Science.gov

Sample records for allocations rate base

  1. Bit-rate allocation for multiple video streams using a pricing-based mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mayank; Groves, Theodore; Cosman, Pamela

    2011-11-01

    We consider the problem of bit-rate allocation for multiple video users sharing a common transmission channel. Previously, overall quality of multiple users was improved by exploiting relative video complexity. Users with high-complexity video benefit at the expense of video quality reduction for other users with simpler videos. The quality of all users can be improved by collectively allocating the bit rate in a centralized fashion which requires sharing video information with a central controller. In this paper, we present an informationally decentralized bit-rate allocation for multiple users where a user only needs to inform his demand to an allocator. Each user separately calculates his bit-rate demand based on his video complexity and bit-rate price, where the bit-rate price is announced by the allocator. The allocator adjusts the bit-rate price for the next period based on the bit rate demanded by the users and the total available bit-rate supply. Simulation results show that all users improve their quality by the pricing-based decentralized bit-rate allocation method compared with their allocation when acting individually. The results of our proposed method are comparable to the centralized bit-rate allocation. PMID:21518661

  2. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  3. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  4. Popularity-aware rate allocation in multiview video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandrotti, Attilio; Chakareski, Jacob; Frossard, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    We propose a framework for popularity-driven rate allocation in H.264/MVC-based multi-view video communications when the overall rate and the rate necessary for decoding each view are constrained in the delivery architecture. We formulate a rate allocation optimization problem that takes into account the popularity of each view among the client population and the rate-distortion characteristics of the multi-view sequence so that the performance of the system is maximized in terms of popularity-weighted average quality. We consider the cases where the global bit budget or the decoding rate of each view is constrained. We devise a simple ratevideo- quality model that accounts for the characteristics of interview prediction schemes typical of multi-view video. The video quality model is used for solving the rate allocation problem with the help of an interior point optimization method. We then show through experiments that the proposed rate allocation scheme clearly outperforms baseline solutions in terms of popularity-weighted video quality. In particular, we demonstrate that the joint knowledge of the rate-distortion characteristics of the video content, its coding dependencies, and the popularity factor of each view is key in achieving good coding performance in multi-view video systems.

  5. Error rate information in attention allocation pilot models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, W. H.; Onstott, E. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Northrop urgency decision pilot model was used in a command tracking task to compare the optimized performance of multiaxis attention allocation pilot models whose urgency functions were (1) based on tracking error alone, and (2) based on both tracking error and error rate. A matrix of system dynamics and command inputs was employed, to create both symmetric and asymmetric two axis compensatory tracking tasks. All tasks were single loop on each axis. Analysis showed that a model that allocates control attention through nonlinear urgency functions using only error information could not achieve performance of the full model whose attention shifting algorithm included both error and error rate terms. Subsequent to this analysis, tracking performance predictions for the full model were verified by piloted flight simulation. Complete model and simulation data are presented.

  6. Rate allocation protocol using competitive pricing for improving performance of multicast sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Zohar; Dolev, Danny

    1998-10-01

    Rate allocation using the Max-Min fairness criterion may highly discriminate against multicast and long unicast sessions and may lead to sever network underutilization. In this paper, we present a solution for rate allocation that is based on competitive pricing. The resultant allocation increases fairness towards multicast sessions and improves network utilization considerably. The solution requires no re-routing of sessions. The economy on which we base our solution is simple enough, enabling its implementation for practical use. We present a distributed asynchronous protocol suitable for the ATM ABR service, which achieves the economy's allocation efficiently and with short convergence time.

  7. A game-theoretical pricing mechanism for multiuser rate allocation for video over WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-An; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lin, Chia-Wen; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2010-07-01

    In multiuser rate allocation in a wireless network, strategic users can bias the rate allocation by misrepresenting their bandwidth demands to a base station, leading to an unfair allocation. Game-theoretical approaches have been proposed to address the unfair allocation problems caused by the strategic users. However, existing approaches rely on a timeconsuming iterative negotiation process. Besides, they cannot completely prevent unfair allocations caused by inconsistent strategic behaviors. To address these problems, we propose a Search Based Pricing Mechanism to reduce the communication time and to capture a user's strategic behavior. Our simulation results show that the proposed method significantly reduce the communication time as well as converges stably to an optimal allocation.

  8. Dynamic measurement rate allocation for distributed compressive video sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; Kang, Li-Wei; Lu, Chun-Shien

    2010-07-01

    We address an important issue of fully low-cost and low-complexity video encoding for use in resource limited sensors/devices. Conventional distributed video coding (DVC) does not actually meet this requirement because the acquisition of video sequences still relies on the high-cost mechanism (sampling + compression). Recently, we have proposed a distributed compressive video sensing (DCVS) framework to directly capture compressed video data called measurements, while exploiting correlations among successive frames for video reconstruction at the decoder. The core is to integrate the respective characteristics of DVC and compressive sensing (CS) to achieve CS-based single-pixel camera-compatible video encoder. At DCVS decoder, video reconstruction can be formulated as a convex unconstrained optimization problem via solving the sparse coefficients with respect to some basis functions. Nevertheless, the issue of measurement rate allocation has not been considered yet in the literature. Actually, different measurement rates should be adaptively assigned to different local regions by considering the sparsity of each region for improving reconstructed quality. This paper investigates dynamic measurement rate allocation in block-based DCVS, which can adaptively adjust measurement rates by estimating the sparsity of each block via feedback information. Simulation results have indicated the effectiveness of our scheme. It is worth noting that our goal is to develop a novel fully low-complexity video compression paradigm via the emerging compressive sensing and sparse representation technologies, and provide an alternative scheme adaptive to the environment, where raw video data is not available, instead of competing compression performances against the current compression standards (e.g., H.264/AVC) or DVC schemes which need raw data available for encoding.

  9. Constant-quality constrained-rate allocation for FGS video coded bitstreams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi Min; Vetro, Anthony; Shi, Yun-Qing; Sun, Huifang

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal rate allocation scheme for Fine-Granular Scalability (FGS) coded bitstreams that can achieve constant quality reconstruction of frames under a dynamic rate budget constraint. In doing so, we also aim to minimize the overall distortion at the same time. To achieve this, we propose a novel R-D labeling scheme to characterize the R-D relationship of the source coding process. Specifically, sets of R-D points are extracted during the encoding process and linear interpolation is used to estimate the actual R-D curve of the enhancement layer signal. The extracted R-D information is then used by an enhancement layer transcoder to determine the bits that should be allocated per frame. A sliding window based rate allocation method is proposed to realize constant quality among frames. This scheme is first considered for a single FGS coded source, then extended to operate on multiple sources. With the proposed scheme, the rate allocation can be performed in a single pass, hence the complexity is quite low. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed scheme under static and dynamic bandwidth conditions.

  10. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  11. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected...

  12. Efficiency of Fiscal Allocations in Site-Based Empowered Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jerome Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented a two phase concurrent mixed-methods design to generate a greater understanding of how elementary schools with increased autonomy in fiscal decision making allocated their money, how their site-based decisions affected allocative efficiency, and how increased autonomy affected site-based decision making when compared with a…

  13. Budget allocation and the revealed social rate of time preference for health.

    PubMed

    Paulden, Mike; Claxton, Karl

    2012-05-01

    Appropriate decisions based on cost-effectiveness evaluations of health-care technologies depend upon the cost-effectiveness threshold and its rate of growth as well as some social rate of time preference for health. A more traditional approach to this problem is outlined before a social decision-making approach is developed, which demonstrates that social time preference for health is revealed through the budget allocations made by a socially legitimate higher authority. The relationship between the social time preference rate for health, the growth rate of the cost-effectiveness threshold and the rate at which the higher authority can borrow or invest is then examined. We establish that the social time preference rate for health is implied by the budget allocation and the health production functions in each period. As such, the social time preference rate for health depends not on the social time preference rate for consumption or growth in the consumption value of health but on growth in the cost-effectiveness threshold and the rate at which the higher authority can save or borrow between periods. The implications for discounting and the policies of bodies such as NICE are then discussed. PMID:21438069

  14. 45 CFR 156.470 - Allocation of rates for advance payments of the premium tax credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... insurance premium standards described at 45 CFR 147.102, the single risk pool standards described at 45 CFR 156.80, and the same premium rate standards described at 45 CFR 156.255. (d) Allocation standards for... Exchange, a dollar allocation of the expected premium for the plan, to: (1) The pediatric dental...

  15. Optimal multitone bit allocation for fixed-rate video transmission over ADSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Marc; Moureaux, Jean-Marie; Lecuire, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach for the bit allocation performed in an ADSL modulator. This new method is based on the observation that the transmission speed using ADSL strongly depends on the distance between the central office and the subscriber's side and does not permit real-time transmission for high bitrate video on long distances. The algorithm we develop takes into account the characteristics of a video sequence and distributes the channel error according to visual sensitivity. This method involves variable transmission Bit Error Rate.

  16. Optimal rate allocation for joint compression and classification in JPEG 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabesh, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W.; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2004-11-01

    We present a framework for optimal rate allocation to image subbands to minimize the distortion in the joint compression and classification of JPEG2000-compressed images. The distortion due to compression is defined as a weighted linear combination of the mean-square error (MSE) and the loss in the Bhattacharyya distance (BD) between the class-conditional distributions of the classes. Lossy compression with JPEG2000 is accomplished via deadzone uniform quantization of wavelet subbands. Neglecting the effect of the deadzone, expressions are derived for the distortion in the case of two classes with generalized Gaussian distributions (GGDs), based on the high-rate analysis of Poor. In this regime, the distortion function takes the form of a weighted MSE (WMSE) function, which can be minimized using reverse water-filling. We present experimental results based on synthetic data to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed rate allocation scheme. The results indicate that by varying the weight factor balancing the MSE and the Bhattacharyya distance, we can control the trade-off between these two terms in the distortion function.

  17. Optimal rate allocation in cluster-tree WSNs.

    PubMed

    Morell, Antoni; Vicario, Jose Lopez; Vilajosana, Xavier; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM) approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors' proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM) in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS) policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled. PMID:22163812

  18. FOR Allocation to Distribution Systems based on Credible Improvement Potential (CIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwary, Aditya; Arya, L. D.; Arya, Rajesh; Choube, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for forced outage rate (FOR) allocation to each section of an electrical distribution system subject to satisfaction of reliability constraints at each load point. These constraints include threshold values of basic reliability indices, for example, failure rate, interruption duration and interruption duration per year at load points. Component improvement potential measure has been used for FOR allocation. Component with greatest magnitude of credible improvement potential (CIP) measure is selected for improving reliability performance. The approach adopted is a monovariable method where one component is selected for FOR allocation and in the next iteration another component is selected for FOR allocation based on the magnitude of CIP. The developed algorithm is implemented on sample radial distribution system.

  19. Ethical considerations surrounding survival benefit-based liver allocation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Eric J; Kwo, Paul Y; Helft, Paul R

    2014-02-01

    The disparity between the demand for and supply of donor livers has continued to grow over the last 2 decades, and this has placed greater weight on the need for efficient and effective liver allocation. Although the use of extended criteria donors has shown great potential, it remains unregulated. A survival benefit-based model was recently proposed to answer calls to increase efficiency and reduce futile transplants. However, it was previously determined that the current allocation system was not in need of modification and that instead geographic disparities should be addressed. In contrast, we believe that there is a significant need to replace the current allocation system and complement efforts to improve donor liver distribution. We illustrate this need first by identifying major ethical concerns shaping liver allocation and then by using these concerns to identify strengths and shortcomings of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease system and a survival benefit-based model. The latter model is a promising means of improving liver allocation: it incorporates a greater number of ethical principles, uses a sophisticated statistical model to increase efficiency and reduce waste, minimizes bias, and parallels developments in the allocation of other organs. However, it remains limited in its posttransplant predictive accuracy and may raise potential issues regarding informed consent. In addition, the proposed model fails to include quality-of-life concerns and prioritize younger patients. We feel that it is time to take the next steps toward better liver allocation not only through reductions in geographic disparities but also through the adoption of a model better equipped to balance the many ethical concerns shaping organ allocation. Thus, we support the development of a similar model with suggested amendments. PMID:24166860

  20. Allocating Great Lakes forage bases in response to multiple demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Busiahn, Thomas R.; Jones, Michael L.; Argyle, Ray L.

    1999-01-01

    Forage base allocation, which has become an important issue because of major changes in the fish communities and fisheries of the Great Lakes since the 1950s is examined and documented in this chapter. Management initiatives that were used to address the issue, and supporting research and development that provided new or improved methods of field sampling and analysis are also highlighted.

  1. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 5, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture established the FY 2011... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined...

  2. Respiratory allocation and standard rate of metabolism in the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Chapman, Lauren J

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between respiratory allocation (air vs. water) and the standard rate of metabolism (SMR) in the primitive air-breathing lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumed from both air and water were made to determine the SMR at ecologically relevant aquatic oxygen levels for juveniles 2 to 221 g. Total metabolic rate was positively correlated with body mass with a scaling exponent of 0.78. Aerial oxygen consumption averaged 98% (range=94% to 100%) of total respiratory allocation under low aquatic oxygen levels. Measurements of oxygen consumption made across a gradient of dissolved oxygen from normoxia to anoxia showed that P. aethiopicus maintains its SMR despite a change in respiratory allocation between water and air. PMID:16380279

  3. FLDA: Latent Dirichlet Allocation Based Unsteady Flow Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fan; Lai, Chufan; Guo, Hanqi; Shen, Enya; Yuan, Xiaoru; Li, Sikun

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel feature extraction approach called FLDA for unsteady flow fields based on Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. Analogous to topic modeling in text analysis, in our approach, pathlines and features in a given flow field are defined as documents and words respectively. Flow topics are then extracted based on Latent Dirichlet allocation. Different from other feature extraction methods, our approach clusters pathlines with probabilistic assignment, and aggregates features to meaningful topics at the same time. We build a prototype system to support exploration of unsteady flow field with our proposed LDA-based method. Interactive techniques are also developed to explore the extracted topics and to gain insight from the data. We conduct case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. PMID:26356968

  4. Comprehensive reliability allocation method for CNC lathes based on cubic transformed functions of failure mode and effects analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-03-01

    Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

  5. Adaptive QoS Class Allocation Schemes in Multi-Domain Path-Based Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Nagao; Nakamura, Hajime

    MPLS-based path technology shows promise as a means of realizing reliable IP networks. Real-time services such as VoIP and video-conference supplied through a multi-domain MPLS network must be able to guarantee end-to-end QoS of the inter-domain paths. Thus, it is important to allocate an appropriate QoS class to the inter-domain paths in each domain traversed by the inter-domain paths. Because each domain has its own policy for QoS class allocation, it is necessary to adaptively allocate the optimum QoS class based on estimation of the QoS class allocation policies in other domains. This paper proposes two kinds of adaptive QoS class allocation schemes, assuming that the arriving inter-domain path requests include the number of downstream domains traversed by the inter-domain paths and the remaining QoS value toward the destination nodes. First, a measurement-based scheme, based on measurement of the loss rates of inter-domain paths in the downstream domains, is proposed. This scheme estimates the QoS class allocation policies in the downstream domains, using the measured loss rates of path requests. Second, a state-dependent type scheme, based on measurement of the arrival rates of path requests in addition to the loss rates of paths in the downstream domains, is also proposed. This scheme allows an appropriate QoS class to be allocated according to the domain state. This paper proposes an application of the Markov decision theory to the modeling of state-dependent type scheme. The performances of the proposed schemes are evaluated and compared with those of the other less complicated non-adaptive schemes using a computer simulation. The results of the comparison reveal that the proposed schemes can adaptively increase the number of inter-domain paths accommodated in the considered domain, even when the QoS class allocation policies change in the other domains and the arrival pattern of path requests varies in the considered domain.

  6. Rate control algorithm based on frame complexity estimation for MVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; An, Ping; Shen, Liquan; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2010-07-01

    Rate control has not been well studied for multi-view video coding (MVC). In this paper, we propose an efficient rate control algorithm for MVC by improving the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, which reasonably allocate bit-rate among views based on correlation analysis. The proposed algorithm consists of four levels for rate bits control more accurately, of which the frame layer allocates bits according to frame complexity and temporal activity. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently implement bit allocation and rate control according to coding parameters.

  7. Decentralized Service Allocation in a Broker Overlay Based Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, Abdulrahman; Meling, Hein

    Grid computing is based on coordinated resource sharing in a dynamic environment of multi-institutional virtual organizations. Data exchanges, and service allocation, are challenging problems in the field of Grid computing. This is due to the decentralization of Grid systems. Building decentralized Grid systems with efficient resource management and software component mechanisms is a need for achieving the required efficiency and usability of Grid systems. In this work, a decentralized Grid system model is presented in which, the system is divided into virtual organizations each controlled by a broker. An overlay network of brokers is responsible for global resource management and managing allocation of services. Experimental results show that, the system achieves dependable performance with various loads of services, and broker failures.

  8. Student-Based Allocation to Enable School Choice. Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roza, Marguerite; Simburg, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    One way districts can enable funding portability is with the use of student-based allocation formulas that allocate funds to districts and schools based on enrollment of students and student types. The student-based allocation model enables "pocketbook power," creating incentives for schools to attract students, keep full enrollment, and…

  9. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security. PMID:25985685

  10. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Chen, Ken; Dai, Qionghai

    2010-12-01

    We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA-) based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC) by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI) is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]% bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  11. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  12. Joint source-channel rate allocation and client clustering for scalable multistream IPTV.

    PubMed

    Chakareski, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    We design a system framework for streaming scalable internet protocol television (IPTV) content to heterogenous clients. The backbone bandwidth is optimally allocated between source and parity data layers that are delivered to the client population. The assignment of stream layers to clients is done based on their access link data rate and packet loss characteristics, and is part of the optimization. We design three techniques for jointly computing the optimal number of multicast sessions, their respective source and parity rates, and client membership, either exactly or approximatively, at lower complexity. The latter is achieved via an iterative coordinate descent algorithm that only marginally underperforms relative to the exact analytic solution. Through experiments, we study the advantages of our framework over common IPTV systems that deliver the same source and parity streams to every client. We observe substantial gains in video quality in terms of both its average value and standard deviation over the client population. In addition, for energy efficiency, we propose to move the parity data generation part to the edge of the backbone network, where each client connects to its IPTV stream. We analytically study the conditions under which such an approach delivers energy savings relative to the conventional case of source and parity data generation at the IPTV streaming server. Finally, we demonstrate that our system enables more consistent streaming performance, when the clients' access link packet loss distribution is varied, relative to the two baseline methods used in our investigation, and maintains the same performance as an ideal system that serves each client independently. PMID:25775491

  13. Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huixin, Wu; Duo, Mo; He, Li

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. PMID:25254255

  14. Adjacency Matrix-Based Transmit Power Allocation Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Consolini, Luca; Medagliani, Paolo; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative transmit power control scheme, based on optimization theory, for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which use carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) with collision avoidance (CA) as medium access control (MAC) protocol. In particular, we focus on schemes where several remote nodes send data directly to a common access point (AP). Under the assumption of finite overall network transmit power and low traffic load, we derive the optimal transmit power allocation strategy that minimizes the packet error rate (PER) at the AP. This approach is based on modeling the CSMA/CA MAC protocol through a finite state machine and takes into account the network adjacency matrix, depending on the transmit power distribution and determining the network connectivity. It will be then shown that the transmit power allocation problem reduces to a convex constrained minimization problem. Our results show that, under the assumption of low traffic load, the power allocation strategy, which guarantees minimal delay, requires the maximization of network connectivity, which can be equivalently interpreted as the maximization of the number of non-zero entries of the adjacency matrix. The obtained theoretical results are confirmed by simulations for unslotted Zigbee WSNs. PMID:22346705

  15. Variable phosphorus uptake rates and allocation across microbial groups in the oligotrophic Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Popendorf, Kimberly J; Duhamel, Solange

    2015-10-01

    Microbial uptake of dissolved phosphorus (P) is an important lever in controlling both microbial production and the fate and cycling of marine P. We investigated the relative role of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in P cycling by measuring the P uptake rates of individual microbial groups (heterotrophic bacteria and the phytoplankton groups Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotic phytoplankton) in the P-depleted Gulf of Mexico. Phosphorus uptake rates were measured using incubations with radiolabelled phosphate and adenosine triphosphate coupled with cell sorting flow cytometry. We found that heterotrophic bacteria were the dominant consumers of P on both a biomass basis and a population basis. Biovolume normalized heterotrophic bacteria P uptake rate per cell (amol P μm(-3) h(-1)) was roughly an order of magnitude greater than phytoplankton uptake rates, and heterotrophic bacteria were responsible for generally greater than 50% of total picoplankton P uptake. We hypothesized that this variation in uptake rates reflects variation in cellular P allocation strategies, and found that, indeed, the fraction of cellular P uptake utilized for phospholipid production was significantly higher in heterotrophic bacteria compared with cyanobacterial phytoplankton. These findings indicate that heterotrophic bacteria have a uniquely P-oriented physiology and play a dominant role in cycling dissolved P. PMID:26033372

  16. MSE optimal bit-rate allocation in JPEG2000 Part 2 compression applied to a 3D data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosheleva, Olga M.; Cabrera, Sergio D.; Usevitch, Bryan E.; Aguirre, Alberto; Vidal, Edward, Jr.

    2004-10-01

    A bit rate allocation (BRA) strategy is needed to optimally compress three-dimensional (3-D) data on a per-slice basis, treating it as a collection of two-dimensional (2-D) slices/components. This approach is compatible with the framework of JPEG2000 Part 2 which includes the option of pre-processing the slices with a decorrelation transform in the cross-component direction so that slices of transform coefficients are compressed. In this paper, we illustrate the impact of a recently developed inter-slice rate-distortion optimal bit-rate allocation approach that is applicable to this compression system. The approach exploits the MSE optimality of all JPEG2000 bit streams for all slices when each is produced in the quality progressive mode. Each bit stream can be used to produce a rate-distortion curve (RDC) for each slice that is MSE optimal at each bit rate of interest. The inter-slice allocation approach uses all RDCs for all slices to optimally select an overall optimal set of bit rates for all the slices using a constrained optimization procedure. The optimization is conceptually similar to Post-Compression Rate-Distortion optimization that is used within JPEG2000 to optimize bit rates allocated to codeblocks. Results are presented for two types of data sets: a 3-D computed tomography (CT) medical image, and a 3-D metereological data set derived from a particular modeling program. For comparison purposes, compression results are also illustrated for the traditional log-variance approach and for a uniform allocation strategy. The approach is illustrated using two decorrelation tranforms (the Karhunen Loeve transform, and the discrete wavelet transform) for which the inter-slice allocation scheme has the most impact.

  17. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  18. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  19. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  20. Classification Based on Tree-Structured Allocation Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qui

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of classifying an unknown observation into 1 of several populations by using tree-structured allocation rules. Although many parametric classification procedures are robust to certain assumption violations, there is need for classification procedures that can be used regardless of the group-conditional…

  1. Impact-Based Area Allocation for Yield Optimization in Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Billion; Widodo, Arif; Chen, Poki

    2016-06-01

    In analog integrated circuit (IC) layout, area allocation is a very important issue for achieving good mismatch cancellation. However, most IC layout papers focus only on layout strategy to reduce systematic mismatch. In 2006, an outstanding paper presenting area allocation strategy was published to introduce technique for random mismatch reduction. Instead of using general theoretical study to prove the strategy, this research presented close-to-optimum simulations only on case-bycase basis. The impact-based area allocation for yield optimization in integrated circuits is proposed in this chapter. To demonstrate the corresponding strategy, not only a theoretical analysis but also an integral nonlinearity-based yield simulation will be given to derive optimum area allocation for binary weighted current steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The result will be concluded to convince IC designers how to allocate area for critical devices in an optimum way.

  2. On System Engineering a Barter-Based Re-allocation of Space System Key Development Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmann, William J.

    NASA has had a decades-long problem with cost growth during the development of space science missions. Numerous agency-sponsored studies have produced average mission level development cost growths ranging from 23 to 77%. A new study of 26 historical NASA science instrument set developments using expert judgment to re-allocate key development resources has an average cost growth of 73.77%. Twice in history, during the Cassini and EOS-Terra science instrument developments, a barter-based mechanism has been used to re-allocate key development resources. The mean instrument set development cost growth was -1.55%. Performing a bivariate inference on the means of these two distributions, there is statistical evidence to support the claim that using a barter-based mechanism to re-allocate key instrument development resources will result in a lower expected cost growth than using the expert judgment approach. Agent-based discrete event simulation is the natural way to model a trade environment. A NetLogo agent-based barter-based simulation of science instrument development was created. The agent-based model was validated against the Cassini historical example, as the starting and ending instrument development conditions are available. The resulting validated agent-based barter-based science instrument resource re-allocation simulation was used to perform 300 instrument development simulations, using barter to re-allocate development resources. The mean cost growth was -3.365%. A bivariate inference on the means was performed to determine that additional significant statistical evidence exists to support a claim that using barter-based resource re-allocation will result in lower expected cost growth, with respect to the historical expert judgment approach. Barter-based key development resource re-allocation should work on science spacecraft development as well as it has worked on science instrument development. A new study of 28 historical NASA science spacecraft

  3. Neural Network Based Modeling and Analysis of LP Control Surface Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langari, Reza; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to interpretive modeling of LP based control allocation in intelligent flight control. The emphasis is placed on a nonlinear interpretation of the LP allocation process as a static map to support analytical study of the resulting closed loop system, albeit in approximate form. The approach makes use of a bi-layer neural network to capture the essential functioning of the LP allocation process. It is further shown via Lyapunov based analysis that under certain relatively mild conditions the resulting closed loop system is stable. Some preliminary conclusions from a study at Ames are stated and directions for further research are given at the conclusion of the paper.

  4. Functional Allocation for Ground-Based Automated Separation Assurance in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Homola, Jeffrey; Cabrall, Christopher; Brasil, Connie

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research effort into functional allocation in a NextGen environment, a controller-in-the-loop study on ground-based automated separation assurance was conducted at NASA Ames' Airspace Operations Laboratory in February 2010. Participants included six FAA front line managers, who are currently certified professional controllers and four recently retired controllers. Traffic scenarios were 15 and 30 minutes long where controllers interacted with advanced technologies for ground-based separation assurance, weather avoidance, and arrival metering. The automation managed the separation by resolving conflicts automatically and involved controllers only by exception, e.g., when the automated resolution would have been outside preset limits. Results from data analyses show that workload was low despite high levels of traffic, Operational Errors did occur but were closely tied to local complexity, and safety acceptability ratings varied with traffic levels. Positive feedback was elicited for the overall concept with discussion on the proper allocation of functions and trust in automation.

  5. Routing and spectrum allocation in multi-ring based data center networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zitian; Hu, Weisheng; Ye, Tong; Sun, Weiqiang; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we proposed a multi-ring based optical circuit switching (OCS) network following the principle of a Clos network. The network can provide connectivity to a large number of racks which may be distributed across a relatively large geographical space in a data center. However, property of the ring based switch in the central stage of the multi-ring based OCS network introduces a unique routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) problem which is more complex than the routing problem in a classical Clos switching network. In this paper, we extend our work to investigate the RSA problem. For a given set of inter-rack traffic requests, we consider two spectrum allocation schemes, namely fixed spectrum allocation and flexible spectrum allocation. For the fixed case, we show that the RSA problem degenerates into the traditional routing problem of the Clos network. As for the flexible case, property of spectrum division multiplexing technology and bandwidth limitation of the ring based switches should be taken into consideration during allocation of the central module, such that the system throughput can be maximized. This paper presents an integer linear program (ILP) formulation as well as a heuristic algorithm we developed to solve the flexible RSA problem. We evaluate the performance of both the two spectrum allocation schemes under different traffic patterns. Our results demonstrate that, to handle uneven inter-rack traffic pattern in general data center networks, flexible spectrum allocation can lead to an increase of about 120% in system throughput, although its computational complexity is slightly higher than that of the fixed spectrum allocation scheme.

  6. Model-based metrics of human-automation function allocation in complex work environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Young

    issues with function allocation. Then, based on the eight issues, eight types of metrics are established. The purpose of these metrics is to assess the extent to which each issue exists with a given function allocation. Specifically, the eight types of metrics assess workload, coherency of a function allocation, mismatches between responsibility and authority, interruptive automation, automation boundary conditions, human adaptation to context, stability of the human's work environment, and mission performance. Finally, to validate the modeling framework and the metrics, a case study was conducted modeling four different function allocations between a pilot and flight deck automation during the arrival and approach phases of flight. A range of pilot cognitive control modes and maximum human taskload limits were also included in the model. The metrics were assessed for these four function allocations and analyzed to validate capability of the metrics to identify important issues in given function allocations. In addition, the design insights provided by the metrics are highlighted. This thesis concludes with a discussion of mechanisms for further validating the modeling framework and function allocation metrics developed here, and highlights where these developments can be applied in research and in the design of function allocations in complex work environments such as aviation operations.

