtained with the standard CIT when applied to large groups, but lower, although significantly greater than chance, when applied to differentiate between small groups. PMID:24564513

  15. Hiding true emotions: micro-expressions in eyes retrospectively concealed by mouth movements.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Miho; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2016-02-26

    When we encounter someone we dislike, we may momentarily display a reflexive disgust expression, only to follow-up with a forced smile and greeting. Our daily lives are replete with a mixture of true and fake expressions. Nevertheless, are these fake expressions really effective at hiding our true emotions? Here we show that brief emotional changes in the eyes (micro-expressions, thought to reflect true emotions) can be successfully concealed by follow-up mouth movements (e.g. a smile). In the same manner as backward masking, mouth movements of a face inhibited conscious detection of all types of micro-expressions in that face, even when viewers paid full attention to the eye region. This masking works only in a backward direction, however, because no disrupting effect was observed when the mouth change preceded the eye change. These results provide scientific evidence for everyday behaviours like smiling to dissemble, and further clarify a major reason for the difficulty we face in discriminating genuine from fake emotional expressions.

  16. Detection of contraband concealed on the body using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to avoid detection, smugglers and terrorists are increasingly using the body as a vehicle for transporting illicit drugs, weapons, and explosives. This trend illustrates the natural tendency of traffickers to seek the path of least resistance, as improved interdiction technology and operational effectiveness have been brought to bear on other trafficking avenues such as luggage, cargo, and parcels. In response, improved technology for human inspection is being developed using a variety of techniques. ASE's BodySearch X-ray Inspection Systems uses backscatter x-ray imaging of the human body to quickly, safely, and effectively screen for drugs, weapons, and explosives concealed on the body. This paper reviews the law enforcement and social issues involved in human inspections, and briefly describes the ASE BodySearch systems. Operator training, x-ray image interpretation, and maximizing systems effectiveness are also discussed. Finally, data collected from operation of the BodySearch system in the field is presented, and new law enforcement initiatives which have come about due to recent events are reviewed.

  17. The caregiving bind: concealing the demands of informal care can undermine the caregiving identity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen; Gillespie, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Disagreements and misunderstandings between informal caregivers and care-receivers have been widely reported, but the causes are unclear. The present article compares the views of people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (28 dyads, n = 56). First, we report a quantitative analysis finding that the majority of disagreements were about caregivers' identity. Caregivers saw themselves as less confident, less intelligent, more embarrassed, more independent and more overprotective than care-receivers rated them to be. Caregivers understood the care-receivers' ratings but disagreed with them' Second, we report a qualitative analysis focussing on how caregivers felt themselves to be perceived by significant others. Caregivers felt that the care-receiver, family members, the general public, health services and even friends often have negative views of them. The 'caregiving bind' is proposed as a cause of caregivers' negative identity. It arises when caregivers try to protect the care-receiver's identity by concealing the extent of informal care provision, with the unintended consequence of undermining the prospects of the caregiver receiving positive social recognition for the challenging work of caregiving. The caregiving bind has implications for therapy and points to the potential of friends and health services to provide caregivers with positive social recognition. PMID:24996218

  18. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.

  19. Hiding true emotions: micro-expressions in eyes retrospectively concealed by mouth movements

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Miho; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    When we encounter someone we dislike, we may momentarily display a reflexive disgust expression, only to follow-up with a forced smile and greeting. Our daily lives are replete with a mixture of true and fake expressions. Nevertheless, are these fake expressions really effective at hiding our true emotions? Here we show that brief emotional changes in the eyes (micro-expressions, thought to reflect true emotions) can be successfully concealed by follow-up mouth movements (e.g. a smile). In the same manner as backward masking, mouth movements of a face inhibited conscious detection of all types of micro-expressions in that face, even when viewers paid full attention to the eye region. This masking works only in a backward direction, however, because no disrupting effect was observed when the mouth change preceded the eye change. These results provide scientific evidence for everyday behaviours like smiling to dissemble, and further clarify a major reason for the difficulty we face in discriminating genuine from fake emotional expressions. PMID:26915796

  20. Living at Risk: Concealing Risk and Preserving Hope in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Sharon L.; Swenson, Melinda M.; Harrison, Joan M.; Moskowitz, Carol; Stepanov, Nonna; Suter, Gregory W.; Westphal, Beryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the qualitative research on Huntington disease has focused on the genetic testing aspects of HD. The overall purpose of this qualitative study was to gather information about the everyday experience of living with the risk of developing Huntington disease in a sample of individuals at risk for HD who have chosen not to pursue genetic testing. Data for this article was obtained from unstructured, open-ended qualitative interviews of a sample of people participating in the PHAROS study. PHAROS, the Prospective Huntington At-Risk Observational Study, is a multi-site study that aims to establish whether experienced clinicians can reliably determine the earliest clinical symptoms of Huntington disease in individuals at 50% risk for HD who have chosen not to undergo genetic testing. Interviews were conducted at six PHAROS research sites across the United States. In this paper, the research team used qualitative description to construct and explore two main themes: (1) careful concealment of risk as an act of self-preservation and (2) preserving hope. PMID:17943424

  1. Atrioventricular reciprocal rhythm and chronic reciprocating tachycardia in a newborn infant with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R J; Ferrer, P; Garcia, O L; Castellanos, A; Gelband, H

    1977-01-01

    A case of atrioventricular reciprocal rhythm and chronic reciprocating tachycardia in a newborn infant is presented. Electrophysiological studies suggest that these rhythm disturbances are related to the presence of a right-sided atrioventricular accessory pathway capable only of retrograde conduction (concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). The technique of recording the sequence of atrial activation during the tachycardia is described and its clinical importance emphasised. PMID:884032

  2. The Invisible Work of Closeting: A Qualitative Study About Strategies Used by Lesbian and Gay Persons to Conceal Their Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Malterud, Kirsti; Bjorkman, Mari

    2016-10-01

    The last decades have offered substantial improvement regarding human rights for lesbian and gay (LG) persons. Yet LG persons are often in the closet, concealing their sexual orientation. We present a qualitative study based on 182 histories submitted from 161 LG individuals to a Web site. The aim was to explore experiences of closeting among LG persons in Norway. A broad range of strategies was used for closeting, even among individuals who generally considered themselves to be out of the closet. Concealment was enacted by blunt denial, clever avoidance, or subtle vagueness. Other strategies included changing or eliminating the pronoun or name of the partner in ongoing conversations. Context-dependent concealment, differentiating between persons, situations, or arenas, was repeatedly applied for security or convenience. We propose a shift from "being in the closet" to "situated concealment of sexual orientation." PMID:26914706

  3. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  4. Passive error concealment for wavelet-coded I-frames with an inhomogeneous Gauss-Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Joost; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-04-01

    In video communication over lossy packet networks (e.g., the Internet), packet loss errors can severely damage the transmitted video. The damaged video can largely be repaired with passive error concealment, where neighboring information is used to estimate missing information. We address the problem of passive error concealment for wavelet coded data with dispersive packetization. The reported techniques of this kind have many problems and usually fail in the reconstruction of high-frequency content. This paper presents a novel locally adaptive error concealment method for subband coded I-frames based on an inhomogeneous Gaussian Markov random field model. We estimate the parameters of this model from a local context of each lost coefficient, and we interpolate the lost coefficients accordingly. The results demonstrate a significant improvement over the reported related methods both in terms of objective performance measures and visually. The biggest improvement of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art in the field is the correct reconstruction of high-frequency information such as textures and edges.

