Science.gov

Sample records for allocations

  1. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  2. Manpower Allocation and Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Interactive Manpower Allocation and Reporting System (MARS) helps planners make manpower allocation decisions. Includes provisions to enter overall constraints for projects and persons, assign individuals to projects, compute automatically overhead category, report on deviations from constraints, and generate manpower resource allocation reports.

  3. Channel Allocation Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert S.

    The Frequency Allocation Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee for Cable Communication Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was formed to produce a background report on the general problems of frequency allocation and assignments in cable television. The present paper, based on the subcommittee's interim report,…

  4. Proportional Borda allocations.

    PubMed

    Darmann, Andreas; Klamler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the allocation of indivisible items among a group of agents, a problem which has received increased attention in recent years, especially in areas such as computer science and economics. A major fairness property in the fair division literature is proportionality, which is satisfied whenever each of the n agents receives at least [Formula: see text] of the value attached to the whole set of items. To simplify the determination of values of (sets of) items from ordinal rankings of the items, we use the Borda rule, a concept used extensively and well-known in voting theory. Although, in general, proportionality cannot be guaranteed, we show that, under certain assumptions, proportional allocations of indivisible items are possible and finding such allocations is computationally easy.

  5. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  6. Constrained control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the allocation of several flight controls to the generation of specified body-axis moments. The number of controls is greater than the number of moments being controlled, and the ranges of the controls are constrained to certain limits. The controls are assumed to be individually linear in their effect throughout their ranges of motion, and independent of one another in their effects. The geometries of the subset of the constrained controls and of its image in moment space are examined. A direct method of allocating these several controls is presented, that guarantees the maximum possible moment is generated within the constraints of the controls. The results are illustrated by an example problem involving three controls and two moments.

  7. Optimization and phenotype allocation.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jürgen; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenotype allocation problem for the stochastic evolution of a multitype population in a random environment. Our underlying model is a multitype Galton–Watson branching process in a random environment. In the multitype branching model, different types denote different phenotypes of offspring, and offspring distributions denote the allocation strategies. Two possible optimization targets are considered: the long-term growth rate of the population conditioned on nonextinction, and the extinction probability of the lineage. In a simple and biologically motivated case, we derive an explicit formula for the long-term growth rate using the random Perron–Frobenius theorem, and we give an approximation to the extinction probability by a method similar to that developed by Wilkinson. Then we obtain the optimal strategies that maximize the long-term growth rate or minimize the approximate extinction probability, respectively, in a numerical example. It turns out that different optimality criteria can lead to different strategies.

  8. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  9. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  10. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process.

  11. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  12. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment. 660.323 Section 660.323 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED...

  13. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  14. Organ allocation in lung transplant.

    PubMed

    Davis, Steven Q; Garrity, Edward R

    2007-11-01

    Since the first successful single-lung transplant in 1983 and double-lung transplant in 1986, thousands of patients have benefited from the procedures. Until 1995, allocation of donor lungs was based purely on time on the waiting list. In 1995, a 90-day credit was given to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, while still maintaining allocation based on waiting list time. In 2005, the lung allocation score (LAS) was implemented, dramatically changing the way lungs are allocated. This article will explore the reasons for the creation of the LAS, the design of the score, early experience with transplant results under the new system, and further changes that may be made to the system of lung allocation. As surgical techniques and medical management evolve, so to will the management of potential donors and the allocation of their organs, with the aim of benefiting patients needing lung transplantation in the United States.

  15. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  16. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  17. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  18. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  19. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  20. Resource allocation using risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.

  1. Resource allocation in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Goelzer, Anne; Fromion, Vincent

    2017-08-15

    Quantitative prediction of resource allocation for living systems has been an intensive area of research in the field of biology. Resource allocation was initially investigated in higher organisms by using empirical mathematical models based on mass distribution. A challenge is now to go a step further by reconciling the cellular scale to the individual scale. In the present paper, we review the foundations of modelling of resource allocation, particularly at the cellular scale: from small macro-molecular models to genome-scale cellular models. We enlighten how the combination of omic measurements and computational advances together with systems biology has contributed to dramatic progresses in the current understanding and prediction of cellular resource allocation. Accurate genome-wide predictive methods of resource allocation based on the resource balance analysis (RBA) framework have been developed and ensure a good trade-off between the complexity/tractability and the prediction capability of the model. The RBA framework shows promise for a wide range of applications in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, and for pursuing investigations of the design principles of cellular and multi-cellular organisms. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  3. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  4. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  5. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  6. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  7. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  8. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  9. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  10. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  11. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  12. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  13. How to do random allocation (randomization).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Shin, Wonshik

    2014-03-01

    To explain the concept and procedure of random allocation as used in a randomized controlled study. We explain the general concept of random allocation and demonstrate how to perform the procedure easily and how to report it in a paper.

  14. Algorithms for optimal redundancy allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenkieboom, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heuristic and exact methods for solving the redundancy allocation problem are compared to an approach based on genetic algorithms. The various methods are applied to the bridge problem, which has been used as a benchmark in earlier work on optimization methods. Comparisons are presented in terms of the best configuration found by each method, and the computation effort which was necessary in order to find it.

  15. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  16. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  17. BELOWGROUND NITROGEN UPTAKE AND ALLOCATION ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs coupled with rising sea level complicate predictions of marsh stability. As marsh stability is a function of its vegetation, it is important to understand the mechanisms that drive community dynamics. Many studies have examined aboveground dynamics and nutrient cycling, but few have studied the belowground uptake and allocation of nitrogen. Literature suggests that D. spicata may dominate the marsh platform in nutrient-rich conditions, though the mechanism driving the vegetation shift is unclear. Our study examines belowground nutrient uptake and allocation underlying these patterns. To determine whether D. spicata is a more efficient scavenger of nutrients than S. alterniflora we performed a 15N pulse-chase experiment. Tracer was added to mesocosms growing D. spicata and S. alterniflora in monoculture. After the initial pulse, a subset of pots were sacrificed weekly and partitioned into detailed depth intervals for 15N analysis of several belowground pools: live coarse and fine roots, live rhizomes, dead organic matter, and bulk sediment. Comparisons between D. spicata and S. alterniflora uptake and allocation can explain mechanisms of competitive advantage and predictions of D. spicata dominance. Additionally, we used denitrification enzyme assays (DEA) and greenhouse gas slurries to quantify denitrification rates and potentials. Initial results suggest that the vegetation types support similar N-relevant microbial communities. Th

  18. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  19. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  20. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  1. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  2. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY... conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, for schools and hospitals, shall be allocated... percent of all amounts allocated in any grant program cycle. No State will be allocated more than...

  3. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  4. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  5. Teachers' Embodied Allocations in Instructional Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kääntä, Leila

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how teachers employ gaze, head nods and pointing gestures in allocating response turns to students in whole-class instructional interaction. Specifically, it focuses on examining teachers' embodied allocations--that is, turn-allocations produced (mostly) by embodied means--and the sequential positions in which they are…

  6. Rodent Cage Allocation | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Animal Cage Allocation Principles - 2017 Rodent cage allocations for each principal investigator (PI) are based on: Animal study design and justification BSC Recommendations Package for new tenure track or tenured investigator Average cage usage in previous fiscal years Note: The allocations largely reflect PI requirements for standard mouse caging.

  7. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  8. Resource allocation using constraint propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of constraint propagation was discussed. Performance increases are possible with careful application of these constraint mechanisms. The degree of performance increase is related to the interdependence of the different activities resource usage. Although this method of applying constraints to activities and resources is often beneficial, it is obvious that this is no panacea cure for the computational woes that are experienced by dynamic resource allocation and scheduling problems. A combined effort for execution optimization in all areas of the system during development and the selection of the appropriate development environment is still the best method of producing an efficient system.

  9. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  10. Oncological resource allocation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Michael; Kath, Roland; Gundermann, Christin

    2008-03-01

    Oncology is a resource-intensive medical discipline where, so far, effectiveness rather than efficiency of a treatment has stood in the foreground. The aim of our study was, therefore, to determine the resource allocation and to assess the efficiency of oncology in Germany for the period of 2002-2004. With the aid of the official German Health Report, the expenditures for health in 2004 and the gain in years of life according to ICD 10 disease categories were analyzed. Based on the incremental costs and years of life gained, the cost calculation per year of life gained was made. Malignant neoplasms appear in 5th place in health expenditures at a cost of 15 billion 1. With costs per year of life gained of 140,750 1, malignant neoplasms range ahead of respiratory diseases (52,500 1)digestive diseases (27,455 1), and injuries (14,538 1). Costs involving malignant neoplasm per year of life gained range between 39,000 1(malignancies of the lip, oral cavity, and the pharynx), and 126,000 1(digestive organ cancer). In Germany, oncology incurs higher costs per year of life gained as compared to several other diseases. Also, in malignant neoplasm considerable differences can be observed regarding resource allocation and efficiency. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  12. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  13. Computational models and resource allocation for supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauney, Jon; Agrawal, Dharma P.; Harcourt, Edwin A.; Choe, Young K.; Kim, Sukil

    1989-01-01

    There are several different architectures used in supercomputers, with differing computational models. These different models present a variety of resource allocation problems that must be solved. The computational needs of a program must be cast in terms of the computational model supported by the supercomputer, and this must be done in a way that makes effective use of the machine's resources. This is the resource allocation problem. The computational models of available supercomputers and the associated resource allocation techniques are surveyed. It is shown that many problems and solutions appear repeatedly in very different computing environments. Some case studies are presented, showing concrete computational models and the allocation strategies used.

  14. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  15. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting...: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the... page, investor letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this...

  16. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  17. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle...

  18. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle...

  19. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle...

  20. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle...

  1. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle...

  2. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each fiscal year thereafter, the Postal Service will develop the net assets of the theoretical competitive...

  3. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each fiscal year thereafter, the Postal Service will develop the net assets of the theoretical competitive...

  4. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., directed open access, and recreational fisheries) will be established biennially or annually using the... in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, separate allocations for the limited entry and open access... allocations for groundfish trawl and nontrawl (limited entry fixed gear, open access, and recreational...

  5. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., directed open access, and recreational fisheries) will be established biennially or annually using the... in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, separate allocations for the limited entry and open access... allocations for groundfish trawl and nontrawl (limited entry fixed gear, open access, and recreational...

  6. How to Do Random Allocation (Randomization)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explain the concept and procedure of random allocation as used in a randomized controlled study. Methods We explain the general concept of random allocation and demonstrate how to perform the procedure easily and how to report it in a paper. PMID:24605197

  7. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  8. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  9. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  10. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The Defense...

  11. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Congress appropriates less than $1.5 billion of HOME funds, $335,000 is substituted for $500,000. (4) The... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a... factors. The first and sixth factors are weighted 0.1; the other four factors are weighted 0.2....

  12. Resource Allocation in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an econometric analysis of internal resource allocation. Two theories are used for this study of resource allocation in public research universities, and these are: (1) Theory of the Firm; and (2) Resource Dependence Theory. This study used the American Association of Universities Data Exchange (AAUDE)…

  13. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  14. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  15. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  16. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  17. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  18. Resource Allocation: Ration, Fashion, or Innovashun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourens, Roy

    1986-01-01

    Resource allocation is a key factor in promoting or retarding innovation. In a restrictive economic climate, it is easy to use resource allocation for decremental rationing and to stifle innovative thinking. The technique can also be used to ensure that the institution's human resources are encouraged to identify opportunities for innovation. (MSE)

  19. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in...

  20. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  1. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The Secretary...

  2. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  3. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  4. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  5. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  6. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  7. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The Defense...

  8. MACT: A Manageable Minimization Allocation System

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Bu, Huaien; Liao, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Minimization is a case allocation method for randomized controlled trials (RCT). Evidence suggests that the minimization method achieves balanced groups with respect to numbers and participant characteristics, and can incorporate more prognostic factors compared to other randomization methods. Although several automatic allocation systems exist (e.g., randoWeb, and MagMin), the minimization method is still difficult to implement, and RCTs seldom employ minimization. Therefore, we developed the minimization allocation controlled trials (MACT) system, a generic manageable minimization allocation system. System Outline. The MACT system implements minimization allocation by Web and email. It has a unified interface that manages trials, participants, and allocation. It simultaneously supports multitrials, multicenters, multigrouping, multiple prognostic factors, and multilevels. Methods. Unlike previous systems, MACT utilizes an optimized database that greatly improves manageability. Simulations and Results. MACT was assessed in a series of experiments and evaluations. Relative to simple randomization, minimization produces better balance among groups and similar unpredictability. Applications. MACT has been employed in two RCTs that lasted three years. During this period, MACT steadily and simultaneously satisfied the requirements of the trial. Conclusions. MACT is a manageable, easy-to-use case allocation system. Its outstanding features are attracting more RCTs to use the minimization allocation method. PMID:24701251

  9. Projected 1998-99 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Edward

    Designed for use in calculating the distribution of state aid to colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) and in preparing financial and enrollment reports, this document provides a summary of projected cost allocations for the WTCS for 1998-99, derived from data submitted by the colleges on cost allocation schedules. Following a…

  10. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  11. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  12. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  13. Inferential Aspects of Adaptive Allocation Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donald A.

    In clinical trials, adaptive allocation means that the therapies assigned to the next patient or patients depend on the results obtained thus far in the trial. Although many adaptive allocation procedures have been proposed for clinical trials, few have actually used adaptive assignment, largely because classical frequentist measures of inference…

  14. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  15. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries will be established biennially or annually for certain species and... excluding set asides for recreational or tribal Indian fisheries) minus the allocation to the open...

  16. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research.

  17. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  18. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  19. Credit allocation for research institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-P.; Guo, Q.; Yang, K.; Han, J.-T.; Liu, J.-G.

    2017-05-01

    It is a challenging work to assess research performance of multiple institutes. Considering that it is unfair to average the credit to the institutes which is in the different order from a paper, in this paper, we present a credit allocation method (CAM) with a weighted order coefficient for multiple institutes. The results for the APS dataset with 18987 institutes show that top-ranked institutes obtained by the CAM method correspond to well-known universities or research labs with high reputation in physics. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the CAM method when citation links are added or rewired randomly quantified by the Kendall's Tau and Jaccard index. The experimental results indicate that the CAM method has better performance in robustness compared with the total number of citations (TC) method and Shen's method. Finally, we give the first 20 Chinese universities in physics obtained by the CAM method. However, this method is valid for any other branch of sciences, not just for physics. The proposed method also provides universities and policy makers an effective tool to quantify and balance the academic performance of university.