  7. A simple model to optimize resource allocations when expanding the faculty research base: a case study.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Construction of new biomedical research facilities has outpaced the funding sources for faculty to occupy those facilities. This puts a premium on the efficient allocation of central resources for faculty recruitment. The author developed a mathematical model to determine the optimal structure (dollars, space) for allocating resource packages when recruiting new faculty, based on expected financial returns from those faculty. Surprisingly, the optimal strategy was to allocate homogeneous recruitment packages, independent of the recruited faculty member's rank or the individual's expected revenue generation. Optimization results were used to allocate recruitment packages to new department head and center directors in the University of Arizona College of Medicine during the last four years (2005-2008). At any institution that uses this model, appropriate distribution of facilities and administrative revenues at the institution is needed to equitably balance the costs and benefits associated with faculty expansion. PMID:19116472

  8. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. PMID:27262031

  9. Rate of Belowground Carbon Allocation Differs with Successional Habit of Two Afromontane Trees

    PubMed Central

    Shibistova, Olga; Yohannes, Yonas; Boy, Jens; Richter, Andreas; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarethe; Guggenberger, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic disturbance of old-growth tropical forests increases the abundance of early successional tree species at the cost of late successional ones. Quantifying differences in terms of carbon allocation and the proportion of recently fixed carbon in soil CO2 efflux is crucial for addressing the carbon footprint of creeping degradation. Methodology We compared the carbon allocation pattern of the late successional gymnosperm Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. and the early successional (gap filling) angiosperm Croton macrostachyus Hochst. es Del. in an Ethiopian Afromontane forest by whole tree 13CO2 pulse labeling. Over a one-year period we monitored the temporal resolution of the label in the foliage, the phloem sap, the arbuscular mycorrhiza, and in soil-derived CO2. Further, we quantified the overall losses of assimilated 13C with soil CO2 efflux. Principal Findings 13C in leaves of C. macrostachyus declined more rapidly with a larger size of a fast pool (64% vs. 50% of the assimilated carbon), having a shorter mean residence time (14 h vs. 55 h) as in leaves of P. falcatus. Phloem sap velocity was about 4 times higher for C. macrostachyus. Likewise, the label appeared earlier in the arbuscular mycorrhiza of C. macrostachyus and in the soil CO2 efflux as in case of P. falcatus (24 h vs. 72 h). Within one year soil CO2 efflux amounted to a loss of 32% of assimilated carbon for the gap filling tree and to 15% for the late successional one. Conclusions Our results showed clear differences in carbon allocation patterns between tree species, although we caution that this experiment was unreplicated. A shift in tree species composition of tropical montane forests (e.g., by degradation) accelerates carbon allocation belowground and increases respiratory carbon losses by the autotrophic community. If ongoing disturbance keeps early successional species in dominance, the larger allocation to fast cycling compartments may deplete soil organic carbon in

  10. Stackelberg Game Based Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security of Device-to-device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Junyue; Cai, Yueming; Wu, Dan; Chen, Hualiang

    2014-05-01

    The problem of power allocation for device-to-device (D2D) underlay communication to improve physical layer security is addressed. Specifically, to improve the secure communication of the cellular users, we introduce a Stackelberg game for allocating the power of the D2D link under a total power constraint and a rate constraint at the D2D pair. In the introduced Stackelberg game the D2D pair works as a seller and the cellular UEs work as buyers. Firstly, because the interference signals from D2D pair are unknown to both the legitimate receiver and the illegitimate eavesdropper, it is possible that a cellular UE decline to participate in the introduced Stackelberg game. So the condition under which a legitimate user will participate in the introduced Stackelberg game is discussed. Then, based on the Stackelberg game, we propose a semi-distributed power allocation algorithm, which is proved to conclude after finite-time iterations. In the end, some simulations are presented to verify the performance improvement in the physical layer security of cellular UEs using the proposed power allocation algorithm. We can determine that with the proposed algorithm, while the D2D pair's communication demand is met, the physical layer security of cellular UEs can be improved.

  11. Comparing administered and market-based water allocation systems using an agent-based modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Wang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    It also has been well recognized that market-based systems can have significant advantages over administered systems for water allocation. However there are not many successful water markets around the world yet and administered systems exist commonly in water allocation management practice. This paradox has been under discussion for decades and still calls for attention for both research and practice. This paper explores some insights for the paradox and tries to address why market systems have not been widely implemented for water allocation. Adopting the theory of agent-based system we develop a consistent analytical model to interpret both systems. First we derive some theorems based on the analytical model, with respect to the necessary conditions for economic efficiency of water allocation. Following that the agent-based model is used to illustrate the coherence and difference between administered and market-based systems. The two systems are compared from three aspects: 1) the driving forces acting on the system state, 2) system efficiency, and 3) equity. Regarding economic efficiency, penalty on the violation of water use permits (or rights) under an administered system can lead to system-wide economic efficiency, as well as being acceptable by some agents, which follows the theory of the so-call rational violation. Ideal equity will be realized if penalty equals incentive with an administered system and if transaction costs are zero with a market system. The performances of both agents and the over system are explained with an administered system and market system, respectively. The performances of agents are subject to different mechanisms of interactions between agents under the two systems. The system emergency (i.e., system benefit, equilibrium market price, etc), resulting from the performance at the agent level, reflects the different mechanism of the two systems, the “invisible hand” with the market system and administrative measures (penalty

  12. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms. PMID:27073913

  13. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Barenholz, Uri; Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms. PMID:27073913

  14. JAVA implemented MSE optimal bit-rate allocation applied to 3-D hyperspectral imagery using JPEG2000 compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchor, J. L., Jr.; Cabrera, S. D.; Aguirre, A.; Kosheleva, O. M.; Vidal, E., Jr.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes an efficient algorithm and its Java implementation for a recently developed mean-squared error (MSE) rate-distortion optimal (RDO) inter-slice bit-rate allocation (BRA) scheme applicable to the JPEG2000 Part 2 (J2KP2) framework. Its performance is illustrated on hyperspectral imagery data using the J2KP2 with the Karhunen- Loeve transform (KLT) for decorrelation. The results are contrasted with those obtained using the traditional logvariance based BRA method and with the original RDO algorithm. The implementation has been developed as a Java plug-in to be incorporated into our evolving multi-dimensional data compression software tool denoted CompressMD. The RDO approach to BRA uses discrete rate distortion curves (RDCs) for each slice of transform coefficients. The generation of each point on a RDC requires a full decompression of that slice, therefore, the efficient version minimizes the number of RDC points needed from each slice by using a localized coarse-to-fine approach denoted RDOEfficient. The scheme is illustrated in detail using a subset of 10 bands of hyperspectral imagery data and is contrasted to the original RDO implementation and the traditional (log-variance) method of BRA showing that better results are obtained with the RDO methods. The three schemes are also tested on two hyperspectral imagery data sets with all bands present: the Cuprite radiance data from AVIRIS and a set derived from the Hyperion satellite. The results from the RDO and RDOEfficient are very close to each other in the MSE sense indicating that the adaptive approach can find almost the same BRA solution. Surprisingly, the traditional method also performs very close to the RDO methods, indicating that it is very close to being optimal for these types of data sets.

  15. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  16. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  17. Study of network resource allocation based on market and game theoretic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingmei; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We work on the network resource allocation issue concerning network management system function based on market-oriented mechanism. The scheme is to model the telecommunication network resources as trading goods in which the various network components could be owned by different competitive, real-world entities. This is a multidisciplinary framework concentrating on the similarity between resource allocation in network environment and the market mechanism in economic theory. By taking an economic (market-based and game theoretic) approach in routing of communication network, we study the dynamic behavior under game-theoretic framework in allocating network resources. Based on the prior work of Gibney and Jennings, we apply concepts of utility and fitness to the market mechanism with an intention to close the gap between experiment environment and real world situation.

  18. Multi-robot task allocation based on two dimensional artificial fish swarm algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Taixiong; Li, Xueqin; Yang, Liangyi

    2007-12-01

    The problem of task allocation for multiple robots is to allocate more relative-tasks to less relative-robots so as to minimize the processing time of these tasks. In order to get optimal multi-robot task allocation scheme, a twodimensional artificial swarm algorithm based approach is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the normal artificial fish is extended to be two dimension artificial fish. In the two dimension artificial fish, each vector of primary artificial fish is extended to be an m-dimensional vector. Thus, each vector can express a group of tasks. By redefining the distance between artificial fish and the center of artificial fish, the behavior of two dimension fish is designed and the task allocation algorithm based on two dimension artificial swarm algorithm is put forward. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of multi-robot task allocation and comparer with GA and SA based algorithm is done. Simulation and compare result shows the proposed algorithm is effective.

  19. Needs-Based Resource Allocation in Education via Formula Funding of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kenneth N., Ed.; Levacic, Rosalind, Ed.

    This book explores a range of conceptual, methodological, and empirical issues concerned with the application of needs-based resource allocation in education via formula funding of schools. The notion of "needs-based formula funding" employed in this discussion refers to the impartial application of an agreed set of explicit rules to allocate…

  20. Word Learning and Attention Allocation Based on Word Class and Category Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupp, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention allocation in word learning may vary developmentally based on the novelty of the object. It has been suggested that children differentially learn verbs based on the novelty of the agent, but adults do not because they automatically infer the object's category and thus treat it like a familiar object. The current research examined…

  1. A Control Allocation Technique to Recover From Pilot-Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) Due to Actuator Rate Limiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a control allocation technique that can help pilots recover from pilot induced oscillations (PIO). When actuators are rate-saturated due to aggressive pilot commands, high gain flight control systems or some anomaly in the system, the effective delay in the control loop may increase depending on the nature of the cause. This effective delay increase manifests itself as a phase shift between the commanded and actual system signals and can instigate PIOs. The proposed control allocator reduces the effective time delay by minimizing the phase shift between the commanded and the actual attitude accelerations. Simulation results are reported, which demonstrate phase shift minimization and recovery from PIOs. Conversion of the objective function to be minimized and constraints to a form that is suitable for implementation is given.

  2. 45 CFR 156.470 - Allocation of rates and claims costs for advance payments of cost-sharing reductions and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fair health insurance premium standards described at 45 CFR 147.102, the single risk pool standards described at 45 CFR 156.80, and the same premium rate standards described at 45 CFR 156.255. (d) Allocation... market on the Exchange, a dollar allocation of the expected premium for the plan, to: (1) The...

  3. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm. PMID:25152925

  4. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach. PMID:25683347

  5. Intra-District Resource Allocation and Criteria Used for Student Based Funding in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloo, Peter Mangla

    2011-01-01

    Resource allocation to school sites in public school districts is inequitable. While Student Based Funding (SBF) has been implemented in several major urban school districts, there are few empirical studies about how SBF policies are derived and implemented. Current efforts to align resources with student need are hindered by a lack of systematic,…

  6. Outcome Based Budgeting: Connecting Budget Development, Allocation and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderes, Thomas

    This plan for outcome-based budgeting (OBB) is the result of growing demands for increased fiscal accountability, measurable outcomes, strengthened assessment processes, and more meaningful performance indicators as mandated by many State and Federal legislators. OBB focuses on linking funding with outputs and outcomes. Higher education…

  7. MDP-based resource allocation for triple-play transmission on xDSL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Lamartine V.; de Carvalho, Glaucio H. S.; Cardoso, Diego L.; de Carvalho, Solon V.; Frances, Carlos R. L.; Costa, João C. W. A.; Riu, Jaume Rius i.

    2007-09-01

    Many broadband services are based on multimedia applications, such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP), video conferencing, video on demand (VoD), and internet protocol television (IPTV). The combination "triple-play" is often used with IPTV. It simply means offering voice, video and data. IPTV and others services uses digital broadband networks such as ADSL2+ (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) and VDSL (Very High Rate DSL) to transmit the data. We have formulated a MDP (Markov Decision Process) for a triple-play transmission on DSL environment. In this paper, we establish the relationship between DSL transmission characteristics and its finite-state Markov model for a triple-play transmission system. This relationship can be used for a resource management for multimedia applications delivered through a broadband infrastructure. The solution to our optimization problem can be found using dynamic programming (DP) techniques, such as value iteration and its variants. Our study results in a transmission strategy that chooses the optimal resource allocation according the triple-play traffic requirements, defined in technical report TR-126 (Triple-Play Services Quality of Experience Requirements) from DSL Forum, minimizing quality of service (QoS) violations with respect to bandwidth. Three traffic classes (video, audio, and best effort internet data) are defined and analyzed. Our simulation results show parameters like as blocking probability for each class, link utilization and optimal control policies. The MDP-based approach provides a satisfactory way of resource management for a DSL system.

  8. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  9. Parallel and interlaced bandwidth allocation based on all-optical sub-banding WDM-OFDM PON network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shumin; Zheng, Xi; Fang, Wuliang; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Chi, Nan

    2010-12-01

    For the first time, we propose and demonstrate a novel three-level Signal allocation scheme OFDM PON architecture which makes the best use of OFDM characteristics. In the architecture, we produce five-carrier signal optically by MZM, use odd carriers modulating downlink data and retain even carriers for uplink data. Multiple signal distribution methods can be switched flexibly. By simulation, a small PON systems with four ONU based on this architecture was realized. Both the downlink and uplink transmission adopt 4-QAM-OFDM signal. The transmission rate will be demonstrated to exceed 10Gbit/s.

  10. A Control Allocation System for Automatic Detection and Compensation of Phase Shift Due to Actuator Rate Limiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yildiz, Yidiray; Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Acosta, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a control allocation system that can detect and compensate the phase shift between the desired and the actual total control effort due to rate limiting of the actuators. Phase shifting is an important problem in control system applications since it effectively introduces a time delay which may destabilize the closed loop dynamics. A relevant example comes from flight control where aggressive pilot commands, high gain of the flight control system or some anomaly in the system may cause actuator rate limiting and effective time delay introduction. This time delay can instigate Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO), which is an abnormal coupling between the pilot and the aircraft resulting in unintentional and undesired oscillations. The proposed control allocation system reduces the effective time delay by first detecting the phase shift and then minimizing it using constrained optimization techniques. Flight control simulation results for an unstable aircraft with inertial cross coupling are reported, which demonstrate phase shift minimization and recovery from a PIO event.

  11. Multi-Agent Based Simulation of Optimal Urban Land Use Allocation in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Huang, W.; Jin, W.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    The optimization of land-use allocation is one of important approaches to achieve regional sustainable development. This study selects Chang-Zhu-Tan agglomeration as study area and proposed a new land use optimization allocation model. Using multi-agent based simulation model, the future urban land use optimization allocation was simulated in 2020 and 2030 under three different scenarios. This kind of quantitative information about urban land use optimization allocation and urban expansions in future would be of great interest to urban planning, water and land resource management, and climate change research.

  12. Staged optimization algorithms based MAC dynamic bandwidth allocation for OFDMA-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafan; Qian, Chen; Cao, Bingyao; Dun, Han; Shi, Yan; Zou, Junni; Lin, Rujian; Wang, Min

    2016-06-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) has being considered as a promising solution for next generation PONs due to its high spectral efficiency and flexible bandwidth allocation scheme. In order to take full advantage of these merits of OFDMA-PON, a high-efficiency medium access control (MAC) dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) scheme is needed. In this paper, we propose two DBA algorithms which can act on two different stages of a resource allocation process. To achieve higher bandwidth utilization and ensure the equity of ONUs, we propose a DBA algorithm based on frame structure for the stage of physical layer mapping. Targeting the global quality of service (QoS) of OFDMA-PON, we propose a full-range DBA algorithm with service level agreement (SLA) and class of service (CoS) for the stage of bandwidth allocation arbitration. The performance of the proposed MAC DBA scheme containing these two algorithms is evaluated using numerical simulations. Simulations of a 15 Gbps network with 1024 sub-carriers and 32 ONUs demonstrate the maximum network throughput of 14.87 Gbps and the maximum packet delay of 1.45 ms for the highest priority CoS under high load condition.

  13. Motion-Based Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Control Allocation Technique to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Leonard, Michael W.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Weinstein, Michael; Yildiz, Yildiray

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the maturation of a control allocation technique designed to assist pilots in the recovery from pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). The Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) is designed to enable next generation high efficiency aircraft designs. Energy efficient next generation aircraft require feedback control strategies that will enable lowering the actuator rate limit requirements for optimal airframe design. One of the common issues flying with actuator rate limits is PIOs caused by the phase lag between the pilot inputs and control surface response. CAPIO utilizes real-time optimization for control allocation to eliminate phase lag in the system caused by control surface rate limiting. System impacts of the control allocator were assessed through a piloted simulation evaluation of a non-linear aircraft simulation in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. Results indicate that CAPIO helps reduce oscillatory behavior, including the severity and duration of PIOs, introduced by control surface rate limiting.

  14. Knowledge-based load leveling and task allocation in human-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chignell, M. H.; Hancock, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional human-machine systems use task allocation policies which are based on the premise of a flexible human operator. This individual is most often required to compensate for and augment the capabilities of the machine. The development of artificial intelligence and improved technologies have allowed for a wider range of task allocation strategies. In response to these issues a Knowledge Based Adaptive Mechanism (KBAM) is proposed for assigning tasks to human and machine in real time, using a load leveling policy. This mechanism employs an online workload assessment and compensation system which is responsive to variations in load through an intelligent interface. This interface consists of a loading strategy reasoner which has access to information about the current status of the human-machine system as well as a database of admissible human/machine loading strategies. Difficulties standing in the way of successful implementation of the load leveling strategy are examined.

  15. Optimizing insecticide allocation strategies based on houses and livestock shelters for visceral leishmaniasis control in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Gorahava, Kaushik K; Rosenberger, Jay M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most deadly form of the leishmaniasis family of diseases, which affects numerous developing countries. The Indian state of Bihar has the highest prevalence and mortality rate of VL in the world. Insecticide spraying is believed to be an effective vector control program for controlling the spread of VL in Bihar; however, it is expensive and less effective if not implemented systematically. This study develops and analyzes a novel optimization model for VL control in Bihar that identifies an optimal (best possible) allocation of chosen insecticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT] or deltamethrin) based on the sizes of human and cattle populations in the region. The model maximizes the insecticide-induced sandfly death rate in human and cattle dwellings while staying within the current state budget for VL vector control efforts. The model results suggest that deltamethrin might not be a good replacement for DDT because the insecticide-induced sandfly deaths are 3.72 times more in case of DDT even after 90 days post spray. Different insecticide allocation strategies between the two types of sites (houses and cattle sheds) are suggested based on the state VL-control budget and have a direct implication on VL elimination efforts in a resource-limited region. PMID:25940194

  16. A Bayesian formulation for auction-based task allocation in heterogeneous multi-agent teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, Charles E.; Christensen, Henrik

    2011-06-01

    In distributed, heterogeneous, multi-agent teams, agents may have different capabilities and types of sensors. Agents in dynamic environments will need to cooperate in real-time to perform tasks with minimal costs. Some example scenarios include dynamic allocation of UAV and UGV robot teams to possible hurricane survivor locations, search and rescue and target detection. Auction based algorithms scale well because agents generally only need to communicate bid information. In addition, the agents are able to perform their computations in parallel and can operate on local information. Furthermore, it is easy to integrate humans and other vehicle types and sensor combinations into an auction framework. However, standard auction mechanisms do not explicitly consider sensors with varying reliability. The agents sensor qualities should be explicitly accounted. Consider a scenario with multiple agents, each carrying a single sensor. The tasks in this case are to simply visit a location and detect a target. The sensors are of varying quality, with some having a higher probability of target detection. The agents themselves may have different capabilities, as well. The agents use knowledge of their environment to submit cost-based bids for performing each task and an auction is used to perform the task allocation. This paper discusses techniques for including a Bayesian formulation of target detection likelihood into this auction based framework for performing task allocation across multi-agent heterogeneous teams. Analysis and results of experiments with multiple air systems performing distributed target detection are also included.

  17. Effects of Speech Rate and Practice on the Allocation of Visual Attention in Multiple Object Naming

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Antje S.; Wheeldon, Linda; van der Meulen, Femke; Konopka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies had shown that speakers naming several objects typically look at each object until they have retrieved the phonological form of its name and therefore look longer at objects with long names than at objects with shorter names. We examined whether this tight eye-to-speech coordination was maintained at different speech rates and after increasing amounts of practice. Participants named the same set of objects with monosyllabic or disyllabic names on up to 20 successive trials. In Experiment 1, they spoke as fast as they could, whereas in Experiment 2 they had to maintain a fixed moderate or faster speech rate. In both experiments, the durations of the gazes to the objects decreased with increasing speech rate, indicating that at higher speech rates, the speakers spent less time planning the object names. The eye–speech lag (the time interval between the shift of gaze away from an object and the onset of its name) was independent of the speech rate but became shorter with increasing practice. Consistent word length effects on the durations of the gazes to the objects and the eye-speech lags were only found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that shifts of eye gaze are often linked to the completion of phonological encoding, but that speakers can deviate from this default coordination of eye gaze and speech, for instance when the descriptive task is easy and they aim to speak fast. PMID:22363310

  18. Effects of speech rate and practice on the allocation of visual attention in multiple object naming.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Antje S; Wheeldon, Linda; van der Meulen, Femke; Konopka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies had shown that speakers naming several objects typically look at each object until they have retrieved the phonological form of its name and therefore look longer at objects with long names than at objects with shorter names. We examined whether this tight eye-to-speech coordination was maintained at different speech rates and after increasing amounts of practice. Participants named the same set of objects with monosyllabic or disyllabic names on up to 20 successive trials. In Experiment 1, they spoke as fast as they could, whereas in Experiment 2 they had to maintain a fixed moderate or faster speech rate. In both experiments, the durations of the gazes to the objects decreased with increasing speech rate, indicating that at higher speech rates, the speakers spent less time planning the object names. The eye-speech lag (the time interval between the shift of gaze away from an object and the onset of its name) was independent of the speech rate but became shorter with increasing practice. Consistent word length effects on the durations of the gazes to the objects and the eye-speech lags were only found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that shifts of eye gaze are often linked to the completion of phonological encoding, but that speakers can deviate from this default coordination of eye gaze and speech, for instance when the descriptive task is easy and they aim to speak fast. PMID:22363310

  19. Allocation Variable-Based Probabilistic Algorithm to Deal with Label Switching Problem in Bayesian Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Chiun; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Huang, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The label switching problem occurs as a result of the nonidentifiability of posterior distribution over various permutations of component labels when using Bayesian approach to estimate parameters in mixture models. In the cases where the number of components is fixed and known, we propose a relabelling algorithm, an allocation variable-based (denoted by AVP) probabilistic relabelling approach, to deal with label switching problem. We establish a model for the posterior distribution of allocation variables with label switching phenomenon. The AVP algorithm stochastically relabel the posterior samples according to the posterior probabilities of the established model. Some existing deterministic and other probabilistic algorithms are compared with AVP algorithm in simulation studies, and the success of the proposed approach is demonstrated in simulation studies and a real dataset. PMID:26458185

  20. Equity in health care in Namibia: developing a needs-based resource allocation formula using principal components analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zere, Eyob; Mandlhate, Custodia; Mbeeli, Thomas; Shangula, Kalumbi; Mutirua, Kauto; Kapenambili, William

    2007-01-01

    Background The pace of redressing inequities in the distribution of scarce health care resources in Namibia has been slow. This is due primarily to adherence to the historical incrementalist type of budgeting that has been used to allocate resources. Those regions with high levels of deprivation and relatively greater need for health care resources have been getting less than their fair share. To rectify this situation, which was inherited from the apartheid system, there is a need to develop a needs-based resource allocation mechanism. Methods Principal components analysis was employed to compute asset indices from asset based and health-related variables, using data from the Namibia demographic and health survey of 2000. The asset indices then formed the basis of proposals for regional weights for establishing a needs-based resource allocation formula. Results Comparing the current allocations of public sector health car resources with estimates using a needs based formula showed that regions with higher levels of need currently receive fewer resources than do regions with lower need. Conclusion To address the prevailing inequities in resource allocation, the Ministry of Health and Social Services should abandon the historical incrementalist method of budgeting/resource allocation and adopt a more appropriate allocation mechanism that incorporates measures of need for health care. PMID:17391533

  1. CPRA for allocation of kidneys in the US: More candidates ≥98% CPRA, lower positive crossmatch rates and improved transplant rates for sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Lowe, Lee Ann; Kucheryavaya, Anna; Tyan, Dolly; Reinsmoen, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    In 2009 calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA) replaced PRA as the metric for HLA sensitization in the US kidney allocation system. During the next four years, registrants with at least one unacceptable antigen increased (34-40%) and registrants with ≥98% PRA/CPRA increased from 7% to 9% of the waitlist. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in kidney offers refused for positive crossmatch: 14,137 (1.7%) in 2009 and 3,310 in 2013 (0.4%). Registrants with ≥98% PRA/CPRA had highest rates of refusal but also showed substantial improvement (20% in 2009 vs 8% in 2013). For registrants with ≥98% PRA/CPRA, 45% of accepted offers in 2009 were not transplanted into the intended recipient compared to 11% in 2013. Transplant rates remained low for these patients (∼50/1000 active patient-years), but rates improved for patients with 80-97% PRA/CPRA (223/1000 active patient-years in 2009 vs 354/1000 in 2013). In 2013, 40% regraft candidates had CPRA ≥98% compared to 4% of primary graft candidates. More females than males were ≥98% CPRA (14% vs 7%) and more females had CPRA above 0 (50% vs 28%). In the CPRA era, listing of unacceptable antigens increased, positive crossmatches were diminished and transplant rates for sensitized patients improved. PMID:27012168

  2. 77 FR 58524 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335. In order to be eligible for an allocation, an... on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and Boys' Worsted Wool... sew men's and boys' worsted wool suits, suit-type jackets and trousers in the United States....

  3. Outcome based state budget allocation for diabetes prevention programs using multi-criteria optimization with robust weights.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Sanjay; Kim, Kibaek

    2011-12-01

    We consider the problem of outcomes based budget allocations to chronic disease prevention programs across the United States (US) to achieve greater geographical healthcare equity. We use Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCP) by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an example. We present a multi-criteria robust weighted sum model for such multi-criteria decision making in a group decision setting. The principal component analysis and an inverse linear programming techniques are presented and used to study the actual 2009 budget allocation by CDC. Our results show that the CDC budget allocation process for the DPCPs is not likely model based. In our empirical study, the relative weights for different prevalence and comorbidity factors and the corresponding budgets obtained under different weight regions are discussed. Parametric analysis suggests that money should be allocated to states to promote diabetes education and to increase patient-healthcare provider interactions to reduce disparity across the US. PMID:21674143

  4. The relationship between annual survival rate and migration distance in mallards: an examination of the time-allocation hypothesis for the evolution of migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions of the time-allocation hypothesis were tested with several a posteriori analyses of banding data for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The time-allocation hypothesis states that the critical difference between resident and migrant birds is their allocation of time to reproduction on the breeding grounds and survival on the nonbreeding grounds. Residents have higher reproduction and migrants have higher survival. Survival and recovery rates were estimated by standard band-recovery methods for banding reference areas in the central United States and central Canada. A production-rate index was computed for each reference area with data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service May Breeding Population Survey and July Production Survey. An analysis of covariance was used to test for the effects of migration distance and time period (decade) on survival, recovery, and production rates. Differences in migration chronology were tested by comparing direct-recovery distributions for different populations during the fall migration. Differences in winter locations were tested by comparing distributions of direct recoveries reported during December and January. A strong positive relationship was found between survival rate, and migration distance for 3 of the 4 age and sex classes. A weak negative relationship was found between recovery rate and migration distance. No relationship was found between production rate and migration distance. During the fall migration, birds from the northern breeding populations were located north of birds from the southern breeding populations. No pattern could be found in the relative locations of breeding and wintering areas. Although our finding that survival rate increased with migration distance was consistent with the time-allocation hypothesis, our results on migration chronology and location of wintering areas were not consistent with the mechanism underlying the time-allocation hypothesis. Neither this analysis nor other recent

  5. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  6. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  7. 41 CFR Appendix B to Chapter 301 - Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance B Appendix B to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES Ch. 301, App. B Appendix B to Chapter...