  5. Resource allocation using constraint propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of constraint propagation was discussed. Performance increases are possible with careful application of these constraint mechanisms. The degree of performance increase is related to the interdependence of the different activities resource usage. Although this method of applying constraints to activities and resources is often beneficial, it is obvious that this is no panacea cure for the computational woes that are experienced by dynamic resource allocation and scheduling problems. A combined effort for execution optimization in all areas of the system during development and the selection of the appropriate development environment is still the best method of producing an efficient system.

  6. Indiana School for the Blind Visits Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows highlights of the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, and the Indian Creek Public High School visit to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June 2011. Both blind a...

  7. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  8. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  9. Vision 2020: moving beyond blindness.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Susan; Lansingh, Van; Thulasiraj, R D

    2014-09-01

    Most industrialized countries and many emerging economies have chosen to define 'blindness' at a visual acuity above that which WHO uses. This reflects the increasing visual demands of modern society for tasks such as driving or using cell phones. Meeting these demands will require more highly skilled health workers using more sophisticated equipment than has generally been considered sufficient for primary eye care.

  10. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  11. Blind Students Learn Food Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Gisela; Uhlinger, Susan J.

    1970-01-01

    The problems of cooking and working in the kitchen were the focal point of a series of six lessons given by the Hampden County, Massachusetts, Extension Service for 16 blind men and women. The basic purpose of the course was to help them develop self-reliance in relation to meal preparation. (Author/MF)

  12. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  13. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  14. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  15. Future trends in global blindness

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Keys, Tricia U

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms “global AND blindness” and “global AND vision AND impairment”, resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002–2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity. PMID:22944747

  16. Multihandicapped Blind. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lloyd

    The final report of the Garden Grove unified school district project for 1969 through 1972 (funded through Title III) involving six multiply handicapped, legally blind children, 7- to 10-years-old, who were previously excluded from special education (SE) classes is presented. Described as the main procedural objective is development of a…

  17. Floating device aligns blind connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resel, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Panel-mounted connectors overcome the misalignment of blind connectors in electronic rack mounted equipment. The connector is free to move in the vertical direction by the action of a parallelogram mount. This freedom of motion maintains the guide pin hole centerline parallel to the guide pin centerline at all times.

  18. Piagetian Reasoning and the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatwell, Yvette

    Available for the first time in an English translation, the book reports the results of a series of studies undertaken in the early 1960s on the cognitive development of children with congenital blindness. Chapters one and two review the literaure on such topics as the concept of sensory compensation and the nature of tactual space and provide…

  19. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws.

  20. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  1. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  2. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  3. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  4. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This one-year collection of three serial issues focuses on problem solving skills for children with deaf-blindness, the history and change in the education of children who are deaf-blind since the rubella epidemic of the 1960's, and early identification of infants who are deaf-blind. Specific articles include: (1) "Research to Practice Focus on:…

  5. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  6. Introduction to Deaf-Blindness Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Larry

    This document presents the agenda and materials distributed at a 1-day introductory workshop on deaf-blindness. Introductory material explains the workshop's purpose and rules. A short test contrasts facts and myths about deaf-blindness. A handout presents information on the dynamics of deaf-blindness, etiologies in the adult deaf-blind…

  7. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This collection of three issues focuses on competencies for teachers of learners who are deaf-blind, living with deaf-blindness, and resources in Australia for parents and families of students who are deaf-blind. Articles include: (1) "Research-to-Practice Focus: Competencies for Teachers of Learners Who Are Deafblind" (Marianne Riggio), which…

  8. Teaching Manual Communication to a Blind Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    A three-month project in which a blind hearing adult learned manual communication techniques for the deaf is reported. The instructional methods and reactions of teacher and student are presented. Finger spelling proved more useful than American Sign Language for the blind person as it enabled the blind user to follow English syntax. (PMJ)

  9. Programs for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The directory lists 28 state or multistate programs for deaf blind children and youth, the national center and 10 regional offices of the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, and 4 programs for training teachers of the deaf-blind. Information usually provided includes, address, director's name, and phone number. (DB)

  10. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  11. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  12. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  13. Algorithms for detecting concealed knowledge among groups when the critical information is unavailable.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Gronau, Nurit

    2012-09-01

    We examined whether the Concealed Information Test (CIT) may be used when the critical details are unavailable to investigators (the Searching CIT [SCIT]). This use may have important applications in criminal investigations (e.g., finding the location of a murder weapon) and in security-related threats (e.g., detecting individuals and groups suspected in planning a terror attack). Two classes of algorithms designed to detect the critical items and classify individuals in the SCIT were examined. The 1st class was based on averaging responses across subjects to identify critical items and on averaging responses across the identified critical items to identify knowledgeable subjects. The 2nd class used clustering methods based on the correlations between the response profiles of all subject pairs. We applied a principal component analysis to decompose the correlation matrix into its principal components and defined the detection score as the coefficient of each subject on the component that explained the largest portion of the variance. Reanalysis of 3 data sets from previous CIT studies demonstrated that in most cases the efficiency of differentiation between knowledgeable and unknowledgeable subjects in the SCIT (indexed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) approached that of the standard CIT for both algorithms. We also examined the robustness of our results to variations in the number of knowledgeable and unknowledgeable subjects in the sample. This analysis demonstrated that the performance of our algorithms is relatively robust to changes in the number of individuals examined in each group, provided that at least 2 (but desirably 5 or more) knowledgeable examinees are included.