  20. Measuring morbidity for resource allocation.

    PubMed Central

    Mays, N

    1987-01-01

    The RAWP (Resource Allocation Working Party) report used population weightings based on standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) as a proxy measure of differences in morbidity (and therefore in the need for health care resources) that existed between geographical areas after allowing for the age and sex structure of their populations. The adequacy of SMRs as a proxy for morbidity has aroused controversy, particularly from RAWP losers in London, and is one of the main themes of the National Health Service Management Board's current review of RAWP. Critics have argued, firstly, that the nature of the relation between morbidity and mortality is unknown; and, secondly, that SMRs are incomplete because they fail to take account of the effect of social deprivation on the need for health care. As a result several alternative proxies for morbidity based on social indicators have been proposed. One of their principal drawbacks is that their use is justified by their relation to measures of use of services known to be affected by the prevailing level of supply. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that mortality data actually correlate quite well with the available measures of both morbidity and social deprivation. But without access to comprehensive morbidity data the SMR debate is bound to remain inconclusive. As measures of health need, however, SMRs have the twin merits of being (a) independent of supply, and (b) more direct measures of health state than social indicators. PMID:3117312

  1. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals.

  2. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a...

  3. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of the...

  4. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of the...

  5. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a...

  6. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a...

  7. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of the...

  8. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  9. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  10. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  11. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration... to any coastal state for the purpose of administering that state's management program, if the...

  12. Allocation of Scarce Resources: Some Problems

    PubMed Central

    Secundy, Marian G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current philosophical perspectives and societal trends in relation to allocation of scarce resources. An analysis and comparative assessment of various positions of current philosophers, theologians, and bioethicists is provided. Currently proposed cost containment measures at the federal level require that black health professionals particularly pay attention to these proposals specifically as related to allocation of resources. The ways in which cost containment and/ or modification of resource allocation will affect health care delivery, specifically for the black community, must be carefully examined. This article may suggest some approaches for individual and group response to the continuing dialogue and to the allocation process itself. The equitable distribution of health care, particularly scarce new technologies, will be one of the greatest problems facing society in the next 20 years. PMID:7265284

  13. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ivan B; Bohte, Sander M; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J M; La Poutré, Han

    2009-05-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand, for the most efficient use of resources this allocation must be flexible. We present an adaptive approach to automatic optimization of resource calendars. In our approach, the allocation of capacity to different patient groups is flexible and adaptive to the current and expected future situation. We additionally present an approach to determine optimal resource openings hours on a larger time frame. Our model and its parameter values are based on extensive case analysis at the Academic Medical Hospital Amsterdam. We have implemented a comprehensive computer simulation of the application case. Simulation experiments show that our approach of adaptive capacity allocation improves the performance of scheduling patients groups with different attributes and makes efficient use of resource capacity.

  14. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  15. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate allocation. (a) Not less than 80 percent of the grant funds available to any Governor under § 631.81 of this part...

  16. Allocation of Resources in an Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, Abraham

    1974-01-01

    Considers the problem of allocation resources among various locations in an information system where phases of a process are carried out. Approach taken combines queueing theory and dynamic programming. (JB)

  17. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed.

  18. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  19. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  20. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.

  1. Local Fiscal Allocation for Public Health Departments.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J Mac; Leider, Jonathon P; Riley, William J

    2015-12-01

    We examined the percentage of local government taxes ("fiscal allocation") dedicated to local health departments on a national level, as well as correlates of local investment in public health. Using the most recent data available--the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials Profile survey and the 2007 U.S. Census Bureau Census of Local Governments-generalized linear regression models examined associations between fiscal allocation and local health department setting, governance, finance, and service provision. Models were stratified by the extent of long-term debt for the jurisdiction. Analyses were performed in 2014. Average fiscal allocation for public health was 3.31% of total local taxes. In multivariate regressions, per capita expenditures, having a local board of health and public health service provision were associated with higher fiscal allocation. Stratified models showed that local board of health and local health department taxing authority were associated with fiscal allocation in low and high long-term debt areas, respectively. The proportion of all local taxes allocated to local public health is related to local health department expenditures, service provision, and governance. These relationships depend upon the extent of long-term debt in the jurisdiction. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-07

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison.

  4. A critical assessment on kidney allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Formica, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    The kidney allocation system that took effect on December 4, 2014 represents a significant improvement over the prior approach. It seeks to improve outcomes by longevity matching - pairing kidneys expected to function the longest with recipients expected to live the longest. It addresses the biological barriers faced by highly sensitized patients in an evidence based fashion and it begins to introduce the concept of medical need into kidney allocation by crediting time from the starting dialysis to a patient's waiting time. Additionally, it adds a more granular and continuous approach to classifying deceased donor kidneys through the kidney donor profile index and moves away from the dichotomous and flawed, standard criteria/extended criteria approach to allocating kidneys. Despite these changes, access to kidney transplantation across the age spectrum has remained intact and equitable. However even with these numerous positive improvements the system is not without its flaws. The increased sharing and by extension shipping of kidneys have created logistical challenges for organ procurement organizations and transplant centers. Early results seem to indicate that there have been an increase in cold ischemic time, an increase in delayed graft function and an increase in organ discard rate. There is also a reduced offer rate for children and while not a statistically significant decline in the number of transplants, it is a trend that requires close monitoring. Finally, the new kidney allocation system has done nothing to address the glaring deficiencies in the multi-organ allocation practices, all of which include a kidney, in the United States. Therefore despite the improvements made in kidney allocation, there is work yet to be done to ensure that the allocation of life saving and life prolonging organs for transplantation is done in a fashion consistent with ethical principles, based on science and free from local self interest so that this national resource is

  5. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  6. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available budget...

  7. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer...

  8. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  9. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  10. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  11. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  12. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  13. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  14. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  17. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve...

  18. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  19. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  20. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  1. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  2. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  3. Divergence in plant and microbial allocation strategies explains continental patterns in microbial allocation and biogeochemical fluxes.

    PubMed

    Averill, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Allocation trade-offs shape ecological and biogeochemical phenomena at local to global scale. Plant allocation strategies drive major changes in ecosystem carbon cycling. Microbial allocation to enzymes that decompose carbon vs. organic nutrients may similarly affect ecosystem carbon cycling. Current solutions to this allocation problem prioritise stoichiometric tradeoffs implemented in plant ecology. These solutions may not maximise microbial growth and fitness under all conditions, because organic nutrients are also a significant carbon resource for microbes. I created multiple allocation frameworks and simulated microbial growth using a microbial explicit biogeochemical model. I demonstrate that prioritising stoichiometric trade-offs does not optimise microbial allocation, while exploiting organic nutrients as carbon resources does. Analysis of continental-scale enzyme data supports the allocation patterns predicted by this framework, and modelling suggests large deviations in soil C loss based on which strategy is implemented. Therefore, understanding microbial allocation strategies will likely improve our understanding of carbon cycling and climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. Allocation applicants that are not...

  5. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  6. Fairness versus efficiency of vaccine allocation strategies.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ming; Marathe, Achla

    2015-03-01

    To develop a framework to objectively measure the degree of fairness of any allocation rule aimed at distributing a limited stockpile of vaccines to contain the spread of influenza. The trade-off between the efficiency and fairness of allocation strategies was demonstrated through an illustrative simulation study of an influenza epidemic in Southwestern Virginia. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model was used to represent the disease progression within the host. Our findings showed that among all the criteria considered here, the household size (largest first) combined with age (youngest first)-based strategy leads to the best outcome. At 80% fairness, highest efficiency can be achieved but in order to be 100% fair, disease prevalence will have to rise by approximately 1.5%. This research provides a framework to objectively determine the degree of fairness of vaccine allocation strategies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fairness versus Efficiency of Vaccine Allocation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ming; Marathe, Achla

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This research develops a framework to objectively measure the degree of fairness of any allocation rule aimed at distributing a limited stockpile of vaccines to contain the spread of Influenza. Methods The trade-off between the efficiency and the fairness of allocation strategies is demonstrated through an illustrative simulation study of an Influenza epidemic in Southwestern Virginia. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model is used to represent the disease progression within the host. Results Our findings show that among all the criteria considered here, the household size (largest first) combined with age (youngest first) based strategy leads to the best outcome. At 80% fairness, highest efficiency can be achieved but in order to be 100% fair, disease prevalence will have to rise by ≈1.5%. Conclusions This research provides a framework to objectively determine the degree of fairness of vaccine allocation strategies. PMID:25773563

  8. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  9. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward.

  10. Computational models and resource allocation for supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Mauney, J.; Harcourt, E.A. ); Agrawal, D.P. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Choe, Y.K. ); Kim, S. ); Staats, W.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Supercomputers are capable of providing tremendous computational power, but must be carefully programmed to take advantage of that power. There are several different architectures used in supercomputers, with differing computational models. These different models present a variety of resource allocation problems that must be solved. The computational needs of a program must be cast in terms of the computational model supported by the supercomputer, and this must be done in a way that makes effective use of the machine's resources. This is the resource allocation problem. The computational models of available supercomputers and the associated resource allocation techniques are surveyed. It is shown that many problems and solutions appear repeatedly in very different computing environments.

  11. [Organ allocation system: between efficiency and equity].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne

    2007-02-15

    Despite considerable efforts to promote organ donation and increase the amount of organ retrieval, demand for grafts is increasing and remains much higher then availability. This short supply is noticeable for all organ transplantation whether for heart, lungs, liver or pancreas but mainly for kidneys. The objective of graft allocation and attribution rules is to insure an allocation as fair as possible, to find the best recipient, to take into account the emergency of the need for grafting or the access difficulty for certain patients, and to seek optimal graft usage. These rules are based on the setting up of priority categories for patients whose lives are threatened on a very short-term basis or for those having difficult access to transplantation. This implies the issue of seeking the balance between an allocation as fair as possible and technical constraints associated with organ retrieval, transportation and graft quality preservation.

  12. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    PubMed

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  13. Resource allocation using ANN in LTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, Tuncay; Ersoy, Mevlut

    2017-07-01

    LTE is the 4th generation wireless network technology, which provides flexible bandwidth, higher data speeds and lower delay. Difficulties may be experienced upon an increase in the number of users in LTE. The objective of this study is to ensure a faster solution to any such resource allocation problems which might arise upon an increase in the number of users. A fast and effective solution has been obtained by making use of Artificial Neural Network. As a result, fast working artificial intelligence methods may be used in resource allocation problems during operation.

  14. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  15. Considerations in asset allocation: investing wisely.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Ellen

    2006-12-01

    In this article, the author reviews the steps an investor should take to make sound asset allocation decisions and offers guidelines on assembling a portfolio that helps meet the investor's needs. The most important decision in structuring a broadly diversified investment portfolio is the allocation among and within the three major asset classes: stocks, bonds and short-term reserves. In selecting the appropriate mix, the investor should weigh four interrelated factors-investment objective, time horizon, risk tolerance and personal financial situation. A well-diversified investment portfolio and a disciplined savings program are important factors in reaching financial goals.

  16. Allocation Rules for Sequential Clinical Trials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AD-AIN 354 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS F/V 12/1 ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS .(U) JUL 82 D SIEGMUND N00V11577-C-V306...UNCLASSIFIED TR 18 NL ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS BY D. SIEGMUND TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 18 JULY 1982 PREPARED UNDER CONTRACT N00014-77-C...at all. Rere me. discuss (I) and (11) or mes"s 9f a Monte Carlo experiment. The advantages of randomization in clinical trials has been discussed at

  17. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., directed open access, and recreational fisheries) will be established biennially or annually using the... in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, separate allocations for the limited entry and open access... gear, open access, and recreational) fisheries. IFQ species not listed in the table below will be...

  18. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  19. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  20. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  1. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  2. Using Performance Measures to Allocate Consumable Funding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    inclusion on the MORSS CD and/or posting on the MORS web site. Name of Principal Author and all other author(s): David Fulk Douglas Blazer Deborah...Measures to Allocate Consumable Funding Dr David Fulk Dr Douglas Blazer Mrs Deb Hileman P A G E 3 Abstract This presentation will show the how the Air

  3. How to Allocate Personnel Costs of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Carol

    In July 1974, at the American Library Association Convention, a symposium on reference measurement was held. The basic premise was that work sampling and random time sampling with self-observation were the best methods of allocating personnel costs of reference services at the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. First, reasons…

  4. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency syndrome reported to and confirmed by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its...

  5. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... least 1 year prior to the date the sector wants to begin operations in accordance with the conditions... PSCs of vessels/permits participating in each sector during a particular fishing year, as described in... original ACE allocation for each stock that is unused at the end of one fishing year into the following...

  6. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  7. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired... the formula is distributed to qualifying cities and eligible States, as described in § 574.100, based...-five percent is allocated among qualifying cities, but not States, where the per capita incidence...

  8. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....

  9. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....

  10. Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

  11. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... groundfish is allocated among participants in the fishery when the ACLs for a given year are established in... catch of all groundfish species, estimates of fishing mortality in non-groundfish fisheries and, as... mortality in non-groundfish fisheries are based on historical catch and projected fishing activities. (4...

  12. 50 CFR 660.322 - Sablefish allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OY for the area north of 36° N. lat. This allocation represents the total amount available to the... described in § 660.372(c). (e) Ratios between tiers for sablefish-endorsed limited entry permits. The... of the three tiers associated with the sablefish endorsement such that the ratio of limits...

  13. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies. ...

  14. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the other public housing projects operated by the PHA, using the data obtained from the system... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued...

  15. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  16. The Allocation of Resources in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a linear programming model which generates explicit quantitative information about (1) the optimal allocation of resources inside the public university (2) the "shadow price" attached to each input used in the academic process; and (3) the optimal mixture of academic outputs produced by the university. (KM)

  17. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency syndrome reported to and confirmed by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its...

  18. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... time elderly families and non-elderly persons with disabilities currently have to wait for a dwelling... persons with disabilities; (iii) If a project is being designated for elderly families, describe the steps... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1)...

  19. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... may be used with respect to foster or adoptive children other than those on behalf of whom foster care...

  20. Resource Allocation in High Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This study investigated the resource allocation process--how school administrators obtain the proper resources to operate their schools, distribute the available resources among the various school programs appropriately, and manage resources for effective educational results--in four high schools during the 1984-85 school year. Information was…

  1. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  2. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  3. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  4. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gear, open access, and recreational fisheries) will be established biennially or annually using the..., separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries may be established using the... trawl and nontrawl (limited entry fixed gear, open access, and recreational) fisheries. IFQ species...