  8. Fuzzy-logic-based resource allocation for isolated and multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-08-01

    Modern naval battle forces generally include many different platforms each with its own sensors, radar, ESM, and communications. The sharing of information measured by local sensors via communication links across the battle group should allow for optimal or near optimal decision. The survival of the battle group or members of the group depends on the automatic real-time allocation of various resources. A fuzzy logic algorithm has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack resources in real- time. The particular approach to fuzzy logic that is used is the fuzzy decision tree, a generalization of the standard artificial intelligence technique of decision trees. The controller must be able to make decisions based on rules provided by experts. The fuzzy logic approach allows the direct incorporation of expertise forming a fuzzy linguistic description, i.e. a formal representation of the system in terms of fuzzy if-then rules. Genetic algorithm based optimization is conducted to determine the form of the membership functions for the fuzzy root concepts. The isolated platform and multi platform resource manager models are discussed as well as the underlying multi-platform communication model. The resource manager is shown to exhibit excellent performance under many demanding scenarios.

  9. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model’s objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior. PMID:26226109

  10. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  11. Non-structural carbon dynamics and allocation relate to growth rate and leaf habit in California oaks.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, Susan; Czimczik, Claudia I; Sierra, Carlos A; Muhr, Jan; Xu, Xiaomei

    2015-11-01

    Trees contain non-structural carbon (NSC), but it is unclear for how long these reserves are stored and to what degree they are used to support plant activity. We used radiocarbon ((14)C) to show that the carbon (C) in stemwood NSC can achieve ages of several decades in California oaks. We separated NSC into two fractions: soluble (∼50% sugars) and insoluble (mostly starch) NSC. Soluble NSC contained more C than insoluble NSC, but we found no consistent trend in the amount of either pool with depth in the stem. There was no systematic difference in C age between the two fractions, although ages increased with stem depth. The C in both NSC fractions was consistently younger than the structural C from which they were extracted. Together, these results indicate considerable inward mixing of NSC within the stem and rapid exchange between soluble and insoluble pools, compared with the timescale of inward mixing. We observed similar patterns in sympatric evergreen and deciduous oaks and the largest differences among tree stems with different growth rates. The (14)C signature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from tree stems was higher than expected from very recent photoassimilates, indicating that the mean age of C in respiration substrates included a contribution from C fixed years previously. A simple model that tracks NSC produced each year, followed by loss (through conversion to CO2) in subsequent years, matches our observations of inward mixing of NSC in the stem and higher (14)C signature of stem CO2 efflux. Together, these data support the idea of continuous accumulation of NSC in stemwood and that 'vigor' (growth rate) and leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen) control NSC pool size and allocation. PMID:26452766

  12. Efficient GRASP based heuristics for the capacitated continuous location-allocation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Martino; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Saputra, Ruswiati Surya

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the np-hard capacitated continuous location-allocation problem, where the number of facilities to be located is specified and each of which has a constant capacity. Efficient greedy randomised adaptive search procedure (GRASP) based heuristics are proposed to tackle the problem. A scheme that applies the furthest distance rule (FDR) and self-adjusted threshold parameters to generate initial facility locations that are situated sparsely within GRASP framework is also put forward. The construction of the restricted candidate list (RCL) within GRASP is also guided by applying a concept of restricted regions that prevents new facility locations to be sited too close to the previous selected facility locations. The performance of the proposed GRASP heuristics is evaluated by conducting experiments using data sets taken from the literature typically used for the uncapacitated continuous location-allocation problem. The preliminary computational experiments show that the proposed methods provide encouraging solutions when compared to recently published papers. Some future research avenues on the subject are also briefly highlighted.

  13. Dynamic Allocation of SPM Based on Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph for System Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Ling, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Mei, Chen; Wang, Huan

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic Scratch-pad Memory allocation strategy to optimize the energy consumption of the memory sub-system. Firstly, the whole program execution process is sliced into several time slots according to the temporal dimension; thereafter, a Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph (TSCCG) is introduced to model the behavior of Data Cache (D-Cache) conflicts within each time slot. Then, Integer Nonlinear Programming (INP) is implemented, which can avoid time-consuming linearization process, to select the most profitable data pages. Virtual Memory System (VMS) is adopted to remap those data pages, which will cause severe Cache conflicts within a time slot, to SPM. In order to minimize the swapping overhead of dynamic SPM allocation, a novel SPM controller with a tightly coupled DMA is introduced to issue the swapping operations without CPU's intervention. Last but not the least, this paper discusses the fluctuation of system energy profit based on different MMU page size as well as the Time Slot duration quantitatively. According to our design space exploration, the proposed method can optimize all of the data segments, including global data, heap and stack data in general, and reduce the total energy consumption by 27.28% on average, up to 55.22% with a marginal performance promotion. And comparing to the conventional static CCG (Cache Conflicts Graph), our approach can obtain 24.7% energy profit on average, up to 30.5% with a sight boost in performance.

  14. Risk-based objectives for the allocation of chemical, biological, and radiological air emissions sensors.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Farrington, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of allocating devices for localized hazard protection across a region. Each identical device provides only local protection, and the devices serve localities that are exposed to nonidentical intensities of hazard. A method for seeking the optimal allocation Policy Decisions is described, highlighting the potentially competing objectives of maximizing local risk reductions and coverage risk reductions. The metric for local risk reductions is the sum of the local economic risks avoided. The metric for coverage risk reductions is adapted from the p-median problem and equal to the sum of squares of the distances from all unserved localities to their closest associated served locality. Three graphical techniques for interpreting the Policy Decisions are presented. The three linked graphical techniques are applied serially. The first technique identifies Policy Decisions that are nearly Pareto optimal. The second identifies locations where sensor placements are most justified, based on a risk-cost-benefit analysis under uncertainty. The third displays the decision space for any particular policy decision. The method is illustrated in an application to chemical, biological, and/or radiological weapon sensor placement, but has implications for disaster preparedness, transportation safety, and other arenas of public safety. PMID:17184404

  15. A swarm intelligence based memetic algorithm for task allocation in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvizadeh, Raheleh; Haghi Kashani, Mostafa

    2011-12-01

    This paper proposes a Swarm Intelligence based Memetic algorithm for Task Allocation and scheduling in distributed systems. The tasks scheduling in distributed systems is known as an NP-complete problem. Hence, many genetic algorithms have been proposed for searching optimal solutions from entire solution space. However, these existing approaches are going to scan the entire solution space without considering the techniques that can reduce the complexity of the optimization. Spending too much time for doing scheduling is considered the main shortcoming of these approaches. Therefore, in this paper memetic algorithm has been used to cope with this shortcoming. With regard to load balancing efficiently, Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) has been applied as local search in the proposed memetic algorithm. Extended experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method outperformed the existing GA-based method in terms of CPU utilization.

  16. A swarm intelligence based memetic algorithm for task allocation in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvizadeh, Raheleh; Haghi Kashani, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a Swarm Intelligence based Memetic algorithm for Task Allocation and scheduling in distributed systems. The tasks scheduling in distributed systems is known as an NP-complete problem. Hence, many genetic algorithms have been proposed for searching optimal solutions from entire solution space. However, these existing approaches are going to scan the entire solution space without considering the techniques that can reduce the complexity of the optimization. Spending too much time for doing scheduling is considered the main shortcoming of these approaches. Therefore, in this paper memetic algorithm has been used to cope with this shortcoming. With regard to load balancing efficiently, Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) has been applied as local search in the proposed memetic algorithm. Extended experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method outperformed the existing GA-based method in terms of CPU utilization.

  17. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Water Allocation System Based on Simulated Annealing Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiulong; Wang, Shijun

    Presently water resource in most watersheds in China is distributed in terms of administrative instructions. This kind of allocation method has many disadvantages and hampers the instructional effect of market mechanism on water allocation. The paper studies South-to-North Water Transfer Project and discusses water allocation of the node lakes along the Project. Firstly, it advanced four assumptions. Secondly, it analyzed constraint conditions of water allocation in terms of present state of water allocation in China. Thirdly, it established a goal model of water allocation and set up a systematic model from the angle of comprehensive profits of water utilization and profits of the node lakes. Fourthly, it discussed calculation method of the model by means of Simulated Annealing Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (SHGA). Finally, it validated the rationality and validity of the model by a simulation testing.

  19. Electric power grid control using a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.

    2015-07-21

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  20. Electric power grid control using a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P

    2014-01-28

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  1. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P; Pratt, Robert G

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  2. Using one-way communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  3. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P; Pratt, Robert G

    2014-04-01

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  4. Using bi-directional communications in a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2015-09-08

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  5. Proportional Data Rate Fairness Resource Allocation for MIMO-OFDM Multiple Access Channel by Considering the Correlation Effect of Line of Sight and Non Line of Sight Channel Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maung, Sann Maw; Sasase, Iwao

    In the MIMO-OFDM multiple access channel (MIMO-OFDM-MAC) uplink scenario, the base station decides the uplink parameters for multiple users based on channel state information (CSI) from each user in the system. The performance of MIMO-OFDM-MAC systems can be significantly improved by using an adaptive transmission and resource allocation schemes which consider the correlation effect of line of sight (LOS) and non line of sight (NLOS) channel conditions for different users in the system. A lot of papers have been published on resource allocation schemes for MIMO-OFDM systems. However, most of these resource allocation schemes have been considered for MIMO-OFDMA systems, where users are separated in the frequency domain and each user uses the same uplink and downlink channels in the same channel conditions. On the other hand, in the mulituser MIMO-OFDM systems, more than one user can be assigned the same frequency and channel conditions for the MIMO-OFDM broadcast channel (downlink) and MIMO-OFDM-MAC channel (uplink) are not the same. Therefore, the same resource allocation schemes for the conventional MIMO-OFDM systems can not be applied to multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems with different uplink and downlink channel conditions. Until now, most of the resource allocation schemes have been considered only for downlink MIMO-OFDM broadcast (MIMO-OFDM-BC) channel and very few papers tackle the fairness among users. Moreover, no paper considers a scheme to realize proportional data rate fairness among users in the MIMO-OFDM-MAC condition. In this paper, we propose a proportional data rate fairness resource allocation scheme with adaptive bit loading for MIMO-ODFM-MAC systems by considering the correlation effects of LOS and NLOS channel conditions in both spatial and frequency domains. Computer simulation results show that the proposed scheme can give larger system capacity while maintaining the proportional data rate fairness requirements among users in the system under the

  6. 76 FR 58465 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Department adopted final regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR... on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and Boys' Worsted Wool... boys' worsted wool suits, suit-type jackets and trousers in the United States. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 78 FR 56657 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335. In order to be eligible for an allocation, an applicant must... on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and Boys' Worsted Wool... boys' worsted wool suits, suit-type jackets and trousers in the United States. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 78 FR 56658 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... final regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR part 335. In... making men's and boys' suits. The TRQ for HTS 9902.51.16 provided for temporary reductions in the import..., which are suitable for use in making men's and boys' suits, in the United States. On August 17,...

  9. 75 FR 54598 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR part 335. In order to be... on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and Boys' Worsted Wool... boys' worsted wool suits, suit-type jackets and trousers in the United States. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 76 FR 58465 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... adopted final regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335. In... for making men's and boys' suits. The TRQ for HTS 9902.51.16 provided for temporary reductions in the... less, which is suitable for use in making men's and boys' suits, in the United States. On August...

  11. 75 FR 54599 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335. In order to be... for making men's and boys' suits. The TRQ for HTS 9902.51.16 provided for temporary reductions in the... less, which is suitable for use in making men's and boys' suits, in the United States. On August...

  12. 77 FR 58525 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ..., the Department adopted final regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See ] 70 FR... States that is suitable for making men's and boys' suits. The TRQ for HTS 9902.51.16 provided for... diameter of 18.5 microns or less, which is suitable for use in making men's and boys' suits, in the...

  13. 76 FR 1402 - Notice of allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... establishing procedures for applying for, and determining, such allocations (66 FR 6459, 15 CFR 335). These interim regulations were adopted, without change, as a final rule published on October 24, 2005 (70 FR 61363). On September 8, 2010, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR...

  14. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 11, 2011, The Secretary of Agriculture announced an additional in-quota... Philippines 60,000 South Africa 11,444 Swaziland 7,961 Thailand 6,966 Zimbabwe 5,971 These allocations...

  15. 78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... applying for, and determining, such allocations (66 FR 6459, 15 CFR 335). These interim regulations were adopted, without change, as a final rule published on October 24, 2005 (70 FR 61363). On September 21, 2012, the Department published notices in the Federal Register (77 FR 58524-26) soliciting...

  16. Determination of cost coefficients of a priority-based water allocation linear programming model - a network flow approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, F. N.-F.; Wu, C.-W.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a method to establish the objective function of a network flow programming model for simulating river-reservoir system operations and associated water allocation, with an emphasis on situations when the links other than demand or storage have to be assigned with nonzero cost coefficients. The method preserves the priorities defined by rule curves of reservoir, operational preferences for conveying water, allocation of storage among multiple reservoirs, and transbasin water diversions. Path enumeration analysis transforms these water allocation rules into linear constraints that can be solved to determine link cost coefficients. An approach to prune the original system into a reduced network is proposed to establish the precise constraints of nonzero cost coefficients, which can then be efficiently solved. The cost coefficients for the water allocation in the Feitsui and Shihmen reservoirs' joint operating system of northern Taiwan was adequately assigned by the proposed method. This case study demonstrates how practitioners can correctly utilize network-flow-based models to allocate water supply throughout complex systems that are subject to strict operating rules.

  17. Determination of cost coefficients of priority-based water allocation linear programming model - a network flow approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, F. N.-F.; Wu, C.-W.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a method to establish the objective function of a network flow programming model for simulating river/reservoir system operations and associated water allocation, with an emphasis on situations when the links other than demand or storage have to be assigned with nonzero cost coefficients. The method preserves the priorities defined by rule curves of reservoir, operational preferences for conveying water, allocation of storage among multiple reservoirs, and trans-basin water diversions. Path enumeration analysis transforms these water allocation rules into linear constraints that can be solved to determine link cost coefficients. An approach to prune the original system into a reduced network is proposed to establish the precise constraints of nonzero cost coefficients which can then be efficiently solved. The cost coefficients for the water allocation in the Feitsui and Shihmen Reservoirs joint operating system of northern Taiwan was adequately assigned by the proposed method. This case study demonstrates how practitioners can correctly utilize network-flow-based models to allocate water supply throughout complex systems that are subject to strict operating rules.

  18. Working memory capacity accounts for the ability to switch between object-based and location-based allocation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Bleckley, M Kathryn; Foster, Jeffrey L; Engle, Randall W

    2015-04-01

    Bleckley, Durso, Crutchfield, Engle, and Khanna (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 884-889, 2003) found that visual attention allocation differed between groups high or low in working memory capacity (WMC). High-span, but not low-span, subjects showed an invalid-cue cost during a letter localization task in which the letter appeared closer to fixation than the cue, but not when the letter appeared farther from fixation than the cue. This suggests that low-spans allocated attention as a spotlight, whereas high-spans allocated their attention to objects. In this study, we tested whether utilizing object-based visual attention is a resource-limited process that is difficult for low-span individuals. In the first experiment, we tested the uses of object versus location-based attention with high and low-span subjects, with half of the subjects completing a demanding secondary load task. Under load, high-spans were no longer able to use object-based visual attention. A second experiment supported the hypothesis that these differences in allocation were due to high-spans using object-based allocation, whereas low-spans used location-based allocation. PMID:25421317

  19. Performance-based workload assessment: Allocation strategy and added task sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results of a research program investigating the use of added tasks to evaluate mental workload are reviewed. The focus of the first studies was a reappraisal of the traditional secondary task logic that encouraged the use of low-priority instructions for the added task. It was believed that such low-priority tasks would encourage subjects to split their available resources among the two tasks. The primary task would be assigned all the resources it needed, and any remaining reserve capacity would be assigned to the secondary task. If the model were correct, this approach was expected to combine sensitivity to primary task difficulty with unintrusiveness to primary task performance. The first studies of the current project demonstrated that a high-priority added task, although intrusive, could be more sensitive than the traditional low-priority secondary task. These results suggested that a more appropriate model of the attentional effects associated with added task performance might be based on capacity switching, rather than the traditional optimal allocation model.

  20. Integrated visual vocabulary in latent Dirichlet allocation-based scene classification for IKONOS image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningrum, Retno; Wei, Hong; Manurung, Ruli; Murni, Aniati

    2014-01-01

    Scene classification based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is a more general modeling method known as a bag of visual words, in which the construction of a visual vocabulary is a crucial quantization process to ensure success of the classification. A framework is developed using the following new aspects: Gaussian mixture clustering for the quantization process, the use of an integrated visual vocabulary (IVV), which is built as the union of all centroids obtained from the separate quantization process of each class, and the usage of some features, including edge orientation histogram, CIELab color moments, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The experiments are conducted on IKONOS images with six semantic classes (tree, grassland, residential, commercial/industrial, road, and water). The results show that the use of an IVV increases the overall accuracy (OA) by 11 to 12% and 6% when it is implemented on the selected and all features, respectively. The selected features of CIELab color moments and GLCM provide a better OA than the implementation over CIELab color moment or GLCM as individuals. The latter increases the OA by only ˜2 to 3%. Moreover, the results show that the OA of LDA outperforms the OA of C4.5 and naive Bayes tree by ˜20%.

  1. A Multistep, Consensus-Based Approach to Organ Allocation in Liver Transplantation: Toward a "Blended Principle Model".

    PubMed

    Cillo, U; Burra, P; Mazzaferro, V; Belli, L; Pinna, A D; Spada, M; Nanni Costa, A; Toniutto, P

    2015-10-01

    Since Italian liver allocation policy was last revised (in 2012), relevant critical issues and conceptual advances have emerged, calling for significant improvements. We report the results of a national consensus conference process, promoted by the Italian College of Liver Transplant Surgeons (for the Italian Society for Organ Transplantation) and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, to review the best indicators for orienting organ allocation policies based on principles of urgency, utility, and transplant benefit in the light of current scientific evidence. MELD exceptions and hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed to construct a transplantation priority algorithm, given the inequity of a purely MELD-based system for governing organ allocation. Working groups of transplant surgeons and hepatologists prepared a list of statements for each topic, scoring their quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using the Centers for Disease Control grading system. A jury of Italian transplant surgeons, hepatologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, representatives of patients' associations and organ-sharing organizations, transplant coordinators, and ethicists voted on and validated the proposed statements. After carefully reviewing the statements, a critical proposal for revising Italy's current liver allocation policy was prepared jointly by transplant surgeons and hepatologists. PMID:26274338

  2. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction

    PubMed Central

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, GH

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer’s utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider. PMID:26431035

  3. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction.

    PubMed

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, G H

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer's utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider. PMID:26431035

  4. A Multi-layer Dynamic Model for Coordination Based Group Decision Making in Water Resource Allocation and Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xingnan; Li, Chenming; Wang, Jianying

    Management of group decision-making is an important issue in water source management development. In order to overcome the defects in lacking of effective communication and cooperation in the existing decision-making models, this paper proposes a multi-layer dynamic model for coordination in water resource allocation and scheduling based group decision making. By introducing the scheme-recognized cooperative satisfaction index and scheme-adjusted rationality index, the proposed model can solve the problem of poor convergence of multi-round decision-making process in water resource allocation and scheduling. Furthermore, the problem about coordination of limited resources-based group decision-making process can be solved based on the effectiveness of distance-based group of conflict resolution. The simulation results show that the proposed model has better convergence than the existing models.

  5. Dynamic resource allocation engine for cloud-based real-time video transcoding in mobile cloud computing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adedayo, Bada; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The recent explosion in video-related Internet traffic has been driven by the widespread use of smart mobile devices, particularly smartphones with advanced cameras that are able to record high-quality videos. Although many of these devices offer the facility to record videos at different spatial and temporal resolutions, primarily with local storage considerations in mind, most users only ever use the highest quality settings. The vast majority of these devices are optimised for compressing the acquired video using a single built-in codec and have neither the computational resources nor battery reserves to transcode the video to alternative formats. This paper proposes a new low-complexity dynamic resource allocation engine for cloud-based video transcoding services that are both scalable and capable of being delivered in real-time. Firstly, through extensive experimentation, we establish resource requirement benchmarks for a wide range of transcoding tasks. The set of tasks investigated covers the most widely used input formats (encoder type, resolution, amount of motion and frame rate) associated with mobile devices and the most popular output formats derived from a comprehensive set of use cases, e.g. a mobile news reporter directly transmitting videos to the TV audience of various video format requirements, with minimal usage of resources both at the reporter's end and at the cloud infrastructure end for transcoding services.

  6. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  7. Total waste-load control and allocation based on input-output analysis for Shenzhen, south China.

    PubMed

    Ni, J R; Zhong, D S; Huang, Y F; Wang, H

    2001-01-01

    The general objective for this paper is to reveal the dynamic relationships between the rapid economic development, water pollution and the subsequent waste-load allocation in different economic sectors through a case-study in Shenzhen City, South China. Two-objective analysis model was employed based on the input-output table for Shenzhen with the full consideration of various constraints in local area. The improved Tchebycheff procedure was used for obtaining the solutions. The predictions were made on economic development and pollutants from wastewater in different sectors and different planning years. The present study allows for the consideration of the economic structural adjustment. It is found that the current situation of economic structure is generally good and is subject to further adjustment in Shenzhen, although it has undergone the rapid development in the past 18 years. When the maximum Gross Domestic Production and the minimum Chemical Oxygen Demand are chosen as the two objectives subject to other constraints, the harmonized results indicated a scheme that claims substantial reduction of polluting effluences in Shenzhen while closely keeping the economic growth rate as planned. PMID:11381457

  8. Allocation of environmental loads in recycling: a model based in the qualitative value of recycled material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose V. R.; Domingos, Idalina; Antunes, Paula

    2001-02-01

    When the life cycle of a product, material or service, studied in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) affect other life cycles not included in the system in analysis, it is necessary to apply allocation rules. Allocation can be defined, in LCA context, as the act of assigning the environmental loads of a system to the functions of that system in proportionate shares. Most of the available allocation methods are of generic application, they do not take into account the quality of the materials to be recycled and the few that do take it into account attribute to it a quantitative value. Methods that are both generic and scientifically correct are generally difficult to apply. Rules that are too simple for a case by case application could lead to studies of life cycle assessment that cannot be compared. This way, the best will be to dispose of simple methods but just and mathematically correct with a fundamentally driven application to a sector of economic activity. In this study a method of allocation is proposed which takes into account primarily the "qualitative" value of the material to be recycled, irrespective of being a pos-consumption product/material or a secondary material of a production process. Through a case study, the potential of application of the proposed method is demonstrated, in the recycling of products coming from wood industries and its derivatives, when compared with other allocation methods.

  9. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  10. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  11. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  12. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  13. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  14. Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for local storage based VoD delivery: Comparison between single and dual receiver configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    The benefits of using distributed caching servers to optimize the traditional video-on-demand delivery have been extensively discussed in literature. In our previous work, we introduced a dual-receiver based dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve video-on-demand services using a local storage placed within the access network. The main drawback of this algorithm lies in the additional power consumption at the optical network unit that arises from using two receivers. In this paper, we present two novel single-receiver based dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms to further optimize local storage aided video-on-demand over passive optical networks. The quality-of-service and power performances of the algorithms are critically analyzed using packet level simulations and formulation of power consumption models. We show that the energy-efficiency of a local storage based video-on-demand scheme can be increased without compromising the quality-of-service by the use of single receiver algorithms. Further, we compare the two newly introduced algorithms against dual-receiver based and without local storage schemes to find the most appropriate bandwidth allocation algorithm for local storage based video-on-demand delivery over passive optical networks.

  15. 41 CFR Appendix B to Chapter 301 - Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 207 31 52 83 41 208 31 52 83 42 209 31 52 84 42 210 32 52 84 42 211 32 53 84 42 212 32 53 85 42 213 32... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of M&IE Rates... Dinner Incidentals $1 $0 $0 $0 $1 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 6 1 2 2 1 7 1 2 3 1 8 1 2 3 2...

  16. 41 CFR Appendix B to Chapter 301 - Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 207 31 52 83 41 208 31 52 83 42 209 31 52 84 42 210 32 52 84 42 211 32 53 84 42 212 32 53 85 42 213 32... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Allocation of M&IE Rates... Dinner Incidentals $1 $0 $0 $0 $1 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 6 1 2 2 1 7 1 2 3 1 8 1 2 3 2...

  17. 41 CFR Appendix B to Chapter 301 - Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 207 31 52 83 41 208 31 52 83 42 209 31 52 84 42 210 32 52 84 42 211 32 53 84 42 212 32 53 85 42 213 32... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of M&IE Rates... Dinner Incidentals $1 $0 $0 $0 $1 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 6 1 2 2 1 7 1 2 3 1 8 1 2 3 2...

  18. 41 CFR Appendix B to Chapter 301 - Allocation of M&IE Rates To Be Used in Making Deductions From the M&IE Allowance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 207 31 52 83 41 208 31 52 83 42 209 31 52 84 42 210 32 52 84 42 211 32 53 84 42 212 32 53 85 42 213 32... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of M&IE Rates... Dinner Incidentals $1 $0 $0 $0 $1 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 6 1 2 2 1 7 1 2 3 1 8 1 2 3 2...

  19. Priority-based time-slot allocation in wireless body area networks during medical emergency situations: an evolutionary game-theoretic perspective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sudip; Sarkar, Subhadeep

    2015-03-01

    In critical medical emergency situations, wireless body area network (WBAN) equipped health monitoring systems treat data packets with critical information regarding patients' health in the same way as data packets bearing regular healthcare information. This snag results in a higher average waiting time for the local data processing units (LDPUs) transmitting data packets of higher importance. In this paper, we formulate an algorithm for Priority-based Allocation of Time Slots (PATS) that considers a fitness parameter characterizing the criticality of health data that a packet carries, energy consumption rate for a transmitting LDPU, and other crucial LDPU properties. Based on this fitness parameter, we design the constant model hawk-dove game that ensures prioritizing the LDPUs based on crucial properties. In comparison with the existing works on priority-based wireless transmission, we measure and take into consideration the urgency, seriousness, and criticality associated with an LDPU and, thus, allocate transmission time slots proportionately. We show that the number of transmitting LDPUs in medical emergency situations can be reduced by 25.97%, in comparison with the existing time-division-based techniques. PMID:24686307

  20. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  1. Base Rates, Contingencies, and Prediction Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kareev, Yaakov; Fiedler, Klaus; Avrahami, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A skew in the base rate of upcoming events can often provide a better cue for accurate predictions than a contingency between signals and events. The authors study prediction behavior and test people's sensitivity to both base rate and contingency; they also examine people's ability to compare the benefits of both for prediction. They formalize…

  2. Activity-based resource allocation: a system for predicting nursing costs.

    PubMed

    Crockett, M J; DiBlasi, M; Flaherty, P; Sampson, K

    1997-01-01

    As hospital-based managers are being confronted with changing patterns of reimbursement, ranging from revenue generating to cost management, it is imperative that hospitals know the exact nursing costs associated with the actual care delivered to specific patients. Nursing care has traditionally been bundled into the room rate for patients. This approach is extremely limiting when facilities are negotiating per diem rates and capitated rate contracts. At Braintree Hospital Rehabilitation Network, the nursing department has developed and implemented an activity-based management system to determine the actual cost of nursing care provided to each patient. This approach, which differentiates nursing costs accurately by diagnostic group and by intensity of nursing care, has contributed to the hospital's success in negotiating individual patient contracts with insurers in the managed care environment that increasingly focuses on costs and outcomes. Another result has been to enhance the accuracy of the network's cost accounting system. PMID:9416189

  3. Agenda-Based Regulation of Study-Time Allocation: When Agendas Override Item-Based Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Robert; Dunlosky, John; Bailey, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Theories of self-regulated study assume that learners monitor item difficulty when making decisions about which items to select for study. To complement such theories, the authors propose an agenda-based regulation (ABR) model in which learners' study decisions are guided by an agenda that learners develop to prioritize items for study, given…

  4. A QoS aware resource allocation strategy for 3D A/V streaming in OFDMA based wireless systems.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young-Uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a "killer app" for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  5. Metro-access integrated network based on optical OFDMA with dynamic sub-carrier allocation and power distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Zhang, Qiongli; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Baojian

    2013-01-28

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-based metro-access integrated network with dynamic resource allocation. It consists of a single fiber OFDMA ring and many single fiber OFDMA trees, which transparently integrates metropolitan area networks with optical access networks. The single fiber OFDMA ring connects the core network and the central nodes (CNs), the CNs are on demand reconfigurable and use multiple orthogonal sub-carriers to realize parallel data transmission and dynamic resource allocation, meanwhile, they can also implement flexible power distribution. The remote nodes (RNs) distributed in the user side are connected by the single fiber OFDMA trees with the corresponding CN. The obtained results indicate that our proposed metro-access integrated network is feasible and the power distribution is agile. PMID:23389228

  6. A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for 3D A/V Streaming in OFDMA Based Wireless Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-uk; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Park, Suwon; Lee, Hyukjoon

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a “killer app” for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. PMID:25250377

  7. A New Subcarrier Allocation Strategy for MIMO-OFDMA Multicellular Networks Based on Cooperative Interference Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Gkonis, Panagiotis K.; Seimeni, Maria A.; Asimakis, Nikolaos P.; Kaklamani, Dimitra I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal. PMID:24683351

  8. Allocating attention to distractor locations is based on top-down expectations.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Aya; Tsal, Yehoshua

    2013-09-01

    Failures of selective attention may be explained by the attentional white bear (AWB) hypothesis maintaining that prior knowledge of distractor location causes attentional allocation to it. The AWB is demonstrated by embedding infrequent trials of two simultaneous dots among flanker trials. The dot at the expected distractor location is perceived as appearing before the dot at the expected empty location, indicating attentional allocation to expected distractor locations. A major requirement of the AWB hypothesis is that it occurs in a top-down manner due to expectations. We devised a variation of the original AWB experiment, which enabled us to differentiate between the top-down and bottom-up contributions. The results show that top-down expectancies, which are a critical part of the AWB characterization, occur independently of bottom-up contributions. PMID:23425450

  9. [Need-based resource allocation--experiences with the RAWP formula in Great Britain].