  14. Expanded opportunities of THz passive camera for the detection of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2013-10-01

    Among the security problems, the detection of object implanted into either the human body or animal body is the urgent problem. At the present time the main tool for the detection of such object is X-raying only. However, X-ray is the ionized radiation and therefore can not be used often. Other way for the problem solving is passive THz imaging using. In our opinion, using of the passive THz camera may help to detect the object implanted into the human body under certain conditions. The physical reason of such possibility arises from temperature trace on the human skin as a result of the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body. Modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the passive THz camera resolution for this application. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4, developed by ThruVision Systems Ltd., we may see the pronounced temperature trace on the human body skin from the water, which is drunk by person, or other food eaten by person. Nevertheless, there are many difficulties on the way of full soution of this problem. We illustrate also an improvement of quality of the image captured by comercially available passive THz cameras using computer processing. In some cases, one can fully supress a noise on the image without loss of its quality. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts.

  15. Remote Detection of Concealed Radioactive Materials by Using Focused Powerful Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of studies of a novel concept of the remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by using focused high-power terahertz (THz) radiation. The concept is based on the known fact that the ambient electron density in air is low (one to three free electrons per cubic centimeter). These electrons can serve as seed electrons from which an avalanche breakdown in strong electromagnetic fields starts. When a powerful THz radiation is focused in a small spot, the breakdown-prone volume can be much smaller than a cubic centimeter. So, the probability of having some free electrons in this volume and, hence, the probability of breakdown are low in the absence of additional sources of air ionization. However, in the vicinity of radioactive materials (10-20 m), the electron density can be higher, and, hence, there are always some seed free electrons from which the avalanche ionization will start. Thus, the breakdown rate in this case can be close to 100 %. Realization of this concept requires studies of various physical and technical issues. First, it is necessary to develop a high-power source of (sub-) THz radiation whose power, frequency, and pulse duration are sufficient for realizing this goal. Second, it is necessary to analyze numerous issues important for realizing this concept. Among these issues are (a) enhancement of the ionization level of air molecules in the presence of hidden radioactive materials, (b) estimating the minimum detectable mass of radioactive material, (c) formation of breakdown-prone volumes in focused THz wave beams, and (d) effect of atmospheric conditions on the propagation and focusing of THz wave beams and on the optimal location of the breakdown-prone volume between a container with hidden radioactive material and a THz antenna. The results of these studies are described below.

  16. Design of spectrally versatile forward-looking ground-penetrating radar for detection of concealed targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2013-05-01

    The design of high-resolution radars which can operate in theater involves a careful consideration of the radar's radiated spectrum. While a wide bandwidth yields better target detectability and classification, it can also interfere with other devices and/or violate federal and international communication laws. Under the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Partnerships in Research Transition (PIRT) program, we are developing a Stepped-Frequency Radar (SFR) which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum, while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth for achieving good range resolution. The SFR is a forward-looking, ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging radar capable of detecting concealed targets. This paper presents the research and analysis undertaken during the design of the SFR which will eventually complement an existing ARL system, the Synchronous Impulse REconstruction (SIRE) radar. The SFR is capable of excising prohibited frequency bands, while maintaining the down-range resolution capability of the original SIRE radar. The SFR has two transmit antennas and a 16-element receive antenna array, and this configuration achieves suitable cross-range resolution for target detection. The SFR, like the SIRE radar, is a vehicle mounted, forward-looking, ground penetrating radar (GPR) capable of using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for the detection of subsurface targets via 3D imaging. Many contradicting design considerations are analyzed in this paper. The selection of system bandwidth, antenna types, number of antennas, frequency synthesizers, digitizers, receive amplifiers, wideband splitters, and many other components are critical to the design of the SFR. Leveraging commercial components and SIRE sub-systems were design factors offering an expedited time to the initial implementation of the radar while reducing overall costs. This SFR design will result in an ARL asset to support obscured target detection such as improvised explosive devices

  17. Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Zirui; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Dai, Rui; Northoff, Georg; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions--namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus--exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think

  18. Concealed d-wave pairs in the s± condensate of iron-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Ong, Tzen; Coleman, Piers; Schmalian, Jörg

    2016-05-17

    A central question in iron-based superconductivity is the mechanism by which the paired electrons minimize their strong mutual Coulomb repulsion. In most unconventional superconductors, Coulomb repulsion is minimized through the formation of higher angular momentum Cooper pairs, with Fermi surface nodes in the pair wavefunction. The apparent absence of such nodes in the iron-based superconductors has led to a belief they form an s-wave ([Formula: see text]) singlet state, which changes sign between the electron and hole pockets. However, the multiorbital nature of these systems opens an alternative possibility. Here, we propose a new class of [Formula: see text] state containing a condensate of d-wave Cooper pairs, concealed by their entanglement with the iron orbitals. By combining the d-wave ([Formula: see text]) motion of the pairs with the internal angular momenta [Formula: see text] of the iron orbitals to make a singlet ([Formula: see text]), an [Formula: see text] superconductor with a nontrivial topology is formed. This scenario allows us to understand the development of octet nodes in potassium-doped Ba1-x KXFe2As2 as a reconfiguration of the orbital and internal angular momentum into a high spin ([Formula: see text]) state; the reverse transition under pressure into a fully gapped state can then be interpreted as a return to the low-spin singlet. The formation of orbitally entangled pairs is predicted to give rise to a shift in the orbital content at the Fermi surface, which can be tested via laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. PMID:27140626

  19. Some Effects of Stimulant Medication on Response Allocation: A Double-Blind Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael E.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Lomas, Joanna E.; Sanders, Roy Q.

    2006-01-01

    Children who are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (or who engage in behavior consistent with such a diagnosis) are often prescribed stimulant medications for hyperactive or inattentive behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which stimulant medications affect individuals' behavior are rarely evaluated. The purpose of the…

  20. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  1. Computational models and resource allocation for supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauney, Jon; Agrawal, Dharma P.; Harcourt, Edwin A.; Choe, Young K.; Kim, Sukil

    1989-01-01

    There are several different architectures used in supercomputers, with differing computational models. These different models present a variety of resource allocation problems that must be solved. The computational needs of a program must be cast in terms of the computational model supported by the supercomputer, and this must be done in a way that makes effective use of the machine's resources. This is the resource allocation problem. The computational models of available supercomputers and the associated resource allocation techniques are surveyed. It is shown that many problems and solutions appear repeatedly in very different computing environments. Some case studies are presented, showing concrete computational models and the allocation strategies used.

  2. Divergence in plant and microbial allocation strategies explains continental patterns in microbial allocation and biogeochemical fluxes.