  5. Administrative Decision Making and Resource Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman

    This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…

  6. Spatial allocation of forest recreation value

    Treesearch

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Catrina Paez; Edgard Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of...

  7. Online Job Allocation with Hard Allocation Ratio Requirement (Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    when jobs arrive according to some random process . I. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we discuss the problem of online job allocation for cloud computing...not only stores the video but also has remaining capacity to process this request. If no server can process this request, the request is dropped, which... process , and one only needs guarantees on the expected value of allocation ratio. By both theoretical analysis and numerical studies, we demonstrate

  8. 29 CFR 4044.10 - Manner of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.10... categories. In no event shall a benefit assigned to a priority category be valued at less than zero....

  9. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIES ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the methodologies and data bases used to develop species allocation factors and data processing software used to develop the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2). Species allocation factors were...

  10. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  11. Cost Allocation and Overpricing of Spare Parts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    5 defense contractors are presently treating spare parts as cost objectives and using a type of spare parts accounting system as described in the...survey instrument. The other 7 contractor respondents who do not treat spare parts as cost objectives were not favor- able to this accounting treatment...company accounting systems or lised to resolve specific contract or formula pricing cost allocation issues, contribute signi- ficantly to overpricing

  12. Motor gasoline allocation; adjustment and downward certification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The results of a survey of 14 refiners, 8 state government agencies, 5 trade associations, 1 mid-level marketer and the Department of Justice on adjustment and downward certification of motor gasoline allocation are analyzed. Only 3 of 14 refiners favored downward certification. Ten urged limited downward certification. Those opposed to any downward certification included 6 government agencies, the trade associations, a reseller, and 1 refiner. Alternatives and comments are included.

  13. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  14. MITRAM. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Santini, D.J.

    1989-02-01

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  15. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  16. The allocation of ecosystem net primary productivity in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher; Galbraith, David

    2011-01-01

    The allocation of the net primary productivity (NPP) of an ecosystem between canopy, woody tissue and fine roots is an important descriptor of the functioning of that ecosystem, and an important feature to correctly represent in terrestrial ecosystem models. Here, we collate and analyse a global dataset of NPP allocation in tropical forests, and compare this with the representation of NPP allocation in 13 terrestrial ecosystem models. On average, the data suggest an equal partitioning of allocation between all three main components (mean 34 ± 6% canopy, 39 ± 10% wood, 27 ± 11% fine roots), but there is substantial site-to-site variation in allocation to woody tissue versus allocation to fine roots. Allocation to canopy (leaves, flowers and fruit) shows much less variance. The mean allocation of the ecosystem models is close to the mean of the data, but the spread is much greater, with several models reporting allocation partitioning outside of the spread of the data. Where all main components of NPP cannot be measured, litterfall is a good predictor of overall NPP (r2 = 0.83 for linear fit forced through origin), stem growth is a moderate predictor and fine root production a poor predictor. Across sites the major component of variation of allocation is a shifting allocation between wood and fine roots, with allocation to the canopy being a relatively invariant component of total NPP. This suggests the dominant allocation trade-off is a ‘fine root versus wood’ trade-off, as opposed to the expected ‘root–shoot’ trade-off; such a trade-off has recently been posited on theoretical grounds for old-growth forest stands. We conclude by discussing the systematic biases in estimates of allocation introduced by missing NPP components, including herbivory, large leaf litter and root exudates production. These biases have a moderate effect on overall carbon allocation estimates, but are smaller than the observed range in allocation values across sites. PMID

  17. Pilot's visual attention allocation modeling under fatigue.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Human factors involved with visual attention mechanism and fatigue are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. To investigate the connection between attention and flight fatigue, a mathematical model of pilot's visual attention allocation was established based on information processing channels. Multi-task condition and current psychophysical state were taken into account as well. Sixteen participants were recruited to perform a long-term dual-task in a Boeing 737-800 flight simulator. The primary task was an envelope flight task and the secondary was an unusual attitude (UA) recovery task. Reaction time of the secondary task was recorded as a behavior performance index, while heart rate and respiration rate were measured as physiological indices as well as fixation distribution as attention allocation index. The experiment results showed a significant affect of experiment time that indicated the occurrence and influence of fatigue. Eye movement tracking also revealed good agreement with the predictable model and hence verified its effectiveness. Moreover, applicability of the model was validated under flight fatigue and multiple tasks condition. The current study provided a quantitative connection between pilot's visual attention allocation and flight fatigue, which was verified in the ergonomics experiment.

  18. Resource allocation equity in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Georgina Mayela Núñez; Martínez, Ana María Salinas; Ríos, Enrique Villarreal; Elizondo, Ma Eugenia Garza

    2004-12-01

    Currently, the population health needs are unlimited, but allocation of financial resources is not in accordance with these needs, probably due to the lack of specific information. In this work, we propose a new approach to allocate resources with equity as a tool for decision-making in planning. The grade of equity in resource allocation in decentralized management medical areas (DMMAs (AMGD, for its initials in Spanish)) was determined; these are limited geographical areas of a social security institution in three states of the northeastern region of Mexico. The areas with more health needs in the global index were DMMA no. 12 in Tamaulipas with a Z-score (ZS) of -5; area no. 3 in Coahuila with -4; and area no. 9 in Nuevo Leon, no. 16 and no. 17 in Tamaulipas with -2. Equity was measured according to the degree of concordance between the health needs index and the per capita health expenditure of each area: (r = 0.19, P > 0.05). Low concordance was found between these variables in the studied medical areas.

  19. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  20. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  1. Irrational time allocation in decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. PMID:26763695

  2. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Reproductive biomass allocation in three Sargassum species.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Richard M

    1985-08-01

    Allocation of biomass to sexual reproductive (receptacle) tissue and vegetative (holdfast) tissue differed absolutely and relatively in three Sargassum species that form the bulk of the intertidal algal canopy in the northern Gulf of California. Sargassum herporhizum devoted a greater proportion of its thallus mass into its rhizoidal holdfast than did S. sinicola var. camouii or S. johnstonii, whose holdfasts are solid, more compact, and composed of a lower percentage of water. Conversely, more sexual receptacle tissue was produced by these two species with small holdfasts during the spring reproductive period. Sargassum sinicola var. camouii, which is the only species of the three that becomes fertile in the fall, produces a comparable amount of sexual tissue during this second period of reproduction. Removal of Sargassum from single-species patches showed that canopy regrowth by S. herporhizum with its encroaching rhizoidal holdfast was more rapid and complete than that of the other two species, which invest most of their reproductive efforts into sexual propagules that can disperse long distances. Sargassum herporhizum also displayed a more rapid and complete recovery of canopy cover in patches cleared of thalli and in control patches following the annual summer dieback. These two divergent modes of reproductive biomass allocation suggest that ability to encroach upon nearby open sites and ability to colonize distant discrete islands of suitable habitat represent two distinct reproductive strategies requiring different patterns of biomass allocation. Moreover, for energetic reasons, a species may not be able to excel at both modes of reproduction.

  4. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  5. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  6. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  7. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personnel administration within the engineering group). (2) Such allocation necessitates selecting a... cost objectives. (3) When substantially the same results can be achieved through less precise methods... acceptance as reimbursable under this part. (5) The carrier's method of allocating allocable costs shall be...

  8. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation of GST exemption. 26.2632-1 Section...-1 Allocation of GST exemption. (a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual or the individual's executor may allocate the individual's $1 million GST exemption at any time...

  9. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of GST exemption. 26.2632-1 Section...-1 Allocation of GST exemption. (a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual or the individual's executor may allocate the individual's $1 million GST exemption at any time...

  10. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of GST exemption. 26.2632-1 Section...-1 Allocation of GST exemption. (a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual or the individual's executor may allocate the individual's $1 million GST exemption at any time...

  11. Reward Allocation and Academic versus Social Orientation toward School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1978-01-01

    Correlates 138 elementary school children's views about the purposes of school to their styles of reward allocation: academically motivated students allocated rewards equally to two hypothetical performers who had unequally helped a teacher perform a manual chore, while socially motivated children allocated rewards in an equity (performance-based)…

  12. 14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and termination of allocations. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the... allocations no earlier than two years from the effective date of this rule. (2) Allocations that are held...

  13. 24 CFR 791.403 - Allocation of housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS AND PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) ALLOCATIONS OF HOUSING ASSISTANCE FUNDS Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.403 Allocation of housing assistance. (a) The total budget authority available for any fiscal year shall be determined by adding any available...

  14. Recurrent Grants for 2000-01: Final Allocations. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This document shows the final allocations of recurrent funding to institutions of higher education in England for the academic year 2000-2001. This report updates allocations because of additional student numbers, increased allocations for specific programs, student transfers, and an overall increase in funding. The total grants awarded for…

  15. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  16. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica and Mexico, the allocation of the band 54-68 MHz to the fixed and mobile... departments and communities in Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica and Mexico, the allocation of the band 68-72 MHz to... communities in Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico and Paraguay, the allocation of the band 76-88 MHz to the...

  17. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica and Mexico, the allocation of the band 54-68 MHz to the fixed and mobile... departments and communities in Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica and Mexico, the allocation of the band 68-72 MHz to... communities in Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico and Paraguay, the allocation of the band 76-88 MHz to the...

  18. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by the...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability...

  20. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  1. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  2. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  3. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-10-07

    Selective allocation of patients into the compared groups of a randomised trial may cause allocation bias, but the mechanisms behind the bias and its directionality are incompletely understood. We therefore analysed the mechanisms and directionality of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials. Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators' motives and treatment preference. Inadequate allocation concealment may exaggerate treatment effects in some trials while underestimate effects in others. Our hypothesis provides a theoretical overview of the main factors responsible for the direction of allocation bias.

  4. Reward Allocation and Academic versus Social Orientation toward School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1978-01-01

    Correlates 138 elementary school children's views about the purposes of school to their styles of reward allocation: academically motivated students allocated rewards equally to two hypothetical performers who had unequally helped a teacher perform a manual chore, while socially motivated children allocated rewards in an equity (performance-based)…

  5. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to the property...

  6. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation....

  7. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation....

  8. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.145 Allocability and allowability of costs. (a) Allocability...

  9. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.145 Allocability and allowability of costs. (a) Allocability...

  10. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.145 Allocability and allowability of costs. (a) Allocability...

  11. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.145 Allocability and allowability of costs. (a) Allocability...

  12. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... law; (ii) funding incapable of geographic formula allocation (e.g., for renewal of expiring funding increments); or (iii) funding allocated by an objective fair share formula. Funding allocated by fair share formula is distributed by a competitive process. (c) Competitive process. For budget authority that is...

  13. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  14. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  15. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  16. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet or...

  17. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed. ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a...

  18. 26 CFR 1.455-3 - Method of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable manner, provided the method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed. ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.455-3 Section 1.455-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.455-3 Method of allocation. (a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to the...

  20. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... are equal to or above the indexed revenue threshold (as defined in § 32.9000 of this chapter) except...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall be...

  2. 48 CFR 31.201-4 - Determining allocability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining allocability. 31.201-4 Section 31.201-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.201-4 Determining allocability. A cost is allocable if it is assignable or chargeable to one or...

  3. 48 CFR 31.201-4 - Determining allocability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining allocability. 31.201-4 Section 31.201-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.201-4 Determining allocability. A cost is allocable if it is assignable or chargeable to one or...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  6. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  13. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall...

  15. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall...

  16. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues planning...

  17. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...

  18. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology... Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  19. Resource allocation for community-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Murchland, Sonya; Wake-Dyster, Wendy

    2006-11-30

    Adequate and equitable resourcing of services for children with disabilities and their families is a challenge that is faced by agencies as the growth in client numbers outstrips any increase in available funding. While funding models have been developed within the acute health care and education sectors, there have been few attempts to develop funding models for therapy (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech pathology) provided within community-based, paediatric disability services. This paper outlines a model for allocating staff resources to provide therapy services for children with physical disabilities based on a project conducted by Novita Children's Services (formerly the Crippled Children's Association of South Australia, Inc.). Services were mapped using a framework based on the International Classification of Function developed by the World Health Organization and adopted by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. An action research methodology was employed that included focus groups held with staff to identify potential resource drivers; collection of travel time data, client caseload numbers; and developing profiles of services and client groups. A model for allocating staff time was developed to reflect the differing service demands, travel time, leave allowances and time for activities to develop the social environment for individuals with disabilities. Analysis indicated that the drivers of staff resources were the type of service delivery (early intervention versus school aged services), model specific (e.g., time required to provide community-based services and work within multi-disciplinary teams), and specific client (need for complex technology or equipment; school/preschool transition times; high health care needs due to dysphagia, deteriorating conditions with changing needs, or post surgery/medication rehabilitation) and family well-being issues. While further data collection and refinement of the model is

  20. Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE.

  1. Asset allocation using option-implied moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.; Tolos, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study uses an option-implied distribution as the input in asset allocation. The computation of risk-neutral densities (RND) are based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index option and its constituents. Since the RNDs estimation does not incorporate risk premium, the conversion of RND into risk-world density (RWD) is required. The RWD is obtained through parametric calibration using the beta distributions. The mean, volatility, and covariance are then calculated to construct the portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is evaluated by using portfolio volatility and Sharpe ratio.

  2. Fault and the allocation of spare organs.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper argues that rectificatory justice should supplement distributive justice in allocating priority of access to scarce medical resources. Where a patient is at fault for the scarcity of healthy organs a principle of restitution requires that she should give priority to the faultless. Such restitution is non-punitive, and is akin to reparation in civil law, not criminal law. However, it is doubtful whether such a principle can be fairly applied within the present culture of governmental complicity in cigarette advertising. PMID:8035435

  3. Adaptive file allocation in distributed computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, A.; Khan, H. U.; Fatmi, H. A.