    PubMed

    Brand, H; Menke, R

    1997-07-01

    The RAWP formula used for resource allocation in Great Britain between 1976 and 1991 is a morbidity-oriented instrument of controlling, which has so far received only little attention in Germany. The development of this model was supported by the intention to intervene in the regional pattern of hospital supply by means of resource allocation and to refine it according to the guiding principles of equity and efficiency. The basic elements-regional population, average bed use, ICD chapter-specific SMRs-are discussed and the various modifications outlined. The RAWP formula's potentials of controlling resulted in a progressive reduction of the apparent disparities between regions in hospital supply, and knee was considered to be a "qualified success". The future development in the sense of an internal market addressed. PMID:9333384

  10. Optimal allocation of bulk water supplies to competing use sectors based on economic criterion - An application to the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakar, L.; Babel, M. S.; Perret, S. R.; Gupta, A. Das

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThe study develops a model for optimal bulk allocations of limited available water based on an economic criterion to competing use sectors such as agriculture, domestic, industry and hydropower. The model comprises a reservoir operation module (ROM) and a water allocation module (WAM). ROM determines the amount of water available for allocation, which is used as an input to WAM with an objective function to maximize the net economic benefits of bulk allocations to different use sectors. The total net benefit functions for agriculture and hydropower sectors and the marginal net benefit from domestic and industrial sectors are established and are categorically taken as fixed in the present study. The developed model is applied to the Chao Phraya basin in Thailand. The case study results indicate that the WAM can improve net economic returns compared to the current water allocation practices.

  11. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Davijani, M.; Banihabib, M. E.; Nadjafzadeh Anvar, A.; Hashemi, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    In many discussions, work force is mentioned as the most important factor of production. Principally, work force is a factor which can compensate for the physical and material limitations and shortcomings of other factors to a large extent which can help increase the production level. On the other hand, employment is considered as an effective factor in social issues. The goal of the present research is the allocation of water resources so as to maximize the number of jobs created in the industry and agriculture sectors. An objective that has attracted the attention of policy makers involved in water supply and distribution is the maximization of the interests of beneficiaries and consumers in case of certain policies adopted. The present model applies the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to determine the optimum amount of water allocated to each water-demanding sector, area under cultivation, agricultural production, employment in the agriculture sector, industrial production and employment in the industry sector. Based on the results obtained from this research, by optimally allocating water resources in the central desert region of Iran, 1096 jobs can be created in the industry and agriculture sectors, which constitutes an improvement of about 13% relative to the previous situation (non-optimal water utilization). It is also worth mentioning that by optimizing the employment factor as a social parameter, the other areas such as the economic sector are influenced as well. For example, in this investigation, the resulting economic benefits (incomes) have improved from 73 billion Rials at baseline employment figures to 112 billion Rials in the case of optimized employment condition. Therefore, it is necessary to change the inter-sector and intra-sector water allocation models in this region, because this change not only leads to more jobs in this area, but also causes an improvement in the region's economic conditions.

  12. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  13. Comparison of Ground-Based and Airborne Function Allocation Concepts for NextGen Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Prevot, Thomas; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of function allocation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System is being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). To provide insight on comparability of different function allocations for separation assurance, two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted on homogeneous airborne and ground-based approaches to four-dimensional trajectory-based operations, one referred to as ground-based automated separation assurance (groundbased) and the other as airborne trajectory management with self-separation (airborne). In the coordinated simulations at NASA s Ames and Langley Research Centers, controllers for the ground-based concept at Ames and pilots for the airborne concept at Langley managed the same traffic scenarios using the two different concepts. The common scenarios represented a significant increase in airspace demand over current operations. Using common independent variables, the simulations varied traffic density, scheduling constraints, and the timing of trajectory change events. Common metrics were collected to enable a comparison of relevant results. Where comparisons were possible, no substantial differences in performance or operator acceptability were observed. Mean schedule conformance and flight path deviation were considered adequate for both approaches. Conflict detection warning times and resolution times were mostly adequate, but certain conflict situations were detected too late to be resolved in a timely manner. This led to some situations in which safety was compromised and/or workload was rated as being unacceptable in both experiments. Operators acknowledged these issues in their responses and ratings but gave generally positive assessments of the respective concept and operations they experienced. Future studies will evaluate technical improvements and procedural enhancements to achieve the required level of safety and acceptability and will investigate the integration of

  14. An algorithm for calculating exam quality as a basis for performance-based allocation of funds at medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Kirschstein, Timo; Wolters, Alexander; Lenz, Jan-Hendrik; Fröhlich, Susanne; Hakenberg, Oliver; Kundt, Günther; Darmüntzel, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Altiner, Attila; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The amendment of the Medical Licensing Act (ÄAppO) in Germany in 2002 led to the introduction of graded assessments in the clinical part of medical studies. This, in turn, lent new weight to the importance of written tests, even though the minimum requirements for exam quality are sometimes difficult to reach. Introducing exam quality as a criterion for the award of performance-based allocation of funds is expected to steer the attention of faculty members towards more quality and perpetuate higher standards. However, at present there is a lack of suitable algorithms for calculating exam quality. Methods: In the spring of 2014, the students‘ dean commissioned the „core group“ for curricular improvement at the University Medical Center in Rostock to revise the criteria for the allocation of performance-based funds for teaching. In a first approach, we developed an algorithm that was based on the results of the most common type of exam in medical education, multiple choice tests. It included item difficulty and discrimination, reliability as well as the distribution of grades achieved. Results: This algorithm quantitatively describes exam quality of multiple choice exams. However, it can also be applied to exams involving short assay questions and the OSCE. It thus allows for the quantitation of exam quality in the various subjects and – in analogy to impact factors and third party grants – a ranking among faculty. Conclusion: Our algorithm can be applied to all test formats in which item difficulty, the discriminatory power of the individual items, reliability of the exam and the distribution of grades are measured. Even though the content validity of an exam is not considered here, we believe that our algorithm is suitable as a general basis for performance-based allocation of funds. PMID:27275509

  15. Mental workload prediction based on attentional resource allocation and information processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xu; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload is an important component in complex human-machine systems. The limited applicability of empirical workload measures produces the need for workload modeling and prediction methods. In the present study, a mental workload prediction model is built on the basis of attentional resource allocation and information processing to ensure pilots' accuracy and speed in understanding large amounts of flight information on the cockpit display interface. Validation with an empirical study of an abnormal attitude recovery task showed that this model's prediction of mental workload highly correlated with experimental results. This mental workload prediction model provides a new tool for optimizing human factors interface design and reducing human errors. PMID:26406085

  16. A Dynamic CFP Allocation and Opportunity Contention-Based WBAN MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Young; Cho, Jinsung

    WBANs provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since WBANs utilize both MICS frequency band for implant medical applications and ISM frequency band for medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in WBAN should be designed considering flexibility between medical and CE applications. In this letter, we identify the requirements of WBAN MAC protocols and propose a WBAN MAC protocol which satisfies the requirements. In order to provide transmission flexibility for various applications, we present the dynamic CFP allocation and opportunity period. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves improved throughput and latency in WBAN environment compared with IEEE 802.15.4.

  17. 15 CFR 700.11 - Priority ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.11 Priority ratings. (a) Levels...

  18. A 'resource allocator' for transcription based on a highly fragmented T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Meyer, Adam J; Ellington, Andrew D; Sontag, Eduardo D; Voigt, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic genetic systems share resources with the host, including machinery for transcription and translation. Phage RNA polymerases (RNAPs) decouple transcription from the host and generate high expression. However, they can exhibit toxicity and lack accessory proteins (σ factors and activators) that enable switching between different promoters and modulation of activity. Here, we show that T7 RNAP (883 amino acids) can be divided into four fragments that have to be co-expressed to function. The DNA-binding loop is encoded in a C-terminal 285-aa 'σ fragment', and fragments with different specificity can direct the remaining 601-aa 'core fragment' to different promoters. Using these parts, we have built a resource allocator that sets the core fragment concentration, which is then shared by multiple σ fragments. Adjusting the concentration of the core fragment sets the maximum transcriptional capacity available to a synthetic system. Further, positive and negative regulation is implemented using a 67-aa N-terminal 'α fragment' and a null (inactivated) σ fragment, respectively. The α fragment can be fused to recombinant proteins to make promoters responsive to their levels. These parts provide a toolbox to allocate transcriptional resources via different schemes, which we demonstrate by building a system which adjusts promoter activity to compensate for the difference in copy number of two plasmids. PMID:25080493

  19. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  20. Soluble carbohydrate allocation to roots, photosynthetic rate of leaves, and nitrate assimilation as affected by nitrogen stress and irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1991-01-01

    Upon resupply of exogenous nitrogen to nitrogen-stressed plants, uptake rate of nitrogen is enhanced relative to nonstressed plants. Absorption of nitrogen presumably is dependent on availability of carbohydrates in the roots. A buildup in soluble carbohydrates thus should occur in roots of nitrogen-stressed plants, and upon resupply of exogenous nitrogen the increased uptake rate should be accompanied by a rapid decline in carbohydrates to prestress levels. To evaluate this relationship, three sets of tobacco plants growing in a complete hydroponic solution containing 1.0 mM NO3- were either continued in the complete solution for 21 d, transferred to a minus-nitrogen solution for 21 d, or transferred to a minus-nitrogen solution for 8-9 d and then returned to the 1.0 mM NO3- solution. These nitrogen treatments were imposed upon plants growing at photosynthetic photon flux densities of 700 and 350 micromoles m-2 s-1. Soluble carbohydrate levels in roots increased during onset of nitrogen stress to levels that were fourfold greater than in roots of non-stressed plants. Following resupply of external nitrogen, a rapid resumption of nitrogen uptake was accompanied by a decline in soluble carbohydrates in roots to levels characteristic of nonstressed plants. This pattern of soluble carbohydrate levels in roots during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress occurred at both irradiance levels. The response of net photosynthetic rate to nitrogen stress could be expressed as a nonlinear function of concentration of reduced nitrogen in leaves. The net photosynthetic rate at a given concentration of reduced nitrogen, however, averaged 10% less at the lower than at the higher irradiance. The decline in net photosynthetic rate per unit of reduced nitrogen in leaves at the lower irradiance was accompanied by an increase in the nitrate fraction of total nitrogen in leaves from 20% at the higher irradiance to 38% at the lower irradiance.

  1. Base-Rate Neglect as a Function of Base Rates in Probabilistic Contingency Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutzner, Florian; Freytag, Peter; Vogel, Tobias; Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    When humans predict criterion events based on probabilistic predictors, they often lend excessive weight to the predictor and insufficient weight to the base rate of the criterion event. In an operant analysis, using a matching-to-sample paradigm, Goodie and Fantino (1996) showed that humans exhibit base-rate neglect when predictors are associated…

  2. Improved waiting-list outcomes in Argentina after the adoption of a model for end-stage liver disease-based liver allocation policy.

    PubMed

    Cejas, Nora Gabriela; Villamil, Federico G; Lendoire, Javier C; Tagliafichi, Viviana; Lopez, Arturo; Krogh, Daniela Hansen; Soratti, Carlos A; Bisigniano, Liliana

    2013-07-01

    In July 2005, Argentina became the first country after the United States to introduce the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) for organ allocation. In this study, we investigated waiting-list (WL) outcomes (n = 3272) and post-liver transplantation (LT) survival in 2 consecutive periods of 5 years before and after the implementation of a MELD-based allocation policy. Data were obtained from the database of the national institute for organ allocation in Argentina. After the adoption of the MELD system, there were significant reductions in WL mortality [28.5% versus 21.9%, P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.81] and total dropout rates (38.6% versus 29.1%, P < 0.001, HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.16-1.48) despite significantly less LT accessibility (57.4% versus 50.7%, P < 0.001, HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.39-1.68). The annual number of deaths per 1000 patient-years at risk decreased from 273 in 2005 to 173 in 2010, and the number of LT procedures per 1000 patient-years at risk decreased from 564 to 422. MELD and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium scores were excellent predictors of 3-month WL mortality with c statistics of 0.828 and 0.857, respectively (P < 0.001). No difference was observed in 1-year posttransplant survival between the 2 periods (81.1% versus 81.3%). Although patients with a MELD score > 30 had lower posttransplant survival, the global accuracy of the score for predicting outcomes was poor, as indicated by a c statistic of only 0.523. Patients with granted MELD exceptions (158 for hepatocellular carcinoma and 52 for other reasons) had significantly higher access to LT (80.4%) in comparison with nonexception patients with equivalent listing priority (MELD score = 18-25; 54.6%, P < 0.001, HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.40-0.61). In conclusion, the adoption of the MELD model in Argentina has resulted in improved liver organ allocation without compromising

  3. Statistical mechanics of competitive resource allocation using agent-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Anirban; Challet, Damien; Chatterjee, Arnab; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2015-01-01

    Demand outstrips available resources in most situations, which gives rise to competition, interaction and learning. In this article, we review a broad spectrum of multi-agent models of competition (El Farol Bar problem, Minority Game, Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem, Stable marriage problem, Parking space problem and others) and the methods used to understand them analytically. We emphasize the power of concepts and tools from statistical mechanics to understand and explain fully collective phenomena such as phase transitions and long memory, and the mapping between agent heterogeneity and physical disorder. As these methods can be applied to any large-scale model of competitive resource allocation made up of heterogeneous adaptive agent with non-linear interaction, they provide a prospective unifying paradigm for many scientific disciplines.

  4. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22315541

  5. Performance impact of mutation operators of a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm for multi-robot task allocation problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems. PMID:27588254

  6. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  7. Application of portfolio theory to risk-based allocation of surveillance resources in animal populations.

    PubMed

    Prattley, D J; Morris, R S; Stevenson, M A; Thornton, R

    2007-09-14

    Distribution of finite levels of resources between multiple competing tasks can be a challenging problem. Resources need to be distributed across time periods and geographic locations to increase the probability of detection of a disease incursion or significant change in disease pattern. Efforts should focus primarily on areas and populations where risk factors for a given disease reach relatively high levels. In order to target resources into these areas, the overall risk level can be evaluated periodically across locations to create a dynamic national risk landscape. Methods are described to integrate the levels of various risk factors into an overall risk score for each area, to account for the certainty or variability around those measures and then to allocate surveillance resources across this risk landscape. In addition to targeting resources into high risk areas, surveillance continues in lower risk areas where there is a small yet positive chance of disease occurrence. In this paper we describe the application of portfolio theory concepts, routinely used in finance, to design surveillance portfolios for a series of examples. The appropriate level of resource investment is chosen for each disease or geographical area and time period given the degree of disease risk and uncertainty present. PMID:17509705

  8. Rate control strategy based on human visual sensitivity for MPEG video coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Seungkwon; Kang, Jungsuk; Seo, Yang-Seock

    1994-09-01

    The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) has standardized the bit-stream syntax for the coded representation of video. This means that MPEG specifies only a decoding method and allows much flexibility in encoding methods. Therefore the picture quality of the reconstructed video sequences is considerably dependent on the rate control strategy in the encoding method. We propose a new rate control strategy conforming to the MPEG syntax that improves the reconstructed picture quality. The new rate control strategy allocates the target number of bits and assigns quantization step sizes adaptively based on the human visual sensitivity and the complexity of the picture to be coded. The proposed rate control strategy consists of the following steps. First, a 16 X 16 macroblock is classified into one of 8 macroblock classes based on human visual sensitivity for luminance and color components in the macroblock and then an 8 X 8 block is classified into one of block classes by its variance. Next, the target number of bits is allocated to a block and the quantization step size is assigned to a macroblock. The result of subjective tests showed the proposed rate control strategy improved the picture quality of the reconstructed video sequences considerably over the conventional strategy. Especially in the proposed strategy, the subjective picture quality between frames was more constant and hence was less degraded than conventional rate control strategies.

  9. Acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1991-01-01

    The acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically based monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.

  10. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  11. Region-of-interest based rate control for UAV video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chun-lei; Dai, Ming; Xiong, Jing-ying

    2016-05-01

    To meet the requirement of high-quality transmission of videos captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with low bandwidth, a novel rate control (RC) scheme based on region-of-interest (ROI) is proposed. First, the ROI information is sent to the encoder with the latest high efficient video coding (HEVC) standard to generate an ROI map. Then, by using the ROI map, bit allocation methods are developed at frame level and large coding unit (LCU) level, to avoid inaccurate bit allocation produced by camera movement. At last, by using a better robustness R- λ model, the quantization parameter ( QP) for each LCU is calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed RC method can get a lower bitrate error and a higher quality for reconstructed video by choosing appropriate pixel weight on the HEVC platform.

  12. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  13. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  14. Water consumption and allocation strategies along the river oases of Tarim River based on large-scale hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2016-04-01

    With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. The project aims to contribute to a sustainable land management which explicitly takes into account ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. SuMaRiO will identify realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups. The modelling of water consumption and allocation strategies is a core block in the SuMaRiO cluster. A large-scale hydrological model (MIKE HYDRO Basin) was established for the purpose of sustainable agricultural water management in the main stem Tarim River. MIKE HYDRO Basin is an integrated, multipurpose, map-based decision support tool for river basin analysis, planning and management. It provides detailed simulation results concerning water resources and land use in the catchment areas of the river. Calibration data and future predictions based on large amount of data was acquired. The results of model calibration indicated a close correlation between simulated and observed values. Scenarios with the change on irrigation strategies and land use distributions were investigated. Irrigation scenarios revealed that the available irrigation water has significant and varying effects on the yields of different crops. Irrigation water saving could reach up to 40% in the water-saving irrigation scenario. Land use scenarios illustrated that an increase of farmland area in the

  15. Statistical analysis of blocking probability and fragmentation based on Markov modeling of elastic spectrum allocation on fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. N. F.; Wiatr, P.; Cavdar, C.; Carvalho, S. V.; Costa, J. C. W. A.; Wosinska, L.

    2015-11-01

    In Elastic Optical Network (EON), spectrum fragmentation refers to the existence of non-aligned, small-sized blocks of free subcarrier slots in the optical spectrum. Several metrics have been proposed in order to quantify a level of spectrum fragmentation. Approximation methods might be used for estimating average blocking probability and some fragmentation measures, but are so far unable to accurately evaluate the influence of different sizes of connection requests and do not allow in-depth investigation of blocking events and their relation to fragmentation. The analytical study of the effect of fragmentation on requests' blocking probability is still under-explored. In this work, we introduce new definitions for blocking that differentiate between the reasons for the blocking events. We developed a framework based on Markov modeling to calculate steady-state probabilities for the different blocking events and to analyze fragmentation related problems in elastic optical links under dynamic traffic conditions. This framework can also be used for evaluation of different definitions of fragmentation in terms of their relation to the blocking probability. We investigate how different allocation request sizes contribute to fragmentation and blocking probability. Moreover, we show to which extend blocking events, due to insufficient amount of available resources, become inevitable and, compared to the amount of blocking events due to fragmented spectrum, we draw conclusions on the possible gains one can achieve by system defragmentation. We also show how efficient spectrum allocation policies really are in reducing the part of fragmentation that in particular leads to actual blocking events. Simulation experiments are carried out showing good match with our analytical results for blocking probability in a small scale scenario. Simulated blocking probabilities for the different blocking events are provided for a larger scale elastic optical link.

  16. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  17. Template based low data rate speech encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, Lawrence

    1993-09-01

    The 2400-b/s linear predictive coder (LPC) is currently being widely deployed to support tactical voice communication over narrowband channels. However, there is a need for lower-data-rate voice encoders for special applications: improved performance in high bit-error conditions, low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) voice communication, and narrowband integrated voice/data systems. An 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm is presented which is an extension of the 2400-b/s LPC. To construct template tables, speech samples of 420 speakers uttering 8 sentences each were excerpted from the Texas Instrument - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT) Acoustic-Phonetic Speech Data Base. Speech intelligibility of the 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm measured by the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) is 91.5 for three male speakers. This score compares favorably with the 2400-b/s LPC of a few years ago.

  18. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  19. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amounts held in reserve or distributed by base or administrative allocation times the basic State factor... available for allocation−NO reserve−total base and administrative allocations) × SF. (4) Transition formula... program section. (5) Base allocation. An amount that may be allocated to each State dependent upon...

  20. Developing an Agent-based Model for the Depot-based Water Allocation System in the Bakken Field in Western North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.; Lin, Z.; Lim, S.; Borders, M.

    2015-12-01

    The oil production at the Bakken Shale increased more than ten times from 2008 to 2013 due to technological advancement in hydraulic fracturing and North Dakota has become the second largest oil producing state in the U.S. behind only Texas since 2012. On average it requires about 2-4 million gallons of freshwater to complete one oil well in the Bakken field and the number of oil well completions (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) in the Bakken field increased from 500 in 2008 to 2085 in 2013. A large quantity of freshwater used for hydraulic fracturing renders a significant impact on water resource management in the semi-arid region. A novel water allocation system - water depots - was spontaneously created to distribute surface and ground water for industrial uses. A GIS-based multi-agent model is developed to simulate the emergent patterns and dynamics of the water depot-based water allocation system and to explore its economic and environmental consequences. Four different types of water depot are defined as agents and water price, climate condition, water source, geology, and other physical and economic constraints are considered in the model. Decentralized optimization algorithm will be used to determine the agents' behaviors. The agent-based model for water depots will be coupled with hydrological models to improve the region's water resources management.

  1. Web-based Electronic Sharing and RE-allocation of Assets

    2002-09-09

    The Electronic Asses Sharing Program is a web-based application that provides the capability for complex-wide sharing and reallocation of assets that are excess, under utilized, or un-utilized. through a web-based fron-end and supporting has database with a search engine, users can search for assets that they need, search for assets needed by others, enter assets they need, and enter assets they have available for reallocation. In addition, entire listings of available assets and needed assetsmore » can be viewed. The application is written in Java, the hash database and search engine are in Object-oriented Java Database Management (OJDBM). The application will be hosted on an SRS-managed server outside the Firewall and access will be controlled via a protected realm. An example of the application can be viewed at the followinig (temporary) URL: http://idgdev.srs.gov/servlet/srs.weshare.WeShare« less

  2. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  3. Equality of Medical Health Resource Allocation in China Based on the Gini Coefficient Method

    PubMed Central

    JIN, Jian; WANG, Jianxiang; MA, Xiaoyi; WANG, Yuding; LI, Renyong

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Chinese government is trying to achieve the goal of “universal access to basic health care services”. However, the inequality of the distribution of health care resources across the country is the biggest obstacle. This paper aims to explore these inequalities and the extent to which the method of analysis influences the perception. Methods: The indicators of health care resource distribution studied consisted of the number of health care institutions, the number of beds in health care institutions and the number of medical personnel. Data were obtained from the China Statistical Yearbook 2014. The extent of equality was assessed using the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient Method. Results: Health care resource distribution in China demonstrates inequalities. The demographic Gini Coefficients based on the Lorenz Curves for the distribution of health care institutions, beds in health care institutions and medical personnel are 0.190, 0.070 and 0.070 respectively, while the corresponding Coefficients based on geographical areas are 0.616, 0.639 and 0.650. Conclusion: The equality of China’s demographically assessed distribution of health care resources is greater than that of its geographically measured distribution. Coefficients expressed by population imply there is ready access to healthcare in all regions, whilst the Coefficients by geographical area apparently indicate inequality. This is the result of the sparsity of population. PMID:26056663

  4. Agent based model of effects of task allocation strategies in flat organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2016-09-01

    A common practice in many organizations is to pile the work on the best performers. It is easy to implement by the management and, despite the apparent injustice, appears to be working in many situations. In our work we present a simple agent based model, constructed to simulate this practice and to analyze conditions under which the overall efficiency of the organization (for example measured by the backlog of unresolved issues) breaks down, due to the cumulative effect of the individual overloads. The model confirms that the strategy mentioned above is, indeed, rational: it leads to better global results than an alternative one, using equal workload distribution among all workers. The presented analyses focus on the behavior of the organizations close to the limit of the maximum total throughput and provide results for the growth of the unprocessed backlog in several situations, as well as suggestions related to avoiding such buildup.

  5. An Innovative Time-Cost-Quality Tradeoff Modeling of Building Construction Project Based on Resource Allocation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The time, quality, and cost are three important but contradictive objectives in a building construction project. It is a tough challenge for project managers to optimize them since they are different parameters. This paper presents a time-cost-quality optimization model that enables managers to optimize multiobjectives. The model is from the project breakdown structure method where task resources in a construction project are divided into a series of activities and further into construction labors, materials, equipment, and administration. The resources utilized in a construction activity would eventually determine its construction time, cost, and quality, and a complex time-cost-quality trade-off model is finally generated based on correlations between construction activities. A genetic algorithm tool is applied in the model to solve the comprehensive nonlinear time-cost-quality problems. Building of a three-storey house is an example to illustrate the implementation of the model, demonstrate its advantages in optimizing trade-off of construction time, cost, and quality, and help make a winning decision in construction practices. The computational time-cost-quality curves in visual graphics from the case study prove traditional cost-time assumptions reasonable and also prove this time-cost-quality trade-off model sophisticated. PMID:24672351

  6. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  7. Understanding the impacts of allocation approaches during process-based life cycle assessment of water treatment chemicals.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, Juan P; Peters, Gregory M; Short, Michael D; Schulz, Matthias; Moore, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Chemicals are an important component of advanced water treatment operations not only in terms of economics but also from an environmental standpoint. Tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are useful for estimating the environmental impacts of water treatment operations. At the same time, LCA analysts must manage several fundamental and as yet unresolved methodological challenges, one of which is the question of how best to "allocate" environmental burdens in multifunctional processes. Using water treatment chemicals as a case study example, this article aims to quantify the variability in greenhouse gas emissions estimates stemming from methodological choices made in respect of allocation during LCA. The chemicals investigated and reported here are those most important to coagulation and disinfection processes, and the outcomes are illustrated on the basis of treating 1000 ML of noncoagulated and nondisinfected water. Recent process and economic data for the production of these chemicals is used and methodological alternatives for solving the multifunctionality problem, including system expansion and mass, exergy, and economic allocation, are applied to data from chlor-alkali plants. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation is included to provide a comprehensive picture of the robustness of economic allocation results to changes in the market price of these industrial commodities. For disinfection, results demonstrate that chlorine gas has a lower global warming potential (GWP) than sodium hypochlorite regardless of the technique used to solve allocation issues. For coagulation, when mass or economic allocation is used to solve the multifunctionality problem in the chlor-alkali facility, ferric chloride was found to have a higher GWP than aluminum sulfate and a slightly lower burden where system expansion or exergy allocation are applied instead. Monte Carlo results demonstrate that when economic allocation is used, GWP results were relatively robust and resilient

  8. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network.

  9. Development of a web GIS application for emissions inventory spatial allocation based on open source software tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzoflias, Dimitrios; Mellios, Giorgos; Samaras, Zissis

    2013-03-01

    Combining emission inventory methods and geographic information systems (GIS) remains a key issue for environmental modelling and management purposes. This paper examines the development of a web GIS application as part of an emission inventory system that produces maps and files with spatial allocated emissions in a grid format. The study is not confined in the maps produced but also presents the features and capabilities of a web application that can be used by every user even without any prior knowledge of the GIS field. The development of the application was based on open source software tools such as MapServer for the GIS functions, PostgreSQL and PostGIS for the data management and HTML, PHP and JavaScript as programming languages. In addition, background processes are used in an innovative manner to handle the time consuming and computational costly procedures of the application. Furthermore, a web map service was created to provide maps to other clients such as the Google Maps API v3 that is used as part of the user interface. The output of the application includes maps in vector and raster format, maps with temporal resolution on daily and hourly basis, grid files that can be used by air quality management systems and grid files consistent with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Grid. Although the system was developed and validated for the Republic of Cyprus covering a remarkable wide range of pollutant and emissions sources, it can be easily customized for use in other countries or smaller areas, as long as geospatial and activity data are available.