    PubMed

    Averill, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Allocation trade-offs shape ecological and biogeochemical phenomena at local to global scale. Plant allocation strategies drive major changes in ecosystem carbon cycling. Microbial allocation to enzymes that decompose carbon vs. organic nutrients may similarly affect ecosystem carbon cycling. Current solutions to this allocation problem prioritise stoichiometric tradeoffs implemented in plant ecology. These solutions may not maximise microbial growth and fitness under all conditions, because organic nutrients are also a significant carbon resource for microbes. I created multiple allocation frameworks and simulated microbial growth using a microbial explicit biogeochemical model. I demonstrate that prioritising stoichiometric trade-offs does not optimise microbial allocation, while exploiting organic nutrients as carbon resources does. Analysis of continental-scale enzyme data supports the allocation patterns predicted by this framework, and modelling suggests large deviations in soil C loss based on which strategy is implemented. Therefore, understanding microbial allocation strategies will likely improve our understanding of carbon cycling and climate.

  3. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  4. A New Transient Sham TENS Device Allows for Investigator Blinding While Delivering a True Placebo Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rakel, Barbara; Cooper, Nicholas; Adams, Heather J.; Messer, Bryan R.; Frey Law, Laura A.; Dannen, Douglas R.; Miller, Carrie A.; Polehna, Anya. C.; Ruggle, Rachelle C.; Vance, Carol G.T.; Walsh, Deirdre M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared a new transient sham TENS that delivers current for 45 seconds to an inactive sham and active TENS to determine the degree of blinding and influence on pain reduction. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT), heat pain thresholds (HPT), and pain intensities to tonic heat and pressure were measured in 69 healthy adults before and after randomization. Allocation investigators and subjects were asked to identify the treatment administered. The transient sham blinded investigators 100% of the time and 40% of subjects compared to the inactive sham that blinded investigators 0% of the time and 21% of subjects. Investigators and subjects were only blinded 7% and 13% of the time, respectively, with active TENS. Neither placebo treatment resulted in significant changes in PPT, HPT, or pain intensities. Subjects using higher active TENS amplitudes (≥17mAs) had significantly higher PPTs and lower pain intensities to tonic pressure than subjects using lower amplitudes (<17mAs). HPTs and pain intensities to tonic heat were not significantly changed. The transient TENS completely blinds investigators to treatment and does not reduce pain, thereby providing a true placebo treatment. PMID:19945354

  5. Change blindness and eyewitness testimony.

    PubMed

    Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures. PMID:17725074

  6. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  7. Mobility aid for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop an effective mobility aid for blind pedestrians which acquires consecutive images of the scenes before a moving pedestrian, which locates and identifies the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles in the path, which presents path and obstacle information to the pedestrian, and which operates in real-time is discussed. The mobility aid has three principal components: an image acquisition system, an image interpretation system, and an information presentation system. The image acquisition system consists of a miniature, solid-state TV camera which transforms the scene before the blind pedestrian into an image which can be received by the image interpretation system. The image interpretation system is implemented on a microprocessor which has been programmed to execute real-time feature extraction and scene analysis algorithms for locating and identifying the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles. Identity and location information is presented to the pedestrian by means of tactile coding and machine-generated speech.

  8. Change blindness and eyewitness testimony.

    PubMed

    Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures.

  9. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  10. How to Do Random Allocation (Randomization)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explain the concept and procedure of random allocation as used in a randomized controlled study. Methods We explain the general concept of random allocation and demonstrate how to perform the procedure easily and how to report it in a paper. PMID:24605197

  11. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  12. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  13. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  14. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  15. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  16. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  17. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  18. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  19. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  20. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  1. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  2. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also...

  3. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also...

  4. Resource Allocation in Classrooms. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. Alan

    This report deals with the allocation of resources within classrooms and homes. It is based on the assumption that learning occurs through a set of processes that require the utilization of human and material resources. It is assumed that the study of resource allocation at the micro level will help provide an understanding of the effect on…

  5. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  6. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  7. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  8. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  9. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  10. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  11. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form of... for less than the maximum amount established by statute, and to limit the number of times a...

  12. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  13. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  14. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... RF North of 40°10′ N. lat. 81 18 Minor Slope RF South of 40°10′ N. lat. 63 37 Dover Sole 95 5 English... through the biennial harvest specifications and management measures process. (k) (l) Black...

  15. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... RF North of 40°10′ N. lat. 81 18 Minor Slope RF South of 40°10′ N. lat. 63 37 Dover Sole 95 5 English... through the biennial harvest specifications and management measures process. (k) (l) Black...

  16. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PCGFMP. Allocation of black rockfish is described in paragraph (l) of this section. Allocation of Pacific... Dover Sole 95 5 English Sole 95 5 Petrale Sole 95 5 Arrowtooth Flounder 95 5 Starry Flounder 50 50 Other... measures process. (l) Black rockfish harvest guideline. The commercial tribal harvest guideline for...

  17. 44 CFR 304.4 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 304.4 Section 304.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS CONSOLIDATED GRANTS TO INSULAR AREAS § 304.4 Allocations. For each Federal...

  18. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA...

  19. 15 CFR 336.4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 336.4 Section 336.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL... § 336.4 Allocation. (a) The Tariff Rate Quota licenses will be issued to eligible manufacturers on...

  20. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  1. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  2. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  3. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  4. Resource Allocation in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an econometric analysis of internal resource allocation. Two theories are used for this study of resource allocation in public research universities, and these are: (1) Theory of the Firm; and (2) Resource Dependence Theory. This study used the American Association of Universities Data Exchange (AAUDE)…

  5. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the...

  6. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  7. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  8. Making sense of peak load cost allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Power, T.M.

    1995-03-15

    When it comes to cost allocation, common wisdom assigns costs in proportion to class contributions to peak loads, The justification is simple: Since the equipment had to be sized to meet peak day loads, those costs should be allocated on the same basis. Many different peak allocators have been developed on this assumption: single coincident peak contribution, sum of coincident peaks, noncoincident peak, average and excess demand, peak and average demand, base and extra capacity, and so on. Such pure peak-load allocators may not be politically acceptable, but conceptually, at least, they appear to offer the only defensible approach. Nevertheless, where capacity can be added with significant economies of scale, making cost allocations in proportion to peak loads violates well-known relationships between economics and engineering. What is missing is any tracing of the way in which the peak-load design criteria actually influence the cost incurred.

  9. Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers using SORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2010-10-01

    The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with coloured plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for coloured glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is

  10. Big tobacco is watching: British American Tobacco's surveillance and information concealment at the Guildford depository.