    1994-12-01

    An algorithm to dynamically reallocate the database files in a computer network is presented. The proposed algorithm uses the best fit approach to allocate and delete beneficial file copies. A key problem of economical estimation of future access and update pattern is discussed and an algorithm based on the Gabor-Kolmogorov learning process is presented to estimate the access and the update patterns. A distributed candidate selection algorithm is presented to reduce the number of files and nodes in reallocation. The simulation results are presented to demonstrate both accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  4. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  5. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  6. Sex allocation theory aids species conservation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Bruce C; Elliott, Graeme P; Eason, Daryl K; Clout, Mick N; Gemmell, Neil J

    2006-06-22

    Supplementary feeding is often a key tool in the intensive management of captive and threatened species. Although it can increase such parameters as breeding frequency and individual survival, supplementary feeding may produce undesirable side effects that increase overall extinction risk. Recent attempts to increase breeding frequency and success in the kakapo Strigops habroptilus using supplementary feeding inadvertently resulted in highly male-biased chick sex ratios. Here, we describe how the inclusion of sex allocation theory has remedied this conservation dilemma. Our study is the first to manipulate chick sex ratios in an endangered species by altering maternal condition and highlights the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory into modern conservation practice.

  7. Sex allocation theory aids species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Bruce C; Elliott, Graeme P; Eason, Daryl K; Clout, Mick N; Gemmell, Neil J

    2006-01-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a key tool in the intensive management of captive and threatened species. Although it can increase such parameters as breeding frequency and individual survival, supplementary feeding may produce undesirable side effects that increase overall extinction risk. Recent attempts to increase breeding frequency and success in the kakapo Strigops habroptilus using supplementary feeding inadvertently resulted in highly male-biased chick sex ratios. Here, we describe how the inclusion of sex allocation theory has remedied this conservation dilemma. Our study is the first to manipulate chick sex ratios in an endangered species by altering maternal condition and highlights the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory into modern conservation practice. PMID:17148369

  8. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordés...data to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  9. Vaccine allocation in a declining epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E.; Wallinga, J.; Lipsitch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sizeable quantities of 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) vaccine in the USA became available at the end of 2009 when the autumn wave of the epidemic was declining. At that point, risk factors for H1N1-related mortality for some of the high-risk groups, particularly adults with underlying health conditions, could be estimated. Although those high-risk groups are natural candidates for being in the top priority tier for vaccine allocation, another candidate group is school-aged children through their role as vectors for transmission affecting the whole community. In this paper, we investigate the question of prioritization for vaccine allocation in a declining epidemic between two groups—a group with a high risk of mortality versus a ‘core’ group with a relatively low risk of mortality but fuelling transmission in the community. We show that epidemic data can be used, under certain assumptions on future decline, seasonality and vaccine efficacy in different population groups, to give a criterion when initial prioritization of a population group with a sufficiently high risk of epidemic-associated mortality is advisable over the policy of prioritizing the core group. PMID:22772378

  10. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  11. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  13. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  14. Synthesis of waste interception and allocation networks

    SciTech Connect

    El-Halwagi, M.M.; Hamad, A.A.; Garrison, G.W.

    1996-11-01

    This article introduces the novel concept of synthesizing waste-interception networks (WINs) and incorporates it within a mass-integration framework for the global allocation of pollutants. The essence of this notion is to provide selective interception and rerouting of undesirable species at the heart of the process instead of dealing with the pollutants in the terminal waste streams. It also provides a unified framework for simultaneously tackling gaseous and liquid pollution. Several tools are developed to track the pollutant throughout the process and determine the optimal interception policies. The problem is formulated as an optimization program that seeks to determine the optimum locations for interception the pollutants, extent of separation, and separating agents to carry out the interception tasks. Furthermore, the WINs can be used within a mass-integration scheme for the global allocation of species throughout the plant. These new concepts and associated mathematical formulation are demonstrated using a case study on the removal of a chlorinated hydrocarbon. This approach has benefits over conventional recycle/reuse (such as MEN synthesis).

  15. Resource allocation to brain research in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Matthias; Lekander, I; Sobocki, P; Schwab, M E; Rossler, W

    2008-06-14

    This study represents a first attempt at estimating Swiss resource allocation to brain research including both public and private spending. In order to estimate public spending (by governments and charities) a survey was conducted to evaluate the way brain research is funded across Europe and especially in Switzerland. Industry funding was measured using different approaches including a survey of pharmaceutical expenditures and the costs of developing new drugs. Private spending is at a reasonable level because a highly developed Swiss pharmaceutical industry invests significantly in this branch of science. However, public spending is at a low level compared to other European countries, although Switzerland is the only European country where the total funding per capita exceeds that of US funding. A detailed investigation of Swiss resource allocation to different branches of biomedical research is warranted. Brain research should be an important part of such a study. The United States and the European Union have selected brain research as one of their priority areas within health related research. The present figures indicate that this may also be justified in Switzerland.

  16. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  17. Allocation of time in three academic specialties.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Spaite, D W; Smith, R; Criss, E

    1988-01-01

    A survey was done to: 1) characterize the allocation and distribution of time by tenure track emergency physicians, and 2) compare the time distribution of emergency physicians to two other academic disciplines. All emergency medicine residency programs were surveyed by telephone to determine if faculty were eligible for tenure and if tenure was available, how many hours per week were spent on clinical duties, research, and administrative tasks. Similar information was compiled from cardiology and orthopedic surgery faculty at the same universities. Data from the survey revealed that a tenure track assistant professor spends 23 hours (46%) working clinical shifts in the emergency department; 11 hours (20%) doing research and 18 hours (34%) in administrative tasks. In contrast, cardiologists spend significantly more time in clinical duties (32 hours) and research (18 hours). However, cardiologists spend significantly less time in administrative duties (10 hours). Data for orthopedic surgeons show a similar pattern. Distributions within each academic discipline were also analyzed and a significant difference in research time was found between four tenure track emergency medicine programs and the other eighteen. Data from this survey may help academic emergency physicians evaluate how they are allocating their time in comparison to other busy clinical specialties.

  18. Random allocation in controlled clinical trials: a review.

    PubMed

    Egbewale, Bolaji Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    An allocation strategy that allows for chance placement of participants to study groups is crucial to the experimental nature of randomised controlled trials. Following decades of the discovery of randomisation considerable erroneous opinion and misrepresentations of its concept both in principle and practice still exists. In some circles, opinions are also divided on the strength and weaknesses of each of the random allocation strategies. This review provides an update on various random allocation techniques so as to correct existing misconceptions on this all important procedure. This is a review of literatures published in the Pubmed database on concepts of common allocation techniques used in controlled clinical trials. Allocation methods that use; case record number, date of birth, date of presentation, haphazard or alternating assignment are non-random allocation techniques and should not be confused as random methods. Four main random allocation techniques were identified. Minimisation procedure though not fully a random technique, however, proffers solution to the limitations of stratification at balancing for multiple prognostic factors, as the procedure makes treatment groups similar in several important features even in small sample trials. Even though generation of allocation sequence by simple randomisation procedure is easily facilitated, a major drawback of the technique is that treatment groups can by chance end up being dissimilar both in size and composition of prognostic factors. More complex allocation techniques that yield more comparable treatment groups also have certain drawbacks. However, it is important that whichever allocation technique is employed, unpredictability of random assignment should not be compromised.

  19. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding.

  20. Optimizing allocation of management resources for wildlife.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Helene; Dennis, Andrew; Hines, Harry; Kutt, Alex; McDonald, Keith; Weber, Ellen; Williams, Stephen; Winter, John

    2007-04-01

    Allocating money for species conservation on the basis of threatened species listings is not the most cost-effective way of promoting recovery or minimizing extinction rates. Using ecological and social factors in addition to threat categories, we designed a decision-support process to assist policy makers in their allocation of resources for the management of native wildlife and to clarify the considerations leading to a priority listing. Each species is scored on three criteria at the scale of the relevant jurisdiction: (1) threat category, (2) consequences of extinction, and (3) potential for successful recovery. This approach provides opportunity for independent input by policy makers and other stakeholders (who weight the relative importance of the criteria) and scientists (who score the species against the criteria). Thus the process explicitly separates societal values from the technical aspects of the decision-making process while acknowledging the legitimacy of both inputs. We applied our technique to two Australian case studies at different spatial scales: the frogs of Queensland (1,728,000 km(2); 116 species) and the mammals of the Wet Tropics bioregion (18,500 km(2); 96 species). We identified 7 frog and 10 mammal species as priorities for conservation. The frogs included 1 of the 9 species classified as endangered under Queensland legislation, 3 of the 10 species classified as vulnerable, 2 of the 22 species classified as rare, and 1 of the 75 species classified as least concern. The mammals identified included 3 of the 6 species classified as endangered, 1 of the 4 species classified as vulnerable, 5 of the 11 species classified as rare, and 1 of the 75 species classified as least concern. The methods we used to identify species were robust to comparisons across the two taxonomic groups. We concluded that (1) our process facilitates comparisons of data required to make transparent, cost-effective, and strategic management decisions across taxonomic

  1. Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation.

    PubMed

    Son, L K; Metcalfe, J

    2000-01-01

    This article investigates how people's metacognitive judgments influence subsequent study-time-allocation strategies. The authors present a comprehensive literature review indicating that people allocate more study time to judged-difficult than to judged-easy items--consistent with extant models of study-time allocation. However, typically, the materials were short, and participants had ample time for study. In contrast, in Experiment 1, when participants had insufficient time to study, they allocated more time to the judged-easy items than to the judged-difficult items, especially when expecting a test. In Experiment 2, when the materials were shorter, people allocated more study time to the judged-difficult materials. In Experiment 3, under high time pressure, people preferred studying judged-easy sonnets; under moderate time pressure, they showed no preference. These results provide new evidence against extant theories of study-time allocation.

  2. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  3. Simplifying rules for optimal allocation of preventive care resources.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-04-01

    Given the limited resources for preventive care, policy-makers need to consider the efficiency/cost-effectiveness of preventive measures, such as drugs and vaccines, when allocating preventive care resources. However, in many settings only limited information on lifetime costs and effects of preventive measures exists. Therefore, it seems useful to provide policy-makers with some simplifying rules when allocating preventive care resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relevance of risk and severity of the disease to be prevented for the optimal allocation of preventive care resources. The report shows - based on a constrained optimization model - that optimal allocation of preventive care resources does, in fact, depend on both factors. Resources should be allocated to the prevention of diseases with a higher probability of occurrence or larger severity. This article also identifies situations where preventive care resources should be allocated to the prevention of less severe disease.

  4. Modeling Sugar Allocations in Plants using Radioisotope Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mingru

    2013-10-01

    The allocations of carbon and nitrogen are major factors in determining growth priorities in plants. The mechanisms that regulate resource allocation in plants are poorly understood. We use radiotracer techniques to identify and quantify dynamical feedback responses of plants to changes in environmental conditions. A major goal of this research is to investigate shifts in sugar allocations as part of the plant's response to changes in environmental conditions. These observations are used to develop mechanistic models that simulate the feedback for adjustments to resource allocations based on the environment-plant interface. By writing a software module in C + + based on the models, we are able to conduct a computer simulation of plant's intake of carbon dioxide and sugar allocation inside plant body. By comparing and matching the simulation results and experimental data through adjusting model parameters, we are able to gain knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate resource allocation in plants.

  5. Allocation of Army Resources to the Space Mission Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ALLOCATION OF ARMY RESOURCES TO THE SPACE MISSION AREA by LTC Patrick H. Rayermann U.S. Army COL William Pierce...2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Allocation of Army Resources to the Space Mission Area Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Z39.18 ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: LTC Patrick H. Rayermann TITLE: Allocation of Army Resources to the Space Mission Area FORMAT: Strategy Research

  6. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  7. [Patient safety and nursing staff allocation].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chi, Chunhuei; Hsu, Ming-Yi

    2013-04-01

    This article aims to explore three main concepts related to the professional development of nursing professionals. This paper first critically reviews and reinterprets scientific evidence on the relationship between nurse staff allocation and healthcare outcomes and then challenges some of the common interpretations of this evidence in the professional literature. Secondly, in the absence of solid empirical evidence provided by sophisticated datasets in this field, we consider how Communitarianism may provide a well-defined, highly appropriate ethical framework for further developing and improving the nursing profession and healthcare outcomes. Thirdly, this article examines the role of Communitarian ethics in setting Taiwan's healthcare priorities and promotion nursing's core professional values. In conclusion, we recommend several conceptual health policy frameworks to ensure patient safety.

  8. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Agnes M.; Lagakos, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male–female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:17539183

  9. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, A M; Lagakos, S W

    1992-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:1295494

  10. Communication-aware processor allocation for supercomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Demaine, Erik; Meijer, Henk; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Fekete, Sandor; Bender, Michael A.; Bunde, David P.; Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2004-07-01

    We give processor-allocation algorithms for grid architectures, where the objective is to select processors from a set of available processors to minimize the average number of communication hops. The associated clustering problem is as follows: Given n points in R{sup d}, find a size-k subset with minimum average pairwise L{sub 1} distance.We present a natural approximation algorithm and show that it is a 7/4-approximation for 2D grids. In d dimensions, the approximation guarantee is 2 - 1/2d, which is tight. We also give a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for constant dimension d and report on experimental results.

  11. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts.

  12. Frequency Allocation: The First Forty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Brian

    In 1960 ICSU set up an Inter-Union Commission (IUCAF) on the Allocation of Frequencies for Space Research and Radio Astronomy, to keep key parts of the radio spectrum clear for passive, scientific use. IUCAF represents URSI, IAU and COSPAR at World Radio Conferences (WRCs) convened by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in Geneva; the WRCs establish the international law which governs users of the radio spectrum. This review recounts many serious threats posed to passive scientific research by commercial and military operations, particularly those involving radio emissions from aircraft and spacecraft. The continual conflict between commercial greed and scientific curiosity has often put the future of radio astronomy, space research, and earth exploration in jeopardy. The conflict increases as we move into the Information Age.

  13. Phytoplankton strategies for photosynthetic energy allocation.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Kimberly H; Jones, Bethan M

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton physiology is dynamic and highly responsive to the environment. Phytoplankton acclimate to changing environmental conditions by a complex reallocation of carbon and energy through metabolic pathways to optimize growth. Considering the tremendous diversity of phytoplankton, it is not surprising that different phytoplankton taxa use different strategies to partition carbon and energy resources. It has therefore been satisfying to discover that general principles of energetic stoichiometry appear to govern these complex processes and can be broadly applied to interpret phytoplankton distributions, productivity, and food web dynamics. The expectation of future changes in aquatic environments brought on by climate change warrants gathering knowledge about underlying patterns of photosynthetic energy allocation and their impacts on community structure and ecosystem productivity.

  14. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (<12 months), 20% of all children aged 1-10 years, and 15% of all children aged 11-15 years died without having received a heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list.