  10. Design and implementation of priority and time-window based traffic scheduling and routing-spectrum allocation mechanism in elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honghuan; Xing, Fangyuan; Yin, Hongxi; Zhao, Nan; Lian, Bizhan

    2016-02-01

    With the explosive growth of network services, the reasonable traffic scheduling and efficient configuration of network resources have an important significance to increase the efficiency of the network. In this paper, an adaptive traffic scheduling policy based on the priority and time window is proposed and the performance of this algorithm is evaluated in terms of scheduling ratio. The routing and spectrum allocation are achieved by using the Floyd shortest path algorithm and establishing a node spectrum resource allocation model based on greedy algorithm, which is proposed by us. The fairness index is introduced to improve the capability of spectrum configuration. The results show that the designed traffic scheduling strategy can be applied to networks with multicast and broadcast functionalities, and makes them get real-time and efficient response. The scheme of node spectrum configuration improves the frequency resource utilization and gives play to the efficiency of the network.

  11. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  12. Equity in resource allocation in the Irish health service. A policy Delphi study.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Rosalyn; Kelly, Alan

    2004-03-01

    Resource allocation in the Irish health service, based on historical allocations with incremental increases, is widely believed to be inequitable. Using a three-round policy Delphi survey, which seeks to explore both consensus and disagreement surrounding policy issues, the views of 52 senior health service personnel were sought in order to determine ways to improve equity in resource allocation. Panelists provided several reasons why the current method of resource allocation is inequitable and several suggestions for improving equity. The level of consensus on views was determined by calculating the percentage of ratings in each category based on a series of rating scales. The main suggestion centred around the development and implementation of a needs based resource allocation formula. Panelists reached a high consensus in favour of this but only reached a low consensus as to its feasibility. Potential obstacles identified included methodological difficulties, insufficient resources and resistance from potential losers. These findings highlight concerns about the lack of transparency in the resource allocation process and openness to the development of a more equitable needs based resource allocation model, a move which is becoming more common internationally. Feasibility concerns should not preclude an attempt to begin this process. PMID:15036815

  13. 77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs Docket Nos. Aleph One, Inc ER04-686-000 Alpha Domestic Power Trading, LLC... market-based rate authority of the public utilities listed in the caption of that order, which had...

  14. Computer Processor Allocator

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  15. Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings.

    PubMed

    Tupes, E C; Christal, R E

    1992-06-01

    Intercorrelations among ratings on 35 personality traits, selected as representative of the personality domain, were obtained for eight samples. These samples differed in length of acquaintanceship from 3 days to more than a year; in kind of acquaintanceship from assessment programs in a military training course to a fraternity house situation; in type of subject from airmen with only a high-school education to male and female undergraduate students to first-year graduate students; and in type of rater from very naive persons to clinical psychologists and psychiatrists with years of experience in the evaluation of personality. Centroid or multiple-group factors were extracted and rotated orthogonally to simple structure. For one study, an independent solution was obtained in which analytic rotations were accomplished on an IBM 650 computer using Kaiser's normal varimax criterion. Five fairly strong and recurrent factors emerged from each analysis, labeled as (a) Surgency, (b) Agreeableness, (c) Dependability, (d) Emotional Stability, and (e) Culture. PMID:1635043

  16. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  17. Network coding based joint signaling and dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for inter optical network unit communication in passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-06-01

    As an innovative and promising technology, network coding has been introduced to passive optical networks (PON) in recent years to support inter optical network unit (ONU) communication, yet the signaling process and dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in PON with network coding (NC-PON) still need further study. Thus, we propose a joint signaling and DBA scheme for efficiently supporting differentiated services of inter ONU communication in NC-PON. In the proposed joint scheme, the signaling process lays the foundation to fulfill network coding in PON, and it can not only avoid the potential threat to downstream security in previous schemes but also be suitable for the proposed hybrid dynamic bandwidth allocation (HDBA) scheme. In HDBA, a DBA cycle is divided into two sub-cycles for applying different coding, scheduling and bandwidth allocation strategies to differentiated classes of services. Besides, as network traffic load varies, the entire upstream transmission window for all REPORT messages slides accordingly, leaving the transmission time of one or two sub-cycles to overlap with the bandwidth allocation calculation time at the optical line terminal (the OLT), so that the upstream idle time can be efficiently eliminated. Performance evaluation results validate that compared with the existing two DBA algorithms deployed in NC-PON, HDBA demonstrates the best quality of service (QoS) support in terms of delay for all classes of services, especially guarantees the end-to-end delay bound of high class services. Specifically, HDBA can eliminate queuing delay and scheduling delay of high class services, reduce those of lower class services by at least 20%, and reduce the average end-to-end delay of all services over 50%. Moreover, HDBA also achieves the maximum delay fairness between coded and uncoded lower class services, and medium delay fairness for high class services.

  18. High-capacity and low-cost long-reach OFDMA PON based on distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Wu, Jiayang; Mao, Junming; Lv, Jianxin; Jiang, Yuling; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2015-01-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation scheme to realize high-capacity long-reach orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA PON) with cost-effective electro-absorption modulator (EAM). In our scheme, the subcarriers in downstream OFDM signal are properly allocated to the optical network units (ONUs) with different fiber transmission lengths. By this means, the detrimental influence of power fading induced by dispersion and chirp can be avoided, thus all OFDM subcarriers can be modulated with high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) format, leading to a high transmission capacity. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed, in which three ONUs with transmission distances of 25, 50, and 100 km are assigned with different subcarriers, respectively. By using distance-adaptive bandwidth allocation technique, an OFDM signal of 34.5 Gb/s is successfully delivered to the ONUs with a bit error ratio (BER) lower than 2 × 10(-3). PMID:25835883

  19. Algorithms for resource allocation of substance abuse prevention funds based on social indicators: a case study on state of Florida--Part 3.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Wurster, L; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of Part 3 is to develop an algorithm for an equitable distribution of state prevention funds to its substate jurisdictions based on the need for prevention services. In this series, the need for prevention services is measured in terms of the existing social indicators observed at the county level. In order to establish a conceptual link as well as the empirical relevance of the selected social indicators as proxy measurements of the estimated need for prevention at the county level, we have employed both concurrent and construct validity tests using the following three constructs as the criterion variables in a multiple regressing setting: 1) county-based composite drug use index score (COMDRUG) measured via the statewide drug survey; 2) county-based proportions of prevention target populations using the conceptual definition advanced by the Institute of Medicine (IOM); and 3) the composite risk factor score (COMRISK) assembled from a list of twenty-two risk and protective factors observed for each county. These constructs were identified previously in Parts 1 and 2. While employing eight social indicators to estimate the overall prevention needs observed at the county level, the social indicators thus selected were able to explain 69 percent of the variations in COMDRUG, 68 percent of the variation in the proportions of students in need of prevention services using IOM definition, and 60 percent of the variation in COMRISK. Following successful validations of the social indicators as viable media with which to estimate county-based prevention needs, the ensuing multiple regression equation is, then, used to build a resource allocation model by determining the proportion of each county's share of the total statewide COMDRUG-predicted from the social indicators and, then, by weighting the latter proportion by the population size of each county under age eighteen. In this way, we have devised county-based Prevention Needs Index (PNI) scores based solely

  20. Individual-Based Completion Rates for Apprentices. Technical Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Low completion rates for apprentices and trainees have received considerable attention recently and it has been argued that NCVER seriously understates completion rates. In this paper Tom Karmel uses NCVER data on recommencements to estimate individual-based completion rates. It is estimated that around one-quarter of trade apprentices swap…

  1. Make or buy analysis model based on tolerance allocation to minimize manufacturing cost and fuzzy quality loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Puspitoingrum, W.; Jauhari, W. A.; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    The specification of tolerances has a significant impact on the quality of product and final production cost. The company should carefully pay attention to the component or product tolerance so they can produce a good quality product at the lowest cost. Tolerance allocation has been widely used to solve problem in selecting particular process or supplier. But before merely getting into the selection process, the company must first make a plan to analyse whether the component must be made in house (make), to be purchased from a supplier (buy), or used the combination of both. This paper discusses an optimization model of process and supplier selection in order to minimize the manufacturing costs and the fuzzy quality loss. This model can also be used to determine the allocation of components to the selected processes or suppliers. Tolerance, process capability and production capacity are three important constraints that affect the decision. Fuzzy quality loss function is used in this paper to describe the semantic of the quality, in which the product quality level is divided into several grades. The implementation of the proposed model has been demonstrated by solving a numerical example problem that used a simple assembly product which consists of three components. The metaheuristic approach were implemented to OptQuest software from Oracle Crystal Ball in order to obtain the optimal solution of the numerical example.

  2. 9 CFR 592.510 - Base time rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base time rate. 592.510 Section 592.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Fees and Charges § 592.510 Base time rate....

  3. 9 CFR 592.510 - Base time rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base time rate. 592.510 Section 592.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Fees and Charges § 592.510 Base time rate....

  4. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of... facilities capacity in anticipation of the receipt of rated orders; (b) Directive: an official action...

  5. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units based on information provided by: (A) The needs assessment prepared in accordance with 24 CFR 8.25... dwelling units in the project for the year preceding the date of submission of the allocation plan to HUD... available for occupancy during the two-year period following the date of submission of the allocation...

  6. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  7. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  8. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  9. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  10. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  11. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  12. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  13. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... held in the National Office reserve and distributed by base and administrative allocation, multiplied... allocation−national reserve−base allocation−administrative allocation) × State Factor (b) To calculate the..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan...

  15. Teachers' Characteristics and Ratings for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy; Herman, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of schools today are not prepared to support children's social behavior needs. One challenge is that teachers may not be knowledgeable of evidence-based practices that can be utilized with children. This study explored teachers' agreement ratings for evidence-based and nonevidence-based behavior management practices for children…

  16. Allocation without locking

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    In a programming environment with both concurrency and automatic garbage collection, the allocation and initialization of a new record is a sensitive matter: if it is interrupted halfway through, the allocating process may be in a state that the garbage collector can't understand. In particular, the collector won't know which words of the new record have been initialized and which are meaningless (and unsafe to transverse). For this reason, parallel implementations usually use a locking or semaphore mechanism to ensure that allocation is an atomic operation. The locking significantly adds to the cost of allocation. This paper shows that allocation can run extremely quickly even in a multi-thread environment: open-coded, without locking.

  17. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a

  18. Medicare and Medicaid programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System rate update for CY 2014, home health quality reporting requirements, and cost allocation of home health survey expenses. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    This final rule will update the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, the low-utilization payment adjustment (LUPA) add-on, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective January 1, 2014. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule establishes rebasing adjustments, with a 4-year phase-in, to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates; the national per-visit rates; and the NRS conversion factor. In addition, this final rule will remove 170 diagnosis codes from assignment to diagnosis groups within the HH PPS Grouper, effective January 1, 2014. Finally, this rule will establish home health quality reporting requirements for CY 2014 payment and subsequent years and will clarify that a state Medicaid program must provide that, in certifying HHAs, the state's designated survey agency carry out certain other responsibilities that already apply to surveys of nursing facilities and Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ICF-IID), including sharing in the cost of HHA surveys. For that portion of costs attributable to Medicare and Medicaid, we will assign 50 percent to Medicare and 50 percent to Medicaid, the standard method that CMS and states use in the allocation of expenses related to surveys of nursing homes. PMID:24294635

  19. The role of physical formidability in human social status allocation.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Simmons, Zachary L; Anderson, Cameron; Roney, James R

    2016-03-01

    Why are physically formidable men willingly allocated higher social status by others in cooperative groups? Ancestrally, physically formidable males would have been differentially equipped to generate benefits for groups by providing leadership services of within-group enforcement (e.g., implementing punishment of free riders) and between-group representation (e.g., negotiating with other coalitions). Therefore, we hypothesize that adaptations for social status allocation are designed to interpret men's physical formidability as a cue to these leadership abilities, and to allocate greater status to formidable men on this basis. These hypotheses were supported in 4 empirical studies wherein young adults rated standardized photos of subjects (targets) who were described as being part of a white-collar business consultancy. In Studies 1 and 2, male targets' physical strength positively predicted ratings of their projected status within the organization, and this effect was mediated by perceptions that stronger men possessed greater leadership abilities of within-group enforcement and between-group representation. Moreover, (a) these same patterns held whether status was conceptualized as overall ascendancy, prestige-based status, or dominance-based status, and (b) strong men who were perceived as aggressively self-interested were not allocated greater status. Finally, 2 experiments established the causality of physical formidability's effects on status-related perceptions by manipulating targets' relative strength (Study 3) and height (Study 4). In interpreting our findings, we argue that adaptations for formidability-based status allocation may have facilitated the evolution of group cooperation in humans and other primates. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653896

  20. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  1. Rate-based ABR flow control using two timescale SPSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh; Fu, Michael C.; Marcus, Steven I.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, a two timescale simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm is developed and applied to closed loop rate based available bit rate flow control. The relevant convergence results are stated and explained. Numerical experiments demonstrate fast convergence even in the presence of significant delays and a large number of parameterized policy levels.

  2. An enhanced rate-based emission trading program for NOX: the Dutch model.

    PubMed

    Sholtz, A M; Van Amburg, B; Wochnick, V K

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government's policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry's need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those "cleaner" than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry's requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers.) However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed) and secondary (variable) credits, and outlines how the Dutch system is expected to

  3. Cooling rate based on schreibersite growth for the Emery mesosiderite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulpecz, A. A., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Computer simulation of diffusion-controlled growth of the large Ni-rich grains of schreibersite found in the Emery mesosiderite indicates that exsolution from kamacite occurred during cooling at the rate of 0.1 C/Myr. This finding agrees with the mesosiderite cooling rate determined by Powell (1969) from taenite-kamacite data. The cooling rate is the lowest found for any meteorite group, and implications for the cooling history, with a possibility of reheating, are considered. The procedure for computing a family of cooling rate curves is based on Randich's (1975) method.

  4. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  5. 78 FR 28790 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Forward Pricing Rate Proposal Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... direct labor base used for labor overhead consistent with direct labor in the G&A allocation base)? 8... documents for the base-year labor rates (e.g., payroll records)? 11. FAR 15.408 Table 15-2, Does the... the development of the allocation base? 22. FAR 15.408 Table 15-2, Does the proposal include...

  6. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  7. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  8. The organ allocation controversy: how did we arrive here?

    PubMed

    Van Meter, C H

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recently issued a final regulation governing the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) that directs the allocation of organs to the sickest patients first without regard to a host of medical, geographic, and social factors that members of the transplant community view as an essential part of a sound organ allocation policy.Current organ allocation mechanisms are based on policies that reflect a broad consensus of medical experts and provide equal consideration for both the needs of the sickest patients and the efficient use of organs. This system also reduces potential waste of organs by minimizing cold ischemic time, increases access to transplantation for patients in local communities, provides positive incentives for local citizens and medical professionals to support organ donation initiatives, and decreases the cost of organ transplantation.Representatives of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons have testified before Congress that "giving priority to the sickest patients first over broad geographic areas would be wasteful and dangerous, resulting in fewer patients transplanted, increased death rates, increased retransplantation due to poor organ function, and increased overall cost of transplantation." In response, Congress enacted a 1-year moratorium on the implementation of the HHS rule and provided for a study of the current organ allocation policy and HHS regulation by The Institute of Medicine. PMID:21845113

  9. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  10. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  11. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  12. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  13. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  14. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  15. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  16. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  17. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  18. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  19. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  1. Comparison of Airborne and Ground-Based Function Allocation Concepts for NextGen Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Prevot, Thomas; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an air/ground functional allocation experiment conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) using two human-in-the-Loop simulations to compare airborne and ground-based approaches to NextGen separation assurance. The approaches under investigation are two trajectory-based four-dimensional (4D) concepts; one referred to as "airborne trajectory management with self-separation" (airborne) the other as "ground-based automated separation assurance" (ground-based). In coordinated simulations at NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers, the primary operational participants -controllers for the ground-based concept and pilots for the airborne concept - manage the same traffic scenario using the two different 4D concepts. The common scenarios are anchored in traffic problems that require a significant increase in airspace capacity - on average, double, and in some local areas, close to 250% over current day levels - in order to enable aircraft to safely and efficiently traverse the test airspace. The simulations vary common independent variables such as traffic density, sequencing and scheduling constraints, and timing of trajectory change events. A set of common metrics is collected to enable a direct comparison of relevant results. The simulations will be conducted in spring 2010. If accepted, this paper will be the first publication of the experimental approach and early results. An initial comparison of safety and efficiency as well as operator acceptability under the two concepts is expected.

  2. Global Earthquake Activity Rate models based on version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kreemer, C.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) models have usually been based on either relative tectonic motion (fault slip rates and/or distributed strain rates), or on smoothing of seismic catalogs. However, a hybrid approach appears to perform better than either parent, at least in some retrospective tests. First, we construct a Tectonic ('T') forecast of shallow (≤ 70 km) seismicity based on global plate-boundary strain rates from version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map. Our approach is the SHIFT (Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics) method described by Bird et al. [2010, SRL], in which the character of the strain rate tensor (thrusting and/or strike-slip and/or normal) is used to select the most comparable type of plate boundary for calibration of the coupled seismogenic lithosphere thickness and corner magnitude. One difference is that activity of offshore plate boundaries is spatially smoothed using empirical half-widths [Bird & Kagan, 2004, BSSA] before conversion to seismicity. Another is that the velocity-dependence of coupling in subduction and continental-convergent boundaries [Bird et al., 2009, BSSA] is incorporated. Another forecast component is the smoothed-seismicity ('S') forecast model of [Kagan & Jackson, 1994, JGR; Kagan & Jackson, 2010, GJI], which was based on optimized smoothing of the shallow part of the GCMT catalog, years 1977-2004. Both forecasts were prepared for threshold magnitude 5.767. Then, we create hybrid forecasts by one of 3 methods: (a) taking the greater of S or T; (b) simple weighted-average of S and T; or (c) log of the forecast rate is a weighted average of the logs of S and T. In methods (b) and (c) there is one free parameter, which is the fractional contribution from S. All hybrid forecasts are normalized to the same global rate. Pseudo-prospective tests for 2005-2012 (using versions of S and T calibrated on years 1977-2004) show that many hybrid models outperform both parents (S and T), and that the optimal weight on S

  3. 75 FR 20796 - Market-Based Rate Affiliate Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) proposes to amend its regulations to revise its regulations governing market- based rates for public utilities pursuant to section 205 of the Federal Power Act (FPA). The Commission proposes to clarify that employees that determine the timing of scheduled outages, or that engage in economic dispatch, fuel procurement, or resource planning......

  4. Increasing Response Rates to Web-Based Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.

    2012-01-01

    We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-based surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response rates. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…

  5. 9 CFR 391.2 - Base time rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base time rate. 391.2 Section 391.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FEES AND CHARGES FOR INSPECTION SERVICES AND...

  6. 9 CFR 391.2 - Base time rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base time rate. 391.2 Section 391.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FEES AND CHARGES FOR INSPECTION SERVICES AND...

  7. 76 FR 4569 - Market-Based Rate Affiliate Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking, which proposed to amend its regulations governing market-based rates for public utilities pursuant to section 205 of the Federal Power Act (FPA) to include in the regulatory text the clarification that employees that determine the timing of scheduled outages or that engage in economic dispatch,......

  8. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  9. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  10. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  11. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  12. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  13. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  14. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  15. Ground-Based Remote Retrievals of Cumulus Entrainment Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Timothy J.; Turner, David D.; Berg, Larry K.; Krueger, Steven K.

    2013-07-26

    While fractional entrainment rates for cumulus clouds have typically been derived from airborne observations, this limits the size and scope of available data sets. To increase the number of continental cumulus entrainment rate observations available for study, an algorithm for retrieving them from ground-based remote sensing observations has been developed. This algorithm, called the Entrainment Rate In Cumulus Algorithm (ERICA), uses the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as inputs into a Gauss-Newton optimal estimation scheme, in which an assumed guess of the entrainment rate is iteratively adjusted through intercomparison of modeled liquid water path and cloud droplet effective radius to their observed counterparts. The forward model in this algorithm is the Explicit Mixing Parcel Model (EMPM), a cloud parcel model that treats entrainment as a series of discrete entrainment events. A quantified value for measurement uncertainty is also returned as part of the retrieval. Sensitivity testing and information content analysis demonstrate the robust nature of this method for retrieving accurate observations of the entrainment rate without the drawbacks of airborne sampling. Results from a test of ERICA on three months of shallow cumulus cloud events show significant variability of the entrainment rate of clouds in a single day and from one day to the next. The mean value of 1.06 km-¹ for the entrainment rate in this dataset corresponds well with prior observations and simulations of the entrainment rate in cumulus clouds.

  16. Quantitative prediction of genome-wide resource allocation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goelzer, Anne; Muntel, Jan; Chubukov, Victor; Jules, Matthieu; Prestel, Eric; Nölker, Rolf; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Aymerich, Stéphane; Hecker, Michael; Noirot, Philippe; Becher, Dörte; Fromion, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Predicting resource allocation between cell processes is the primary step towards decoding the evolutionary constraints governing bacterial growth under various conditions. Quantitative prediction at genome-scale remains a computational challenge as current methods are limited by the tractability of the problem or by simplifying hypotheses. Here, we show that the constraint-based modeling method Resource Balance Analysis (RBA), calibrated using genome-wide absolute protein quantification data, accurately predicts resource allocation in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis for a wide range of growth conditions. The regulation of most cellular processes is consistent with the objective of growth rate maximization except for a few suboptimal processes which likely integrate more complex objectives such as coping with stressful conditions and survival. As a proof of principle by using simulations, we illustrated how calibrated RBA could aid rational design of strains for maximizing protein production, offering new opportunities to investigate design principles in prokaryotes and to exploit them for biotechnological applications. PMID:26498510

  17. The future direction of the adult heart allocation system in the United States.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D M; Rogers, J G; Edwards, L B; Callahan, E R; Webber, S A; Johnson, M R; Vega, J D; Zucker, M J; Cleveland, J C

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring equitable and fair organ allocation is a central charge of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) as the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) through its contract with the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The OPTN/UNOS Board initiated a reassessment of the current allocation system. This paper describes the efforts of the OPTN/UNOS Heart Subcommittee, acting on behalf of the OPTN/UNOS Thoracic Organ Transplantation Committee, to modify the current allocation system. The Subcommittee assessed the limitations of the current three-tiered system, outcomes of patients with status exceptions, emerging ventricular assist device (VAD) population, options for improved geographic sharing and status of potentially disenfranchised groups. They analyzed waiting list and posttransplant mortality rates of a contemporary cohort of patient groups at risk, in collaboration with the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients to develop a proposed multi-tiered allocation scheme. This proposal provides a framework for simulation modeling to project whether candidates would have better waitlist survival in the revised allocation system, and whether posttransplant survival would remain stable. The tiers are subject to change, based on further analysis by the Heart Subcommittee and will lead to the development of a more effective and equitable heart allocation system. PMID:25534445

  18. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  19. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  20. Confidentiality Protection of User Data and Adaptive Resource Allocation for Managing Multiple Workflow Performance in Service-Based Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in…

  1. Predicting online ratings based on the opinion spreading process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Predicting users' online ratings is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a rating prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another based on the primitive user-item rating matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise rating prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-based collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.

  2. Diffusion-Based Density-Equalizing Maps: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Visualizing Homicide Rates and Other Georeferenced Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián

    2012-12-01

    In every country, public and private agencies allocate extensive funding to collect large-scale statistical data, which in turn are studied and analyzed in order to determine local, regional, national, and international policies regarding all aspects relevant to the welfare of society. One important aspect of that process is the visualization of statistical data with embedded geographical information, which most often relies on archaic methods such as maps colored according to graded scales. In this work, we apply nonstandard visualization techniques based on physical principles. We illustrate the method with recent statistics on homicide rates in Brazil and their correlation to other publicly available data. This physics-based approach provides a novel tool that can be used by interdisciplinary teams investigating statistics and model projections in a variety of fields such as economics and gross domestic product research, public health and epidemiology, sociodemographics, political science, business and marketing, and many others.

  3. Fast adaptive OFDM-PON over single fiber loopback transmission using dynamic rate adaptation-based algorithm for channel performance improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartiwa, Iwa; Jung, Sang-Min; Hong, Moon-Ki; Han, Sang-Kook

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel fast adaptive approach that was applied to an OFDM-PON 20-km single fiber loopback transmission system to improve channel performance in term of stabilized BER below 2 × 10-3 and higher throughput beyond 10 Gb/s. The upstream transmission is performed through light source-seeded modulation using 1-GHz RSOA at the ONU. Experimental results indicated that the dynamic rate adaptation algorithm based on greedy Levin-Campello could be an effective solution to mitigate channel instability and data rate degradation caused by the Rayleigh back scattering effect and inefficient resource subcarrier allocation.

  4. Decoding Nitric Oxide Release Rates of Amine-Based Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J.; Keefer, Larry K.; Ivanic, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)=NO−], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates. PMID:23834533

  5. A high-rate PCI-based telemetry processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, R.

    2002-07-01

    The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are based on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-rate data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data rate signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system based on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-based telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required rate.

  6. Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Roza, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    As attention shifts to how districts allocate resources to schools, student weighted allocation has emerged as an alternative to traditional staff-based allocation policies. Student-weighted allocation uses student need, rather than staff placement, as the building block of school budgeting. This article examines how the shift to student-weighted…

  7. Caesarean Delivery Rate Review: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Degani, N; Sikich, N

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2007, caesarean deliveries comprised 28% of all hospital deliveries in Ontario. Provincial caesarean delivery rates increased with maternal age and varied by Local Health Integration Network. However, the accepted rate of caesarean delivery in a low-risk maternal population remains unclear. Objectives To review the literature to assess factors that affect the likelihood of experiencing a caesarean delivery, and to examine Ontario caesarean delivery rates to determine whether there is rate variation across the province. Data Sources Data sources included publications from OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, as well as data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstracts Database and the Better Outcomes and Registry Network. Review Methods A mixed-methods approach was used, which included a systematic review of the literature to delineate factors associated with the likelihood of caesarean delivery and an analysis of administrative and clinical data on hospital deliveries in Ontario to determine provincial caesarean delivery rates, variation in rates, and reasons for variation. Results Fourteen systematic reviews assessed 14 factors affecting the likelihood of caesarean delivery; 7 factors were associated with an increased likelihood of caesarean delivery, and 2 factors were associated with a decreased likelihood. Five factors had no influence. One factor provided moderate-quality evidence supporting elective induction policies in low-risk women. The overall Ontario caesarean delivery rate in a very-low-risk population was 17%, but varied significantly across Ontario hospitals. Limitations The literature review included a 5–year period and used only systematic reviews. The determination of Robson class for women is based on care received in hospital only, and the low-risk population may have

  8. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding. PMID:22635187

  9. Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-04-01

    Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-rate volumetric OCT-based microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame rate of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video rate up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.

  10. Cardiac rate detection method based on the beam splitter prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Ruirui; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jingsheng

    2013-09-01

    A new cardiac rate measurement method is proposed. Through the beam splitter prism, the common-path optical system of transmitting and receiving signals is achieved. By the focusing effect of the lens, the small amplitude motion artifact is inhibited and the signal-to-noise is improved. The cardiac rate is obtained based on the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG). We use LED as the light source and use photoelectric diode as the receiving tube. The LED and the photoelectric diode are on the different sides of the beam splitter prism and they form the optical system. The signal processing and display unit is composed by the signal processing circuit, data acquisition device and computer. The light emitted by the modulated LED is collimated by the lens and irradiates the measurement target through the beam splitter prism. The light reflected by the target is focused on the receiving tube through the beam splitter prism and another lens. The signal received by the photoelectric diode is processed by the analog circuit and obtained by the data acquisition device. Through the filtering and Fast Fourier Transform, the cardiac rate is achieved. We get the real time cardiac rate by the moving average method. We experiment with 30 volunteers, containing different genders and different ages. We compare the signals captured by this method to a conventional PPG signal captured concurrently from a finger. The results of the experiments are all relatively agreeable and the biggest deviation value is about 2bmp.