    PubMed

    Muggli, Monique E; LeGresley, Eric M; Hurt, Richard D

    2004-05-29

    The 1998 State of Minnesota legal settlement with the tobacco industry required British American Tobacco (BAT) to provide public access to the 8 million pages housed in its document depository located near Guildford, UK, and to any company documents sent to the Minnesota depository. While the Minnesota depository is managed by an independent third party, BAT's Guildford depository is run by the company itself. Starkly different from the Minnesota depository, at the Guildford depository it is extraordinarily more difficult to access, search, and obtain requested documents. BAT's approach to running the Guildford depository, in our view, amounts to concealing what is supposed to be public information. Newly produced BAT documents from subsequent litigation, dating from 1996 to 2001 disclose the company's efforts to gather intelligence on visitors and their work. We believe that BAT has acted to make access to information more difficult by delaying document production requested by public visitors and refusing to supply requested documents in an electronic format despite, in the company's own words, the establishment of "big time imaging" capabilities at the Guildford depository. During testimony in 2000, then BAT Chairman, Martin Broughton stated to the UK House of Commons Health Select Committee that the scanning and subsequent placement of the Guildford collection online "would be an extreme effort for absolutely no purpose whatsoever", stating that "there is no indication to me that serious researchers are showing any interest in the papers em leader ". New documents show that not only did the company recognise the importance of research undertaken by visitors, but also invested substantial resources and undertook numerous scanning projects during that time. The vulnerability of this important resource is demonstrated by the decreased number of files listed on the electronic database and the inadvertent deletion of an audio tape housed at the depository. With

  11. 49 CFR 33.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allocation Actions § 33.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation actions. These are: (a) Set-aside: An official action that requires a... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of allocation orders. 33.53 Section...

  12. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...

  13. Concealed carry weapon permits: a Second Amendment right or a recipe for disaster on our nation's campuses?

    PubMed

    Fennell, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Crimes on college campuses can "strike fear" into the lives of those in higher education and a shooting is one of the crimes that ranks at the top of the most feared acts of violence. Maybe more direct counseling for clients who have weapons with regard to anticipatory guidance on firearms is needed. However, the debate continues with proposed legislation in different states regarding Second Amendment rights to legally carry concealed weapons on our Nation's campuses. What should be our response to this legislation? PMID:19892645

  14. Concealed carry weapon permits: a Second Amendment right or a recipe for disaster on our nation's campuses?

    PubMed

    Fennell, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Crimes on college campuses can "strike fear" into the lives of those in higher education and a shooting is one of the crimes that ranks at the top of the most feared acts of violence. Maybe more direct counseling for clients who have weapons with regard to anticipatory guidance on firearms is needed. However, the debate continues with proposed legislation in different states regarding Second Amendment rights to legally carry concealed weapons on our Nation's campuses. What should be our response to this legislation?

  15. Noise-resistant system of concealed information transfer on a chaotic delayed feedback oscillator with switchable delay time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kul'minskii, D. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Karavaev, A. S.; Prokhorov, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a system of concealed information transfer based on a delayed feedback oscillator with switchable chaotic regimes. The proposed system is analyzed numerically and experimentally. The dependences of the bit error rate during transmission of a binary information signal on the signal-to-noise ratio, attenuation of the signal in the communication channel, and the duration of the time interval during which a bit is transferred are constructed. The high stability of the system to noise and amplitude distortions of a signal in the communication channel is demonstrated.

  16. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology.

  17. Using pretest data to screen low-reactivity individuals in the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro; Tsuneoka, Michiko; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) can be used to assess whether an individual possesses crime-related information. However, its discrimination performance has room for improvement. We examined whether screening out participants who do not respond distinctively on a pretest improves the diagnosticity of a mock-crime CIT. Before conducting the CIT, we gave a pretest to 152 participants, 80 of whom were assigned as guilty. Pretest screening significantly improved the diagnostic value of the mock-crime CIT; however, it also led to a substantial number of undiagnosed participants (33.6%). Pretest screening holds promise, but its application would benefit from dedicated measures for screening out participants. PMID:25208848

  18. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology. PMID:25466156

  19. Imaging the concealed section of the Whakatane fault below Whakatane city, New Zealand, with a shear wave land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, Ulrich; Mueller, Christof; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    The Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake in September 2010 ruptured the surface along the Greendale Fault that was not known prior to the earthquake. The subsequent Mw 6.3 Christchurch earthquake in February 2011 demonstrated that concealed active faults have a significant risk potential for urban infrastructure and human life in New Zealand if they are located beneath or close to such areas. Mapping exposures and analysis of active faults incorporated into the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) suggests that several thousands of these active structures are yet to be identified and have the potential to generate moderate to large magnitude earthquakes (i.e. magnitudes >5). Geological mapping suggests that active faults pass beneath, or within many urban areas in New Zealand, including Auckland, Blenheim, Christchurch, Hastings/Napier, Nelson, Rotorua, Taupo, Wellington, and Whakatane. Since no established methodology for routinely locating and assessing the earthquake hazard posed by concealed active faults is available, the principal objective of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of high-resolution shear wave seismic reflection profiling using a land streamer to locate buried faults in urban areas of New Zealand. During the survey carried out in the city of Whakatane in February 2015, the method was first tested over a well known surface outcrop of the Edgecumbe Fault 30 km south-west of Whakatane city. This allowed further to investigate the principle shear wave propagation characteristics in the unknown sediments, consisting mainly of effusive rock material of the Taupo volcanic zone mixed with marine transgression units. Subsequently the survey was continued within Whakatane city using night operation time slots to reduce the urban noise. In total, 11 profiles of 5.7 km length in high data quality were acquired, which clearly show concealed rupture structures of obviously different age in the shallow sediments down to 100 m depth. Subject to depth

  20. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  1. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-07-10

    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  2. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allocator has been specified by the Commission are to be allocated among the service cost categories and the... analysis is not possible, common costs for which no allocator has been specified by the Commission...

  3. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... allocator has been specified by the Commission are to be allocated among the service cost categories and the... analysis is not possible, common costs for which no allocator has been specified by the Commission...

  4. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... allocator has been specified by the Commission are to be allocated among the service cost categories and the... analysis is not possible, common costs for which no allocator has been specified by the Commission...

  5. Minimum entropy deconvolution and blind equalisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E. H.; Mulligan, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between minimum entropy deconvolution, developed primarily for geophysics applications, and blind equalization are pointed out. It is seen that a large class of existing blind equalization algorithms are directly related to the scale-invariant cost functions used in minimum entropy deconvolution. Thus the extensive analyses of these cost functions can be directly applied to blind equalization, including the important asymptotic results of Donoho.

  6. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness. PMID:27411424

  7. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness.