  15. Phytoplankton Strategies for Photosynthetic Energy Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsey, Kimberly H.; Jones, Bethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton physiology is dynamic and highly responsive to the environment. Phytoplankton acclimate to changing environmental conditions by a complex reallocation of carbon and energy through metabolic pathways to optimize growth. Considering the tremendous diversity of phytoplankton, it is not surprising that different phytoplankton taxa use different strategies to partition carbon and energy resources. It has therefore been satisfying to discover that general principles of energetic stoichiometry appear to govern these complex processes and can be broadly applied to interpret phytoplankton distributions, productivity, and food web dynamics. The expectation of future changes in aquatic environments brought on by climate change warrants gathering knowledge about underlying patterns of photosynthetic energy allocation and their impacts on community structure and ecosystem productivity.

  16. The allocation of aquifer resources in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, N. S.

    1987-02-01

    The traditional role of aquifers for groundwater supply may not be appropriate in some areas of Scotland where high rainfall, low evapotranspiration, and abundant upland catchments and storage areas yield more than adequate surface water supplies. Some groundwater will always be required to satisfy specific needs but much aquifer potential will remain untapped. It is suggested that some of this potential could usefully be allocated to the disposal of wastes including oiled beach material, or the storage of heat or fluids, any of which could contaminate the aquifer. Care will be required to ensure that surface waters and other amenities are not put at risk. Resolution of conflicts between water supply and waste disposal usage of an aquifer requires guidelines; suggestions are made for their formulation and the need for legislative and planning controls is outlined.

  17. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  18. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    PubMed

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  19. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  20. Development of target allocation methods for LAMOST focal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Yanxia; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao

    2014-01-01

    We first introduce the primary target allocation requirements and restrictions for the parallel control multiple fiber system, which is used in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey. The fiber positioner anti-collision model is imported. Then several target allocation methods and features are discussed in detail, including a network flow algorithm, high priority for fiber unit holding less target number, target allocation algorithm for groups, target allocation method for add-ons and target reallocation. Their virtues and weaknesses are analyzed for various kinds of scientific research situations. Furthermore an optimization concept using the Simulate Anneal Arithmetic (SAA) is developed to improve the fiber utilizing efficiency.

  1. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  2. The choice between allocation principles: amplifying when equality dominates.

    PubMed

    Eek, Daniel; Selart, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    One hundred and ninety participants (95 undergraduates and 95 employees) responded to a factorial survey in which a number of case-based organizational allocation tasks were described. Participants were asked to imagine themselves as employees in fictitious organizations and chose among three allocations of employee-development schemes invested by the manager in different work groups. The allocations regarded how such investments should be allocated between two parties. Participants chose twice, once picking the fairest and once the best allocation. One between-subjects factor varied whether the parties represented social (i.e., choosing among allocations between two different work groups) or temporal comparisons (i.e., choosing among allocations between the present and the following year). Another between-subjects factor varied whether participants' in-group was represented by the parties or not. One allocation maximized the outcome to one party, another maximized the joint outcome received by both parties, and a third provided both parties with equal but lower outcomes. It was predicted that equality, although always deficient to both parties, would be the preferred allocation when parties represented social comparisons and when choices were based on fairness. When parties represented temporal comparisons, and when choices were based on preference, maximizing the joint outcome was hypothesized to be the preferred allocation. Results supported these hypotheses. Against what was predicted, whether the in-group was represented by the parties or not did not moderate the results, indicating that participants' allocation preferences were not affected by self-interest. The main message is that people make sensible distinctions between what they prefer and what they regard as fair. The results were the same for participating students who imagined themselves as being employees and participants who were true employees, suggesting that no serious threats to external

  3. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Masaki, Emiko; Fraser, Nicole; Benedikt, Clemens; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David P; Gray, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. Methods We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1) when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2) when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Results and discussion Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8%) decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6%) reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Conclusions Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to expand or contract

  4. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital shall be allocated to work orders in accordance with the service company's...

  5. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital shall be allocated to work orders in accordance with the service company's...

  6. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (d)(1) of this section, an allocation to a trust made on a Form 709 filed after the due date for... February 10, 2004, T files a Form 709 on which T properly elects out of the automatic allocation rules... facts are the same as in Example 1 except, on July 8, 2004, T files a Form 709 attempting to reduce the...

  7. Environmental control of carbon allocation matters for modelling forest growth.

    PubMed

    Guillemot, Joannès; Francois, Christophe; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Soudani, Kamel; Marie, Guillaume; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Delpierre, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the importance of modulations of within-tree carbon (C) allocation by water and low-temperature stress for the prediction of annual forest growth with a process-based model. A new C allocation scheme was implemented in the CASTANEA model that accounts for lagged and direct environmental controls of C allocation. Different approaches (static vs dynamic) to modelling C allocation were then compared in a model-data fusion procedure, using satellite-derived leaf production estimates and biometric measurements at c. 10(4) sites. The modelling of the environmental control of C allocation significantly improved the ability of CASTANEA to predict the spatial and year-to-year variability of aboveground forest growth along regional gradients. A significant effect of the previous year's water stress on the C allocation to leaves and wood was reported. Our results also are consistent with a prominent role of the environmental modulation of sink demand in the wood growth of the studied species. Data available at large scales can inform forest models about the processes driving annual and seasonal C allocation. Our results call for a greater consideration of C allocation drivers, especially sink-demand fluctuations, for the simulations of current and future forest productivity with process-based models.

  8. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (1) Definition. An “allocation” or “assignment” of fishing privileges is a direct and deliberate... fishermen. (2) Analysis of allocations. Each FMP should contain a description and analysis of the... included in the discussion. The analysis should relate the recommended allocations to the FMP's objectives...

  9. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial allocation of slots. 93.215 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air... 16, 1985 is divided among different operators, by day of the week, or otherwise, as evidenced...

  10. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to the...

  11. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to the...

  12. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to the...

  13. Higher Education Cooperation Act: Fiscal Year 1998 Grant Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report describes fiscal year 1998 grant allocations made under the Illinois Higher Education Cooperation Act (HECA) to support programs and projects involving cooperation among higher education institutions. A total of $16.59 million was allocated. Projects recommended for grant funds include 3 new and 12 continuing interinstitutional…

  14. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production history...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production history...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production history...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production history...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production history...

  19. Efficiency of Fiscal Allocations in Site-Based Empowered Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jerome Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented a two phase concurrent mixed-methods design to generate a greater understanding of how elementary schools with increased autonomy in fiscal decision making allocated their money, how their site-based decisions affected allocative efficiency, and how increased autonomy affected site-based decision making when compared with a…

  20. 10 CFR 217.2 - Priorities and allocations authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Priorities and allocations authority. 217.2 Section 217.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM General § 217.2 Priorities and... Security with respect to essential civilian needs supporting national defense, including civil defense and...

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to: (1) evaluate the quality and completeness of data and methods being used for temporal allocation of emissions data, (2) identify and prioritize needed improvements to current methods for developing temporal allocation factors (TAFs), and ...

  2. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  3. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment...

  4. Consolidated Automated Support System (CASS) Efficiency and Allocation Cost Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2007). Strategic deployment of specialised testing and remanufacturing in a global high-tech supply chain. International Journal of Manufacturing...automated support system (CASS) stations utilizing real demand. In reviewing available literature, we frame the allocation of CASS stations as a...method in which we incorporated a nonlinear model to allocate consolidated automated support system (CASS) stations utilizing real demand. In reviewing

  5. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S.... agricultural commodity under consideration; (b) The best use to be made of the export credit guarantees in...

  6. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... service: in the French overseas departments and communities in Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica and Mexico, the..., Jamaica and Mexico, the allocation of the band 68-72 MHz to the fixed and mobile services is on a primary... communities in Region 2, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico and Paraguay, the allocation of the band 76-88 MHz to the...

  7. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26, 1996, becomes irrevocable on July 24, 1996. (2) Automatic allocation to indirect skips made after... facts are the same as in Example 1 except, on July 8, 2004, T files a Form 709 attempting to reduce the earlier allocation. The return filed on July 8, 2004, is not a timely filed return. The $100,000 GST...

  8. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with... the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit...

  9. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired...

  10. Subcounty Allocation oF ESEA Title I Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Thomas C.; Kutner, Stephen I.

    Congress has chosen to allocate by formula the compensatory education funds in Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I down to only the county level. From the county to the local school district the state may choose any option or allocator deemed consistent with the overall objective of concentrating the funds in districts with a large number…

  11. 24 CFR 574.110 - Overview of formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Overview of formula allocations. 574.110 Section 574.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Entitlements § 574.110 Overview of formula allocations. The formula grants are awarded upon submission...

  12. 24 CFR 574.110 - Overview of formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overview of formula allocations. 574.110 Section 574.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Entitlements § 574.110 Overview of formula allocations. The formula grants are awarded upon submission...

  13. Family Differences in Aboveground Biomass Allocation in Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Scott D. Roberts

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of tree growth allocated to stemwood is an important economic component of growth efficiency. Differences in growth efficiency between species, or between families within species, may therefore be related to how growth is proportionally allocated between the stem and other aboveground biomass components. This study examines genetically related...

  14. Allocation model for air tanker initial attack in firefighting

    Treesearch

    Francis E. Greulich; William G. O' Regan

    1975-01-01

    Timely and appropriate use of air tankers in firefighting can bring high returns, but their misuse can be expensive when measured in operating and other costs. An allocation model has been developed for identifying superior strategies-for air tanker initial attack, and for choosing an optimum set of allocations among airbases. Data are presented for a representative...

  15. 24 CFR 576.3 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Allocation of funding. 576.3 Section 576.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... funding. (a) Territories. HUD will set aside for allocation to the territories up to 0.2 percent, but not...

  16. Scarcity, Conflict, and Equity in Allocating Public Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Bo; Danley, Mark

    The conflict between the interests of commercial outfitters and private boaters in the use of whitewater rivers is examined. A discussion is presented on the literature on scarcity, allocation, and conflict among groups. These concepts are applied to the allocation of public resources on whitewater rivers. The conflicting interest groups are…

  17. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. Link to an..., expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a candidate seeking nomination for election to the office...

  18. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of organs. 121.8 Section 121.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board...

  19. Carbon allocation to root and shoot systems of woody plants

    Treesearch

    Alexander L. Friend; Mark D. Coleman; J.G. Isebrands

    1994-01-01

    Carbon allocation to roots is of widespread and increasing interest due to a growing appreciation of the importance of root processes to whole-plant physiology and plant productivity. Carbon (C) allocation commonly refers to the distribution of C among plant organs (e.g., leaves, stems, roots); however, the term also applies to functional categories within organs such...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.113 - Allocation of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk. 1214.113 Section 1214.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General....113 Allocation of risk. The U.S. Government will assume no risk for damages to the customer resulting...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of providing...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and does...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and does...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and does...

  5. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the most recent available U.S. census data (as adjusted by HUD). (c) Local participating jurisdictions. Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, HUD will further allocate to each local participating... participating jurisdictions. (1) Allocations under paragraph (c) of this section shall be made only if the local...

  6. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the most recent available U.S. census data (as adjusted by HUD). (c) Local participating jurisdictions. Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, HUD will further allocate to each local participating... participating jurisdictions. (1) Allocations under paragraph (c) of this section shall be made only if the local...

  7. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the most recent available U.S. census data (as adjusted by HUD). (c) Local participating jurisdictions. Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, HUD will further allocate to each local participating... participating jurisdictions. (1) Allocations under paragraph (c) of this section shall be made only if the local...

  8. On the Allocation of Resources for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal allocation of resources--in terms of school management, teachers, supporting employees and materials--in secondary schools. We use a flexible budget constrained output distance function model to estimate both technical and allocative efficiency scores for 448 Dutch secondary schools between 2002 and 2007. The results…

  9. 7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Nondiscretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall allocate the following: (1) To each... programs. (b) Discretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall provide the following additional...) of this section bears to the amount allocated to all States under that paragraph. (c) SAE Funds...

  10. 7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) Nondiscretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall allocate the following: (1) To each... programs. (b) Discretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall provide the following additional...) of this section bears to the amount allocated to all States under that paragraph. (c) SAE Funds...

  11. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a...

  12. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a...

  13. Scarcity, Conflict, and Equity in Allocating Public Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Bo; Danley, Mark

    The conflict between the interests of commercial outfitters and private boaters in the use of whitewater rivers is examined. A discussion is presented on the literature on scarcity, allocation, and conflict among groups. These concepts are applied to the allocation of public resources on whitewater rivers. The conflicting interest groups are…

  14. 48 CFR 1631.203-70 - Allocation techniques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Allocation techniques. 1631... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203-70 Allocation techniques. (a... shall consistently apply the methods and techniques established to classify direct and indirect costs...

  15. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  16. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  17. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... allocation for FO, CL, or OL loan funds is equal to: (1) The amount available for allocation by the Agency... weights: Criteria Loan type criterion is used for Data source Weight forFO loans (percent) Weight forOL..., CL, and OL loans U.S. Census of Agriculture 15 15 Farm operators with sales of $40,000 or more and...

  18. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... allocation for FO, CL, or OL loan funds is equal to: (1) The amount available for allocation by the Agency... weights: Criteria Loan type criterion is used for Data source Weight forFO loans (percent) Weight forOL..., CL, and OL loans U.S. Census of Agriculture 15 15 Farm operators with sales of $40,000 or more and...

  19. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... allocation for FO, CL, or OL loan funds is equal to: (1) The amount available for allocation by the Agency... weights: Criteria Loan type criterion is used for Data source Weight forFO loans (percent) Weight forOL..., CL, and OL loans U.S. Census of Agriculture 15 15 Farm operators with sales of $40,000 or more and...

  20. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  1. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  2. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  3. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  4. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  5. Adaptive Carbon Allocation by Plants Enhances the Terrestrial Carbon Sink.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Yuan, Wenping; Wang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Quanguo

    2017-06-13

    Carbon allocation is one of the most important physiological processes to optimize the plant growth, which exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. However, it remains unclear how the carbon allocation pattern has changed at global scale and impacted terrestrial carbon uptake. Based on the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model, this study shows the increasing partitioning ratios to leaf and wood and reducing ratio to root globally from 1979 to 2014. The results imply the plant optimizes carbon allocation and reaches its maximum growth by allocating more newly acquired photosynthate to leaves and wood tissues. Thus, terrestrial vegetation has absorbed 16% more carbon averagely between 1979 and 2014 through adjusting their carbon allocation process. Compared with the fixed carbon allocation simulation, the trend of terrestrial carbon sink from 1979 to 2014 increased by 34% in the adaptive carbon allocation simulation. Our study highlights carbon allocation, associated with climate change, needs to be mapped and incorporated into terrestrial carbon cycle estimates.