  11. A count rate based contamination control standard for electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    May, R.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-12-31

    Accelerators of sufficient energy and particle fluence can produce radioactivity as an unwanted byproduct. The radioactivity is typically imbedded in structural materials but may also be removable from surfaces. Many of these radionuclides decay by positron emission or electron capture; they often have long half lives and produce photons of low energy and yield making detection by standard devices difficult. The contamination control limit used throughout the US nuclear industry and the Department of Energy is 1,000 disintegrations per minute. This limit is based on the detection threshold of pancake type Geiger-Mueller probes for radionuclides of relatively high radiotoxicity, such as cobalt-60. Several radionuclides of concern at a high energy electron accelerator are compared in terms of radiotoxicity with radionuclides commonly found in the nuclear industry. Based on this comparison, a count-rate based contamination control limit and associated measurement strategy is proposed which provides adequate detection of contamination at accelerators without an increase in risk.

  12. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  13. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module. PMID:26524782

  14. Spectrum allocations above 40 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenstein, W. E.; Moore, R. P.; Kimball, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-79) revised the International Table of Frequency Allocations to reflect increased interest and activity in the region of the EM spectrum above 40 GHz. The total width of the spectrum allocated (235 GHz) in the region above 40 GHz indicates the extent of this new spectrum resource, made accessible by advances in the state-of-the-art of telecommunications equipment. There are some striking differences between the approach to allocation above and below 40 GHz. For example, there are not bands allocated exclusively. This reflects the characteristics of propagation and the small antenna beamwidths achievable at these frequencies. Attention is given to atmospheric window and absorption band limits, allocations to satellite services, allocations to scientific services, allocations to terrestrial services, the future refinement of the radio regulations above 40 GHz, and allocations of WARC-79 and frequency management.

  15. Probabilistic precipitation rate estimates with ground-based radar networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Moazamigoodarzi, Saber; Langston, Carrie; Arthur, Ami

    2015-03-01

    The uncertainty structure of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is largely unknown at fine spatiotemporal scales near the radar measurement scale. By using the WSR-88D radar network and gauge data sets across the conterminous US, an investigation of this subject has been carried out within the framework of the NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) QPE system. A new method is proposed and called PRORATE for probabilistic QPE using radar observations of rate and typology estimates. Probability distributions of precipitation rates are computed instead of deterministic values using a model quantifying the relation between radar reflectivity and the corresponding "true" precipitation. The model acknowledges the uncertainty arising from many factors operative at the radar measurement scale and from the correction algorithm. Ensembles of reflectivity-to-precipitation rate relationships accounting explicitly for precipitation typology were derived at a 5 min/1 km scale. This approach conditions probabilistic quantitative precipitation estimates (PQPE) on the precipitation rate and type. The model components were estimated on the basis of a 1 year long data sample over the CONUS. This PQPE model provides the basis for precipitation probability maps and the generation of radar precipitation ensembles. Maps of the precipitation exceedance probability for specific thresholds (e.g., precipitation return periods) are computed. Precipitation probability maps are accumulated to the hourly time scale and compare favorably to the deterministic QPE. As an essential property of precipitation, the impact of the temporal correlation on the hourly accumulation is examined. This approach to PQPE can readily apply to other systems including space-based passive and active sensor algorithms.

  16. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  17. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  18. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  19. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  20. Economics of spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melody, W. H.

    The effective and efficient allocation and use of the spectrum can be ensured only by a set of sharing rules that will reflect the interests, values, and power of all affected parties. What is now happening is that the new interests and different values of the developing countries are pressing to change the international sharing rules established by a small group of high-technology nations. It is noted that the latter have established a massive telecommunications infrastructure on the basis of inherited sharing rules that reflect only their interests and a much simplified scarcity problem. Once long-term goals and underlying principles of allocation are established, communication technologies and markets can be directed, through a series of adjustment policies, to achieve them. A crucial first step in the creation of an international information environment in which 'free' flows will be balanced flows is the establishment of a balanced and equitable set of sharing rules for the radio spectrum.

  1. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  2. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

  3. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  4. Can a publicly funded home care system successfully allocate service based on perceived need rather than socioeconomic status? A Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Audrey; Croxford, Ruth; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-03-01

    The present quantitative study evaluates the degree to which socioeconomic status (SES), as opposed to perceived need, determines utilisation of publicly funded home care in Ontario, Canada. The Registered Persons Data Base of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan was used to identify the age, sex and place of residence for all Ontarians who had coverage for the complete calendar year 1998. Utilisation was characterised in two dimensions: (1) propensity - the probability that an individual received service, which was estimated using a multinomial logit equation; and (2) intensity - the amount of service received, conditional on receipt. Short- and long-term service intensity were modelled separately using ordinary least squares regression. Age, sex and co-morbidity were the best predictors (P < 0.0001) of whether or not an individual received publicly funded home care as well as how much care was received, with sicker individuals having increased utilisation. The propensity and intensity of service receipt increased with lower SES (P < 0.0001), and decreased with the proportion of recent immigrants in the region (P < 0.0001), after controlling for age, sex and co-morbidity. Although the allocation of publicly funded home care service was primarily based on perceived need rather than ability to pay, barriers to utilisation for those from areas with a high proportion of recent immigrants were identified. Future research is needed to assess whether the current mix and level of publicly funded resources are indeed sufficient to offset the added costs associated with the provision of high-quality home care. PMID:17286672

  5. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  6. Satellite altimetry based rating curves throughout the entire Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, A.; Calmant, S.; Paiva, R. C.; Collischonn, W.; Silva, J. S.; Bonnet, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Amazonian basin is the largest hydrological basin all over the world. In the recent past years, the basin has experienced an unusual succession of extreme draughts and floods, which origin is still a matter of debate. Yet, the amount of data available is poor, both over time and space scales, due to factor like basin's size, access difficulty and so on. One of the major locks is to get discharge series distributed over the entire basin. Satellite altimetry can be used to improve our knowledge of the hydrological stream flow conditions in the basin, through rating curves. Rating curves are mathematical relationships between stage and discharge at a given place. The common way to determine the parameters of the relationship is to compute the non-linear regression between the discharge and stage series. In this study, the discharge data was obtained by simulation through the entire basin using the MGB-IPH model with TRMM Merge input rainfall data and assimilation of gage data, run from 1998 to 2010. The stage dataset is made of ~800 altimetry series at ENVISAT and JASON-2 virtual stations. Altimetry series span between 2002 and 2010. In the present work we present the benefits of using stochastic methods instead of probabilistic ones to determine a dataset of rating curve parameters which are consistent throughout the entire Amazon basin. The rating curve parameters have been computed using a parameter optimization technique based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler and Bayesian inference scheme. This technique provides an estimate of the best parameters for the rating curve, but also their posterior probability distribution, allowing the determination of a credibility interval for the rating curve. Also is included in the rating curve determination the error over discharges estimates from the MGB-IPH model. These MGB-IPH errors come from either errors in the discharge derived from the gage readings or errors in the satellite rainfall estimates. The present

  7. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  12. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  13. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  14. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations... amounts that will be harvested, or a combination of the two. Estimates of the amount of Pacific...

  15. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  16. High performance in healthcare priority setting and resource allocation: A literature- and case study-based framework in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hall, William; Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam; Peacock, Stuart; Gibson, Jennifer L; Urquhart, Bonnie

    2016-08-01

    Priority setting and resource allocation, or PSRA, are key functions of executive teams in healthcare organizations. Yet decision-makers often base their choices on historical patterns of resource distribution or political pressures. Our aim was to provide leaders with guidance on how to improve PSRA practice, by creating organizational contexts which enable high performance. We carried out in-depth case studies of six Canadian healthcare organizations to obtain from healthcare leaders their understanding of the concept of high performance in PSRA and the factors which contribute to its achievement. Individual and group interviews were carried out (n = 62) with senior managers, middle managers and Board members. Site observations and document review were used to assist researchers in interpreting the interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively with the literature on empirical examples of PSRA practice, in order to develop a framework of high performance in PSRA. The framework consists of four domains - structures, processes, attitudes and behaviours, and outcomes - within which are 19 specific elements. The emergent themes derive from case studies in different kinds of health organizations (urban/rural, small/large) across Canada. The elements can serve as a checklist for 'high performance' in PSRA. This framework provides a means by which decision-makers in healthcare might assess their practice and identify key areas for improvement. The findings are likely generalizable, certainly within Canada but also across countries. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first attempt to present a full package of elements comprising high performance in health care PSRA. PMID:27367899

  17. Metabolically Derived human ventilation rates: A revised approach based upon oxygen consumption rates (Final Report) 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen consumption rate. This revised approach will be used to update the ventilation rate information in the Exposure Factors Handbook, which serve as...

  18. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  19. Optimization of surface acoustic wave-based rate sensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangqian; Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO₃, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor. PMID:26473865

  20. Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fangqian; Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO3, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor. PMID:26473865

  1. Artificial intelligent techniques for optimizing water allocation in a reservoir watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Wang, Yu-Chung

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes a systematical water allocation scheme that integrates system analysis with artificial intelligence techniques for reservoir operation in consideration of the great uncertainty upon hydrometeorology for mitigating droughts impacts on public and irrigation sectors. The AI techniques mainly include a genetic algorithm and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We first derive evaluation diagrams through systematic interactive evaluations on long-term hydrological data to provide a clear simulation perspective of all possible drought conditions tagged with their corresponding water shortages; then search the optimal reservoir operating histogram using genetic algorithm (GA) based on given demands and hydrological conditions that can be recognized as the optimal base of input-output training patterns for modelling; and finally build a suitable water allocation scheme through constructing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model with a learning of the mechanism between designed inputs (water discount rates and hydrological conditions) and outputs (two scenarios: simulated and optimized water deficiency levels). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan for the first paddy crop in the study area to assess the water allocation mechanism during drought periods. We demonstrate that the proposed water allocation scheme significantly and substantially avails water managers of reliably determining a suitable discount rate on water supply for both irrigation and public sectors, and thus can reduce the drought risk and the compensation amount induced by making restrictions on agricultural use water.

  2. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  3. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  4. Allocation for the SANDAC multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Ravl, T.M.; Ercegovac, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an algorithm for the static allocation of tasks in a general Dataflow Multiprocessor and the SANDAC IV system in particular. Initially a model of execution and the underlying assumptions about the architecture are outlined. The authors then discuss a Graph Reduction algorithm for preprocessing the computation graph. The Graph Reduction algorithm reduces a fine grain graph to an optimal grain graph. The heuristic allocation algorithm is presented and is based on giving precedence to critical paths and minimizing the communication time between tasks. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed and the effect of varying parameters is studied. Subsequently an alternative variation with better characteristics is proposed.

  5. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.924 Allocation to service cost... Premises Equipment Construction/Maintenance Facilities and Equipment Programming Production Facilities and... Production and Office Facilities, Furniture and Equipment Other Tangible Assets Accumulated...

  6. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  7. Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.

    PubMed

    Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches. PMID:24144659

  8. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  9. Non-contact Laser-based Human Respiration Rate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Marchionni, P.; Ercoli, I.

    2011-08-01

    At present the majority of the instrumentation, used in clinical environments, to measure human respiration rate are based on invasive and contact devices. The gold standard instrument is considered the spirometer which is largely used; it needs a direct contact and requires a collaboration by the patient. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDVi) is an optical, non-contact measurement system for the assessment of a surface velocity and displacement. LDVi has already been used for the measurement of the cardiac activity and for the measurement of the chest-wall displacements. The aims of this work are to select the best measurement point on the thoracic surface for LDVi monitoring of the respiration rate (RR) and to compare measured data with the RR valued provided by the spirometer. The measurement system is composed by a LDV system and a data acquisition board installed on a PC. Tests were made on 10 different point of the thorax for each patient. Patients population was composed by 33 subjects (17 male and 16 female). The optimal measurement point was chosen considering the maximum peak-to-peak value of the displacement measured by LDV. Before extracting RR we have used a special wavelet decomposition for better selection of the expiration peaks. A standard spirometer was used for the validation of the data. From tests it results that the optimal measurement point, namely is located on the inferior part of the thoracic region (left, front side). From our tests we have obtained a close correlation between the RR values measured by the spirometer and those measured by the proposed method: a difference of 14±211 ms on the RR value is reported for the entire population of 33 subjects. Our method allows a no-contact measurement of lungs activity (respiration period), reducing the electric and biological risks. Moreover it allows to measure in critical environment like in RMN or in burned skin where is difficult or impossible to apply electrodes.

  10. Rural Attitudes toward Public Welfare Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laura F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines 1984 Wyoming opinion poll. Wyoming respondents agreed welfare allocation should be based on need, but 50 percent believed welfare recipients should not receive more than minimum-wage income. Wyoming's welfare support is lower than national average. Rurality may contribute to results. Recommends ways to increase rural support for welfare…

  11. A comparison between computer-controlled and set work rate exercise based on target heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Wanda M.; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Webster, Laurie; Hayes, Judith C.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Harris, Bernard A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods are compared for observing the heart rate (HR), metabolic equivalents, and time in target HR zone (defined as the target HR + or - 5 bpm) during 20 min of exercise at a prescribed intensity of the maximum working capacity. In one method, called set-work rate exercise, the information from a graded exercise test is used to select a target HR and to calculate a corresponding constant work rate that should induce the desired HR. In the other method, the work rate is controlled by a computer algorithm to achieve and maintain a prescribed target HR. It is shown that computer-controlled exercise is an effective alternative to the traditional set work rate exercise, particularly when tight control of cardiovascular responses is necessary.

  12. Evaporation rate of emulsion and oil-base emulsion pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of pheromone evaporation rate is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation rate that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...

  13. 42 CFR 415.60 - Allocation of physician compensation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Physician Services § 415.60 Allocation of physician compensation costs. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... or the carrier. (2) Report the information on which the physician compensation allocation is based to the intermediary or the carrier on an annual basis and promptly notify the intermediary or carrier...

  14. Resource Allocation Strategies Employed in Large versus Small School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Eugene J.

    Education is faced with a declining resource base coupled with overwhelming demands for categorical programs. The current resource allocation strategy common to all systems is cutting spending. The difference between large and small districts is less important than differences in complexity. Complexity in resource allocations is more a function of…

  15. 24 CFR 1003.101 - Area ONAP allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds will be allocated based upon each Area ONAP's share of the total eligible Indian population; (ii... of poverty among the eligible Indian population; and (iii) Twenty percent (20%) of the funds will be... Indian population. (b) HUD will use other criteria to determine an allocation formula for...

  16. The Study of CIQ Inspection Rate's Setting Problem Based on Gray-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen

    Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.

  17. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  18. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  19. Adaptive resource allocation architecture applied to line tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Mark W.; Pace, Donald W.

    2000-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a multiple hypothesis, multiple model sonar line tracking solution, achieved at significant computational cost. We have developed an adaptive architecture that trades computational resources for algorithm complexity based on environmental conditions. A Fuzzy Logic Rule-Based approach is applied to adaptively assign algorithmic resources to meet system requirements. The resources allocated by the Fuzzy Logic algorithm include (1) the number of hypotheses permitted (yielding multi-hypothesis and single-hypothesis modes), (2) the number of signal models to use (yielding an interacting multiple model capability), (3) a new track likelihood for hypothesis generation, (4) track attribute evaluator activation (for signal to noise ratio, frequency bandwidth, and others), and (5) adaptive cluster threshold control. Algorithm allocation is driven by a comparison of current throughput rates to a desired real time rate. The Fuzzy Logic Controlled (FLC) line tracker, a single hypothesis line tracker, and a multiple hypothesis line tracker are compared on real sonar data. System resource usage results demonstrate the utility of the FLC line tracker.

  20. Scenario-Based Multi-Objective Optimum Allocation Model for Earthquake Emergency Shelters Using a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study in Chaoyang District, Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Xu, Wei; Ma, Yunjia; Hu, Fuyu

    2015-01-01

    The correct location of earthquake emergency shelters and their allocation to residents can effectively reduce the number of casualties by providing safe havens and efficient evacuation routes during the chaotic period of the unfolding disaster. However, diverse and strict constraints and the discrete feasible domain of the required models make the problem of shelter location and allocation more difficult. A number of models have been developed to solve this problem, but there are still large differences between the models and the actual situation because the characteristics of the evacuees and the construction costs of the shelters have been excessively simplified. We report here the development of a multi-objective model for the allocation of residents to earthquake shelters by considering these factors using the Chaoyang district, Beijing, China as a case study. The two objectives of this model were to minimize the total weighted evacuation time from residential areas to a specified shelter and to minimize the total area of all the shelters. The two constraints were the shelter capacity and the service radius. Three scenarios were considered to estimate the number of people who would need to be evacuated. The particle swarm optimization algorithm was first modified by applying the von Neumann structure in former loops and global structure in later loops, and then used to solve this problem. The results show that increasing the shelter area can result in a large decrease in the total weighted evacuation time from scheme 1 to scheme 9 in scenario A, from scheme 1 to scheme 9 in scenario B, from scheme 1 to scheme 19 in scenario C. If the funding were not a limitation, then the final schemes of each scenario are the best solutions, otherwise the earlier schemes are more reasonable. The modified model proved to be useful for the optimization of shelter allocation, and the result can be used as a scientific reference for planning shelters in the Chaoyang district

  1. 7 CFR 761.204 - Methods of allocating funds to State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Office determines the amount of an administrative allocation on a case-by-case basis. (c) Base allocation, to ensure funding for at least one loan in each State, District, or County Office. In making a base..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan...

  2. A New Model for Equitable and Efficient Resource Allocation to Schools: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris; Ziderman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out a new budget allocation formula for schools, designed to achieve a more equitable distribution of educational achievement. In addition to needs-based elements, the suggested composite allocation formula includes an improvement component, whereby schools receive budgetary allocations based on a new incentive measure developed in…

  3. Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a draft report entitled, Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates, for independent external peer review and public comment. NCEA published the Exposure Factors Handbook in 1997. This comprehens...

  4. Sexually violent predators: toward reasonable estimates of recidivism base rates.

    PubMed

    Neller, Daniel J; Petris, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The sexual recidivism rate of sex offenders is a controversial issue. Perhaps as controversial is the sexual recidivism rate of the select group of sex offenders who are examined pursuant to sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes. At present, reliable estimates of SVP recidivism are unavailable. We propose that reasonable estimates of SVP recidivism can be reached by considering three available pieces of data: (i) a likely recidivism rate of the general population of sex offenders; (ii) procedures typically followed by jurisdictions that civilly commit sex offenders; and (iii) classification accuracy of procedures. Although sexual recidivism rates vary across jurisdictions, the results of our analyses suggest sex offenders referred for examination pursuant to SVP statutes recidivate at substantially higher rates than typical sex offenders. Our results further suggest that sex offenders recommended for commitment as SVPs recidivate at even greater rates than SVP respondents who are not recommended for commitment. We discuss practice and policy implications of these findings. PMID:23620130

  5. Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

  6. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  7. Cognitive cost as dynamic allocation of energetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Christie, S. Thomas; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely recognized that thinking is somehow costly, involving cognitive effort and producing mental fatigue, these costs have alternatively been assumed to exist, treated as the brain's assessment of lost opportunities, or suggested to be metabolic but with implausible biological bases. We present a model of cognitive cost based on the novel idea that the brain senses and plans for longer-term allocation of metabolic resources by purposively conserving brain activity. We identify several distinct ways the brain might control its metabolic output, and show how a control-theoretic model that models decision-making with an energy budget can explain cognitive effort avoidance in terms of an optimal allocation of limited energetic resources. The model accounts for both subject responsiveness to reward and the detrimental effects of hypoglycemia on cognitive function. A critical component of the model is using astrocytic glycogen as a plausible basis for limited energetic reserves. Glycogen acts as an energy buffer that can temporarily support high neural activity beyond the rate supported by blood glucose supply. The published dynamics of glycogen depletion and repletion are consonant with a broad array of phenomena associated with cognitive cost. Our model thus subsumes both the “cost/benefit” and “limited resource” models of cognitive cost while retaining valuable contributions of each. We discuss how the rational control of metabolic resources could underpin the control of attention, working memory, cognitive look ahead, and model-free vs. model-based policy learning. PMID:26379482

  8. Cognitive cost as dynamic allocation of energetic resources.

    PubMed

    Christie, S Thomas; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely recognized that thinking is somehow costly, involving cognitive effort and producing mental fatigue, these costs have alternatively been assumed to exist, treated as the brain's assessment of lost opportunities, or suggested to be metabolic but with implausible biological bases. We present a model of cognitive cost based on the novel idea that the brain senses and plans for longer-term allocation of metabolic resources by purposively conserving brain activity. We identify several distinct ways the brain might control its metabolic output, and show how a control-theoretic model that models decision-making with an energy budget can explain cognitive effort avoidance in terms of an optimal allocation of limited energetic resources. The model accounts for both subject responsiveness to reward and the detrimental effects of hypoglycemia on cognitive function. A critical component of the model is using astrocytic glycogen as a plausible basis for limited energetic reserves. Glycogen acts as an energy buffer that can temporarily support high neural activity beyond the rate supported by blood glucose supply. The published dynamics of glycogen depletion and repletion are consonant with a broad array of phenomena associated with cognitive cost. Our model thus subsumes both the "cost/benefit" and "limited resource" models of cognitive cost while retaining valuable contributions of each. We discuss how the rational control of metabolic resources could underpin the control of attention, working memory, cognitive look ahead, and model-free vs. model-based policy learning. PMID:26379482

  9. Relaxed Time Slot Negotiation for Grid Resource Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Since participants in a computational grid may be independent bodies, some mechanisms are necessary for resolving the differences in their preferences for price and desirable time slots for utilizing/leasing computing resources. Whereas there are mechanisms for supporting price negotiation for grid resource allocation, there is little or no negotiation support for allocating mutually acceptable time slots for grid participants. The contribution of this work is designing a negotiation mechanism for facilitating time slot negotiations between grid participants. In particular, this work adopts a relaxed time slot negotiation protocol designed to enhance the success rate and resource utilization level by allowing some flexibility for making slight adjustments following a tentative agreement for a mutually acceptable time slot. The ideas of the relaxed time slot negotiation are implemented in an agent-based grid testbed, and empirical results of the relaxed time slot negotiation mechanism carried out, (i) a consumer and a provider agent have a mutually satisfying agreement on time slot and price, (ii) consumer agents achieved higher success rates in negotiation, and (iii) provider agents achieved higher utility and resource utilization of overall grid.

  10. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  11. Philosophy of the Spike: Rate-Based vs. Spike-Based Theories of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Brette, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Does the brain use a firing rate code or a spike timing code? Considering this controversial question from an epistemological perspective, I argue that progress has been hampered by its problematic phrasing. It takes the perspective of an external observer looking at whether those two observables vary with stimuli, and thereby misses the relevant question: which one has a causal role in neural activity? When rephrased in a more meaningful way, the rate-based view appears as an ad hoc methodological postulate, one that is practical but with virtually no empirical or theoretical support. PMID:26617496

  12. On Estimation of GPS-based Indonesian Strain Rate Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, Susilo; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Meilano, Irwan; Sapiie, Benyamin; Wijanarto, Antonius B.

    2016-04-01

    Using the GPS-derived rates at survey mode (sGPS) stations and continuous GPS stations across Indonesian region, covering the 22 years period from 1993 to 2014, the linear deformation velocities with an accuracy of about 2 to 3 mm/year level are derived. These velocities are corrected to the coseismic and postseismic deformation caused by significant earthquakes in that period. In this study, we use this GPS velocities field to construct a crustal strain rate map without including the physical model yet. An interpolation method was used to compute the velocity model. By differentiation of the continuous velocity model, we derive the strain rate map of Indonesia. At present, our result is only the magnitude of the strain rate. The Indonesian strain rate map is very important for studying the deformation characteristics in the region and to establish a deformation (velocity) model for supporting the implementation of the Indonesian Geospatial Reference System 2013 (IGRS 2013). This is a new semi-dynamic geocentric datum of Indonesia, which uses the global ITRF2008 reference frame, with a reference epoch of 1 January 2012. A deformation (velocity) model is required to transform coordinates from an observation epoch to or from this reference epoch.

  13. Lung and heart allocation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Colvin-Adams, M; Valapour, M; Hertz, M; Heubner, B; Paulson, K; Dhungel, V; Skeans, M A; Edwards, L; Ghimire, V; Waller, C; Cherikh, W S; Kasiske, B L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K

    2012-12-01

    Lung and heart allocation in the United States has evolved over the past 20-30 years to better serve transplant candidates and improve organ utilization. The current lung allocation policy, based on the Lung Allocation Score, attempts to take into account risk of death on the waiting list and chance of survival posttransplant. This policy is flexible and can be adjusted to improve the predictive ability of the score. Similarly, in response to the changing clinical phenotype of heart transplant candidates, heart allocation policies have evolved to a multitiered algorithm that attempts to prioritize organs to the most infirm, a designation that fluctuates with trends in therapy. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and its committees have been responsive, as demonstrated by recent modifications to pediatric heart allocation and mechanical circulatory support policies and by ongoing efforts to ensure that heart allocation policies are equitable and current. Here we examine the development of US lung and heart allocation policy, evaluate the application of the current policy on clinical practice and explore future directions for lung and heart allocation. PMID:22974276

  14. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  15. Real-Time Adaptive Control Allocation Applied to a High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Bundick, W. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the development and application of one approach to the control of aircraft with large numbers of control effectors. This approach, referred to as real-time adaptive control allocation, combines a nonlinear method for control allocation with actuator failure detection and isolation. The control allocator maps moment (or angular acceleration) commands into physical control effector commands as functions of individual control effectiveness and availability. The actuator failure detection and isolation algorithm is a model-based approach that uses models of the actuators to predict actuator behavior and an adaptive decision threshold to achieve acceptable false alarm/missed detection rates. This integrated approach provides control reconfiguration when an aircraft is subjected to actuator failure, thereby improving maneuverability and survivability of the degraded aircraft. This method is demonstrated on a next generation military aircraft Lockheed-Martin Innovative Control Effector) simulation that has been modified to include a novel nonlinear fluid flow control control effector based on passive porosity. Desktop and real-time piloted simulation results demonstrate the performance of this integrated adaptive control allocation approach.

  16. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  17. A liquid cooled garment temperature controller based on sweat rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    An automatic controller for liquid cooled space suits is reported that utilizes human sweat rate as the primary input signal. The controller is so designed that the coolant inlet temperature is inversely proportional to the subject's latent heat loss as evidenced by evaporative water loss.

  18. An Empirical Approach to Determining Employee Deviance Base Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slora, Karen B.

    Employee deviance may reflect either acts of employee theft or of production deviance. Employee theft refers to the unauthorized taking of cash, merchandise, or property. Production deviance refers to counterproductive activities which serve to slow the rate or quality of output, such as intentionally doing slow or sloppy work or using drugs on…

  19. 34 CFR 300.816 - Allocations to LEAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.816 Allocations to LEAs. (a) Base payments... annual child count in which the LEA reports that it is serving any children with disabilities aged...

  20. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  1. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  2. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  3. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  4. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  5. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  6. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and directed links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Reliability values are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  7. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and weighted links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Weights are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  8. Decentralized method for complex task allocation in massive MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Zaki; Gammoudi, M. M.

    2008-06-01

    Task allocation is still a fundamental problem in Multi-Agents System (MAS). It allows the formation a coalition of agents to cooperate together in order to carry out a complex task. Generally, the process of task allocation requires calculating the value of all the possible allocations, then determining which optimal. In the context of Massive Multi-Agent Systems (MMAS), one agent generates all the possible coalitions and then calculates the value of each, is inefficient. Moreover, the traditional approaches based on the negotiation between agents, are impractical because of the complexity of communications between agents. In this paper we propose a decentralized method, based on grouping agents using the Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) approach for the task allocation in MMAS. In our model, agents are fully cooperative and each task is composed of several subtasks. The proposed solution is based on two steps: i) computing groups of agents having similar characteristics in the objective to distribute the task allocation process among agents and minimize the communication between agents. ii) Finding the optimal allocation by sharing the task allocation process among groups of agents.

  9. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  10. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  11. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Yuval R.; Wallman, Joel J.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.

  12. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Yuval; Wallman, Joel; Sanders, Barry

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli-distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli-distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.

  13. Reasoning with base rates is routine, relatively effortless, and context dependent.

    PubMed

    Pennycook, Gordon; Thompson, Valerie A

    2012-06-01

    We tested models of base rate "neglect" using a novel paradigm. Participants (N = 62) judged the probability that a hypothetical person belonged to one of two categories (e.g., nurse/doctor) on the basis of either a personality description alone (NoBR) or the personality description and a base rate probability (BR). When base rates and descriptions were congruent, judgments in the BR condition were higher and more uniform than those in the NoBR condition. In contrast, base rates had a polarizing effect on judgments when they were incongruent with the descriptions, such that estimates were either consistent with the base rates or discrepant with them. These data suggest that the form of base rate use (i.e., whether base rates will be integrated with diagnostic information) is context dependent. In addition, judgments made under instructions to respond intuitively were influenced by the base rates and took the same length of time in the two conditions. These data suggest that the use of base rates is routine and effortless and that base rate "neglect" is really a mixture of two strategies, one that is informed primarily by the base rate and the other by the personality description. PMID:22427266

  14. 75 FR 72581 - Assessments, Assessment Base and Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...The FDIC is proposing to amend its regulations to implement revisions to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act regarding the definition of an institution's deposit insurance assessment base; alter the unsecured debt adjustment in light of the changes to the assessment base; add an adjustment for long-term debt held by an insured......