  8. Blindness. [prosthetic devices and sensory aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pudenz, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities are considered that modern electronics and engineering have to offer the individual with a damaged or disordered nervous system, especially the blind person. Discussed are the incidence and principal causes of blindness, past research activities, and a capsule review of some of the more interesting programs designed to provide the blind with the ability to be mobile in their environment and to read printed matter.

  9. Robust Sparse Blind Source Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, Cecile; Bobin, Jerome; Rapin, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Blind Source Separation is a widely used technique to analyze multichannel data. In many real-world applications, its results can be significantly hampered by the presence of unknown outliers. In this paper, a novel algorithm coined rGMCA (robust Generalized Morphological Component Analysis) is introduced to retrieve sparse sources in the presence of outliers. It explicitly estimates the sources, the mixing matrix, and the outliers. It also takes advantage of the estimation of the outliers to further implement a weighting scheme, which provides a highly robust separation procedure. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency of rGMCA to estimate the mixing matrix in comparison with standard BSS techniques.

  10. Pixel-level Matching Based Multi-hypothesis Error Concealment Modes for Wireless 3D H.264/MVC Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shafai, Walid

    2015-09-01

    3D multi-view video (MVV) is multiple video streams shot by several cameras around a single scene simultaneously. Therefore it is an urgent task to achieve high 3D MVV compression to meet future bandwidth constraints while maintaining a high reception quality. 3D MVV coded bit-streams that are transmitted over wireless network can suffer from error propagation in the space, time and view domains. Error concealment (EC) algorithms have the advantage of improving the received 3D video quality without any modifications in the transmission rate or in the encoder hardware or software. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D MVV, we propose an efficient adaptive EC algorithm with multi-hypothesis modes to conceal the erroneous Macro-Blocks (MBs) of intra-coded and inter-coded frames by exploiting the spatial, temporal and inter-view correlations between frames and views. Our proposed algorithm adapts to 3D MVV motion features and to the error locations. The lost MBs are optimally recovered by utilizing motion and disparity matching between frames and views on pixel-by-pixel matching basis. Our simulation results show that the proposed adaptive multi-hypothesis EC algorithm can significantly improve the objective and subjective 3D MVV quality.

  11. Electron beam injected into ground generates subsoil x-rays that may deactivate concealed electronics used to trigger explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Explosively formed projectiles (EFP) are a major problem in terrorism and asymmetrical warfare. EFPs are often triggered by ordinary infrared motion detectors. A potential weak link is that such electronics are not hardened to ionizing radiation and can latch-up or enter other inoperative states after exposure to a single short event of ionizing radiation. While these can often be repaired with a power restart, they also can produce shorts and permanent damage. A problem of course is that we do not want to add radiation exposure to the long list of war related hazards. Biological systems are highly sensitive to integrated dosage but show no particular sensitivity to short pulses. There may be a way to generate short pulsed subsoil radiation to deactivate concealed electronics without introducing radiation hazards to military personnel and civilian bystanders. Electron beams of 30 MeV that can be produced by portable linear accelerators (linacs) propagate >20 m in air and 10-12 cm in soil. X-radiation is produced by bremsstrahlung and occurs subsoil beneath the point of impact and is mostly forward directed. Linacs 1.5 m long can produce 66 MWatt pulses of subsoil x-radiation 1 microsecond or less in duration. Untested as yet, such a device could be mounted on a robotic vehicle that precedes a military convoy and deactivates any concealed electronics within 10-20 meters on either side of the road.

  12. Linear modelling of attentional resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, B.

    1978-01-01

    Eight subjects time-shared performance of two compensatory tracking tasks under conditions when both were of constant difficulty, and when the control order of one task (designated primary) was varied over time within a trial. On line performance feedback was presented on half of the trials. The data are interpreted in terms of a linear model of the operator's attention allocation system, and suggest that this allocation is strongly suboptimal. Furthermore, the limitations in reallocating attentional resources between tasks, in response to difficulty fluctuations were not reduced by augmented performance feedback. Some characteristics of the allocation system are described, and reasons for its limitations suggested.

  13. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  14. Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Smith, S.M.; Giles, S.A.; Granitto, Matthew; Eppinger, R.G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Shah, A.K.; Kelley, K.D.; Fey, D.L.; Minsley, B.J.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a multidisciplinary study in southwest Alaska to investigate the setting and detectability of mineral deposits in concealed volcanic and glacial terranes. The study area hosts the world-class Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, and through collaboration with the Pebble Limited Partnership, a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations was carried out in proximity to the deposit. The deposit is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-mineralization volcanic rocks. The discovery of mineral resources beneath cover is becoming more important because most of the mineral resources at the surface have already been discovered. Research is needed to identify ways in which to assess for concealed mineral resources. This report presents the uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010, and makes the data available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

  15. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  16. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  17. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  18. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  19. Astronomy with the color blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-12-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the field, although one should be cautious in assuming that such an image shows what the subject would "really look like" if a person could see it without the aid of a telescope. The details of how the eye processes light have a significant impact on how such images should be understood, and the step from perception to interpretation is even more problematic when the viewer is color blind. We report here on an approach to manipulating stacked tricolor images that, while abandoning attempts to portray the color distribution "realistically," do result in enabling those suffering from deuteranomaly (the most common form of color blindness) to perceive color distinctions they would otherwise not be able to see.

  20. Difference Blindness/Blindness Difference: Student Explorations of "Disability" over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelly; And Others

    This case study describes the Internet correspondence using MOO, a multiuser, object-oriented site, that was developed between six third-grade girls and TCC, an adult with blindness. The changes from the students' original attitudes toward blindness, that blindness posed a barrier to communication and relationship-building, into their acceptance…

  1. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  2. METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR WASTE LOAD ALLOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research has addressed several unresolved questions concerning the allocation of allowable waste loads among multiple wastewater dischargers within a water quality limited stream segment. First, the traditional assumptions about critical design conditions for waste load allo...

  3. A comment on Farwell (2012): brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Verschuere, Bruno; Donchin, Emanuel

    2013-04-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell's review covered much of his own work employing his "brain fingerprinting" technology. All his work showed a 100 % accuracy rate in detecting concealed information. We argue in this comment that Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) is misleading and misrepresents the scientific status of brain fingerprinting technology.