  6. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  7. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  8. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  9. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  10. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  11. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  12. Bibliographic Materials Fund Allocation Formula in Use at Radford University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary A.

    Developed by Radford University to overcome the inadequacies of an acquisition allocation system based on faculty demand, this updated allocation formula considers factors of undergraduate credit person hours, number of declared undergraduate majors, graduate credit person hours, number of graduate majors, average cost weighting, importance of…

  13. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  14. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of...

  15. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM ACT OF 1986 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF...

  16. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  17. The Allocation of Materials Funds. SPEC Kit 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit contains source documents providing information on the general background, statistics/criteria, formulas, and decision-making processes used in the allocation of materials funds in academic libraries. The kit comprises: (1) a working paper on "Guidelines for the Allocation of Library Materials…

  18. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  19. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1) A...

  20. 11 CFR 106.1 - Allocation of expenses between candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of questions or statements devoted to all candidates. These methods shall also be used to allocate... segregated funds, and nonconnected committees that make mixed Federal/non-Federal payments for activities...-Federal candidate, or that make mixed Federal/Levin fund payments, shall allocate those expenses in...

  1. Discretionary Task Interleaving: Heuristics for Time Allocation in Cognitive Foraging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Stephen J.; Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Neth, Hansjorg

    2007-01-01

    When participants allocated time across 2 tasks (in which they generated as many words as possible from a fixed set of letters), they made frequent switches. This allowed them to allocate more time to the more productive task (i.e., the set of letters from which more words could be generated) even though times between the last word and the switch…

  2. 20 CFR 633.106 - Eligibility for allocable funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for allocable funds. 633.106 Section 633.106 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Introductory Provisions § 633.106 Eligibility for allocable...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. (a) With respect to the formula referenced in § 1.1409(e)(2), a utility shall apportion the cost of providing unusable space on a pole...

  4. Potential effect of stand structure on belowground allocation

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Dean

    2001-01-01

    Stand structure affects two key variables that affect biomass allocation to the stem: leaf area and height to the center of the crown. By translating wind forces into bending moment, these variables generate bending stress within a stem. The uniform stress axiom of stem formation can be used to calculate current stem mass for a given bending moment and stem allocation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-3 - Allocation of deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... directly attributable to one class of income (except dividends excluded under section 116) are allocated... attributable to a particular class of income exceed that income, the excess is applied against other classes of... attributable to a specific class of income may be allocated to any item of income (including capital...

  6. On the Allocation of Resources for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal allocation of resources--in terms of school management, teachers, supporting employees and materials--in secondary schools. We use a flexible budget constrained output distance function model to estimate both technical and allocative efficiency scores for 448 Dutch secondary schools between 2002 and 2007. The results…

  7. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-back method under § 1.460-6 and to determine alternative minimum taxable income under § 1.460-4(f). (2... allocation method will be permitted only on a cut-off basis (i.e., for contracts entered into on or after the... rules. (a) Overview. This section prescribes methods of allocating costs to long-term...

  8. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of a...

  9. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of a...

  10. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of a...

  11. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of a...

  12. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of a...

  13. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Directly allocable costs. 100.14 Section 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... available to make grants for applied research. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds....

  15. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  16. Permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Won; Kim, Chae Un; Isard, Walter

    2012-10-01

    In emissions trading, the initial allocation of permits is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods, such as auctioning and grandfathering, have been debated. In this paper we describe a new method for allocating permits in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. We introduce the Boltzmann distribution to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. We then demonstrate through empirical data analysis how emissions permits can be allocated in practice among participating countries. The new allocation method using the Boltzmann distribution describes the most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Simple and versatile, this new method holds potential for many economic and environmental applications.

  17. Robust Inversion and Data Compression in Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. Scottedward

    2000-01-01

    We present an off-line computational method for control allocation design. The control allocation function delta = F(z)tau = delta (sub 0) (z) mapping commanded body-frame torques to actuator commands is implicitly specified by trim condition delta (sub 0) (z) and by a robust pseudo-inverse problem double vertical line I - G(z) F(z) double vertical line less than epsilon (z) where G(z) is a system Jacobian evaluated at operating point z, z circumflex is an estimate of z, and epsilon (z) less than 1 is a specified error tolerance. The allocation function F(z) = sigma (sub i) psi (z) F (sub i) is computed using a heuristic technique for selecting wavelet basis functions psi and a constrained least-squares criterion for selecting the allocation matrices F (sub i). The method is applied to entry trajectory control allocation for a reusable launch vehicle (X-33).

  18. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  19. Adaptive Control Allocation in the Presence of Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Crespo, Luis G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control allocation framework is proposed. In the adaptive control allocation structure, cooperative actuators are grouped and treated as an equivalent control effector. A state feedback adaptive control signal is designed for the equivalent effector and allocated to the member actuators adaptively. Two adaptive control allocation algorithms are proposed, which guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic state tracking in the presence of uncertain loss of effectiveness and constant-magnitude actuator failures. The proposed algorithms can be shown to reduce the controller complexity with proper grouping of the actuators. The proposed adaptive control allocation schemes are applied to two linearized aircraft models, and the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  20. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  1. Optimization of power allocation in wireless cooperative communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunling; Mou, Yangyang; Pan, Chengsheng

    2017-05-01

    As an important part of resource allocation, power allocation affects the performance of wireless cooperative system to a great extent. However, the existing cooperative communication power allocation scheme using only a single index to optimize the performance of the system makes the optimization effect unideal, put forward a cooperative communication power allocation scheme comprehensively consider of the capacity and error probability as objective function. In this paper, the capacity and error probability of the cooperative communication technology are analyzed and the corresponding theoretical formulas are derived, then prove the nonlinear relationship between the two. On this basis, make the maximizing the capacity and minimizing error probability as objective function, present the power allocation scheme based on particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better effect on cooperative communication system, and is more suitable for the future development of cooperative communication technology.

  2. Dynamic task allocation for a man-machine symbiotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. E.; Pin, F. G.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a methodological approach to the dynamic allocation of tasks in a man-machine symbiotic system in the context of dexterous manipulation and teleoperation. This report addresses a symbiotic system containing two symbiotic partners which work toward controlling a single manipulator arm for the execution of a series of sequential manipulation tasks. It is proposed that an automated task allocator use knowledge about the constraints/criteria of the problem, the available resources, the tasks to be performed, and the environment to dynamically allocate task recommendations for the man and the machine. The presentation of the methodology includes discussions concerning the interaction of the knowledge areas, the flow of control, the necessary communication links, and the replanning of the task allocation. Examples of task allocation are presented to illustrate the results of this methodolgy.

  3. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  4. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  5. Network channel allocation and revenue maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki

    2002-09-01

    This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.

  6. Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motaghedi, Shi

    2007-01-01

    A report presents an algorithm that solves the following problem: Allocate the force and/or torque to be exerted by each thruster and reaction-wheel assembly on a spacecraft for best performance, defined as minimizing the error between (1) the total force and torque commanded by the spacecraft control system and (2) the total of forces and torques actually exerted by all the thrusters and reaction wheels. The algorithm incorporates the matrix vector relationship between (1) the total applied force and torque and (2) the individual actuator force and torque values. It takes account of such constraints as lower and upper limits on the force or torque that can be applied by a given actuator. The algorithm divides the aforementioned problem into two optimization problems that it solves sequentially. These problems are of a type, known in the art as semi-definite programming problems, that involve linear matrix inequalities. The algorithm incorporates, as sub-algorithms, prior algorithms that solve such optimization problems very efficiently. The algorithm affords the additional advantage that the solution requires the minimum rate of consumption of fuel for the given best performance.

  7. Microwave Driven Actuators Power Allocation and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Timothy; Song, Kyo D.

    2000-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) network for microwave driven actuators is presented in this paper. Development of a circuit that would collect power from a rectenna array amplify and distribute the power to actuators was designed and fabricated for space application in an actuator array driven by a microwave. A P-SPICE model was constructed initially for data reduction purposes, and was followed by a working real-world model. A voltage up - converter (VUC) is used to amplify the voltage from the individual rectenna. The testing yielded a 26:1 voltage amplification ratio with input voltage at 9 volts and a measured output voltage 230VDC. Future work includes the miniaturization of the circuitry, the use of microwave remote control, and voltage amplification technology for each voltage source. The objective of this work is to develop a model system that will collect DC voltage from an array of rectenna and propagate the voltage to an array of actuators.

  8. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    PubMed

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  10. Discrete resource allocation in visual working memory

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On the one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is defined in terms of discrete storage “slots” then observers may be able to determine which items are assigned to a slot but not how resources are divided between stored items. To test these predictions, we manipulated the relative complexity of the items to be stored while holding the number items constant. Although mnemonic resolution declined when set size increased (Experiment 1), resolution for a given item was unaffected by large variations in the complexity of the other items to be stored when set size was held constant (Experiments 2–4). Thus, resources in visual working memory are distributed in a discrete slot-based fashion, even when inter-item variations in complexity motivate an asymmetrical division of resources across items. PMID:19803642

  11. Discrete resource allocation in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F; Awh, Edward

    2009-10-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is defined in terms of discrete storage "slots," then observers may be able to determine which items are assigned to a slot but not how resources are divided between stored items. To test these predictions, the authors manipulated the relative complexity of the items to be stored while holding the number items constant. Although mnemonic resolution declined when set size increased (Experiment 1), resolution for a given item was unaffected by large variations in the complexity of the other items to be stored when set size was held constant (Experiments 2-4). Thus, resources in visual working memory are distributed in a discrete slot-based fashion, even when interitem variations in complexity motivate an asymmetrical division of resources across items. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Resource Allocation Planning Helper (RALPH): Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.

    1990-01-01

    The current task of Resource Allocation Process includes the planning and apportionment of JPL's Ground Data System composed of the Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center facilities. The addition of the data driven, rule based planning system, RALPH, has expanded the planning horizon from 8 weeks to 10 years and has resulted in large labor savings. Use of the system has also resulted in important improvements in science return through enhanced resource utilization. In addition, RALPH has been instrumental in supporting rapid turn around for an increased volume of special what if studies. The status of RALPH is briefly reviewed and important lessons learned from the creation of an highly functional design team are focused on through an evolutionary design and implementation period in which an AI shell was selected, prototyped, and ultimately abandoned, and through the fundamental changes to the very process that spawned the tool kit. Principal topics include proper integration of software tools within the planning environment, transition from prototype to delivered to delivered software, changes in the planning methodology as a result of evolving software capabilities and creation of the ability to develop and process generic requirements to allow planning flexibility.

  13. The communications spectrum: Frequency allocations and auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur

    1997-01-01

    Demands on the communications spectrum have increased sharply because of the growth in radio communication services, the large bandwidths now required, and the rapid increases in world population. The problem will be exacerbated by the requirements of high definition television and the enormous amounts of information that will be transmitted by radio. The electromagnetic spectrum is a finite natural resource of great value used for emergency communications and military operations as well as for commercial purposes. Both government and the marketplace have proper roles in the allocation of its resources. There are no viable alternatives to international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union or to agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission for the regulation of radio communication and the assignment of spectrum to essential public services. Although government auctions of spectrum are justifiable where there is no way to distinguish among commercial entities seeking to use the same bands for similar services, the practice is inherently inequitable and discourages development of new uses for the spectrum by removing investment protection. Recommended alternatives to auctions are: (1) lotteries, which keep assets and proceeds in the economy; and (2) ongoing charges for current as well as new users of the spectrum.

  14. Latent Dirichlet allocation models for image classification.

    PubMed

    Rasiwasia, Nikhil; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2013-11-01

    Two new extensions of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), denoted topic-supervised LDA (ts-LDA) and class-specific-simplex LDA (css-LDA), are proposed for image classification. An analysis of the supervised LDA models currently used for this task shows that the impact of class information on the topics discovered by these models is very weak in general. This implies that the discovered topics are driven by general image regularities, rather than the semantic regularities of interest for classification. To address this, ts-LDA models are introduced which replace the automated topic discovery of LDA with specified topics, identical to the classes of interest for classification. While this results in improvements in classification accuracy over existing LDA models, it compromises the ability of LDA to discover unanticipated structure of interest. This limitation is addressed by the introduction of css-LDA, an LDA model with class supervision at the level of image features. In css-LDA topics are discovered per class, i.e., a single set of topics shared across classes is replaced by multiple class-specific topic sets. The css-LDA model is shown to combine the labeling strength of topic-supervision with the flexibility of topic-discovery. Its effectiveness is demonstrated through an extensive experimental evaluation, involving multiple benchmark datasets, where it is shown to outperform existing LDA-based image classification approaches.

  15. 7 CFR 761.204 - Methods of allocating funds to State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are allocated to State Offices using one or more of the following allocation methods: (a) Formula allocation, if data, as specified in § 761.205, is available to use the formula for the State. (b) Administrative allocation, if the Agency cannot adequately meet program objectives with a formula allocation. The...

  16. 7 CFR 761.204 - Methods of allocating funds to State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CL, and OL loan funds are allocated to State Offices using one or more of the following allocation methods: (a) Formula allocation, if data, as specified in § 761.205, is available to use the formula for... a formula allocation. The National Office determines the amount of an administrative allocation on a...

  17. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and weighted links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Weights are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  18. Patch Network for Power Allocation and Distribution in Smart Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golembiewski, Walter T.

    2000-01-01

    The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry is capable of allocating and distributing a single or multiple sources of power over multi-elements of a power user grid system. The purpose of this invention is to allocate and distribute power that is collected by individual patch rectennas to a region of specific power-user devices, such as actuators. The patch rectenna converts microwave power into DC power. Then this DC power is used to drive actuator devices. However, the power from patch rectennas is not sufficient to drive actuators unless all the collected power is effectively used to drive another group by allocation and distribution. The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry solves the shortfall of power for devices in a large array. The PAD concept is based on the networked power control in which power collected over the whole array of rectennas is allocated to a sub domain where a group of devices is required to be activated for operation. Then the allocated power is distributed to individual element of power-devices in the sub domain according to a selected run-mode.

  19. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and directed links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Reliability values are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  20. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  1. Sex allocation pattern of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana

    PubMed Central

    Shirokawa, Y.; Shimada, M.