  15. Water Allocation Modeling of Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, D. H.; Berhe, F.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Awash River basin is one of the twelve basins of Ethiopia which is highly utilized and the first basin to be introduced to modern agriculture. A study was conducted on water allocation modeling of Awash River basin, Ethiopia using MODSIM, a river basin management decision support system (DSS) designed as a computer-aided tool for developing improved basin wide planning. This study was conducted to analyze the water balance of the Awash basin under different levels of irrigation development and also determine the water allocation in the Upper, Middle and Lower Valleys in the basin. Awash basin includes Koka Dam and two dams under completion: Kessem and Tendaho Reservoirs. Four scenarios were set: Scenario I-present withdrawal rate in the basin; Scenario II-Scenario I plus Downstream Tendaho Dam Operational; Scenario III-Scenario II plus expansion of middle valley farms and Kessem Dam Operational; and Scenario IV-Scenario III plus additional expansion in the middle valley. Analysis of flow records within the basin was done for a period of 1963-2003. Estimation of system losses, runoff from ungauged tributaries, and Gedebessa Swamp model parameters were considered in the flow process study. Simulation was conducted based on four scenarios. Consumptive and non-consumptive uses were considered in allocation modeling. The results of MODSIM model depict that there will be incremental release from Koka Dam from 2.8% to 5.7% in years 2018 and 2038, respectively. Due to increased diversions in Scenario III when compared to scenario I, losses in to Gedebessa Swamp will significantly decrease by an average of 27.6%. In the year 2038, owing to less capacity of upstream reservoirs due to sedimentation, water will be lost in the swamp complex causing slight decrease of inflow to Tendaho Dam. Additional storage at or upstream of Koka Dam will be mandatory in the future. Unaccounted water diversions upstream of Koka and water losses in Gedebessa Swamp should be considered in the

  16. Variable-rate colour image quantization based on quadtree segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. C.; Li, C. Y.; Chuang, J. C.; Lo, C. C.

    2011-09-01

    A novel variable-sized block encoding with threshold control for colour image quantization (CIQ) is presented in this paper. In CIQ, the colour palette used has a great influence on the reconstructed image quality. Typically, a higher image quality and a larger storage cost are obtained when a larger-sized palette is used in CIQ. To cut down the storage cost while preserving quality of the reconstructed images, the threshold control policy for quadtree segmentation is used in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method adaptively provides desired bit rates while having better image qualities comparing to CIQ with the usage of multiple palettes of different sizes.

  17. Feedback Allocation for OFDMA Systems With Slow Frequency-Domain Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Harish; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Dimitrov, Nedialko B.; Caramanis, Constantine

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of allocating limited feedback resources across multiple users in an orthogonal-frequency-division-multiple-access downlink system with slow frequency-domain scheduling. Many flavors of slow frequency-domain scheduling (e.g., persistent scheduling, semi-persistent scheduling), that adapt user-sub-band assignments on a slower time-scale, are being considered in standards such as 3GPP Long-Term Evolution. In this paper, we develop a feedback allocation algorithm that operates in conjunction with any arbitrary slow frequency-domain scheduler with the goal of improving the throughput of the system. Given a user-sub-band assignment chosen by the scheduler, the feedback allocation algorithm involves solving a weighted sum-rate maximization at each (slow) scheduling instant. We first develop an optimal dynamic-programming-based algorithm to solve the feedback allocation problem with pseudo-polynomial complexity in the number of users and in the total feedback bit budget. We then propose two approximation algorithms with complexity further reduced, for scenarios where the problem exhibits additional structure.

  18. Allocation of Health Resources According To the Type and Size of Iranian Governmental Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, SA; Abolhallaje, M; Inanlo, S; Hosseini, H; Pourmohammadi, K; Bastani, P; Ramezanian, M; Marnani, A Barati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to consuming about 50%–80% of health resources, hospitals are the greatest and costly operational units in Iranian Health system. so allocation of resources specially human and space resources as the most expensive ones is really important for further controlling of costs, analysis of costs and making suitable policies for increasing the profitability and allocation of resources and improvement of quality. Method: This paper intends to describe and analyze any allocation of resources in 530 university hospitals in Iran. The final goal of this research is to provide a data bank according which there is a basis for more scientific budget allocation of state’s hospitals from the size and type of application points of view. Results: The relevant index of person to bed was 2.04 for human resources. All hospitals more than 300 beds are located in benefiting areas from which 17 cases are educational and 2 cases are therapeutic. This is necessary to mention that the rate of management group forces to total personnel at deprived areas is about 2.5% more than benefiting areas. Conclusion: Because 60–80% of hospital costs are applied for human forces, all managers of hospitals are obliged to revise their policies in attraction and employment of human force in order to benefit from such a valuable resource and prevent from expensive costs. So any employment of personnel should be based upon real needs of hospital. PMID:23865036

  19. Fair resource allocation and stability for communication networks with multipath routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyong; Sun, Wei; Hua, Changchun

    2014-11-01

    Multipath networks allow that each source-destination pair can have several different paths for data transmission, thus they improve the performance of increasingly bandwidth-hungry applications and well cater for traffic load balancing and bandwidth usage efficiency. This paper investigates fair resource allocation for users in multipath networks and formulates it as a multipath network utility maximisation problem with several fairness concepts. By applying the Lagrangian method, sub-problems for users and paths are derived from the resource allocation model and interpreted from an economic point of view. In order to solve the model, a novel rate-based flow control algorithm is proposed for achieving optimal resource allocation, which depends only on local information. In the presence of round-trip delays, sufficient conditions are obtained for local stability of the delayed algorithm. As for the end-to-end implementation in Internet, a window-based flow control mechanism is presented since it is more convenient to implement than rate-based flow control.

  20. 48 CFR 1616.7002 - Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost analysis (experience rated). 1616.7002 Section 1616.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... based on cost analysis (experience rated). The clause at section 1652.216-71 shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated)....

  1. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  2. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  3. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  4. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  5. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  6. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  7. A fault-based model for crustal deformation, fault slip-rates and off-fault strain rate in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We invert Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity data to estimate fault slip rates in California using a fault‐based crustal deformation model with geologic constraints. The model assumes buried elastic dislocations across the region using Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3 (UCERF3) fault geometries. New GPS velocity and geologic slip‐rate data were compiled by the UCERF3 deformation working group. The result of least‐squares inversion shows that the San Andreas fault slips at 19–22  mm/yr along Santa Cruz to the North Coast, 25–28  mm/yr along the central California creeping segment to the Carrizo Plain, 20–22  mm/yr along the Mojave, and 20–24  mm/yr along the Coachella to the Imperial Valley. Modeled slip rates are 7–16  mm/yr lower than the preferred geologic rates from the central California creeping section to the San Bernardino North section. For the Bartlett Springs section, fault slip rates of 7–9  mm/yr fall within the geologic bounds but are twice the preferred geologic rates. For the central and eastern Garlock, inverted slip rates of 7.5 and 4.9  mm/yr, respectively, match closely with the geologic rates. For the western Garlock, however, our result suggests a low slip rate of 1.7  mm/yr. Along the eastern California shear zone and southern Walker Lane, our model shows a cumulative slip rate of 6.2–6.9  mm/yr across its east–west transects, which is ∼1  mm/yr increase of the geologic estimates. For the off‐coast faults of central California, from Hosgri to San Gregorio, fault slips are modeled at 1–5  mm/yr, similar to the lower geologic bounds. For the off‐fault deformation, the total moment rate amounts to 0.88×1019  N·m/yr, with fast straining regions found around the Mendocino triple junction, Transverse Ranges and Garlock fault zones, Landers and Brawley seismic zones, and farther south. The overall California moment rate is 2.76×1019

  8. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  9. CMOS low data rate imaging method based on compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Long-long; Liu, Kun; Han, Da-peng

    2012-07-01

    Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enables the integration of image sensing and image compression processing, making improvements on overall system performance possible. We present a CMOS low data rate imaging approach by implementing compressed sensing (CS). On the basis of the CS framework, the image sensor projects the image onto a separable two-dimensional (2D) basis set and measures the corresponding coefficients obtained. First, the electrical current output from the pixels in a column are combined, with weights specified by voltage, in accordance with Kirchhoff's law. The second computation is performed in an analog vector-matrix multiplier (VMM). Each element of the VMM considers the total value of each column as the input and multiplies it by a unique coefficient. Both weights and coefficients are reprogrammable through analog floating-gate (FG) transistors. The image can be recovered from a percentage of these measurements using an optimization algorithm. The percentage, which can be altered flexibly by programming on the hardware circuit, determines the image compression ratio. These novel designs facilitate image compression during the image-capture phase before storage, and have the potential to reduce power consumption. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a large image compression ratio and ensures imaging quality.

  10. Strain Rate Behavior of HTPB-Based Magnetorheological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltz, Chad; Seminuk, Kenneth; Joshi, Vasant

    2013-06-01

    It is of particular interest to determine whether the mechanical properties of binder systems can be manipulated by adding ferrous or Magnetostrictive particulates. Strain rate response of two HTPB/Fe (Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene/Iron) compositions under electromagnetic fields has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Two HTPB/Fe compositions were developed, the first without plasticizer and the second containing plasticizer. Samples were tested with and without the application of a 0.01 Tesla magnetic field coil. Strain gauge data taken from the Split Hopkinson Pressure bar has been used to determine what mechanical properties were changed by inducing a mild electromagnetic field onto each sample. The data reduction method to obtain stress-strain plots included dispersion corrections for deciphering minute changes due to compositional alterations. Data collected from the Split Hopkinson Pressure bar indicate changes in the Mechanical Stress-Strain curves and suggest that the impedance of a binder system can be altered by means of a magnetic field. We acknowledge the Defense Threat Reduction Agency for funding.

  11. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  12. Patch Network for Power Allocation and Distribution in Smart Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golembiewski, Walter T.

    2000-01-01

    The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry is capable of allocating and distributing a single or multiple sources of power over multi-elements of a power user grid system. The purpose of this invention is to allocate and distribute power that is collected by individual patch rectennas to a region of specific power-user devices, such as actuators. The patch rectenna converts microwave power into DC power. Then this DC power is used to drive actuator devices. However, the power from patch rectennas is not sufficient to drive actuators unless all the collected power is effectively used to drive another group by allocation and distribution. The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry solves the shortfall of power for devices in a large array. The PAD concept is based on the networked power control in which power collected over the whole array of rectennas is allocated to a sub domain where a group of devices is required to be activated for operation. Then the allocated power is distributed to individual element of power-devices in the sub domain according to a selected run-mode.

  13. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; de Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  14. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  15. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy.

    PubMed

    Pan, T-C Francis; Applebaum, Scott L; Manahan, Donal T

    2015-04-14

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors. PMID:25825763

  16. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, T.-C. Francis; Applebaum, Scott L.; Manahan, Donal T.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors. PMID:25825763

  17. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26835560

  18. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  19. Antenna Allocation in MIMO Radar with Widely Separated Antennas for Multi-Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes. PMID:25350505

  20. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  1. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  2. Health care allocation, public consultation and the concept of 'health'.

    PubMed

    Edgar, A

    1998-09-01

    By comparing models of market-based allocation with state-controlled national health care systems, it will be suggested that the way in which different communities deal with the allocation of health care is central to their expression of what might be called a moral self-understanding. That is to say that the provision of health care may be expected to be a focus of communal debate, not simply about morally acceptable and unacceptable actions, but also about the community's understanding of what it is that makes for a worthwhile and morally defensible human life. This moral self-understanding is seen to be entwined with the different concepts of 'health' that are implicit in different systems of allocation. In conclusion, it will be suggested that decisions concerning health care allocation must be made in response to a continuing, public and open debate about what health and health care mean to a particular community. PMID:10185170

  3. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  4. A rate-compatible family of protograph-based LDPC codes built by expurgation and lengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, Sam

    2005-01-01

    We construct a protograph-based rate-compatible family of low-density parity-check codes that cover a very wide range of rates from 1/2 to 16/17, perform within about 0.5 dB of their capacity limits for all rates, and can be decoded conveniently and efficiently with a common hardware implementation.

  5. 42 CFR 413.174 - Prospective rates for hospital-based and independent ESRD facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rates for ESRD facilities using the following methodology: (1) For dialysis services furnished prior to...) For dialysis services furnished on or after January 1, 2009— (i) The composite rate paid to hospital-based facilities for dialysis services shall be the same as the composite rate paid for such...

  6. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  7. Resource allocation and extracellular acid-base status in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in response to CO₂ induced seawater acidification.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, M; Trübenbach, K; Brennecke, D; Hu, M Y; Melzner, F

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic CO(2) emission will lead to an increase in seawater pCO(2) of up to 80-100 Pa (800-1000 μatm) within this century and to an acidification of the oceans. Green sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) occurring in Kattegat experience seasonal hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions already today. Thus, anthropogenic CO(2) emissions will add up to existing values and will lead to even higher pCO(2) values >200 Pa (>2000 μatm). To estimate the green sea urchins' potential to acclimate to acidified seawater, we calculated an energy budget and determined the extracellular acid base status of adult S. droebachiensis exposed to moderately (102-145 Pa, 1007-1431 μatm) and highly (284-385 Pa, 2800-3800 μatm) elevated seawater pCO(2) for 10 and 45 days. A 45-day exposure to elevated pCO(2) resulted in a shift in energy budgets, leading to reduced somatic and reproductive growth. Metabolic rates were not significantly affected, but ammonium excretion increased in response to elevated pCO(2). This led to decreased O:N ratios. These findings suggest that protein metabolism is possibly enhanced under elevated pCO(2) in order to support ion homeostasis by increasing net acid extrusion. The perivisceral coelomic fluid acid-base status revealed that S. droebachiensis is able to fully (intermediate pCO(2)) or partially (high pCO(2)) compensate extracellular pH (pH(e)) changes by accumulation of bicarbonate (maximum increases 2.5mM), albeit at a slower rate than typically observed in other taxa (10-day duration for full pH(e) compensation). At intermediate pCO(2), sea urchins were able to maintain fully compensated pH(e) for 45 days. Sea urchins from the higher pCO(2) treatment could be divided into two groups following medium-term acclimation: one group of experimental animals (29%) contained remnants of food in their digestive system and maintained partially compensated pH(e) (+2.3mM HCO(3)(-)), while the other group (71%) exhibited an empty digestive system and

  8. Priorities and allocations support for energy: keeping energy programs on schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This publication has covered DOE and DOC procedures related to an application for rating authority for an energy program, the DPAS (Defense Priorities and Allocations System) and the Special Priorities Assistance Program's relation to priorities and allocations for energy programs. A person engaged in an eligible energy program or project must be familiar with DPAS rules, regulations and procedures. There are important benefits to be gained by the Government and the energy industry through the proper use of the priorities and allocations system.

  9. Compliance of Perioperative Antibiotic Dosing and Surgical Site Infection Rate in Office-Based Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Steven P.; Jackson, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background: A best practice goal to reduce surgical site infection includes administration of antibiotics in the ideal preoperative window. This article evaluates an office surgical suite antibiotic administration rate and compares it with the timing of a local hospital treating a similar patient population. The hypothesis was that similar or better compliance and surgical site infection rates can be achieved in the office-based suite. Methods: A total of 277 office-based surgeries were analyzed for antibiotic administration time before incision and their corresponding surgical site infection rate. Results: Our facility administered timely prophylactic antibiotics in 96% of cases with a surgical site infection rate of 0.36%. This rate was significantly lower than a reported rate of 3.7%. Conclusion: Low infection rates with high antibiotic administration rate suggest that compliance with best possible practice protocols is possible in the outpatient setting.

  10. Determining the optimal operator allocation using a three-phase methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Ab Rahman, Mohd Nizam

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the operator allocation decision in labor-intensive manufacturing system using a three-phase methodology. A two-phase methodology from literatures has been extended to a three-phase methodology which in a three-phase methodology, operators' performance is evaluated before the allocation is made. The evaluation of operators' performance in Phase 1 is realized as a requirement in operator allocation decision because it will affect the production system's performance. In Phase 2, the used of computer simulation offered flexibility in determining inputs and outputs of each operator allocation alternative. Finally, in Phase 3 the optimal operator allocation is concluded. The combination of these three phases is essential because it includes all important factors. Hence, it will assist the management of the manufacturing companies, especially SMEs in providing ideas to determine an optimal operator allocation. Based on these findings a three-phase methodology improves the current operator allocation.

  11. A unified framework for optimal multiple video object bit allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Ngan, King Ngi

    2005-07-01

    MPEG-4 supports object-level video coding. It is a challenge to design an optimal bit allocation strategy which considers not only how to distribute bits among multiple video objects (MVO's) but also how to achieve optimization between the texture and shape information. In this paper, we present a uniform framework for optimal multiple video object bit allocation in MPEG-4. We combine the rate-distortion (R-D) models for the texture and shape information of arbitrarily shaped video objects to develop the joint texture-shape rate-distortion models. The dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to optimize the bit allocation for the multiple video objects. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed joint texture-shape optimization algorithm outperforms the MPEG-4 verification model on the decoded picture quality.

  12. COMBINING RATE-BASED AND CAP-AND-TRADE EMISSIONS POLICIES. (R828628)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rate-based emissions policies (like tradable performance standards, TPS) fix average emissions intensity, while cap-and-trade (CAT) policies fix total emissions. This paper shows that unfettered trade between rate-based and cap-and-trade programs always raises combined emissio...

  13. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Independence Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  15. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  16. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels Washington LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. 18 CFR 284.502 - Procedures for applying for market-based rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for market-based rates. 284.502 Section 284.502 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF... POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage §...

  18. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 75 FR 38516 - Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ..., 75 FR 19,646 (Apr. 15, 2010); Electric Quarterly Reports, 74 FR 44,841 (Aug. 31, 2009). 6. As noted... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority Issued June 25... that their market-based rate authorizations will be revoked unless they comply with the...

  20. Can Sample-Specific Simulations Help Detect Low Base-Rate Taxonicity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Amir, Nader; Bau, Jinn Jonp

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of the sample-specific simulations (SSS; A. M. Ruscio & J. Ruscio, 2002; J. Ruscio & A. M. Ruscio, 2004) procedure in detecting low base-rate taxa that might otherwise prove elusive. The procedure preserved key distributional characteristics for moderate to high base-rate taxa, but it performed inadequately for low…

  1. 78 FR 56690 - Seneca Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Seneca Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  2. High Data Rate OFDM-Based Radio over FSO Communication System Using M-QAM Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Teixeira, Antonio Luis Jesus

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have presented analysis of OFDM-based Radio over FSO Communication System using M-QAM Modulation under different data rate and attenuation. A distance of 1,000 m was achieved at 10 Gbit/s data rate in OFDM-based Radio over FSO Communication System.

  3. An Exploration of the Base Rate Scores of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, William M.; Vrieze, Scott I.

    2009-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (3rd ed.; MCMI-III) is a widely used psychological assessment of clinical and personality disorders. Unlike typical tests, the MCMI-III uses a base-rate score transformation to incorporate prior probabilities of disorder (i.e., base rates) in test output and diagnostic thresholds. The authors describe the…

  4. An exploration of the base rate scores of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III.

    PubMed

    Grove, William M; Vrieze, Scott I

    2009-03-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (3rd ed.; MCMI-III) is a widely used psychological assessment of clinical and personality disorders. Unlike typical tests, the MCMI-III uses a base-rate score transformation to incorporate prior probabilities of disorder (i.e., base rates) in test output and diagnostic thresholds. The authors describe the base rate transformation and contend that its supporting documentation in the MCMI-III manual is incomplete and fails to meet interdisciplinary test documentation standards. They show that the MCMI-III's base rate transformation is not optimal, and they derive an optimal alternative transformation using Bayes' theorem. Bayes transformation formulae for 7 exponential family distributions are given. The authors discuss the effect of the base rate transformation and further argue that the MCMI-III's use of a single base rate per diagnostic category is ill-advised. They argue that base rates differ among clinical settings and that tests like the MCMI-III should flexibly incorporate a base rate of disorder pertinent to the examinee's characteristics, such as demographics, chief complaint, clinical history, or other variables. They explain how this can readily be accomplished. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290766

  5. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  6. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  7. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  8. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  9. The Estimation and Control of the Electroslag Remelting Melt Rate by Mechanism-Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wanzhou; Wang, Weiyu; Hu, Yuechen; Chen, Yixing

    2012-04-01

    The process control of industrial electroslag remelting production is addressed in this work. This article proposes a mechanism-based model using electrode displacement to estimate the melt rate, designs the remelting process control system, and uses practical application data to verify the validity of the model. The soft measurement of the melt rate based on mechanism modeling is proved to be an economical and reliable solution to the online melt rate estimation and control for large industrial electroslag remelting furnaces.

  10. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  11. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction. PMID:26105046

  12. Plants adapted to nutrient limitation allocate less biomass into stems in an arid-hot grassland.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bangguo; Ji, Zhonghua; Fan, Bo; Wang, Xuemei; He, Guangxiong; Shi, Liangtao; Liu, Gangcai

    2016-09-01

    Biomass allocation can exert a great influence on plant resource acquisition and nutrient use. However, the role of biomass allocation strategies in shaping plant community composition under nutrient limitations remains poorly addressed. We hypothesized that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations, resulting in species turnover and changes in community-level biomass allocations across nutrient gradients. In this study, we measured species abundance and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves and soil nutrients in an arid-hot grassland. We quantified species-specific allocation parameters for stems vs leaves based on allometric scaling relationships. Species-specific stem vs leaf allocation parameters were weighted with species abundances to calculate the community-weighted means driven by species turnover. We found that the community-weighted means of biomass allocation parameters were significantly related to the soil nutrient gradient as well as to leaf stoichiometry, indicating that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations in the studied grassland. Species that allocate less to stems than leaves tend to dominate nutrient-limited environments. The results support the hypothesis that species-specific allocations affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations. The allocation trade-off between stems and leaves has the potential to greatly affect plant distribution across nutrient gradients. PMID:27101947

  13. Fair-value versus original-cost rate-base valuation during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Primeaux, W.J. Jr.; Bubnys, E.L.; Rasche, R.H.

    1984-04-01

    Valuation of public utility property for rate-making purposes has been controversial since the beginning of public regulation. States use three basic methods to determine how utility property will be valued: original-cost jurisidiction, fair-value, and reproduction cost. A study to consider whether rate base methods matter finds no systematic relationship between methods of rate base determination and profits or prices charged by electric utility firms. It also finds that regulatory commissions were usually either overcompensating or undercompensating public utilities for inflation occurring in the economy. The results clearly demonstrate that a change from original-cost to fair-value rate making will not necessarily mean higher accounting profits because lower allowed rates of return offset the higher rate base value. 16 references, 5 tables.

  14. Acid–base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Modi; Titcombe, Mari; Jiang, Jingkun; Jen, Coty; Kuang, Chongai; Fischer, Marc L.; Eisele, Fred L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Hanson, David R.; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models show that particles formed by nucleation can affect cloud cover and, therefore, the earth's radiation budget. Measurements worldwide show that nucleation rates in the atmospheric boundary layer are positively correlated with concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor. However, current nucleation theories do not correctly predict either the observed nucleation rates or their functional dependence on sulfuric acid concentrations. This paper develops an alternative approach for modeling nucleation rates, based on a sequence of acid–base reactions. The model uses empirical estimates of sulfuric acid evaporation rates obtained from new measurements of neutral molecular clusters. The model predicts that nucleation rates equal the sulfuric acid vapor collision rate times a prefactor that is less than unity and that depends on the concentrations of basic gaseous compounds and preexisting particles. Predicted nucleation rates and their dependence on sulfuric acid vapor concentrations are in reasonable agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta. PMID:23091030

  15. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, R.; Mouloua, M.; Molloy, R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  16. 15 CFR 335.3 - Applications to receive allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.3 Applications to receive allocation. (a) In each year prior to a Tariff Rate... behalf, provided the applicant owned the fabric at the time it was cut and sewn. The application must... of the application, an applicant must have woven in the United States worsted wool fabrics...

  17. 15 CFR 335.3 - Applications to receive allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.3 Applications to receive allocation. (a) In each year prior to a Tariff Rate... behalf, provided the applicant owned the fabric at the time it was cut and sewn. The application must... of the application, an applicant must have woven in the United States worsted wool fabrics...

  18. 15 CFR 335.3 - Applications to receive allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.3 Applications to receive allocation. (a) In each year prior to a Tariff Rate... behalf, provided the applicant owned the fabric at the time it was cut and sewn. The application must... of the application, an applicant must have woven in the United States worsted wool fabrics...

  19. Modeling Low-Dose-Rate Effects in Irradiated Bipolar-Base Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cirba, C.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Graves, R.J.; Michez, A.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Witczak, S.C.

    1998-10-26

    A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors. Multiple-trapping simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for low-dose-rate enhancement. At low dose rates, more holes are trapped near the silicon-oxide interface than at high dose rates, resulting in larger midgap voltage shifts at lower dose rates. The additional trapped charge near the interface may cause an exponential increase in excess base current, and a resultant decrease in current gain for some NPN bipolar technologies.

  20. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands...

  1. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  2. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

  3. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  4. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  5. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  6. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  7. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  8. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  9. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  10. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  11. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  12. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a...) Cost allocation and distribution for the planning, design, development, installation and operation...

  13. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  14. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  15. Parental Perceptions of Child Care Quality in Centre-Based and Home-Based Settings: Associations with External Quality Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parental perceptions of child care quality were related to external quality ratings and considered how parental perceptions of quality varied according to child care context (home-based or centre-based settings). Parents of 179 4-year-old children who attended child care centres (n = 141) and home-based settings…

  16. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  17. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  18. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    PubMed

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280

  19. FPGA-based voltage and current dual drive system for high frame rate electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shadab; Manwaring, Preston; Borsic, Andrea; Halter, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used to image the electrical property distribution of a tissue under test. An EIT system comprises complex hardware and software modules, which are typically designed for a specific application. Upgrading these modules is a time-consuming process, and requires rigorous testing to ensure proper functioning of new modules with the existing ones. To this end, we developed a modular and reconfigurable data acquisition (DAQ) system using National Instruments' (NI) hardware and software modules, which offer inherent compatibility over generations of hardware and software revisions. The system can be configured to use up to 32-channels. This EIT system can be used to interchangeably apply current or voltage signal, and measure the tissue response in a semi-parallel fashion. A novel signal averaging algorithm, and 512-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) computation block was implemented on the FPGA. FFT output bins were classified as signal or noise. Signal bins constitute a tissue's response to a pure or mixed tone signal. Signal bins' data can be used for traditional applications, as well as synchronous frequency-difference imaging. Noise bins were used to compute noise power on the FPGA. Noise power represents a metric of signal quality, and can be used to ensure proper tissue-electrode contact. Allocation of these computationally expensive tasks to the FPGA reduced the required bandwidth between PC, and the FPGA for high frame rate EIT. In 16-channel configuration, with a signal-averaging factor of 8, the DAQ frame rate at 100 kHz exceeded 110 frames s (-1), and signal-to-noise ratio exceeded 90 dB across the spectrum. Reciprocity error was found to be for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Static imaging experiments were performed on a high-conductivity inclusion placed in a saline filled tank; the inclusion was clearly localized in the reconstructions obtained for both absolute current and voltage mode data. PMID:25376037

  20. Allocating operating room block time using historical caseload variability.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Narges; Taaffe, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Operating room (OR) allocation and planning is one of the most important strategic decisions that OR managers face. The number of ORs that a hospital opens depends on the number of blocks that are allocated to the surgical groups, services, or individual surgeons, combined with the amount of open posting time (i.e., first come, first serve posting) that the hospital wants to provide. By allocating too few ORs, a hospital may turn away surgery demand whereas opening too many ORs could prove to be a costly decision. The traditional method of determining block frequency and size considers the average historical surgery demand for each group. However, given that there are penalties to the system for having too much or too little OR time allocated to a group, demand variability should play a role in determining the real OR requirement. In this paper we present an algorithm that allocates block time based on this demand variability, specifically accounting for both over-utilized time (time used beyond the block) and under-utilized time (time unused within the block). This algorithm provides a solution to the situation in which total caseload demand can be accommodated by the total OR resource set, in other words not in a capacity-constrained situation. We have found this scenario to be common among several regional healthcare providers with large OR suites and excess capacity. This algorithm could be used to adjust existing blocks or to assign new blocks to surgeons that did not previously have a block. We also have studied the effect of turnover time on the number of ORs that needs to be allocated. Numerical experiments based on real data from a large health-care provider indicate the opportunity to achieve over 2,900 hours of OR time savings through improved block allocations. PMID:24590259

  1. Latent Profile Analysis of Sixth Graders Based on Teacher Ratings: Association with School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Peters, Jaclyn Wetherington; Colman, Laura; Bandalos, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify meaningful groups of sixth graders with common characteristics based on teacher ratings of assets and maladaptive behaviors, describe dropout rates for each group, and examine the validity of these groups using students' self-reports. The sample consisted of racially diverse students (n = 675) attending sixth…

  2. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  3. Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness for Faculty Groups Based on Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe student ratings of teaching effectiveness in a College of Education at a Southern Research I institution for faculty groups based on race and gender. Student ratings for undergraduate, graduate, and undergraduate and graduate courses combined, were used to determine the teaching effectiveness for the 190…

  4. A Method of Rating Assimilation in Psychotherapy Based on Markers of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honos-Webb, Lara; Stiles, William B.; Greenberg, Leslie S

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the development of a marker-based method for rating assimilation in psychotherapy with a case study of a woman, Sarah, who was treated for depression with process-experiential psychotherapy. To increase the rigor of the qualitative case study methodology, independent judges rated passages--taken out of context and randomly…

  5. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  6. Faculty Ratings as Part of a Competency-Based Evaluation Clinic Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a quarterly rating system developed to replace daily grading in a dental school with a competency-based educational model. Presents results from an early administration of the ratings. These results, for 126 students, show excellent face validity and rater consistency and satisfy the school's standard for grade defensibility. (SLD)

  7. 42 CFR 412.332 - Payment based on the hospital-specific rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for Capital-Related Costs § 412.332 Payment based on the hospital-specific rate. The payment amount for...