  4. The Need for Randomization in Animal Trials: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Jeffrey K.; Roberts, Nia; Perera, Rafael; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Heneghan, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment have been shown to reduce bias in human studies. Authors from the Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) collaboration recently found that these features protect against bias in animal stroke studies. We extended the scope the work from CAMARADES to include investigations of treatments for any condition. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews. We searched Medline and Embase for systematic reviews of animal studies testing any intervention (against any control) and we included any disease area and outcome. We included reviews comparing randomized versus not randomized (but otherwise controlled), concealed versus unconcealed treatment allocation, or blinded versus unblinded outcome assessment. Results Thirty-one systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria: 20 investigated treatments for experimental stroke, 4 reviews investigated treatments for spinal cord diseases, while 1 review each investigated treatments for bone cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, glioma, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and treatments used in emergency medicine. In our sample 29% of studies reported randomization, 15% of studies reported allocation concealment, and 35% of studies reported blinded outcome assessment. We pooled the results in a meta-analysis, and in our primary analysis found that failure to randomize significantly increased effect sizes, whereas allocation concealment and blinding did not. In our secondary analyses we found that randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding reduced effect sizes, especially where outcomes were subjective. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the need for randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment in animal research across a wide range of outcomes and disease areas. Since human studies are often justified based on results from animal

  5. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  6. Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.

    1990-01-01

    Global optimization problems solved quickly. Neural-network processor optimizes allocation of M resources among N expenditures according to cost of pairing each resource with each expenditure and subject to limit on number of resources feeding into each expenditure and/or limit on number of expenditures to which each resource allocated. One cell performs several analog and digital functions. Potential applications include assignment of jobs, scheduling, dispatching, and planning of military maneuvers.

  7. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  8. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. PMID:22858423

  9. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  10. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison.

  11. Hierarchical dynamic allocation procedures based on modified Zelen's approach in multiregional studies with unequal allocation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-01-01

    Morrissey, McEntegart, and Lang (2010) showed that in multicenter studies with equal allocation to several treatment arms, the modified Zelen's approach provides excellent within-center and across-study balance in treatment assignments. In this article, hierarchical balancing procedures for equal allocation to more than two arms (with some elements different from earlier versions) and their unequal allocation expansions that incorporate modified Zelen's approach at the center level are described. The balancing properties of the described procedures for a case study of a multiregional clinical trial with 1:2 allocation where balance within regions as well as in other covariates is required are examined through simulations.

  12. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  13. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  14. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of "Deaf-Blind Perspectives" feature the following articles: (1) "A Group for Students with Usher Syndrome in South Louisiana" (Faye Melancon); (2) "Simply Emily," which discusses a budding friendship between a girl with deaf-blindness and a peer; (3) "Intervener Update" (Peggy Malloy and Betsy Bixler), which summarizes services…

  15. Resources for Helping Blind Music Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaligo, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Explains that there are two forms of braille in existence, literary and music, and maintains that music educators can help blind students learn to read music through the use of braille. Provides resources for teaching blind music students, including college-bound musicians, from parents and colleagues to recorded music, publications, and…

  16. Chemistry Lab Adapted for Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a project at the University of Louisville in which chemistry laboratories are being adapted for use by blind students. Describes the operational analysis of tasks normally performed in labs. Provides specific recommendations on how to utilize new technologies to enable blind students to conduct hands-on learning experiments. (TW)

  17. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  18. The Ethics of Need-Blind Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jump, James W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the need for consensus about the ethics of need-blind admission by focusing on principles concerning the practice of college admissions. Argues that colleges should not abandon need-blind admissions but should, instead, remove expectations that colleges should meet the full needs of all the students they accept. (RJM)

  19. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  20. Public-Facilities Locator For The Blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic system guides blind people to important locations in public buildings, With system, sightless person easily determines directions and distances of restrooms, water fountains, stairways, emergency exits, and elevators. Circuitry uncomplicated and inexpensive, in both transmitter and receiver. Readily-available light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and integrated-circuit chips used to build locator aid for the blind.

  1. Accurate distortion estimation and optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable H.264 video transmission over MIMO systems.

    PubMed

    Jubran, Mohammad K; Bansal, Manu; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Grover, Rohan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal strategy for the transmission of scalable video over packet-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The scalable extension of H.264/AVC that provides a combined temporal, quality and spatial scalability is used. For given channel conditions, we develop a method for the estimation of the distortion of the received video and propose different error concealment schemes. We show the accuracy of our distortion estimation algorithm in comparison with simulated wireless video transmission with packet errors. In the proposed MIMO system, we employ orthogonal space-time block codes (O-STBC) that guarantee independent transmission of different symbols within the block code. In the proposed constrained bandwidth allocation framework, we use the estimated end-to-end decoder distortion to optimally select the application layer parameters, i.e., quantization parameter (QP) and group of pictures (GOP) size, and physical layer parameters, i.e., rate-compatible turbo (RCPT) code rate and symbol constellation. Results show the substantial performance gain by using different symbol constellations across the scalable layers as compared to a fixed constellation.

  2. Double-blind study with fenticonazole or bifonazole lotions in pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Aste, N; Pau, M; Cordaro, C I; Biggio, P

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy of fenticonazole 2% lotion was studied in patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor in a double-blind comparison with bifonazole 1% lotion, both applied once daily for three weeks. Forty-six patients were recruited and randomly allocated to one or other treatment group. Clinical and mycological examinations, performed at baseline and at weekly intervals, have shown an excellent response to both treatments. Two cases of mild transient desquamation were reported in the fenticonazole group. Fenticonazole 2% lotion appears active in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor and its efficacy is comparable to that of bifonazole.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  4. Continuous-Variable Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-01

    Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice’s input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.

  5. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E.; Bridge, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a “visual” subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. PMID:25673746

  6. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  7. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    PubMed

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses.

  8. Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Janelle K; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2011-05-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by variability in working memory capacity, modulate susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Participants watched a classic inattentional blindness video (Simons & Chabris, 1999) and were instructed to count passes among basketball players, wherein 58% noticed the unexpected: a person wearing a gorilla suit. When participants were accurate with their pass counts, individuals with higher working memory capacity were more likely to report seeing the gorilla (67%) than those with lesser working memory capacity (36%). These results suggest that variability in attentional control is a potential mechanism underlying the apparent modulation of inattentional blindness across individuals.

  9. Auditory display for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for providing an auditory display of two-dimensional patterns as an aid to the blind is described. It includes a scanning device for producing first and second voltages respectively indicative of the vertical and horizontal positions of the scan and a further voltage indicative of the intensity at each point of the scan and hence of the presence or absence of the pattern at that point. The voltage related to scan intensity controls transmission of the sounds to the subject so that the subject knows that a portion of the pattern is being encountered by the scan when a tone is heard, the subject determining the position of this portion of the pattern in space by the frequency and interaural difference information contained in the tone.