    2013-01-01

    Sex allocation is one of the most successful applications of evolutionary game theory. This theory has usually been applied to multicellular organisms; however, conditional sex allocation in unicellular organisms remains an unexplored field of research. Observations at the cellular level are indispensable for an understanding of the phenotypic sex allocation strategy among individuals within clonal unicellular organisms. The diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana, in which the sexes are generated from vegetative cells, is suitable for investigating effects of phenotypic plasticity factors on sex allocation while excluding genetic differences. We designed a microfluidic system that allowed us to trace the fate of individual cells. Sex allocation by individual mother cells was affected by cell lineage, cell size and cell density. Sibling cell pairs tended to differentiate into the same fates (split sex ratio). We found a significant negative correlation between the cell area of the mother cell and sex ratio of the two sibling cells. The male-biased sex ratio declined with higher local cell population density, supporting the fertility insurance hypothesis. Our results characterize multiple non-genetic factors that affect the phenotypic single cell-level sex allocation. Sex allocation in diatoms may provide a model system for testing evolutionary game theory in unicellular organisms. PMID:23760641

  2. Patch Network for Power Allocation and Distribution in Smart Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golembiewski, Walter T.

    2000-01-01

    The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry is capable of allocating and distributing a single or multiple sources of power over multi-elements of a power user grid system. The purpose of this invention is to allocate and distribute power that is collected by individual patch rectennas to a region of specific power-user devices, such as actuators. The patch rectenna converts microwave power into DC power. Then this DC power is used to drive actuator devices. However, the power from patch rectennas is not sufficient to drive actuators unless all the collected power is effectively used to drive another group by allocation and distribution. The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry solves the shortfall of power for devices in a large array. The PAD concept is based on the networked power control in which power collected over the whole array of rectennas is allocated to a sub domain where a group of devices is required to be activated for operation. Then the allocated power is distributed to individual element of power-devices in the sub domain according to a selected run-mode.

  3. Immune response from a resource allocation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is a life history trait that can be expected to trade off against other life history traits. Whether or not a trait is considered to be a life history trait has consequences for the expectation on how it responds to natural selection and evolution; in addition, it may have consequences for the outcome of artificial selection when it is included in the breeding objective. The immune system involved in pathogen resistance comprises multiple mechanisms that define a host's defensive capacity. Immune resistance involves employing mechanisms that either prevent pathogens from invading or eliminate the pathogens when they do invade. On the other hand, tolerance involves limiting the damage that is caused by the infection. Both tolerance and resistance traits require (re)allocation of resources and carry physiological costs. Examples of trade-offs between immune function and growth, reproduction and stress response are provided in this review, in addition to consequences of selection for increased production on immune function and vice versa. Reaction norms are used to deal with questions of immune resistance vs. tolerance to pathogens that relate host health to infection intensity. In essence, selection for immune tolerance in livestock is a particular case of selection for animal robustness. Since breeding goals that include robustness traits are required in the implementation of more sustainable agricultural production systems, it is of interest to investigate whether immune tolerance is a robustness trait that is positively correlated with overall animal robustness. Considerably more research is needed to estimate the shapes of the cost functions of different immune strategies, and investigate trade-offs and cross-over benefits of selection for disease resistance and/or disease tolerance in livestock production. PMID:23413205

  4. Allocating scarce funds: success vs. need.

    PubMed

    Daly, S

    1983-08-01

    The provision of family planning services calls for a significant financial commitment. The various contraceptive methods are only a small part of the program effort. An effective family planning program requires extensive and continuous public education, adequate distribution of services, and comprehensive maternal and child health care services. These services together represent a considerable commitment of funds. Until recently international funding for population related activities was generally available, but this is no longer the case. The funds are more limited as many economies are affected by recession, and it has become necessary to measure the urgency of the respective needs of different countries as they compete for the reduced funding. Some countries will suffer by being awarded a smaller share of the money which is still available. The situation of the Caribbean countries whose people are living in poverty can be compared with that of many other 3rd world areas. Yet, it is in relation to the literate and articulate Caribbean countries that the ethical question arises concerning the allocation of limited resources needed to support family planning programs. Competition exists between those countries with strong programs who need only maintenance funding and those countries whose population growth rate is unchecked except by poverty and disease. The individual governments of the Caribbean must determine the priority they will given to family planning programs. For each country within the Caribbean, the tightening of both the international economy and its own internal economy confronts the government with a real test of political integrity. It is difficult to allot funds to a population program when they are also needed for a housing or food producing project, yet it is critical. A recession is not the time to decrease family planning support. It is the time to increase such support and to monitor existing programs closely to ensure that they are

  5. Community-aware task allocation for social networked multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyuan; Jiang, Yichuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel community-aware task allocation model for social networked multiagent systems (SN-MASs), where the agent' cooperation domain is constrained in community and each agent can negotiate only with its intracommunity member agents. Under such community-aware scenarios, we prove that it remains NP-hard to maximize system overall profit. To solve this problem effectively, we present a heuristic algorithm that is composed of three phases: 1) task selection: select the desirable task to be allocated preferentially; 2) allocation to community: allocate the selected task to communities based on a significant task-first heuristics; and 3) allocation to agent: negotiate resources for the selected task based on a nonoverlap agent-first and breadth-first resource negotiation mechanism. Through the theoretical analyses and experiments, the advantages of our presented heuristic algorithm and community-aware task allocation model are validated. 1) Our presented heuristic algorithm performs very closely to the benchmark exponential brute-force optimal algorithm and the network flow-based greedy algorithm in terms of system overall profit in small-scale applications. Moreover, in the large-scale applications, the presented heuristic algorithm achieves approximately the same overall system profit, but significantly reduces the computational load compared with the greedy algorithm. 2) Our presented community-aware task allocation model reduces the system communication cost compared with the previous global-aware task allocation model and improves the system overall profit greatly compared with the previous local neighbor-aware task allocation model.

  6. Valuing certainty in a consensus-based water allocation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; McKee, Mac

    2007-02-01

    We present an interdisciplinary approach to attach economic value to model certainty. The central theme of this paper concerns valuing certainty in water resource management, specifically resource allocation. A conceptual framework is developed to study (1) a hypothetical scenario of three water users attempting to mutually agree on allocation of some fixed amount of water amongst themselves and (2) California water policy negotiations along the lines of Adams et al. (1996). We attempt to answer how uncertainty in a policy variable affects the "allocation solution" in such consensus-based decision-making processes. This study finally evolves into economic valuation of uncertainty reduction and willingness to pay for the same.

  7. Accurate Energy Transaction Allocation using Path Integration and Interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhide, Mandar Mohan

    This thesis investigates many of the popular cost allocation methods which are based on actual usage of the transmission network. The Energy Transaction Allocation (ETA) method originally proposed by A.Fradi, S.Brigonne and B.Wollenberg which gives unique advantage of accurately allocating the transmission network usage is discussed subsequently. Modified calculation of ETA based on simple interpolation technique is then proposed. The proposed methodology not only increase the accuracy of calculation but also decreases number of calculations to less than half of the number of calculations required in original ETAs.

  8. Adaptive allocation for binary outcomes using decreasingly informative priors.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Roy T

    2014-01-01

    A method of outcome-adaptive allocation is presented using Bayes methods, where a natural lead-in is incorporated through the use of informative yet skeptical prior distributions for each treatment group. These prior distributions are modeled on unobserved data in such a way that their influence on the allocation scheme decreases as the trial progresses. Simulation studies show this method to behave comparably to the Bayesian adaptive allocation method described by Thall and Wathen (2007), who incorporate a natural lead-in through sample-size-based exponents.

  9. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2009-03-01

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction.

  10. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    DOEpatents

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  11. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities, and... Administrator considers the following performance factors in allocating funds: (1) Adequacy of state operating practices; (2) Quality of state inspections, investigations, and enforcement/compliance actions; (3...

  12. 7 CFR 1466.5 - National allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INCENTIVES... overall environmental benefits over the program duration, the Chief will: (a) Use an EQIP fund allocation.... The Chief shall consider factors such as strategically planning EQIP implementation, effectively...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Development State office. (b) Definitions—(1) Amount available for allocations. Funds appropriated or... population with incomes below the poverty level will be 25 percent. (C) State's percentage of national...

  14. 76 FR 11310 - Alternatives Analysis Program Discretionary Funding Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Alternatives Analysis Program Discretionary Funding Allocations AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Alternatives Analysis Program Announcement of Project...

  15. State Budgets, Unit Allocations, and Unit Emissions Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) provides information that supports EPA’s determination of state emissions budgets, unit-level allocations, direct control rate limits, and new unit set-asides for the Transport Rule proposal.

  16. [A model for resource allocation in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Raña K, Javier; Ferrer O, Juan-Carlos; Bedregal G, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Resource allocation in primary health care is a worldwide issue. In Chile, the state allocates resources to city halls using a mechanism called "per capita". However, each city hall distributes these resources according to the historical expenses of each health center. None of these methods considers the epidemiological and demographic differences in demand. This article proposes a model that allocates resources to health centers in an equitable, efficient and transparent fashion. The model incorporates two types of activities; those that are programmable, whose demand is generated by medical teams and those associated to morbidity, generated by patients. In the first case the health promotion, prevention and control activities are programmed according to the goals proposed by health authorities. In the second case, the utilization rates are calculated for different sociodemographic groups. This model was applied in one of the most populated communities of Metropolitan Santiago and proved to increase efficiency and transparency in resource allocation.

  17. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  18. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    PubMed

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-12-23

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a ¹³CO₂ pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root-shoot ratio for both plant biomass and ¹³C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated ¹³C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution.

  19. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  20. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  1. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  2. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  3. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  4. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  5. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  6. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  7. A Distributed Cooperative Power Allocation Method for Campus Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, He; Sun, Yannan; Carroll, Thomas E.; Somani, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    We propose a coordination algorithm for cooperative power allocation among a collection of commercial buildings within a campus. We introduced thermal and power models of a typical commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system, and utilize model predictive control to characterize their power flexibility. The power allocation problem is formulated as a cooperative game using the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) concept, in which buildings collectively maximize the product of their utilities subject to their local flexibility constraints and a total power limit set by the campus coordinator. To solve the optimal allocation problem, a distributed protocol is designed using dual decomposition of the Nash bargaining problem. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed allocation method

  8. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the draft report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) for a 30-day public comment period. The ICLUS version 2 (v2) modeling tool furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing development scenarios up to 2100. ICLUS V2 includes updated population and land use data sets and addressing limitations identified in ICLUS v1 in both the migration and spatial allocation models. The companion user guide describes the development of ICLUS v2 and the updates that were made to the original data sets and the demographic and spatial allocation models. [2017 UPDATE] Get the latest version of ICLUS and stay up-to-date by signing up to the ICLUS mailing list. The GIS tool enables users to run SERGoM with the population projections developed for the ICLUS project and allows users to modify the spatial allocation housing density across the landscape.

  9. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's announced the availability of the final report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Version 2). This update furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing development scenarios up to 2100. This newest version includes updated population and land use data sets and addresses limitations identified in ICLUS v1 in both the migration and spatial allocation models. The companion user guide (Final Report) describes the development of ICLUS v2 and the updates that were made to the original data sets and the demographic and spatial allocation models. The GIS tool enables users to run SERGoM with the population projections developed for the ICLUS project and allows users to modify the spatial allocation housing density across the landscape.

  10. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  11. Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering Management System Users Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    ARL-SR-0366 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering Management System User’s Guide by...Clustering Management System User’s Guide by Kelvin M Marcus Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...

  12. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation and... Federal funds for the Work-Colleges program as a percent of the total of such approved requests for all...

  13. Optimal Allocation of Restoration Practices Using Indexes for Stream Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodologies that allocate the placement of agricultural and urban green infrastructure management practices with the intent to achieve both economic and environmental objectives typically use objectives related to individual intermediary environmental outputs, yet guidance is n...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.310 - Allocation of AFRI funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agricultural sciences. (d) Rapid Response Food and Agricultural Science for Emergency Issues Awards. The Secretary may allocate some funding to address emergency issues in the food and agricultural sciences as...

  15. 45 CFR 1080.3 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.3 Allocation of funds. From the amounts made available under the Emergency Community Services Homeless Grant Program, the Secretary shall make grants to States that...

  16. 45 CFR 1080.3 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.3 Allocation of funds. From the amounts made available under the Emergency Community Services Homeless Grant Program, the Secretary shall make grants to States that...

  17. Comparison of space allocation in recently completed critical care units.

    PubMed

    Durham, Joyce H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, winners of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's critical care unit design award have demonstrated an increase in overall square footage, but this trend has been inconsistent. The following analysis compares the space allocation of 15 recently completed critical care units to document trends in overall space allocation and compare the allocation of space between small, medium, and large units. This study indicates that the number of beds, net-to-gross factor, and net square feet per bed of the 15 units examined increased as the departmental gross square feet per bed increased. Within the net or usable square footage allocation, all categories of space increased progressively as the overall space increased, with the exception of direct patient care space and patient care support space categories. Overall, averages are provided to be used as preliminary benchmarks for organizations evaluating their existing critical care units or planning replacement units.

  18. Optimal Allocation of Restoration Practices Using Indexes for Stream Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodologies that allocate the placement of agricultural and urban green infrastructure management practices with the intent to achieve both economic and environmental objectives typically use objectives related to individual intermediary environmental outputs, yet guidance is n...

  19. 44 CFR 302.5 - Allocations and reallocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be affected by natural disasters with respect to the development of the total civil defense... President's budget request to Congress: (1) Fifty (50) percent will be allocated on the basis of the prior...

  20. 44 CFR 302.5 - Allocations and reallocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may be affected by natural disasters with respect to the development of the total civil defense... President's budget request to Congress: (1) Fifty (50) percent will be allocated on the basis of the prior...

  1. 44 CFR 302.5 - Allocations and reallocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be affected by natural disasters with respect to the development of the total civil defense... President's budget request to Congress: (1) Fifty (50) percent will be allocated on the basis of the prior...