  8. Cosmogenic Ne-21 Production Rates in H-Chondrites Based on Cl-36 - Ar-36 Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leya, I.; Graf, Th.; Nishiizumi, K.; Guenther, D.; Wieler, R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured Ne-21 production rates in 14 H-chondrites in good agreement with model calculations. The production rates are based on Ne-21 concentrations measured on bulk samples or the non-magnetic fraction and Cl-36 - Ar-36 ages determined from the metal phase.

  9. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  10. A pilot study on low power pulse rate detection based on compressive sampling.

    PubMed

    Huang, B Y; Wang, L; Wang, B; Lin, S J; Wu, D; Zhang, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Low power consumption is one of the key design challenges for various pervasive healthcare systems. Compressive Sampling (CS) is an emerging technique for reconstructing signals from data sampled under the Nyquist rate. CS has great potentials for low power pulse rate detection based on photoplethysmograph (PPG) signals, since by reducing the PPG data sampling rate the LEDs could be turned off for a prolonged period of time. Obviously the higher CS rate, the lower power consumption and lower pulse rate measurement accuracies. In this paper, a feasibility study of using CS for low power pulse rate detection was conducted. A miniature PPG measurement device based on our body sensor networks platform was employed for signal acquisition. Experiments for evaluation the pulse rate estimation and the power consumption were completed. Results suggested that the Gradient Projection for Sparse Reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm is a highly efficient for retrieving pulse rate from PPG signals. It was suggested that the CS rate should be approximate 3 for low power pulse rate detections with averaging estimation mean-square error being less than 5. PMID:19963730

  11. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  12. Semi-fixed-length motion vector coding for H.263-based low bit rate video compression.

    PubMed

    Côté, G; Gallant, M; Kossentini, F

    1999-01-01

    We present a semi-fixed-length motion vector coding method for H.263-based low bit rate video compression. The method exploits structural constraints within the motion field. The motion vectors are encoded using semi-fixed-length codes, yielding essentially the same levels of rate-distortion performance and subjective quality achieved by H.263's Huffman-based variable length codes in a noiseless environment. However, such codes provide substantially higher error resilience in a noisy environment. PMID:18267417

  13. Mass weighted urn design - a new randomization algorithm for unequal allocations

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenle

    2015-01-01

    Unequal allocations have been used in clinical trials motivated by ethical, efficiency, or feasibility concerns. Commonly used permuted block randomization faces a tradeoff between effective imbalance control with a small block size and accurate allocation target with a large block size. Few other unequal allocation randomization designs have been proposed in literature with applications in real trials hardly ever been reported, partly due to their complexity in implementation compared to the permuted block randomization. Proposed in this paper is the mass weighted urn design, in which the number of balls in the urn equals to the number of treatments, and remains unchanged during the study. The chance a ball being randomly selected is proportional to the mass of the ball. After each treatment assignment, a part of the mass of the selected ball is re-distributed to all balls based on the target allocation ratio. This design allows any desired optimal unequal allocations be accurately targeted without approximation, and provides a consistent imbalance control throughout the allocation sequence. The statistical properties of this new design is evaluated with the Euclidean distance between the observed treatment distribution and the desired treatment distribution as the treatment imbalance measure; and the Euclidean distance between the conditional allocation probability and the target allocation probability as the allocation predictability measure. Computer simulation results are presented comparing the mass weighted urn design with other randomization designs currently available for unequal allocations. PMID:26091947

  14. Estimating base rates of impairment in neuropsychological test batteries: a comparison of quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Decker, Scott L; Schneider, W Joel; Hale, James B

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychologists frequently rely on a battery of neuropsychological tests which are normally distributed to determine impaired functioning. The statistical likelihood of Type I error in clinical decision-making is in part determined by the base rate of normative individuals obtaining atypical performance on neuropsychological tests. Base rates are most accurately obtained by co-normed measures, but this is rarely accomplished in neuropsychological testing. Several statistical methods have been proposed to estimate base rates for tests that are not co-normed. This study compared two statistical approaches (binomial and Monte Carlo models) used to estimate the base rates for flexible test batteries. The two approaches were compared against empirically derived base rates for a multitest co-normed battery of cognitive measures. Estimates were compared across a variety of conditions including age and different α levels (N =3,356). Monte Carlo R(2) estimates ranged from .980 to .997 across five different age groups, indicating a good fit. In contrast, the binomial model fit estimates ranged from 0.387 to 0.646. Results confirm that the binomial model is insufficient for estimating base rates because it does not take into account correlations among measures in a multitest battery. Although the Monte Carlo model produced more accurate results, minor biases occurred that are likely due to skewess and kurtosis of test variables. Implications for future research and applied practice are discussed. PMID:22172567

  15. Using hierarchical P-median problem for public school allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Noryanti; Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah

    2014-09-01

    Student's orientation from primary to the secondary schools is a vital process and need to be considered as yearly problem by The District Education Office of Ministry of Education Malaysia. The allocation of students to the right schools becomes complicated due to several constraints like capacity of seats in secondary schools, widespread demand areas as well as preferences by the parents. Considering all the constraints, this study proposes the application of location model to allocate students the right school. The allocation of student from primary to secondary school is based on total number of students, the availability of seats from primary and at the secondary schools, and distance from student's home to the nearest schools, both primary and secondary schools. The problem is modelled as hierarchical P-median problem as there are two hierarchical levels in this orientation. An alternative Genetic Algorithm (GA) based heuristic is applied to solve the problem and results are compared with Excel Solver.

  16. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  17. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat "unconventional" aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method was able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  18. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat 'unconventional' aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method is able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  19. Performance analysis of optimal power allocation in wireless cooperative communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikir Adam, Edriss E.; Samb, Doudou; Yu, Li

    2013-03-01

    Cooperative communication has been recently proposed in wireless communication systems for exploring the inherent spatial diversity in relay channels.The Amplify-and-Forward (AF) cooperation protocols with multiple relays have not been sufficiently investigated even if it has a low complexity in term of implementation. We consider in this work a cooperative diversity system in which a source transmits some information to a destination with the help of multiple relay nodes with AF protocols and investigate the optimality of allocating powers both at the source and the relays system by optimizing the symbol error rate (SER) performance in an efficient way. Firstly we derive a closedform SER formulation for MPSK signal using the concept of moment generating function and some statistical approximations in high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the system under studied. We then find a tight corresponding lower bound which converges to the same limit as the theoretical upper bound and develop an optimal power allocation (OPA) technique with mean channel gains to minimize the SER. Simulation results show that our scheme outperforms the equal power allocation (EPA) scheme and is tight to the theoretical approximation based on the SER upper bound in high SNR for different number of relays.

  20. The Relationship Between Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program Scores and Hospital Bond Ratings.

    PubMed

    Rangnekar, Anooja; Johnson, Tricia; Garman, Andrew; O'Neil, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Tax-exempt hospitals and health systems often borrow long-term debt to fund capital investments. Lenders use bond ratings as a standard metric to assess whether to lend funds to a hospital. Credit rating agencies have historically relied on financial performance measures and a hospital's ability to service debt obligations to determine bond ratings. With the growth in pay-for-performance-based reimbursement models, rating agencies are expanding their hospital bond rating criteria to include hospital utilization and value-based purchasing (VBP) measures. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the Hospital VBP domains--Clinical Process of Care, Patient Experience of Care, Outcome, and Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB)--and hospital bond ratings. Given the historical focus on financial performance, we hypothesized that hospital bond ratings are not associated with any of the Hospital VBP domains. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitals that were rated by Moody's for fiscal year 2012 and participated in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' VBP program as of January 2014 (N = 285). Of the 285 hospitals in the study, 15% had been assigned a bond rating of Aa, and 46% had been assigned an A rating. Using a binary logistic regression model, we found an association between MSPB only and bond ratings, after controlling for other VBP and financial performance scores; however, MSPB did not improve the overall predictive accuracy of the model. Inclusion of VBP scores in the methodology used to determine hospital bond ratings is likely to affect hospital bond ratings in the near term. PMID:26554267

  1. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

    2009-11-10

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  2. Allocating surveillance resources to reduce ecological invasions: maximizing detections and information about the threat.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew; Burgman, Mark A; Cannon, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Allocating resources to detect invasive pests, diseases, and pathogens on exposure pathways requires a trade-off between the need to detect as many contaminated items as possible and the need to acquire knowledge about contamination rates. We develop a model and an algorithm that provide guidance for the allocation of inspection resources across multiple dynamic pathways in cases where not every item can be inspected. The model uses a null hypothesis that the contamination rate of a pathway is above a specified level: a risk cutoff. Pathways with a risk above the cutoff are fully inspected, and those with a risk below the cutoff level are monitored at a rate that would detect a change of the risk to being above the cutoff level with high probability. We base our decision on the 95% upper confidence limit for the contamination rate. We demonstrate via simulations and a data set that focusing inspection resources on specific pathways can result in substantially more effective intervention, and that the reduction in overall effectiveness of monitoring low-risk pathways need not be substantial. Use of the model demands the selection of the risk cutoff, and this limit can be set according to projected consequences. PMID:21774439

  3. ESTIMATION OF THE RATE OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM SOLVENT-BASED INDOOR COATING MATERIALS BASED ON PRODUCT FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two computational methods are proposed for estimation of the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent-based indoor coating materials based on the knowledge of product formulation. The first method utilizes two previously developed mass transfer models with ...

  4. The Technical Adequacy of Curriculum-Based and Rating-Based Measures of Written Expression for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansle, Kristin A.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Noell, George H.; Resetar, Jennifer L.; Williams, Kashunda L.

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred thirty-eight elementary school students participated in a study designed to examine the technical characteristics of curriculum-based measures (CBMs) for the assessment of writing. In addition, the study investigated rating-based measures of writing using the Six Trait model, an assessment instrument and writing program in use in many…

  5. Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

  6. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based...

  7. Exploring Latent Class Based on Growth Rates in Number Sense Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore latent class based on growth rates in number sense ability by using latent growth class modeling (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying growth patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups based not…

  8. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital Innovations' application for market-based rate...

  9. 48 CFR 652.228-74 - Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following provision: Defense Base Act Insurance Rates—Limitation (JUN 2006) (a) The Department of State has... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation. 652.228-74 Section 652.228-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  10. 48 CFR 652.228-74 - Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following provision: Defense Base Act Insurance Rates—Limitation (JUN 2006) (a) The Department of State has... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation. 652.228-74 Section 652.228-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  11. 48 CFR 652.228-74 - Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following provision: Defense Base Act Insurance Rates—Limitation (JUN 2006) (a) The Department of State has... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation. 652.228-74 Section 652.228-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  12. 48 CFR 652.228-74 - Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following provision: Defense Base Act Insurance Rates—Limitation (JUN 2006) (a) The Department of State has... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defense Base Act insurance rates-Limitation. 652.228-74 Section 652.228-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  13. System and method for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system

    DOEpatents

    Loh, Gabriel; Meswani, Mitesh; Ignatowski, Michael; Nutter, Mark

    2016-06-28

    A system for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system includes a processor coupleable to a plurality of memories sharing a unified memory address space, and a library store to store a library of software functions. The processor identifies a type of a data structure in response to a memory allocation function call to the library for allocating memory to the data structure. Using the library, the processor allocates portions of the data structure among multiple memories of the multiclass memory system based on the type of the data structure.

  14. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  15. Resolved rate and torque control schemes for large scale space based kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    1991-01-01

    Resolved rate control of kinematically redundant ground based manipulators is a challenging problem. The structural, actuator, and control loop frequency characteristics of industrial grade robots generally allow operation with resolved rate control; a rate command is achievable with good accuracy. However, space based manipulators are different, typically have less structural stiffness, more motor and joint friction, and lower control loop cycle frequencies. These undesirable characteristics present a considerable Point of Resolution (POR) control problem for space based, kinematically redundant manipulators for the following reason: a kinematically redundant manipulator requires an arbitrary constraint to solve for the joint rate commands. A space manipulator will not respond to joint rate commands because of these characteristics. A space based manipulator simulation, including free end rigid body dynamics, motor dynamics, motor striction/friction, gearbox backlash, joint striction/friction, and Space Station Remote Manipulator System type configuration parameters, is used to evaluate the performance of a documented resolved rate control law. Alternate schemes which include torque control are also evaluated.

  16. Impact of a single base pair substitution on the charge transfer rate along short DNA hairpins

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Nicolas; Berlin, Yuri A.; Ratner, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical studies of hole migration along short DNA hairpins were performed with a particular emphasis on the variations of the rate and quantum yield of the charge separation process with the location of a single guanine:cytosine (G:C) base pair. Our calculations show that the hole arrival rate increases as the position of the guanine:cytosine base pair shifts from the beginning to the end of the sequence. Although these results are in agreement with recent experimental findings, the mechanism governing the charge migration along these sequences is revisited here. Instead of the phenomenological two-step hopping mechanism via the guanine base, the charge propagation occurs through a delocalization of the hole density along the base pair stack. Furthermore, the variations of the charge transfer with the position of the guanine base are explained by the impact of the base pair substitutions on the delocalized conduction channels. PMID:23980166

  17. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  18. Organ Allocation for Liver Transplantation According to the Public Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, Ahmad; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asghari, Fariba; Jafarian, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation is the last resort for treating end stage liver diseases, this medical procedure is not available for all needful patients because of inadequate organ supply. Therefore, guidelines have been developed by medical experts to regulate the process. Some professionals believe that medical criteria are inadequate for organ allocation in all situations and may not secure fairness of organ allocation. Objectives The current study has been designed to identify decision criteria about allocation of donated liver to potential recipients from public points of view. Patients and Methods This is a qualitative study that was conducted through individual interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Individual interviews were conducted among patients’ companions and nurses in one of the two liver transplant centers in Iran. Group discussions were conducted among groups of ordinary people who had not dealt previously with the subject. Data was analyzed by Thematic Analysis method. Results Most of the participants in this study believe that in equal medical conditions, some individual and societal criteria could be used to prioritize patients for receiving donated livers. The criteria include psychological acceptance, ability to pay post-operative care costs, being breadwinner of the family, family support, being socially valued, ability to be instructed, lack of mental disorders, young age of the recipient, being on waiting list for a long time, lack of patient’s role in causing the illness, first time transplant recipient, critical medical condition, high success rate of transplantation, lack of concurrent medical illnesses, not being an inmate at the time of receiving transplant, and bearing Iranian nationality. Conclusions Taking public opinion into consideration may smooth the process of organ allocation to needful patients with equal medical conditions. It seems that considering these viewpoints in drafting organ allocation guidelines

  19. 12 CFR 227.23 - Unfair acts or practices regarding allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Card Account Practices Rule § 227.23 Unfair acts or practices regarding allocation of payments. When different annual percentage rates apply to different balances on a consumer credit card...

  20. The base rate principle and the fairness principle in social judgment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jack; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2016-07-01

    Meet Jonathan and Elizabeth. One person is a doctor and the other is a nurse. Who is the doctor? When nothing else is known, the base rate principle favors Jonathan to be the doctor and the fairness principle favors both individuals equally. However, when individuating facts reveal who is actually the doctor, base rates and fairness become irrelevant, as the facts make the correct answer clear. In three experiments, explicit and implicit beliefs were measured before and after individuating facts were learned. These facts were either stereotypic (e.g., Jonathan is the doctor, Elizabeth is the nurse) or counterstereotypic (e.g., Elizabeth is the doctor, Jonathan is the nurse). Results showed that before individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs followed the fairness principle, whereas implicit beliefs followed the base rate principle. After individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs correctly aligned with stereotypic and counterstereotypic facts. Implicit beliefs, however, were immune to counterstereotypic facts and continued to follow the base rate principle. Having established the robustness and generality of these results, a fourth experiment verified that gender stereotypes played a causal role: when both individuals were male, explicit and implicit beliefs alike correctly converged with individuating facts. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that explicit beliefs uphold fairness and incorporate obvious and relevant facts, but implicit beliefs uphold base rates and appear relatively impervious to counterstereotypic facts. PMID:27325760

  1. Modeling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Using a GPO-Based Adaptive Filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Yaopeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel generalized play operator-based (GPO-based) nonlinear adaptive filter is proposed to model rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity for smart actuators. In the proposed filter, the input signal vector consists of the output of a tapped delay line. GPOs with various thresholds are used to construct a nonlinear network and connected with the input signals. The output signal of the filter is composed of a linear combination of signals from the output of GPOs. The least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is used to adjust the weights of the nonlinear filter. The modeling results of four adaptive filter methods are compared: GPO-based adaptive filter, Volterra filter, backlash filter and linear adaptive filter. Moreover, a phenomenological operator-based model, the rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (RDGPI) model, is compared to the proposed adaptive filter. The various rate-dependent modeling methods are applied to model the rate-dependent hysteresis of a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA). It is shown from the modeling results that the GPO-based adaptive filter can describe the rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear of the GMA more accurately and effectively. PMID:26861349

  2. Modeling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Using a GPO-Based Adaptive Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Yaopeng

    2016-01-01

    A novel generalized play operator-based (GPO-based) nonlinear adaptive filter is proposed to model rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity for smart actuators. In the proposed filter, the input signal vector consists of the output of a tapped delay line. GPOs with various thresholds are used to construct a nonlinear network and connected with the input signals. The output signal of the filter is composed of a linear combination of signals from the output of GPOs. The least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is used to adjust the weights of the nonlinear filter. The modeling results of four adaptive filter methods are compared: GPO-based adaptive filter, Volterra filter, backlash filter and linear adaptive filter. Moreover, a phenomenological operator-based model, the rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (RDGPI) model, is compared to the proposed adaptive filter. The various rate-dependent modeling methods are applied to model the rate-dependent hysteresis of a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA). It is shown from the modeling results that the GPO-based adaptive filter can describe the rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinear of the GMA more accurately and effectively. PMID:26861349

  3. Great Expectations: An Examination of Section 180c Funding Allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R.J.

    2006-07-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) moves toward milestones in developing a plan to ship high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain, an increasingly difficult issue is the distribution of Federal emergency management funds to mitigate costs of preparing for the shipments. DOE staff and contractors, and state transportation planning groups, have high expectations that some allocation formula based on technical factors can be used to distribute funds effectively and equitably. This paper examines the empirical results of a funding allocation formula proposed by the Western Governors Association among the eleven affected states which are members of the Western Interstate Energy Board. The amount of Federal funds allocated to Western states is also compared to the amount of revenue that would be generated by state-imposed fees on DOE shipments. (authors)

  4. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M.; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions.

  5. Allocating medical resources in rural America: alternative perceptions of justice.

    PubMed

    Jecker, N S; Berg, A O

    1992-03-01

    In national debates concerning the allocation of medical resources rural America is a neglected topic, and the voices of rural health professionals are seldom heard. This paper highlights the special problems encountered in allocating medical resources within the rural setting and indicates the strategies that rural residents compose for dealing with them. Our findings are based on a study consisting of in-depth open-ended interviews with family physicians in the rural northwest United States. We contrast the approach to justice expressed by these rural physicians with the conception of justice that dominates Western philosophy and bioethics. In the course of our discussion, the diversity within Western culture becomes apparent. We discuss strategies for incorporating different perspectives into local and national allocation debates, clarify the reasons why a more encompassing approach to justice is necessary, and review the implications of our work for future research. PMID:1604352

  6. Optimal Allocation of Node Capacity in Cascade-Robustness Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Lordan, Oriol; Tang, Jiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of large scale critical infrastructures, which can be modeled as complex networks, is of great significance. One of the most important means to enhance robustness is to optimize the allocation of resources. Traditional allocation of resources is mainly based on the topology information, which is neither realistic nor systematic. In this paper, we try to build a framework for searching for the most favorable pattern of node capacity allocation to reduce the vulnerability to cascading failures at a low cost. A nonlinear and multi-objective optimization model is proposed and tackled using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). It is found that the network becomes more robust and economical when less capacity is left on the heavily loaded nodes and the optimized network performs better resisting noise. Our work is helpful in designing a robust economical network. PMID:26496705

  7. Ka-band (32 GHz) allocations for deep space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, N. F.

    1987-01-01

    At the 1979 World Administrative Conference, two new bands were allocated for deep space telecommunications: 31.8 to 32.3 GHz, space-to-Earth, and 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, Earth-to-space. These bands provide opportunity for further development of the Deep Space Network and its support of deep space research. The history of the process by which JPL/NASA developed the rationale, technical background, and statement of requirement for the bands are discussed. Based on this work, United States proposals to the conference included the bands, and subsequent U.S. and NASA participation in the conference led to successful allocations for deep space telecommunications in the 30 GHz region of the spectrum. A detailed description of the allocations is included.

  8. The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting

    PubMed Central

    Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations. PMID:24744746

  9. Carbon accumulation and allocation in a primary Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, A.; Komatsu, H.; Kume, T.; Ohashi, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Otsuki, K.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    To develop our knowledge of global carbon cycling, it is important to know all components of allocated carbon in tropical rainforests because of their enormous accumulation and elimination. Our goals in this study are to estimate carbon allocation (i.e. carbon flux to aboveground biomass increment, litterfall, aboveground plant respiration and belowground) and compare GPP based on biometric and flux measurement in a primary Bornean tropical rainforest. GPP estimated by biometric method (35.39 tCha-2yr-1) was similar to that measured by flux measurement (31.56 tCha-2yr-1). Mean annual aboveground biomass increment (2.77 tCha-2yr-1) was reasonable compared to former literatures in spite of larger aboveground biomass (272 tCha-2yr-1). Ratio of TBCF to GPP (0.55) was extremely high. These results suggested that considerable carbon is allocated to belowground, causing low productivity of aboveground biomass.

  10. Optimal Allocation of Node Capacity in Cascade-Robustness Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Lordan, Oriol; Tang, Jiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of large scale critical infrastructures, which can be modeled as complex networks, is of great significance. One of the most important means to enhance robustness is to optimize the allocation of resources. Traditional allocation of resources is mainly based on the topology information, which is neither realistic nor systematic. In this paper, we try to build a framework for searching for the most favorable pattern of node capacity allocation to reduce the vulnerability to cascading failures at a low cost. A nonlinear and multi-objective optimization model is proposed and tackled using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). It is found that the network becomes more robust and economical when less capacity is left on the heavily loaded nodes and the optimized network performs better resisting noise. Our work is helpful in designing a robust economical network. PMID:26496705

  11. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  12. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of the polymerization rate in an acrylamide-based photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Naydenova, Izabela; Byrne, Hugh J.; Martin, Suzanne; Howard, Robert; Toal, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of polymerization rates in an acrylamide-based photopolymer are presented. The polymerization rate for acrylamide and methylenebisacrylamide was determined by monitoring the changes in the characteristic vibrational peaks at 1284 and 1607 cm-1 corresponding to the bending mode of the CH bond and CC double bonds of acrylamide and in the characteristic peak at 1629 cm-1 corresponding to the carbon-carbon double bond of methylenebisacrylamide using Raman spectroscopy. To study the dependence of the polymerization rate on intensity and to find the dependence parameter, the polymerization rate constant is measured at different intensities. A comparison with a commercially available photopolymer shows that the polymerization rate in this photopolymer is much faster.

  13. Personnel Resource Allocation Strategies in a Time of Fiscal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausner, Larry Joseph, III

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze school level data related to the allocation of resources, and to determine how those resources are used to increase student achievement in the Hampton School District. The study was based on an analysis of one school district located in Los Angeles County in Southern California. All of the…

  14. Evaluating Student Allocation in the Portuguese Public Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portela, Miguel; Areal, Nelson; Sa, Carla; Alexandre, Fernando; Cerejeira, Joao; Carvalho, Ana; Rodrigues, Artur

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes and evaluates the student allocation in the Portuguese public higher education system. It describes the supply and demand sides of the system by looking at the "numerus clausus" across areas of study and institutions, institutions' degree of diversity, and performance and adjustment indicators based on students' revealed…

  15. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101 Section 982.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN...

  16. 47 CFR 64.901 - Allocation of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hierarchy: (i) Whenever possible, common cost categories are to be allocated based upon direct analysis of the origin of the cost themselves. (ii) When direct analysis is not possible, common cost categories... competitive to subsidize services subject to competition. Services included in the definition of...

  17. On-Line Allocation Of Robot Resources To Task Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, I present an approach to representing plans that make on-line decisions about resource allocation. An on-line decision is the evaluation of a conditional expression involving sensory information as the plan is being executed. I use a plan representation called 7ZS10'1 1,12that has been especially designed for the domain of robot programming, and in particular, for the problem of on-line decisions. The resource allocation example is based on the robot assembly cell architecture outlined by Venkataraman and Lyons16. I begin by setting forth a definition of on-line decision making and some arguments as to why this form of decision making is important and useful. To set the context for the resource allocation example, I take some care in categorizing the types of on-line decision making and the approaches adopted by other workers so far. In particular, I justify a plan-based approach to the study of on-line decision making. From that, the focus shifts to one type of decision making: on-line allocation of robot resources to task plans. Robot resources are the physical manipulators (grippers, wrists, arms, feeders, etc) that are available to carry out the task. I formulate the assembly cell architecture of Venkataraman and Lyons16 as an R.S plan schema, and show how the on-line allocation specified in that architecture can be implemented. Finally, I show how considering the on-line allocation of logical resources, that is a physical resource plus some model information, can be used as a non-traditional approach to some problems in robot task planning.

  18. Allocating Railway Platforms Using A Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Hinde, C. J.; Withall, M. S.; Jackson, T. W.; Phillips, I. W.; Brown, S.; Watson, R.

    This paper describes an approach to automating railway station platform allocation. The system uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find how a station’s resources should be allocated. Real data is used which needs to be transformed to be suitable for the automated system. Successful or ‘fit’ allocations provide a solution that meets the needs of the station schedule including platform re-occupation and various other constraints. The system associates the train data to derive the station requirements. The Genetic Algorithm is used to derive platform allocations. Finally, the system may be extended to take into account how further parameters that are external to the station have an effect on how an allocation should be applied. The system successfully allocates around 1000 trains to platforms in around 30 seconds requiring a genome of around 1000 genes to achieve this.

  19. A Novel Microfluidic Flow Rate Detection Method Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960

  20. Modified Direct Insertion/Cancellation Method Based Sample Rate Conversion for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostamam, Anas Muhamad; Sanada, Yukitoshi; Minami, Hideki

    In this paper, a new fractional sample rate conversion (SRC) scheme based on a direct insertion/cancellation scheme is proposed. This scheme is suitable for signals that are sampled at a high sample rate and converted to a lower sample rate. The direct insertion/cancellation scheme may achieve low-complexity and lower power consumption as compared to the other SRC techniques. However, the direct insertion/cancellation technique suffers from large aliasing and distortion. The aliasing from an adjacent channel interferes the desired signal and degrades the performance. Therefore, a modified direct insertion/cancellation scheme is proposed in order to realize high performance resampling.