  10. The PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. M.

    2009-03-10

    Dielectron measurements by the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC are limited by the combinatorial background from electrons and positrons which are not produced in the same pair. The Hadron Blind Detector will allow a substantial reduction of this background by correctly identifying dielectrons from photon conversions and pion Dalitz decays which dominate the signal in the low mass region of the spectrum. Triple GEM stacks, with a CsI photocathode deposited on the uppermost GEM, detect Cherenkov light produced by electrons in a CF{sub 4} radiator. The transparency of CF{sub 4}, high quantum efficiency of CsI in the UV, and absence of a window between the gas radiator and the GEMs allow a large photoelectron yield, while minimizing the hadron signal. Results from the HBD in RHIC's Run-7 and preparations for upcoming runs are discussed.

  11. Repetition blindness for pseudoobject pictures.

    PubMed

    Arnell, K M; Jolicoeur, P

    1997-08-01

    In this study the nature of type activations that underlie repetition blindness (RB) was addressed. According to the token individuation hypothesis put forward to explain RB, both instances of a repeated stimulus make contact with the mental representation, or type, for that stimulus. In the resulting confusion only the first stimulus is encoded as an episodic instance or token. Type representations have traditionally been thought of as preexisting and are often linked within a network of nodes. The authors developed and tested a picture frequency task, which does not require stimulus naming, and used it to examine repetition performance for unfamiliar nonobject pictures. RB was found for these stimuli, despite the fact that they had no prior phonological or semantic representation. These results suggest that the reactivation of a newly formed visual type is sufficient to produce RB. Implications for the role of types in the token individuation hypothesis are discussed.

  12. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  13. Efficient Universal Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G.

    2013-12-01

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party’s quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party’s computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog⁡2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  14. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  15. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  1. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  2. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  3. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  4. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  5. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  6. 40 CFR 96.53 - Recordation of NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allocated to an allocation set-aside. (c) Serial numbers for allocated NO X allowances. When allocating NOX... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR...

  7. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1... Allocation rules. Where only a portion of property is debt-financed property, proper allocation of the basis...)(iii) of § 1.514(b)-1 for illustrations of proper allocation....

  8. 7 CFR 761.202 - Timing of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of allocations. 761.202 Section 761.202... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.202 Timing of allocations. The Agency's National Office allocates funds for FO and OL...

  9. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  10. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  11. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  12. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  13. 10 CFR 455.30 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 455.30 Section 455.30 Energy... § 455.30 Allocation of funds. (a) DOE will allocate available funds among the States for two purposes... that are eligible pursuant to § 455.91, up to 100 percent of the funds allocated to the State by...

  14. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting method... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§...

  15. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  16. Discovery of a concealed geothermal resource in the Alturas Basin, and its implications for further exploration in northeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, B.; Juncal, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988 a so far unknown geothermal resource was drilled into under the City of Alturas in northeastern California. A fracture was tapped below 2300 feet, in cemented fine-grained tuffs and mudflows, producing 182{degrees}F water. The well has been used since 1990 to heat the local high school. A second well was drilled in 1991, producing about 250 gpm 182{degrees}F water from a fracture below 1893 ft. Well productivities and artesian pressures are variable, depending on distance from a major fault zone and local hydrologic regime. It appears as if the wells produce from deep reaching fractures in a caprock, that may conceal a 300 to 400{degrees}F resource between 4000 and 6000 feet depth. The results have important implications for geothermal exploration in northeastern California, i.e. just because there are no surface manifestations in a basin, it does not necessarily mean there is no geothermal resource at depth.

  17. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity.

  18. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity. PMID:25128283

  19. Packers, pushers and stuffers--managing patients with concealed drugs in UK emergency departments: a clinical and medicolegal review.

    PubMed

    Booker, R J; Smith, J E; Rodger, M P

    2009-05-01

    Body packing, pushing and stuffing are methods by which illicit drugs may be carried within the human body. Patients involved in these practices may present UK emergency departments with complex medical, legal and ethical considerations. This review article examines not only the evidence behind the clinical management of these patients, but also the legal powers afforded to the authorities to authorise the use of intimate searches and diagnostic imaging for forensic purposes. Serious complications from concealed drug packets are now rare, and most asymptomatic patients may be safely discharged from hospital after assessment. Emergency surgery is indicated for body packers with cocaine poisoning and for some cases of heroin poisoning. Urgent surgery is indicated for obstruction, perforation, the passage of packet fragments and failure of conservative treatment. Guidance is given for doctors who are faced with requests from the authorities to perform intimate searches and diagnostic imaging for forensic purposes.

  20. Lead isotopes in iron and manganese oxide coatings and their use as an exploration guide for concealed mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulson, B.L.; Church, S.E.; Mizon, K.J.; Meier, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Lead isotopes from Fe and Mn oxides that coat stream pebbles from around the Mount Emmons porphyry molybdenum deposit in Colorado were studied to assess the feasibility of using Pb isotopes to detect concealed mineral deposits. The Fe/Mn oxide coatings were analyzed to determine their elemental concentrations using ICP-AES. The Pb isotope compositions of solutions from a selected suite of samples were measured, using both thermal ionization and ICP mass spectrometry, to compare results determined by the two analytical methods. Heavy mineral concentrates from the same sites were also analyzed to compare the Pb isotope compositions of the Fe/Mn coatings with those found in panned concentrates. The Fe/Mn and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the oxide coatings are related to the lithology of the host rocks; Fe/Mn oxide coatings on pebbles of black shale have higher Fe/Mn values than do the coatings on either sandstone or igneous rocks. The shale host rocks have a more radiogenic signature (e.g. higher 206Pb/ 204Pb) than the sandstone or igneous host rocks. The Pb isotope data from sandstone and igneous hosts can detect concealed mineralized rock on both a regional and local scale, even though there are contributions from: (1) metals from the main-stage molybdenite ore deposit; (2) metals from the phyllic alteration zone which has a more radiogenic Pb isotope signature reflecting hydrothermal leaching of Pb from the Mancos Shale; (3) Pb-rich base metal veins with a highly variable Pb isotope signature; and (4) sedimentary country rocks which have a more radiogenic Pb isotope signature. An investigation of within-stream variation shows that the Pb isotope signature of the molybdenite ore zone is retained in the Fe/Mn oxide coatings and is not camouflaged by contributions from Pb-rich base-metal veins that crop out upstream. In another traverse, the Pb isotope data from Fe/Mn oxide coatings reflect a complex mixing of Pb from the molybdenite ore zone and its hornfels margin, Pb