  2. Ejaculate allocation by male sand martins, Riparia riparia.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, E H; Burke, T; Birkhead, T R

    2001-01-01

    Males of many species allocate sperm to ejaculates strategically in response to variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. The notable exception is passerine birds, in which evidence for strategic allocation is absent. Here we report the results of a study testing for strategic ejaculate allocation in a passerine bird, the sand martin (Riparia riparia). Natural ejaculates were collected from males copulating with a model female. Ejaculates transferred in the presence of a rival male contained significantly more sperm than ejaculates transferred in the absence of a rival male. There was no evidence that this difference was due to the confounding effects of the year of ejaculate collection, the identity of the model female, the colony, the stage of season or the period of the day in which ejaculates were collected. A more detailed examination of the ejaculate patterns of individual males, achieved by the DNA profiling of ejaculates, provided additional evidence for strategic allocation of sperm. PMID:11410153

  3. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  4. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  5. Dynamic computing resource allocation in online flood monitoring and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchar, S.; Podhoranyi, M.; Vavrik, R.; Portero, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents tools and methodologies for dynamic allocation of high performance computing resources during operation of the Floreon+ online flood monitoring and prediction system. The resource allocation is done throughout the execution of supported simulations to meet the required service quality levels for system operation. It also ensures flexible reactions to changing weather and flood situations, as it is not economically feasible to operate online flood monitoring systems in the full performance mode during non-flood seasons. Different service quality levels are therefore described for different flooding scenarios, and the runtime manager controls them by allocating only minimal resources currently expected to meet the deadlines. Finally, an experiment covering all presented aspects of computing resource allocation in rainfall-runoff and Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation is performed for the area of the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic.

  6. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  7. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  8. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  9. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  10. Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, L.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the MARC 2011 Annual Conference, 6 June 2011, Rapid City, South Dakota. This presentation provides an overview of the latest research findings and policy developments pertaining to cost allocation and new variable generation resources on the power grid.

  11. 24 CFR 791.403 - Allocation of housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Opportunity Through HOPE Act under title IV and HOPE for Elderly Independence under section 803. (2) Budget... office level, budget authority may be allocated among the ten geographic areas of the country. The funds...

  12. 24 CFR 791.403 - Allocation of housing assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Opportunity Through HOPE Act under title IV and HOPE for Elderly Independence under section 803. (2) Budget... office level, budget authority may be allocated among the ten geographic areas of the country. The funds...

  13. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) Promotion of conservation. Numerous methods of allocating fishing privileges are considered... mix, price, or economic or social benefit of the product. To the extent that rebuilding plans or other...

  14. Dynamic task-allocation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Tim

    This dissertation addresses improvements to a consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments. Research in the past has led to many centralized task allocation algorithms where a central computation unit is calculating the global optimum task allocation solution. The centralized algorithms are plagued by creating a single point of failure and the bandwidth needed for creating consistent and accurate situational awareness off all agents. This work will extend upon a widely researched decentralized task assignment algorithm based on the consensus principle. Although many extensions have led to improvements of the original algorithm, there is still much opportunity for improvement in providing sufficient and reliable task assignments in real-world dynamic conditions and changing environments. This research addresses practical changes made to the consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments.

  15. Allocations by the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyward, Ann O.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference is presented with viewgraphs. Allocations of radio frequency spectrum are addressed. Mobile satellite service, broadcast satellite service, and uplink power control beacons are also addressed.

  16. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation and... Federal funds for the Work-Colleges program as a percent of the total of such approved requests for...

  17. Optimal allocation of file servers in a local network environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodside, C. M.; Tripathi, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Files associated with workstations in a local area network are to be allocated among two or more file servers. Assuming statistically identical workstations and file servers and a performance model which is a closed multiclass separable queueing network, an optimal allocation is found. It is shown that all the files of each workstation should be placed on one file server, with the workstations divided as equally as possible among the file servers.

  18. Ethical considerations surrounding survival benefit-based liver allocation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Eric J; Kwo, Paul Y; Helft, Paul R

    2014-02-01

    The disparity between the demand for and supply of donor livers has continued to grow over the last 2 decades, and this has placed greater weight on the need for efficient and effective liver allocation. Although the use of extended criteria donors has shown great potential, it remains unregulated. A survival benefit-based model was recently proposed to answer calls to increase efficiency and reduce futile transplants. However, it was previously determined that the current allocation system was not in need of modification and that instead geographic disparities should be addressed. In contrast, we believe that there is a significant need to replace the current allocation system and complement efforts to improve donor liver distribution. We illustrate this need first by identifying major ethical concerns shaping liver allocation and then by using these concerns to identify strengths and shortcomings of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease system and a survival benefit-based model. The latter model is a promising means of improving liver allocation: it incorporates a greater number of ethical principles, uses a sophisticated statistical model to increase efficiency and reduce waste, minimizes bias, and parallels developments in the allocation of other organs. However, it remains limited in its posttransplant predictive accuracy and may raise potential issues regarding informed consent. In addition, the proposed model fails to include quality-of-life concerns and prioritize younger patients. We feel that it is time to take the next steps toward better liver allocation not only through reductions in geographic disparities but also through the adoption of a model better equipped to balance the many ethical concerns shaping organ allocation. Thus, we support the development of a similar model with suggested amendments. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Baseallocation Alabama $1,636,000 Alaska 1,425,000 Arizona 760,000 Arkansas 1,417,000 California 4,404,000...

  20. Constant Power Allocation Methods for SC-FDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Fang; Chang, Dah-Chung

    A simple suboptimal power allocation method is proposed for SC-FDMA systems. It is known that the performance of constant power-based allocation methods is close to that of optimal solutions. In this letter, by utilizing the waterfilling condition inequality derived for SC-FDMA systems, a threshold is set to select subcarriers for loading constant power to these selected subcarriers. It offers competitive performance as confirmed by the simulation results.

  1. Allocation and Recovery of Federal Airport and Airway Costs, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Airway Document is available to the Public through System, Cost Allocation, Cost Recovery the National Technical Information Service, Aviation User Taxes ...User Group ........ ................ 8 Table 3 General Aviation Minimum Cost Allocation ...... ............. 9 Table 4 Aviation User Taxes and Trust...model estimates user group cost shares based on each group’s aviation activity and compares costs with Federal aviation taxes collected from each group

  2. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  3. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  4. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  5. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  6. The Use of Population Projections to Allocate Public Funds,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    reviews recent efforts on the part of several federal agencies to apply demographic forecasting to federal assistance. These efforts reflect a growing...state-local relations. If projected population is to become a factor for the allocation of public funds, then certain questions should be answered before...allocate federal assistance funds. Indeed, considering the generally dismal record of demographic forecasting, one might wonder why anyone would even

  7. Statistical comparison of random allocation methods in cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Atsushi; Hamada, Chikuma; Yoshimura, Isao; Ohashi, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Junichi; Nakazato, Hiroaki

    2004-12-01

    The selection of a trial design is an important issue in the planning of clinical trials. One of the most important considerations in trial design is the method of treatment allocation and appropriate analysis plan corresponding to the design. In this article, we conducted computer simulations using the actual data from 2158 rectal cancer patients enrolled in the surgery-alone group from seven randomized controlled trials in Japan to compare the performance of allocation methods, simple randomization, stratified randomization and minimization in relatively small-scale trials (total number of two groups are 50, 100, 150 or 200 patients). The degree of imbalance in prognostic factors between groups was evaluated by changing the allocation probability of minimization from 1.00 to 0.70 by 0.05. The simulation demonstrated that minimization provides the best performance to ensure balance in the number of patients between groups and prognostic factors. Moreover, to achieve the 1 percentile for the p-value of chi-square test around 0.50 with respect to balance in prognostic factors, the allocation probability of minimization was required to be set to 0.95 for 50, 0.80 for 100, 0.75 for 150 and 0.70 for 200 patients. When the sample size was larger, sufficient balance could be achieved even if reducing allocation probability. The simulation using actual data demonstrated that unadjusted tests for the allocation factors resulted in conservative type I errors when dynamic allocation, such as minimization, was used. In contrast, adjusted tests for allocation factors as covariates improved type I errors closer to the nominal significance level and they provided slightly higher power. In conclusion, both the statistical and clinical validity of minimization was demonstrated in our study.

  8. Important Factors For Resource Allocation In Applied Research And Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, E. U.

    1989-01-01

    Competitiveness of modern societies requires optimum allocation of capital, qualified workforce and organizational infrastructure with the connecting link determined by information technology. Human resources of the scientific and technical community can compensate limited resources of other types supported by enhanced information promotion mechanisms in applied research and development. Descriptive features of the problem dimensions are given as a frame of reference, and important factors are reviewed for possible consideration in the fields of technology policy, resource allocation methods and management practices.

  9. A review of alternative approaches to healthcare resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, S; Wolstenholme, J

    2000-07-01

    The resources available for healthcare are limited compared with demand, if not need, and all healthcare systems, regardless of their financing and organisation, employ mechanisms to ration or prioritise finite healthcare resources. This paper reviews alternative approaches that can be used to allocate healthcare resources. It discusses the problems encountered when allocating healthcare resources according to free market principles. It then proceeds to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of alternative resource allocation approaches that can be applied to public health systems. These include: (i) approaches based on the concept of meeting the needs of the population to maximising its capacity to benefit from interventions; (ii) economic approaches that identify the most efficient allocation of resources with the view of maximising health benefits or other measures of social welfare; (iii) approaches that seek to ration healthcare by age; and (iv) approaches that resolve resource allocation disputes through debate and bargaining. At present, there appears to be no consensus about the relative importance of the potentially conflicting principles that can be used to guide resource allocation decisions. It is concluded that whatever shape tomorrow's health service takes, the requirement to make equitable and efficient use of finite healthcare resources will remain.

  10. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  11. Assembly tolerance allocation using a coalitional game method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Cheng; Jin, Sun; Lai, Xinmin; Yu, Kuigang

    2011-07-01

    Assembly tolerance allocation in modern manufacturing industries is important because it directly affects product quality and manufacturing cost. Loose tolerances may cause quality deficiency while tight tolerances can increase the cost. It is significant to develop a reasonable tolerance allocation strategy for every assembly component combining the cost and quality demands. Traditionally, designers often adopt the single objective optimization with some kind of constraint or establish a comprehensive evaluation function combining several optimization objectives with different weights to solve the tolerance allocation problem. These approaches may not be desirable as it is difficult to adequately consider the interaction and conflict between the cost and quality demands. In this article, an assembly tolerance allocation method using coalitional game theory is proposed in an attempt to find a trade-off between the assembly cost and the assembly quality. First, the assembly tolerance allocation problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem and the concept of the Pareto-optimal solution is introduced. Then, how the assembly tolerance allocation model is transformed into a coalitional game model is discussed, and a key technique of transforming the tolerance design variables into the game strategies is presented. Further, the Shapley value method of coalitional game based on each player's contribution evaluation to the profit of the whole coalition is given. Finally, the feasibility of the procedure is demonstrated through an example of vehicle front structure assembly.

  12. Water Development, Allocation, and Institutions: A Role for Integrated Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from inadequate water infrastructure, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Each of these three challenges compounds the burdens imposed by inadequacies associated with the other two. Weak water infrastructure makes it hard to allocate water efficiently and undermines tracking of water rights and use, which blocks effective functioning of water institutions. Inefficient water allocation makes it harder to secure resources to develop new water infrastructure. Poorly developed water institutions undermine the security of water rights, which damages incentives to develop water infrastructure or use water efficiently. This paper reports on the development of a prototype basin scale economic optimization, in which existing water supplies are allocated more efficiently in the short run to provide resources for more efficient long-run water infrastructure development. Preliminary results provide the basis for designing water administrative proposals, building effective water infrastructure, increasing farm income, and meeting transboundary delivery commitments. The application is to the Kabul River Basin in Afghanistan, where food security has been compromised by a history of drought, war, damaged irrigation infrastructure, lack of reservoir storage, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Results illustrate increases in economic efficiency achievable when development programs simultaneously address interdependencies in water allocation, development, and institutions.

  13. Function allocation in complex systems: reframing an old problem.

    PubMed

    Challenger, Rose; Clegg, Chris W; Shepherd, Craig

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we offer a new, macroergonomics perspective on the long-debated issue of function allocation. We believe thinking in this domain needs to be realigned, moving away from the traditional microergonomics conceptualisation, concerned predominantly with task-based decisions, and towards a macroergonomics approach, viewing function allocation choices as central to effective systems design. We frame our arguments within a systems perspective, advocating that function allocation issues need to be on the agenda of all individuals with a wider interest in the human and organisational aspects of complex work systems, including people who commission, sponsor, design, implement and use such systems. We also argue that allocation decisions should form a transparent, explicit stage early in the systems design and development process, involve multiple stakeholders (including end-users), be evidence-based, framed within the language of risk and utilise iterative methods (e.g. scenarios planning techniques). This article presents a macroergonomics approach to function allocation, advocating its importance in effective systems design. Adopting a systems mindset, we argue function allocation should form an explicit stage early in the design process, involve multiple stakeholders, be evidence-based, framed within the language of risk and utilise iterative methods.

  14. Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  15. Allocation of nutrients to somatic tissues in young ovariectomized grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Judd, Evan T; Hatle, John D; Drewry, Michelle D; Wessels, Frank J; Hahn, Daniel A

    2010-11-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma "relative" to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of ¹³C and ¹⁵N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  16. Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Roza, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    As attention shifts to how districts allocate resources to schools, student weighted allocation has emerged as an alternative to traditional staff-based allocation policies. Student-weighted allocation uses student need, rather than staff placement, as the building block of school budgeting. This article examines how the shift to student-weighted…

  17. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds? 170.200 Section... (ttam) § 170.200 How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds? This section sets forth the Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  18. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R; Mouloua, M; Molloy, R

    1996-12-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  19. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Auction-based resource allocation game under a hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yingying; Zou, Suli; Ma, Zhongjing

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a class of auction-based resource allocation games under a hierarchical structure, such that each supplier is assigned a certain amount of resource from a single provider and allocates it to its buyers with auction mechanisms. To implement the efficient allocations for the underlying hierarchical system, we first design an auction mechanism, for each local system composed of a supplier and its buyers, which inherits the advantages of the progressive second price mechanism. By employing a dynamic algorithm, each local system converges to its own efficient Nash equilibrium, at which the efficient resource allocation is achieved and the bidding prices of all the buyers in this local system are identical with each other. After the local systems reach their own equilibria respectively, the resources assigned to suppliers are readjusted via a dynamic hierarchical algorithm with respect to the bidding prices associated with the implemented equilibria of local systems. By applying the proposed hierarchical process, the formulated hierarchical system can converge to the efficient allocation under certain mild conditions. The developed results in this work are demonstrated with simulations.